Predicting perforator location on preoperative imaging for the profunda artery perforator flap
New York University Langone Medical Center, Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, New York, NY. .Microsurgery (Impact Factor: 2.42). 10/2012; 32(7):507-11. DOI: 10.1002/micr.21980
Introduction: The profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap is a new addition to our reconstructive armamentarium. In effort to better understand patient candidacy for the PAP flap we characterized the profunda artery perforators on preoperative imaging. Methods: A retrospective review was completed of 40 preoperative posterior thigh computed tomography angiographies and magnetic resonance angiographies by four plastic surgeons. The positioning of the patient, type of study, number of perforators, and size of perforators were documented. The location was documented on an x-y-axis. Perforator course and surrounding musculature was documented. Results: In 98.8% of posterior thighs suitable profunda artery perforators were identified. The average number and size of perforators was 3.3 and 1.9 mm. The most common perforator was medial (present in 85.6% of thighs); found near the adductor magnus at 3.8 cm from midline and 5.0 cm below the gluteal fold. The second most common perforator was lateral (present in 65.4% of thighs); found near the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis at 12.0 cm from midline and 5.0 cm below the gluteal fold. Nearly 48.3% were purely septocutaneous. And 51.7% had an intramuscular course (average length 5.7 cm). Preoperative imaging corresponded to suitable perforators at the time of dissection of all PAP flaps. Thirty five PAP flaps (18 patients) were performed with 100% flap survival. Conclusion: Analysis of preoperative posterior thigh imaging confirms our intraoperative findings that a considerable number of suitable posterior thigh profunda perforators are present, emerge from the fascia in a common pattern, and are of sufficient caliber to provide adequate flap perfusion and recipient vessel size match. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2012.
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ABSTRACT: Recent evolutions of oncologic breast surgery and reconstruction now allow surgeons to offer the appropriate patients a single-stage, autologous tissue reconstruction with the least donor-site morbidity. The authors present their series of buried free flaps in nipple-sparing mastectomies as proof of concept, and to explore indications, techniques, and early outcomes from their series. From 2001 to 2011, a total of 2262 perforator-based free flaps for breast reconstruction were reviewed from the authors' prospectively maintained database. There were 338 free flaps performed on 215 patients following nipple-sparing mastectomy, including 84 patients who underwent breast reconstruction with 134 buried free flaps. Ductal carcinoma in situ and BRCA-positive were the most common diagnoses, in 26 patients (30.9 percent) each. The most common flaps used were the deep inferior epigastric perforator (77.6 percent), transverse upper gracilis (7.5 percent), profunda artery perforator (7.5 percent), and superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps (3.7 percent). An implantable Cook-Swartz Doppler was used to monitor all buried flaps. Fat necrosis requiring excision was present in 5.2 percent of breast reconstructions, and there were three flap losses (2.2 percent). Seventy-eight flaps (58.2 percent) underwent minor revision for improved cosmesis; 56 (41.8 percent) needed no further surgery. Nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate autologous breast reconstruction can successfully and safely be performed in a single stage; however, the authors are not yet ready to offer this as their standard of care. Therapeutic, IV.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The profunda artery perforator flap is a new option for breast reconstruction in appropriate patients. While the basic anatomy is known, detailed profunda perforator anatomy has never fully been described and we present new data that will aid dissection. Methods: Fifty consecutive lower extremity computed tomography angiogram scans (100 legs) were retrospectively analyzed to acquire profunda artery perforator measurements. Patient medical records were then examined to ascertain patient information. Data were then analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and bivariate linear regressions with repeated measures. Results: Bilateral thighs from 50 consecutive angiograms were included for a total of 100 thighs. Females comprised 30 (60 percent) of the patients and the cohort average age was 59.1 years old. All thighs had at least two perforators, with 85 percent having three or more. On average, perforators were located 6.2 cm below the gluteal crease, and were evenly distributed between the medial and lateral halves of the thigh. The average perforator diameter at origin off profunda was 2.7 mm. There was significantly greater diameter in vessels in the lateral thigh (p<0.001), in patients with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (p<0.05), and in patients with decreased age (p<0.05). Males were more likely to have perforators that shared a common trunk off the profunda artery (p<0.05). Conclusions: At least two profunda perforators exist in each thigh with an average diameter suitable for microvascular transfer, although larger perforators are observed laterally and in younger patients with higher BMI.
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ABSTRACT: The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has become a common solution for breast reconstruction. However, the safe skin paddle limits are not yet understood. In this study, we attempted to address this issue based on our experiences with inferior and posterior skin paddle extension. Forty-four breast reconstructions with TMG flaps performed between November 2010 and January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. For the first 20 cases, the flap skin paddle was extended 3 cm posteriorly to the middle thigh (group 1). For the next 20 flaps (group 2), the posterior tip was limited to this line, whereas more fat was recruited inferiorly. In the four cases of group 3, the skin flap was extended posteriorly with a second vascular pedicle from the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap. The weights and the dimensions of the flaps, operating durations, and postoperative complications of the entire series were analyzed. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically compared. Flap complications were statistically more frequent in group 1 compared with group 2 (45 vs. 0%, P = 0.0012); 40% posterior flap tip necrosis was observed in group 1. Conversely, donor site complications were statistically more frequent in group 2 than in group 1 (40 vs. 5%, P = 0.019) with 35% inner thigh dehiscence. In the TMG with extended PAP flap group, the operating duration was 77 min longer compared with the rest of the series with no donor site complications. In one case, limited necrosis occurred at the anterior skin tip. Harvesting the posterior portion of the TMG up to the middle of the posterior thigh may lead to partial flap necrosis. Extending subcutaneous fat removal under the inferior skin incision may increase the risk of donor site complications. Adding a second vascular pedicle from the PAP flap may improve posterior TMG tip perfusion at the expense of a longer operation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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