Article

Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Protozoan Infections

Laboratório de Inflamação e Imunidade, Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Journal of Parasitology Research 02/2012; 2012(1):413052. DOI: 10.1155/2012/413052
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we discussed the participation of MIF in the immune response to protozoan parasite infections. As a general trend, MIF participates in the control of parasite burden at the expense of promoting tissue damage due to increased inflammation.

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Available from: Yuri Chaves Martins
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    • "Macrophages are also involved in adaptive immunity by acting as antigen-presenting cells (APC) which initiate T cell-mediated immune responses (Medina-Contreras et al., 2011). Activated macrophages secrete a variety of cytokines which mediate immunity and inflammatory responses (Bozza et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2012). Macrophages are also associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. "
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    • "This catalysis is dependent on the so-called CXXC motif that is found in the thioredoxin superfamily of TPORs. Since the host's MIF promotes host pro-inflammatory responses, it appears unexpected that MIF homologues have been found in helminth and protozoan parasites (Hewitson et al. 2008; Vermeire et al. 2008; Younis et al. 2012; Moreno and Geary 2008; Bozza et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2012; Miska et al. 2013). Interestingly, nematode MIFs have been reported to induce alternatively activated macrophages in a Th2- polarised environment (Prieto-Lafuente et al. 2009) indicating that, in dependency on the prevailing cytokine pattern, nematode MIFs may either have pro-or counter-inflammatory effects on the immune response. "
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    ABSTRACT: The macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvMIF) were compared to the MIFs from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CeMIF) with respect to molecular, biochemical and immunological properties. Except for CeMIF-4, all other MIFs demonstrated tautomerase activity. Surprisingly, OvMIF-1 displayed oxidoreductase activity. The strongest immunostaining for OvMIF-1 was observed in the outer cellular covering of the adult worm body, the syncytial hypodermis; moderate immunostaining was observed in the uterine wall. The generation of a strong humoral immune response towards OvMIF-1 and reduced reactivity to OvMIF-2 was indicated by high IgG levels in patients infected with O. volvulus and cows infected with the closely related Onchocerca ochengi, both MIFs revealing identical amino acid sequences. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice, a laboratory model for filarial infection, MIFs derived from the tissue-dwelling O. volvulus, the rodent gut-dwelling Strongyloides ratti and from free-living C. elegans were recognized, suggesting that L. sigmodontis MIF-specific IgM and IgG1 were produced during L. sigmodontis infection of mice and cross-reacted with all MIF proteins tested. Thus, MIF apparently functions as a target of B cell response during nematode infection, but in the natural Onchocerca-specific human and bovine infection, the induced antibodies can discriminate between MIFs derived from parasitic or free-living nematodes.
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    • "This catalysis is dependent on the so-called CXXC motif that is found in the thioredoxin superfamily of TPORs. Since the host's MIF promotes host pro-inflammatory responses, it appears unexpected that MIF homologues have been found in helminth and protozoan parasites (Hewitson et al. 2008; Vermeire et al. 2008; Younis et al. 2012; Moreno and Geary 2008; Bozza et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2012; Miska et al. 2013). Interestingly, nematode MIFs have been reported to induce alternatively activated macrophages in a Th2- polarised environment (Prieto-Lafuente et al. 2009) indicating that, in dependency on the prevailing cytokine pattern, nematode MIFs may either have pro-or counter-inflammatory effects on the immune response. "

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