Bottle-Weaning Intervention Tools: The "How" and "Why" of a WIC-Based Educational Flipchart, Parent Brochure, and Website

Health Promotion Practice (Impact Factor: 0.55). 04/2012; 14(1). DOI: 10.1177/1524839910396364
Source: PubMed


Objective. This article describes the development of educational materials for a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)based randomized controlled trial of an intervention encouraging timely bottle weaning. Method. Following a systematic process to develop of patient education materials, messages were first tested in 4 focus groups with 26 caregivers of WIC toddlers aged 7 to 36 months of age at the 2 study sites. Following review and revision, the materials were retested in one-on-one nutritional counseling sessions with 10 clients at the WIC sites who met the studys eligibility criteria. Results. Materials development was an iterative process requiring several levels of input, review, and revision. Use of a systematic process guided by steps adapted from the health education literature was crucial in ensuring continuous feedback from stakeholders, experts, and priority populations and to develop an intervention instrument that met the needs and expectations of all groups. Conclusions and implications. The content, theoretical orientation, and format of the materials were influenced at every turn by feedback from frontline WIC nutritionists, WIC policy staff at the state level, and WIC clients. Development of effective, easy to use materials requires constant input from key stakeholders.

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    • "A full description of intervention procedure is provided elsewhere (Bonuck et al. 2013b). WIC nutritionists delivered the educational intervention at baseline, guided by a flip chart (Hyden et al. 2013), presenting messages about three primary potential effects of prolonged bottle use: overweight, dental caries and iron deficiency. It was recommended that parents gradually replace bottles with cups; however, no transitional cup type was specified. "
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    ABSTRACT: The second year of life incorporates a continued shift from a liquid- to solid-based diet. Little is known about the prevalence and dietary impact of bottle and sippy cup use. This paper describes associations between percent of energy consumed via drinking containers (bottles and sippy cups combined) and dietary outcomes, between 1 and 2 years of age. This observational study recruited n = 299 low-income, nutrition programme clients from the Bronx, NY, whose 12 month olds consumed ≥ 2 non-water bottles per day. The main exposure variable was percent of energy intake via drinking containers (PEDC), dichotomized at the median into low-percent–energy-from-drinking-containers (LOW-C) and high-percent–energy-from-drinking-containers (HIGH-C) groups, assessed quarterly, for 1 year. We report 24-hour dietary recall nutrient and food serving data by LOW-C vs. HIGH-C. We employed linear mixed models to study associations between PEDC and nutrient intake. PEDC decreased from 52% to 33% between 1 and 2 years of age in both groups. The LOW-C group had higher intake of energy, dietary fibre, iron and sodium, grains, protein-rich foods and sweets. Conversely, LOW-C group had lower intake of Vitamin D and calcium vs. the HIGH-C group. PEDC was inversely associated with total energy intake in a model controlling for baseline age, baseline-weight-for-length and gender (β = −5.8, P = 0.029, 95% confidence interval (−10.96, −0.6). Lower bottle and sippy cup use had significant, albeit mixed association with diet quality in the second year of life, and was associated with higher energy intake. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to determine the appropriate use of those feeding methods.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Maternal and Child Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Bottle feeding beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months is a risk factor for childhood obesity. This paper describes a sample of toddlers at high risk for obesity: prolonged bottle users from a low-income multi-ethnic community. We report here baseline mealtime and feeding behaviour, 24 h dietary recall and bottle intake data for Feeding Young Children Study (FYCS) participants, by overweight (≥85% weight-for-length) status. FYCS enrolled 12-13-month-olds from urban nutrition programmes for low-income families in the United States who were consuming ≥2 bottles per day. Our sample was predominately Hispanic (62%), 44% of mothers were born outside of the United States and 48% were male. Overall, 35% were overweight. Overweight status was not associated with mealtime/feeding behaviours, bottle use or dietary intake. Most (90%) children ate enough, were easily satisfied and did not exhibit negative (e.g. crying, screaming) mealtime behaviours, per parent report. The sample's median consumption of 4 bottles per day accounted for 50% of their total calories; each bottle averaged 7 ounces and contained 120 calories. Mean daily energy intake, 1098.3 kcal day(-1) (standard deviation = 346.1), did not differ by weight status, nor did intake of fat, saturated fat, protein or carbohydrates. Whole milk intake, primarily consumed via bottles, did not differ by weight status. Thus, overweight 12-13-month-olds in FYCS were remarkably similar to their non-overweight peers in terms of several obesity risk factors. Findings lend support to the set-point theory and prior work finding that weight and intake patterns in the first year of life alter subsequent obesity risk.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Maternal and Child Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate 3 research questions: (1) Does a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based counseling intervention reduce (milk) bottle use?; (2) Does this intervention reduce energy intake from bottles?; and (3) Does this intervention reduce the risk of a child being >85th percentile weight-for-length? Parents of n = 300 12-month-olds consuming >2 bottles/d were randomized to a bottle-weaning intervention or control group. Nutritionists at WIC Supplemental Feeding Program sites delivered the intervention. Researchers assessed dietary intake and beverage container use via computer-guided 24-hour recalls, and anthropometrics at 15, 18, 21, and 24 months old. Intent-to-treat analyses controlled for baseline measures of outcomes and months post-baseline. At 1 year follow-up, the intervention group had reduced use of any bottles (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.08-0.61), calories from milk bottles (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.18-0.74), and total calories (β = -1.15, P = .043), but did not differ from controls in risk of overweight status (ie, >85th percentile weight-for-length (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.5-2.0). The intervention group's decreased bottle usage at 15 and 18 months was paralleled by increased "sippy cup" usage. A brief intervention, during WIC routine care, reduced early childhood risk factors for overweight-bottle use and energy intake-but not risk of overweight. The intervention group's increased use of sippy cups may have attenuated an intervention effect upon risk of overweight. Toddlers consume a high proportion of their calories as liquid. Parents should be counseled about excess intake from bottles and sippy cups. WIC is an ideal setting for such interventions.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Journal of pediatrics
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