Dietary exposure to fumonisins and evaluation of nutrient intake in a group of adult celiac patients on a gluten-free diet

Department of Organic and Industrial Chemistry, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.6). 04/2012; 56(4):632-40. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201100515
Source: PubMed


The main objectives of this study were to estimate dietary fumonisin exposure and nutrient intake in a group of patients diagnosed with celiac disease compared to non-celiac subjects.
The fumonisin level in 118 frequently consumed corn-based products was determined and dietary habits were recorded using a 7-day weighed food record. Data were then compared to those obtained for a control group. The fumonisin intake in the celiac patients was significantly higher than in controls, with mean values (± SE) of 0.395 ± 0.049 and 0.029 ± 0.006 μg/kg body weight per day, respectively. With regard to nutritional habits, celiac patients showed a preference for a high fat diet, coupled with a high intake of sweets and soft drinks and a low intake of vegetables, iron, calcium and folate.
These findings may have serious health implications for the celiac population due to the widespread occurrence of fumonisins in most of the widely consumed gluten-free products, leading to continuous exposure to this particular mycotoxin. Moreover, the recorded nutritional quality of the celiac patient's diet raises concerns regarding its long-term adequacy and its potential impact on chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

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    • "For example, only 10% of total maize crops harvested in the United States is utilised by the food industry (WHO-IPCS 2000;Bolger et al. 2001;Bittencourt et al. 2005;Federico et al. 2010). Average consumption of maize (per year per capita) by country is shown in Figure 2. People suffering from celiac disease are highly exposed to fumonisins due to the high contribution of gluten-free cereals (like corn and rice) in their diet (Dall'Asta, Pia Scarlato et al. 2012). The WHO reported that FB 1 was commonly found in maize and maize products all over the world: almost 60% of a total of 5211 investigated samples turned out to be contaminated (82% of samples from the South Sea Islands, 77% of samples from Africa, 85% of samples from Latin America, 63% of samples from North America, 53% of samples from Europe and 52% of samples from Asia) (WHO-IPCS 2000). "

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    • "Smoking and a high body mass index (BMI) are also risk factors for colon cancer [15], we do not have data about those habits and this is a limitation of the study. Data from literature reports that CD patients tend to have a lower BMI with respect to healthy counterparts and the percentage of overweight/obese CD patients is significantly lower with respect to the general population [20] [21]. Therefore, the low body weight could be a protective factor for celiac patients toward the development of colon cancer. "
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