Soda consumption and the risk of stroke in men and women

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 04/2012; 95(5):1190-9. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.030205
Source: PubMed


Consumption of sugar-sweetened soda has been associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The relation with cerebrovascular disease has not yet been closely examined.
Our objective was to examine patterns of soda consumption and substitution of alternative beverages for soda in relation to stroke risk.
The Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 84,085 women followed for 28 y (1980-2008), and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study of 43,371 men followed for 22 y (1986-2008), provided data on soda consumption and incident stroke.
We documented 1416 strokes in men during 841,770 person-years of follow-up and 2938 strokes in women during 2,188,230 person-years of follow-up. The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥ 1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.34). The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥ 1 serving of low-calorie soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.28). Compared with 1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, 1 serving of decaffeinated coffee/d was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%, 19%) lower risk of stroke and 1 serving of caffeinated coffee/d with a 9% (95% CI: 0%, 17%) lower risk. Similar estimated reductions in risk were seen for substitution of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee for low-calorie soda.
Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. This risk may be reduced by substituting alternative beverages for soda.

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Available from: Kathryn M Rexrode
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    • "American adult men in the top quartile of SSB intake have been found to have a 24% higher risk of type 2 diabetes [2] and a 20% higher risk of coronary heart disease [3] relative to those in the bottom quartile. Furthermore, compared with individuals who did not consume SSBs, those who consumed one or more servings per day had a 16% higher risk of any stroke [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and metabolic syndrome risk factors in Korean adults. We used data from 13,972 participants (5432 men and 8540 women) aged ≥30years, from the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The subjects were divided into six groups based on their soft drink consumption levels from a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary sugar intake was compared among groups using 24-hour dietary recall data. The highest soft drink consumption frequency category was ≥4 times per week, observed in 4.6% of men and 1.7% of women. The percentage of energy from total sugar and sugar in processed foods increased with increased soft drink consumption in both men and women. In the highest consumption group, the percentage of energy from sugar in processed foods was 8.9% in men and 11.0% in women. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, greater consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with all of the components of metabolic syndrome, except the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, in women only. Women who consumed soft drinks ≥4 times per week had a 74% higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to those who consumed soft drinks infrequently (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.00-3.03; P for trend <0.0001). High levels of soft drink consumption might constitute an important determinant of metabolic syndrome and its components only in Korean adult women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Metabolism: clinical and experimental
    • "In this study, the authors say that participants who left excessive items blank on their baseline food-frequency questionnaire and those who reported implausibly lowor high-energy intakes were excluded. In addition, they included only low-energy cola with caffeine (eg, Diet Coke and Tab with caffeine), low-energy cola without caffeine (eg, Pepsi Free), other low-energy carbonated beverages (eg, Diet 7Up, Fresca, Diet Mountain Dew, and diet ginger ale), sugar-sweetened cola with caffeine (eg, Coke and Pepsi), sugar-sweetened cola without caffeine (eg, caffeine-free Coke and caffeine-free Pepsi), and other carbonated beverages with sugar (eg, 7Up, Mountain Dew, Surge, and Dr Pepper) [5]. But they did not include energy drinks. "

    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Soft drink intake has been associated with obesity and diabetes, but its relation with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between soft drink intake and risk of CVD in a Japanese population. DESIGN: This was a prospective study in 39,786 Japanese men and women aged 40-59 y in which soft drink intake was determined by using a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Follow-up was from 1990 to 2008. HRs and 95% CIs of incidence were calculated according to categories of soft drink intake. RESULTS: During 18 y of follow-up, we ascertained 453 incident cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 1922 cases of stroke, including 859 hemorrhagic and 1047 ischemic strokes. Soft drink intake was positively associated with risk of total stroke and more specifically ischemic stroke for women; the multivariable HR (95% CI) in the highest soft drink intake (almost every day) category compared with the lowest intake (never or rarely) category was 1.21 (0.88, 1.68; P-trend = 0.02) for total stroke and 1.83 (1.22, 2.75; P-trend = 0.001) for ischemic stroke. That association did not change significantly after the exclusion of early incident cases within 3-9 y from baseline. A nonsignificant inverse trend for risks of total and ischemic strokes was shown for men, and it was weakened after the exclusion of early incident cases or after the exclusion of participants with baseline comorbidities. Soft drink intake was not associated with risk of IHD or hemorrhagic stroke for either sex. CONCLUSION: Soft drink intake is associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke for women.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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