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Total and Soluble Oxalate Content of Some Indian Spices



Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.
Total and Soluble Oxalate Content of Some Indian Spices
Sumana Ghosh Das &G. P. Savage
#Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2012
Abstract Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom,
garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all
over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in
Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices
contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are
few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the
total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten dif-
ferent spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were
measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg)
to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble
oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green
cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble
oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the
total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present
no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other
spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and
therefore should be used in moderation.
Keywords Total oxalate .Soluble oxalate .Insoluble
oxalate .Spices
Spices and herbs are popular ingredients in Indian cuisine,
they are used to improve and to add a variety of flavours and
tastes and they also have antimicrobial and radical-
scavenging properties [1,2]. Many spices such as, turmeric,
cumin, garlic, pepper, cinnamon, coriander, and cardamom
are used as preservatives and flavourings in pickles and
chutneys [1,3]. Several spices, particularly garlic, ajowan,
black pepper, cloves, ginger, cumin, and caraway seeds are
also used extensively in Indian medicine [1]. Spices have
been shown to contain a number of phenolic and flavo-
noid compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
anti-mutagenic, and anti-carcinogenic activities [3]. In
contrast to these beneficial compounds, spices including
cinnamon, ginger, cloves, fennel, coriander, and turmeric
have been shown to contain high levels of oxalates while
other spices, such as caraway and cardamom (both black
and green cardamom) contain moderate levels of oxalates
Oxalates exist in two different forms in plant foods,
water-soluble salts with sodium, potassium and ammonium
ions, and insoluble salts with calcium, magnesium and iron
ions, rendering these minerals unavailable to animals [79].
Current practice is to extract the soluble fraction of oxalates
from foods using hot water (80 °C) and the total (soluble
and insoluble) fraction using hot acid (e.g.,2MHCl,8C).
The level of insoluble oxalate is determined by subtracting the
soluble oxalate from total oxalate content [10,11]. After
consumption by humans, insoluble oxalates are excreted in
the faeces. Soluble oxalates are able to bind to calcium and
other minerals under acidic to near-neutral conditions in the
intestine making these minerals unavailable. It has been
reported that after ingestion of food only 212% oxalate out
of the total oxalate eaten is absorbed, and the remaining free
oxalate combines with calcium to form calcium oxalate in the
intestinal lumen, making calcium unavailable for absorption
[7,8]. Unabsorbed oxalate in the intestinal track is voided in
the faeces as calcium oxalate [12]. There are two main effects
of oxalate on human health: first, oxalate can form insoluble
salts in the digestive tract by binding to cations such as
calcium, iron and magnesium, decreasing the bioavailability
S. Ghosh Das :G. P. Savage (*)
Food Group, Agriculture and Life Sciences, Lincoln University,
Canterbury, New Zealand
Plant Foods Hum Nutr
DOI 10.1007/s11130-012-0278-0
Author's personal copy
of these essential minerals [7,13]. Secondly, soluble oxalate,
once absorbed into the body has to be excreted in the urine. In
this process oxalates can bind to calcium and form insoluble
calcium oxalate, which then accumulates in the kidneys. It has
been estimated that approximately 75% of all kidney stones
are composed of this calcium oxalate [6]. Excessive urinary
excretion of oxalate (hyperoxaluria) is a primary risk factor for
this disorder [14,15]. The diet plays an important role in the
incidence of stone formation [1518], avoiding the excessive
consumption of high-oxalatecontaining foods and consuming
calcium containing dairy foods [19] are logical ways to limit
calcium oxalate stone formation in the kidney. A summary of
all the limited data available on the oxalate content of spices is
shown in Table 1.
Early studies by Singh [5] suggested that some spices
contained relatively low levels of total oxalates when
expressed on a dry matter (DM) basis (Table 1)[1].
Singh used an oxalate precipitation method followed by
titration with potassium permanganate. This method has
now been superseded by more accurate HPLC methods. In
contrast to Singhs work using a titration method, Ram-
asastri [4] showed that many spices contained high levels
of total oxalates. In this later study, Ramasastri was able
to show that caraway seeds, cinnamon and cloves also
contained soluble oxalates. Caraway seeds were unusual
as they contained between 80 to 90% soluble oxalates.
The cinnamon supplement used by Tang et al.[6]
contained 1,789 mg total oxalates/100 g DM which is
much higher than the range (398826 mg/100 g DM) reported
earlier [4]. The value reported for the total oxalate content
(1,969 mg/100 g DM) of turmeric was similar to the
range 1,5261,935 mg/100 g DM reported earlier by
Ramasastri [4], but in contrast to the single value
(12.4 mg/100 g DM) reported by Singh [5].
It is interesting to note that Tang et al. [6] in a urinary
oxalate excretion study found that the percent of ingested
oxalate absorbed up to 6 h following turmeric ingestion was
significantly higher (8.2%) than that following cinnamon
ingestion (2.6%). Turmeric contained 91% soluble oxalates
compared to 6% in cinnamon, suggesting that the ratio of
soluble oxalates to total oxalates in a food is an important
determinant in oxalate absorption and excretion. This was
supported by later studies comparing oxalate absorption
from almond and black pepper. Almonds contained 31%
soluble oxalate and 5.9% of total oxalate was absorbed
while black pepper contained 5% soluble oxalate and
1.8% of total oxalate was absorbed over the same time period
[20]. Therefore, cinnamon can be considered a low oxalate
food while the consumption of moderate amounts of turmeric
would not be recommended for people with a tendency to
form kidney stones. There is a need to measure the oxalate
content of common spices that are regularly added to Indian
cooking and are sometimes taken in larger amounts, for their
other perceived nutritional benefits. It is also important to
measure the soluble oxalate content of many of these spices
to confirm whether the earlier results, quoting only total
oxalate content, are useful as the percent soluble oxalate of a
food is a major determinant of absorption. It is possible that
spices may attribute more oxalates in Indian diets than previ-
ously thought and understanding the levels involved with a
reduction of their use could well reduce the incidence of
kidney stone formation. For these reasons, the total and solu-
ble oxalate contents of condiments and spices commonly
imported into New Zealand were analyzed for their oxalate
Materials and Methods
Sample Material
Dried spices were purchased from Moshims Indian Super-
market in Christchurch, NZ in October 2010; the spices
were produced and packed in India and exported to NZ by
M.V. Exports, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. A sub-sample
of each spice was subsequently ground to a fine powder in a
coffee mill (Sunbeam, model: EM0400, China).
Residual Moisture Determination
The residual moisture content of each sub-sample of
Table 1 Total and soluble oxalate content (mg/100 g DM) of some
Indian-origin condiments and spices [46]
Spices Total
Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi)[5] 11661458
Ajowan (Apium Graveolens var. Dulce) [4] 350
Cardamom (black) (Amomum subulatum)[5] 452553
Cardamom (green) (Ellettaria cardamomum)[4] 16.9
Caraway seeds (Carum caarvi)[5] 655913 587688
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zealanicum)[5] 398826 108200
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zealanicum)[6] 1798
Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)[5] 32453969 15201677
Coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum)[5] 9901480
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)[4] 76.3
Fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare)[5] 8151118
Garlic (Allium sativum)[4] 8.8
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)[4] 91.4
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica)[5] 15261935
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica)[6] 1969
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica)[4] 12.4
True cardamam (Ellettaria cardamomum)[5] 493522
Not detected
Plant Foods Hum Nutr
Author's personal copy
(Watvic, Watson Victor Ltd., NZ) set at 105 °C to a
constant weight [20]. All determinations were performed
in triplicate.
Extraction and Analysis of Oxalates
The measurement of total and soluble oxalate was per-
formed following the method outlined by Savage et al.
the retention time with an oxalate standard solution and
by spiking the sample with a known quantity of oxalic
acid standard solution. The content of insoluble oxalate
was calculated by subtracting the amount of soluble oxalate
from the total oxalate content [10]. All determinations were
performed in triplicate.
Results and Conclusions
The mean residual moisture content of the 10 spices was
89%, which is typical of dried foods (Table 2).
The total oxalate content of the spices measured in this
study ranged from 194 mg/100 g DM for nutmeg to
4,014 mg/100 g DM for green cardamom (Table 2), while
the soluble oxalate levels ranged from none detected in
cinnamon and very low levels in nutmeg 41 mg/100 g to
3,977 mg/100 g DM in green cardamom. Green cardamom
contained the highest proportion of soluble oxalate (99.1%)
of the total oxalate content followed by turmeric powder
(95%). Although the level of total oxalate in ginger was
lower than most other spices, around 88% of it existed in
soluble form. All the other spices contained soluble oxalates
which ranged from 4.7 to 59.2% of the total oxalates.
Cinnamon was the only spice which contained insoluble
oxalate alone.
Earlier studies [46] have shown that spices including
cinnamon, caraway, black cardamom, ginger, cloves, fennel
seeds, coriander and turmeric were high in total oxalates,
whereas other spices such as true cardamom, cumin, garlic
and ginger contained low levels of total oxalates (Table 1).
Table 2shows that the total oxalate found in locally sourced
turmeric (but produced in India) was significantly higher
than the values published by Singh [5], with 95% existing as
soluble oxalate. Later studies [4], suggest that caraway
seeds contained principally soluble oxalates, while the
present study found much higher levels (95.3%) of insoluble
oxalates and very low levels (4.7%) of soluble oxalates. The
level of soluble oxalate found in turmeric (95%) in this study
was similar to the value reported by Tang et al. [6] which was
91.2% soluble oxalate.
Tang et al. [6] carried out a study to assess urinary oxalate
excretion following the consumption of supplemental doses
of cinnamon and turmeric [6]. In this study, eleven healthy
subjects consumed either 3.2 g turmeric or 3.5 g cinnamon
in an oxalate load test; this was compared to the control
regime when only water was given. The subjects consumed
63 mg total oxalate from the test spices. The cinnamon and
turmeric supplements used in this study had total oxalate
contents of 1,798 mg/100 g DM and 1,969 mg/100 g DM,
respectively. The total oxalate content of turmeric sourced
locally in New Zealand contained 1,889 ± 69 mg/100 g DM,
which is similar to the results of Tang et al. [6]. In contrast,
the total oxalate content of cinnamon sourced locally in
New Zealand contained 3,460 ± 313 mg/100 g DM and thus,
the consumption of cinnamon would have provided two
times higher level of oxalate if 3.5 g of cinnamon was
consumed in the same way. The absorption of oxalate from
turmeric was observed by Tang et al. [6] to be significantly
higher than cinnamon, and this can be explained by nothing
that turmeric analyzed in the present study contained 95%
Table 2 Total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of 10 different Indian-origin spices (mg/100 g DW ± SEM)
Spices Residual moisture
(g/100 g as purchased)
Cardamom (green) (Elettaria cardamomum) 93 4014± 332 3977 ± 50 37± 8
Cardamom (black/big) (Amomum subulatum) 90 2055± 46 1204 ± 173 851 ± 107
Caraway seeds (Carum carvi) 89 945± 134 44 ± 2 901±76
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zelanicum) 86 3460± 313
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) 88 1513± 94 112± 4 1401 ± 54
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) 86 2033± 201 119 ± 22 1914 ±120
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) 89 1528± 92 1339 ± 38 189± 35
Malabathrum leaf (Cinnamomum tamala) 86 2744± 141 1625 ± 221 1119±90
Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) 94 194± 22 41 ± 5 153 ± 14
Turmeric powder (Curcuma domestica) 89 1889± 69 1795 ± 59 94± 35
Not detected
Plant Foods Hum Nutr
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soluble oxalates. This indicates that the amounts of soluble
and insoluble oxalates in foods have an important role in the
determination of oxalate absorption and excretion. Chai and
Liebman [22] also showed that almond, which contained
31% soluble oxalate, had a higher rate of absorption (5.9%)
than black pepper (1.8%) which contained only 5% soluble
oxalate content.
People susceptible to kidney stone formation should reduce
their intake of soluble oxalates; cinnamon could be considered
a low oxalate spice while turmeric a high soluble oxalate
containing spice should be avoided. The data in Table 2
suggests that green cardamom, turmeric, ginger, malabathrum
leaf and black cardamom containing 99%, 95%, 87%, 59%
and 59% soluble oxalate, respectively, could pose a threat to
an individual prone to renal stone formation.
In a household survey [23], the daily spice intake was
calculated for average Indian males using the method de-
veloped by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau of
India [24]. They found that the average total spice intake
for Indian males was 9.54 g/day. Using this value and the
total oxalate values determined for four spices determined in
this study, the mean daily total oxalate intake can be calcu-
lated. Using data from the present study, cumin seeds, dry
ginger, turmeric powder and caraway seeds could provide
an average of 12.1, 1.6, 16.4 and 0.8 mg of total oxalate,
respectively, on a daily basis in the diet of an average Indian
male. The American Dietetic Association [25] recommends
restricting the consumption of total dietary oxalate to less
than 40 to 50 mg/day for people prone to form kidney
stones. These calculations are based on the assumption that
only one spice is consumed each day; it is clear, however,
that cumin and turmeric powder are important and popular
constituents of many curry-based dishes and have the po-
tential to supply moderate amounts of oxalates in the diet, in
addition to the oxalates that may be found in traditional
Indian vegetables [26]. Spices are normally neither included
in diet surveys nor included in formulations of balanced diets
due to their insignificant intake. However, this may be impor-
tant if larger quantities of spices are consumed regularly in the
diet as in traditional dishes. There may also be regional
variations in types and quantities of spices used. The avail-
ability of current data in this area is insufficient and needs
further research before getting any conclusion about them.
Spices which are part of many cuisines are found to contain
oxalates which range from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green
cardamom) mg soluble oxalates/100 g DM. However, the
oxalate contents of spices in different locations may vary
depending on the species, cultivars, climates, processing and
extraction methods. Some spices, including turmeric
powder, green cardamom, ginger, malabathrum leaf and
black cardamom were found to have most of their oxalates in
the soluble form and, therefore, should be avoided by people
with hyperoxaluria or a tendency to form kidney stones.
However, the daily intakes of these spices are low compared
to other oxalate containing leafy vegetables as they are added
to meals in relatively small amounts. It should be noted,
however, that spices are an important part of Indian cuisine
and that spices are routinely added to many traditional meals;
therefore, these spices will constitute a frequent intake of
oxalates in the diet.
Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Leo Vanhanen for
his help throughout the experiment and Janette Busch for proof
reading the text.
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... [mg/dag], dat wil zeggen niet meer dan 1 (een) theelepel kurkuma [102]. Degenen die bijvoorbeeld de artritis ziekte jicht hebben lopen vaak een hoog risico op nierstenen en dus als bij hen hun arts jichtontsteking wil behandelen met een hoge dosis kurkuma, dan is dat waar curcuminesupplementen een rol kunnen spelen, omdat het bereiken van hoge niveaus van curcumine in de vorm van kurkuma een te hoge oxalaatbelasting zou veroorzaken, waardoor de vorming van nierstenen zou kunnen plaatsvinden [103]. ...
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De prikkelende, bittere, neus-samentrekkend ruikende fel geeloranje gouden (de alleppey kurkuma ook wel de Indiase kurkuma exemplaren genoemd hebben een diepgele tot oranjegele kleur) of (exclusief of) bruin (de Chinese kurkuma exemplaren hebben een typisch bruinachtige kleur) of (exclusief of) rood (welke rode kleur ontstaat door gedroogde kurkuma te combineren met calciumhydroxide poeder en wanneer het rood is wordt het ook wel het "kunkum" en "kumkuma" genoemd) kruidenpoeder van de gedroogde gemberachtige groente maar aan de binnenkant gekleurde wortelstelen en de wortelstokken van de meerjarige bloeiende kruidenplant die leeft in gebieden met tropisch warme temperaturen en veel regen nodig heeft om te gedijen welke gewoonlijk kurkuma genoemd met de soortnaam curcuma longa linnaeus (ookmeritorious earth", "Indiase saffraan" en "Indian saffron" omdat Marco Polo schreef dat het een groente is die alle eigenschappen heeft die echte saffraan ook heeft, waaronder de geur en de kleur, maar toch niet gelijk is aan echte saffraan) categoriseerbaar in het plantengeslacht curcuma (ook kurkuma genoemd, waarvan de naam kan zijn afgeleid van het Sanskriet "kuṅkuma" dat verwijst naar zowel kurkuma als saffraan) in de gemberfamilie zingiberaceae (en dus een relatief naaste verwant van gember) mogelijk omdat het de niet-steroïde polyfenolische (vanwege de meerdere chemisch gedefinieerde aromatische fenolringen) en de meervoudige hydroxylgroep (welke chemisch gedefinieerde aromatische fenolringen en meerdere hydroxylgroepen het zijn antioxiderende eigenschap geven) bevat het polair gemakkelijk in water oplosbaar potentieel krachtige antioxidant curcuminoïde diferuloylmethaan biologisch actieve verbinding molecuul kurkuma curcumine (ook wel "curcumine", "kurkumine" en "kurkumin" genoemd) dat aanwezig is en dus kan worden gevonden in kurkuma, aangezien het ongeveer 5 [%] van zijn massa uitmaakt [105] (waarvoor een handige nuttige pragmatische kanttekening zou zijn dat de biologische beschikbaarheid van curcumine in het bloedserum door verhoogde absorptie in de dikke darm synergetisch potentieel kan worden versterkt en dus verhoogd tot 2'000 [%] bij menselijke dieren bij gepaarde consumptie samen met de zwarte peper piper nigrum die de verbinding peperine [1] bevat die verantwoordelijk is voor ongeveer 5 [%] van zijn massa [106] en tevens ook verantwoordelijk is voor de scherpe smaak van peper en het remt inhibiterend ook het metabolische vermogen van de lever om stoffen in water oplosbaar te maken zodat ze gemakkelijker kunnen worden uitgescheiden hetgeen leidt tot verhoging van het biologisch beschikbare niveau van curcumine in de bloedbaan omdat wanneer het mechanisme niet wordt onderdrukt de lever actief probeert om er vanaf te komen en je dus maar een relatief kleine piek in bloodbuis niveau van crucumine ziet terwijl vergeleken met wanneer gepaard ook peperine wordt geconsumeerd met dezelfde hoeveelheid curcumine de biologische beschikbaarheid omhoog schiet tot wel 2000 [%] [ 1], waarvoor niet veel zwarte peper nodig is, aangezien een klein snuifje van 1/20 van een theelepel genoeg is om het niveau aanzienlijk te verhogen [107], een combinatie die bijvoorbeeld uitstekend zou werken in een curryrecept, omdat de biologische beschikbaarheid van curcumine normaal gesproken erg laag is en daarom is de voedingswaarde lager als het niet wordt geconsumeerd met zwarte peper, aangezien er slechts een klein beetje in onze bloedbaan komt na het eten van een lekkere curry, tenzij we wat zwarte peper toevoegen [1]; en een andere manier om de opname van curcumine te stimuleren, is door het in de vorm van kurkumawortel te consumeren (relatief vers of gedroogd als poeder) in vergelijking met een extract, omdat natuurlijke oliën in kurkumawortel en kurkumapoeder de biologische beschikbaarheid van curcumine kunnen verbeteren met een verschil van (zeven) tot 8 (acht) keer hogere biologische beschikbaarheid [107]; en wanneer het samen gegeten
... [mg/dag], dat wil zeggen niet meer dan 1 (een) theelepel kurkuma [102]. Degenen die bijvoorbeeld de artritis ziekte jicht hebben lopen vaak een hoog risico op nierstenen en dus als bij hen hun arts jichtontsteking wil behandelen met een hoge dosis kurkuma, dan is dat waar curcuminesupplementen een rol kunnen spelen, omdat het bereiken van hoge niveaus van curcumine in de vorm van kurkuma een te hoge oxalaatbelasting zou veroorzaken, waardoor de vorming van nierstenen zou kunnen plaatsvinden [103]. ...
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Website link: [Turmeric-SOURCES BELOW] The pungent, bitter, astringent smelling brightly yellow-orange golden (the alleppey turmeric also called the Indian turmeric exemplars have a deep yellow to orange-yellow color) or (exclusive or) brown (the Chinese turmeric exemplars have typically a brownish color) or (exclusive or) red (which red color is created by combining dried turmeric with calcium hydroxide powder and when red it is also called "kunkum" and "kumkuma") spice powder from the dried ginger-like vegetable but colored on the inside root stalks and the rhizomes of the perennial flowering herb plant living in tropical warm temperature areas and needing plenty of rainfalls to thrive commonly named turmeric which species name is curcuma longa linnaeus (alsoIndiase saffraan" and "Indian saffron" since Marco Polo wrote a that it is a vegetable that has all the properties of true saffron as well as the smell and the color but yet it is not really saffron) categorizable in the plant genus curcuma (also called kurkuma which name may be derived from the Sanskrit "kuṅkuma" which is referring to both turmeric and saffron) in the ginger family zingiberaceae (and thus a relatively close relative of ginger) possibly because it contains the non-steroidal polyphenolic (because of the multiple chemically defined aromatic phenol rings) and multiple hydroxyl group (which aromatic phenol rings and hydroxyl groups give it its antioxidant property) containing the polar readily in water soluble potentially powerful antioxidant curcuminoid diferuloylmethane biologically active compound molecule turmeric curcumin (also called "curcumine", "kurkumine" and "kurkumin") that is contained and thus can be found in turmeric as it makes up of approximately 5 [%] of its mass [105] (for which a convenient useful pragmatic sidenote would be that curcumin's blood serum level bioavailability by increased absorption in the colon can be synergistically potentially boosted thus increased up to 2'000 [%] in human animals when consuming it together with the black pepper piper nigrum that contains the compound peperine [1] which is responsible for about 5 [%] of its mass [106] and which is also responsible for the pungent flavor of pepper and also inhibits the livers metabolism mechanism to make substances water-soluble so they can be more easily excreted suppressing this mechanism leading to higher blood levels of bioavailability of curcumin as within an hour you can see a little bump in the level in the bloodstream of curcumin when the mechanism is unsuppressed because the liver is actively trying to get rid of it while compared to when also consuming peperine with the same amount of curcumin consumed the bioavailability shoots up to 2'000 [%] [1], which does not take much black pepper since a little pinch of 1/20 of a teaspoon is enough to considerably boost levels [107], which concomitant combination would work great in a curry recipe for example since the bioavailability of curcumin is normally very low and thus the nutritional value is poorer when not consumed with black pepper since just a tiny bit gets into our bloodstream after eating a nice curry unless we add some black pepper [1]; and another way to boost the absorption of curcumin is to consume it in the whole food turmeric root form (relatively fresh or dried as a powder) as compared to an extract because natural oils found in turmeric root and turmeric powder can enhance the bioavailability of curcumin 7 (seven) to 8 (eight) fold [107]; and when eaten together with a relatively large amount of fatty acid containing foods such as nuts, e.g. walnuts, almonds or pecans, also ensures increased bioavailability as curcumin can be directly absorbed into the bloodstream through the lymphatic system and thus thereby in part bypassing the liver [107]) which curcumin pigment also gives turmeric its brightly deep yellow to orange-yellow golden color which turmeric is possibly usable as
... Spices are known to be good sources of minerals, for instance, fennel and cumin seeds contain significant amounts of calcium in the range of 789-2133 mg/100 DM (Ramasastri, 1983). Ghosh Das and Savage (2012) noted that ginger contains very high levels of total and soluble oxalates and even the addition of relatively small amounts could increase the oxalate content of the overall dish. ...
... The oxalate contents of fresh ginger and dry red chilli powder are shown in Table 3. Total oxalate contents of the fresh ginger was very high and were similar to values reported in an earlier study [25] where dried ground ginger powder contained 1528 ± 92 mg/100 g of total oxalate and 1339 ± 38 mg/100 g of soluble oxalates. ...
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L.V.); (G.P.S.) These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 ° C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.
Pinellia Tuber, the dried tuber of Pinellia ternata, is widely used in Japanese Kampo medicines and traditional Chinese medicines. The unprocessed Pinellia Tuber is known to cause very strong acrid irritation at oral and laryngopharynx mucosa. Recent studies have shown that the sharp needle-like crystals called raphides, that are composed of calcium oxalate and proteins, are the main causative substances of the irritation. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, has been used in the processing to reduce the acridity of Pinellia Tuber since before the sixth century, however, the mechanisms of reducing acridity have not been scientifically proved yet. We developed the raphides denaturation assay (RDA) to quantify the degree of denaturation in the raphides to cause irritation. By their lipophilic characters, the raphides could be extracted in petroleum ether (PE) layer from powdered Pinellia Tuber suspended in water, and the contents of the raphides in PE layer were measured by the absorbance. By this assay, we conducted the activity-guided fractionation from the boiling water extract of ginger to find the ingredients to denature the raphides. We also conducted the gustatory tests to detect the change of the irritation of the denatured raphides. The treatment of powdered Pinellia Tuber suspension with ginger extract reduced the distribution of raphides in PE layer in RDA in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity-guided fractionation using RDA revealed that oxalic acid was the main active ingredient in ginger extract to denature the raphides of Pinellia Tuber. Oxalic acid reduced the lipophilicity of the raphides in the thermo-, time-, and concentration-dependent manners, and its activity was affected by pH. The treatment of powdered Pinellia Tuber suspension with oxalic acid significantly reduced its acrid irritation in gustatory test in human. We found that oxalic acid is the main active ingredient in ginger to reduce the acrid irritation of Pinellia Tuber.
It appears that reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may also be the ideal diet and lifestyle program to reduce the risk of kidney stones. Comprehensive lifestyle changes and healthy-heart parameters have synergistic impacts on reducing recurrent or incident nephrolithiasis as observed either in randomized trials from Parma, Italy, or from the observational cohort analysis when utilizing the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) program in the USA. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, weight and waist gain and accelerated large amounts of weight loss (bariatric surgery, diet, etc.), glucose intolerance/diabetes, and metabolic syndrome increase stone risk, but a higher potassium to sodium intake ratio, increased dietary magnesium, reduced animal protein, and normalizing dietary calcium and increased fluid intake could lower risk. Soluble dietary oxalates are more concerning compared to insoluble forms. A variety of dietary supplements also appear to impact risk. Arguably the best-known supplemental source of increased oxalate is from high dosages (>1,000–1,500 mg/day) of plain vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and calcium ascorbate or buffered vitamin C may cause less profound changes in oxalate. Vitamin C may lower serum uric acid and gout risk by also creating a higher urinary uric acid load in some individuals, which could also theoretically increase uric acid stone risk. Some cranberry concentrate supplements for urinary tract infection (UTI) have unusually high oxalate concentrations and need to be tested for this compound. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride and potentially pyridoxal-5-phosphate) shifts oxalate metabolism toward the production of glycine at dosages of 50–100 mg per day and could be beneficial in some oxalate stone formers apart from those with primary hyperoxaluria type I. Higher dosages (300 mg or more) could also cause a sensory peripheral neuropathy. A probiotic or Oxalobacter formigenes and other intestinal bacterial may also play a role in reducing oxalate levels. Calcium supplements in excess appear to increase the risk of stone disease, especially calcium carbonate, and calcium citrate is an alternative for those with a history of oxalate stones, but supplementation also increases constipation risk with age. Vitamin D has a controversial impact on stone risk, but megadosing is never prudent. Omega-3 fatty acids supplements via anti-inflammatory effects could reduce stone risk, and omega-6 has some preliminary similar benefits, but inosine dietary supplementation is known to increase uric acid levels and stone disease. A variety of other CAM options are discussed in this chapter. What if healthcare professionals in urology could have some role in helping patients improve the quality and quantity of their life via comprehensive lifestyle recommendations for stone disease risk reduction? It appears that this is no longer a question, but a reality.
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The aim of the study was to determine oxalate content in black, dark and green teas as well as to estimate the content ratio of Mg to Ca in tea infusions that is significant for patients with kidney stones. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Ca and Mg, while oxalate was analyzed by manganometric method. The highest levels of oxalate were found in black and dark tea (156 and 224 mg/200 mL, respectively) and the lowest in green tea (80 mg/200 mL). The greatest degree of leaching to tea infusions was determined for Mg in green (37 %) and black tea (34 %). The lowest percentage of leaching was estimated for Ca (7 %) in black tea. It was concluded that people with hyperoxaluria or a tendency to form kidney stones should consume tea, especially this of darker color, in moderate quantities.
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The process of oxidation is vital for energy metabolism but it is also coupled with the production of oxygen free radicals (OFRs). The excessive production of OFRs results in oxidative stress and such conditions demand the supplementation of antioxidants. The bioactive components present in common spices and condiments are of imperative significance as they scavenge OFRs along with acting as antimicrobial agents. The current study aimed to explore the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of dried cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powders. The results elaborated the importance of aforementioned spices as they all contain significant amounts of cruder protein, crude fats, fiber and carbohydrates. Cumin seeds contain the highest amounts of fats, while appreciable amounts of carbohydrates were observed in turmeric (43.87 ± 1.41). Vitamin C was present in turmeric and caraway seeds. The results regarding minerals indicated that the cumin contains appreciable quantities of calcium, magnesium, sodium and iron. The results regarding antioxidant potential indicated that the maximum total polyphenol was present in caraway seeds (1016.72 ± 63.68 mg GAE/100 g) that can also be correlated with higher DPPH and β-carotene inhibition activities (57.71 ± 0.77 and 47.65 ± 0.74%, respectively). The caraway seeds were more effective antimicrobial agent as compared to cumin and turmeric. Overall, the results indicated the potential of dried condiments as natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agent. © 2014, World Food Ltd. and WFL Publishers. All rights reserved.
Quality-associated problems, such as excessive in planta accumulation of oxalate, often arise in soillessly cultivated spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Maintaining higher level of ammonium (NH4 (+) ) compared to nitrate (NO3 (-) ) during the growth period can effectively decrease the oxalate content in hydroponic-cultivated vegetables. However, long-term exposure to high concentrations of NH4 (+) induces toxicity in plants, and thus decreases the biomass production. Short-term application of NH4 (+) before harvesting in soilless-cultivation, may provide an alternative strategy to decrease oxalate accumulation in spinach, and minimize the yield reduction caused by NH4 (+) -toxicity. The plants were pre-cultured in 8 mM NO3 (-) nutrient solution. Next, 6 days before harvest, the plants were transferred to a nutrient solution containing 4 mM NO3 (-) and 4 mM NH4 (+) . This new mix clearly reduced oxalate accumulation, increased levels of several antioxidant compounds, and enhanced antioxidant capacity in the edible parts of spinach plants, but it did not affect biomass production. However, when the 8 mM NO3 (-) was shifted to either nitrogen-free, 4 mM NH4 (+) or 8 mM NH4 (+) treatments, although some of the quality indexes were improved, yields were significantly reduced. Short-term alteration of nitrogen supply prior to harvest (SANSPH) significantly affects quality and biomass of spinach plants, and we strongly recommend to simultaneously use NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) in hydroponic-cultivation, which improves vegetable quality without decreasing biomass production.
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Oxalate, malate, citrate, and succinate contents of tropical root crops were determined by HPLC. Water extraction gave soluble oxalates, and extraction with acid gave total oxalates. The difference between them equaled the amount of calcium oxalate. Total calcium was determined by atomic absorption, and free calcium (calcium not present as calcium oxalate) was readily calculated. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) leaves, from edible and nonedible cultivars (because of their acrid nature), showed no differences in their amounts of total oxalate or of calcium oxalate. This showed that acridity of taro leaves was not due solely to calcium oxalate raphides present. Stems of giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis), elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus campanulatus), skin of giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza), and taro leaves contained about 400 mg/100 g fresh weight of calcium oxalate, about 10 times the amount present in sweet potato, cassava, taro Colocasia and Xanthosoma, and yam. The free calcium content was 0-20 mg/100 g fresh weight and would be adequate for all root crops, except taro Xanthosoma.
Oxalic acid and its salts occur as end products of metabolism in a number of plant tissues. When these plants are eaten they may have an adverse effect because oxalates bind calcium and other minerals. While oxalic acid is a normal end product of mammalian metabolism, the consumption of additional oxalic acid may cause stone formation in the urinary tract when the acid is excreted in the urine. Soaking and cooking of foodstuffs high in oxalate will reduce the oxalate content by leaching. The mean daily intake of oxalate in English diets has been calculated to be 70-150 mg, with tea appearing to contribute the greatest proportion of oxalate in these diets; rhubarb, spinach and beet are other common high oxalate-content foods. Vegetarians who consume greater amounts of vegetables will have a higher intake of oxalates, which may reduce calcium availability. This may be an increased risk factor for women, who require greater amounts of calcium in the diet. In humans, diets low in calcium and high in oxalates are not recommended but the occasional consumption of high oxalate foods as part of a nuritious diet does not pose any particular problem.
Many of the spices and herbs used today have been valued for their antimicrobial effects and medicinal powers in addition to their flavor and fragrance qualities. Most of the foodborne bacterial pathogens examined were sensitive to extracts from plants such as cinnamon, clove, garlic, mustard, onion and oregano. The antimicrobial compounds in spices and herbs are mostly in the essential oil fraction. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the antimicrobial compounds in spices than Gram-negative bacteria. The extent of sensitivity varied with the strain and environmental conditions imposed. Certain spices can have a direct effect on the rate of fermentation by stimulating acid production in starter cultures. Phenols, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers and hydrocarbons have been recognized as major antimicrobial components in spices. The antimicrobial activity and modes of actions of spices and their major antimicrobial components are reviewed.
Ascorbic acid (AA—Vitamin C) plays a vital role in human body to preserve optimal health. However, high intake may cause the formation of pathological calcium oxalate stones. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphates are the major crystalline constituents of the urinary calculi and commonly found together. The effect of AA on the crystallization of calcium phosphate was studied in gel matrix under physiological conditions. Calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HAp), brushite (DCPD) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD—Weddellite) were found to crystallize simultaneously in the gel matrix. The formation of HAp is accelerated by AA. A possible reaction scheme for the formation of COD by the metal induced conversion of AA is proposed.
Oxalic acid, calcium and phosphorus contents, calcium/oxalic acid and calcium/phosphorus ratio of 10 leaves, edible portion of 14 oxalate rich leafy vegetables and 105 other foods are presented in this paper. Three leafy vegetables, viz., Amaranth and two Chenopodium species were found to accumulate abnormally large amounts of oxalic acid. Substantial amounts of oxalic acid were also detected in the edible portions of 14 leafy vegetables examined. Moderately high contents of oxalic acid were recorded in all varieties of tea leaves. Appreciable amounts of oxalic acid were also observed in almond, brinjal, carrot, coconut, colocasia, gingelly sleeds (black and white), kamrak, karonda, tamrind (pulp), wood apple and yam. It could not be detected in 15 food items. Stem part present in edible portion of leafy vegetables decreases the oxalic acid intake but not substantially. 28 foods had calcium/oxalic acid ratio less than 0.3 and out of these 23 had below 0.2. Calcium/phosphorus ratio was less than unity in 75 foods items.
The condiments and spices consumed in India were analysed for their calcium, phosphorus and iron contents and for the content of total and water-soluble oxalates. A number of spices were found to be quite rich in calcium and also in oxalates. In many of the spices the oxalates were mainly in the insoluble form although a few spices were found to contain oxalates mostly in the water-soluble form. Theoretical calculations on the basis of the calcium and oxalate contents had shown that although the oxalate content is high, a portion of the calcium present in a number of spices may be available to the body. Some of the spices like ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi), turmeric (Curcuma domestica) and caraway seeds (Carum carvi) were also rich in iron. Since some of them are quite inexpensive and, at the same time, rich in calcium and iron, people can be encouraged to consume spices like ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) to improve the nutritional quality of their diets.
Black peppercorn, nutmeg, rosehip, cinnamon and oregano leaf were extracted with 50% acetone and 80% methanol, and evaluated for their radical-scavenging activities against cation (ABTS+), DPPH, peroxyl (ORAC) and hydroxyl (HO) radicals. For each extract, total phenolic content (TPC) and chelating activity were also determined. The extracts of all botanical samples showed significant radical-scavenging capacities, TPC and chelating abilities. The 50% acetone extract of cinnamon had the highest ABTS+-scavenging capacity of 1243 μmol TE/g and the greatest ORAC value of 1256 μmol TE/g on a per weight basis. The 50% acetone extracts of black peppercorn and cinnamon showed higher ABTS+-scavenging, ORAC, Fe+2 chelating ability and TPC value, but lower DPPH value than the corresponding 80% methanol extracts. The 80% methanol extract of nutmeg had greater ABTS+, ORAC and TPC values than the 50% acetone extract. Electronic spin resonance (ESR) measurements demonstrated that cinnamon had the strongest HO-scavenging activities among all the tested botanical materials. These data indicate that black peppercorn, nutmeg, rosehip, cinnamon and oregano leaf may serve as potential dietary sources of natural antioxidants for improving human nutrition and health. The extracting solvent may alter the antioxidant activity measurement for selected botanicals, including spices and herbs.
Total, soluble, gastric soluble and intestinal soluble oxalates were determined using three groups of foods. The total and soluble oxalate contents were extracted using hot acid (80 °C, 0.2 mol/l HCl) and hot water (80 °C). Gastric soluble and intestinal soluble oxalates were extracted using an in vitro method; the food samples were incubated for 2 h at 37 °C in gastric and intestinal juice. The extracted oxalates obtained from both methods were then determined by HPLC chromatography. The oxalate contents of taro leaves were determined in the raw leaves and after being baked at 150 °C for 1.5 h either alone or with additions of cows’ milk or coconut milk prior to baking. The oxalate contents of four different cultivars of taro corms were determined in the raw corms and after the corms had been either boiled or baked. The oxalate contents of a selection of green leafy Indian vegetables were also determined in the dried raw material. Overall, the total oxalate contents of the foods analysed in this study ranged from 209 mg oxalate/100 g dry matter (DM) for raw Indian radish leaves to 12,576 mg oxalate/100 g DM for raw Indian spinach leaves, while the soluble oxalate contents of the samples ranged from 143 mg soluble oxalate for raw taro corms to 11,900 mg soluble oxalate/100 g DM for raw Indian spinach leaves. Regression analysis of all the gastric soluble oxalate values against the total oxalate values showed that there was a good fit (R2 = 0.955). However, the gastric soluble oxalate values were, on average, 14.2 ± 3.7% lower than those for total oxalate obtained by hot acid extraction. Regression analysis of all the intestinal soluble oxalate contents against the soluble oxalate values showed a good fit between the values (R2 = 0.967). Overall, the intestinal soluble oxalate values were 10.0 ± 6.6% lower than those for soluble oxalate obtained by hot water extraction.