Evidence for coordinated functional activity within the extended amygdala of non-human and human primates

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53719, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2012; 61(4):1059-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.03.045
Source: PubMed


Neuroanatomists posit that the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) comprise two major nodes of a macrostructural forebrain entity termed the extended amygdala. The extended amygdala is thought to play a critical role in adaptive motivational behavior and is implicated in the pathophysiology of maladaptive fear and anxiety. Resting functional connectivity of the Ce was examined in 107 young anesthetized rhesus monkeys and 105 young humans using standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods to assess temporal correlations across the brain. The data expand the neuroanatomical concept of the extended amygdala by finding, in both species, highly significant functional coupling between the Ce and the BST. These results support the use of in vivo functional imaging methods in nonhuman and human primates to probe the functional anatomy of major brain networks such as the extended amygdala.

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    • "Heimer et al.[2007], who advanced the 'extended amygdala' concept, have shown that the SLEA in humans consists of interdigitated cells in a path along the route shown in Figure 4G[deCampo and Fudge, 2013;Sakamoto et al., 1999]. This connecting path has also been shown, albeit with less spatial specificity, by Kalin and colleagues, who tested non-human primate and human resting functional connectivity by seeding the central nucleus of the amygdala[Birn et al., 2014;Oler et al., 2012]. The CeA (and SLEA), as well as the corticoamygdala transition region and basal nucleus (parvicellular subdivision) provide major inputs to the BNST[deCampo and Fudge, 2013], consistent with the present results. "
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    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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