Influence of yeast-derived 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide on circulating cytokines and chemokines with respect to upper respiratory tract infections

ArticleinNutrition 28(6):665-9 · March 2012with62 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.012 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Wellmune WGP is a food supplement containing a refined 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide that improves the antimicrobial activity of the innate immune cells by the priming of lectin sites. This study aimed to investigate whether Wellmune decreases the frequency and severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms over 90 d during the peak URTI season in healthy university students. The secondary aims included an assessment of plasma cytokine and chemokine levels. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial lasting 90 d. One hundred healthy individuals (18-65 y old, mean age ~21 y) were randomized to 250 mg of Wellmune once daily or to an identical rice flour-based placebo. Health was recorded daily and two or more reported URTI symptoms for 2 consecutive days triggered a medical assessment and blood collection within 24 h. The URTI symptom severity was monitored. Plasma cytokines and chemokines were measured at day 0, day 90, and during the confirmed URTI. Ninety-seven participants completed the trial (Wellmune, n = 48; placebo, n = 49). The Wellmune tended to decrease the total number of days with URTI symptoms (198 d, 4.6%, versus 241 d, 5.5% in the control group, P = 0.06). The ability to "breathe easily" was significantly improved in the Wellmune group; the other severity scores showed no significant difference. Cytokines and chemokines were not different between the groups at study entry or day 90, but monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was lower in the Wellmune group during the URTI. Wellmune may decrease the duration and severity of URTI. Larger studies are needed to demonstrate this.
    • "The benefits include reduction in URTI symptoms and improvements in the ability to resist the effect of stress on human health and well-being91011121314151617. Supplementation with BG has been reported to effect the alleviation of fatigue and stress associated with strenuous and intense physical exercise such as marathon races [10, 15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Background: Fatigue is attributable to physical and psychological stress; also, fatigue is a common symptom that occurs in both sick and healthy individuals. Although its mechanism of cause is complex, fatigue from stress is known to affect an existent equilibrium of immune system status. Nutrition, such as beta-1,3/1,6 glucan, has been reported to play an important role in regulating stress and fatigue states via modulating a weakened immune system. In this study, a soluble baker’s yeast in black koji vinegar (Moromisu), a popular and healthy beverage in Okinawa, Japan, was provided to healthy subjects with a non-strenuous daily lifestyle. Results: By performing statistical analysis on the results of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) survey, we observed that the overall study results (n=14) showed significant differences in fatigue and confusion in the POMS factors. Conclusions: In this study we confirmed that beta-1,3/1,6 glucan improved some of the factors related to stress and fatigue as indicated by evaluation of POMS survey results.
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    • "Even though there was no statistically significant difference in the total Under the condition of an experimentally suppressed immune system (treatment with cyclophosphamide), feeding with β-glucan led to: The effectiveness of natural and synthetic immunomodulators in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in dogs [35] 28 dogs with IBD were treated for 42 days with Feeding with β-glucan led to: number of days with reported URTIs (β-glucans 198 days in 4.6%, versus 241 days in 5.5% in the control group, p = 0.06), the symptoms tended to be lesser in the β-glucan group. Of all assessed symptoms, only the item " ability to breathe easily " was significantly better in the β-glucan group than in the placebo group [47]. The ability to minimize post-exercise-induced immune suppression was measured in physically active subjects (n = 60), who consumed either 250 mg insoluble β-glucans or placebo (rice flour; cross-over design) for 10 days (preexercise supplementation period) before a bout of cycling. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-glucans are a heterogeneous group of natural polysaccharides mostly investigated for their immunological effects. Due to the low systemic availability of oral preparations, it has been thought that only parenterally applied beta-glucans can modulate the immune system. However, several in vivo and in vitro investigations have revealed that orally applied beta-glucans also exert such effects. Various receptor interactions, explaining possible mode of actions, have been detected. The effects mainly depend on the source and structure of the beta-glucans. In the meantime, several human clinical trials with dietary insoluble yeast beta-glucans have been performed. The results confirm the previous findings of in vivo studies. The results of all studies taken together clearly indicate that oral intake of insoluble yeast beta-glucans is safe and has an immune strengthening effect.
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    • "Higher doses, 1400 mg daily for 5 days, was well tolerated by patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting [43]. After 90 days of daily administration of 250 mg Y-BG, hematologic, biochemical, and liver function tests remained normal, and only few unspecified side effects were reported [32]. At higher doses, 500 mg daily for 90 days, 52% in the treated group and 47% in the placebo group reported side effects . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yeast-derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. Specific preparations have received Generally Recognized as Safe status and acceptance as novel food ingredients by European Food Safety Authority. In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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