Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.
Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.6). 04/2012; 11(1):22. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-22
Source: PubMed


Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molecular mechanisms for patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, bariatric surgery and anorexia-associated diseases has been greatly appreciated by nutritionists. Therefore, this review highlights the relationship between the gut-central nervous system axis and targets for nutritional therapies.

  • Source
    • "The human microbiome is a topic of considerable interest to researchers and health professionals. The gut is now known to be an important metabolic organ containing a diversity of bacterial species that influence the maintenance of health or development of diseases [Ley et al., 2006a; Pimentel et al., 2012], e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hepatic steatosis, and hypertension [Caricilli et al., 2011; Kau et al., 2011; Henao-Mejia et al., 2012; Pluznick et al., 2013]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preclinical ResearchThe gut microbiota is being increasingly appreciated by both clinical and research professionals as the human ancestral genome has undergone modification by the microbes that colonize the human body. The gut is now known to be a key metabolic organ that contains some 15 000 bacterial species that influence health and chronic diseases, the latter including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, and hypertension. Based on the potentially beneficial effects of nutrients, this review discusses how obesity disturbs the gut microbiota. Additionally, the main dietary nutrients known to modulate the intestine microbiome were highlighted.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Drug Development Research
  • Source
    • "Moreover, many currently available psycho active drugs possess obesogenic potentials, and obesity is a major risk factor of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (Faulkner et al., 2009; Pan et al., 2012). It is now well recognized that diabetes and psychiatric disorders share a bidirectional association (Balhara, 2011), and that the gut-central nervous system could as well be the target for nutritional therapies (Pimentel et al., 2012). The crucial role of gut microbiota in the etiology, pathogenesis and progression of diabetes and associated comorbidities is now becoming increasingly apparent (Sekirov et al., 2010) and bacteriostatic activities of numerous phytochemical consumed with food and herbal remedies are well known. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brassica juncea is a polyphenols enriched edible plant, with diverse medicinal uses of different parts of which have been mentioned in the Ayurveda. The effects of 10 daily oral doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day) of a methanolic Brassica juncea leaf extract in rat models of anxiety using nondiabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were quantified. In all the three behavioural tests used, i.e. elevated plus maze, open field, and social interaction tests, anxiolytic-like activity of the extract was observed in the diabetic animals only. Quantitatively, the efficacy of the highest tested dose of the extract in these tests was always less than those observed after its lower ones. These observations provide further experimental evidences for the conviction that Brassica vegetables could as well be useful for combating diabetes associated mental health problems.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013
  • Source
    • "In normal circumstances, only small amounts of endotoxin cross from the intestinal lumen into systemic circulation, and the absorbed endotoxin is rapidly removed by monocytes, particularly resident Kupffer cells within the liver. Emerging evidence has indicated that chronic elevation of serum endotoxin levels may play a role in insulin-resistant states and obesity [4,5,10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to assess the dietary fat intake, glucose, insulin, Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance HOMA-IR, and endotoxin levels and correlate them with adipokine serum concentrations in obese adolescents who had been admitted to long-term interdisciplinary weight-loss therapy. The present study was a longitudinal clinical intervention of interdisciplinary therapy. Adolescents (n = 18, aged 15-19 y) with a body mass index > 95th percentile were admitted and evaluated at baseline and again after 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy. We collected blood samples, and IL-6, adiponectin, and endotoxin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Food intake was measured using 3-day diet records. In addition, we assessed glucose and insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The most important finding from the present investigation was that the long-term interdisciplinary lifestyle therapy decreased dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels and improved HOMA-IR. We observed positive correlations between dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels, insulin levels, and the HOMA-IR. In addition, endotoxin levels showed positive correlations with IL-6 levels, insulin levels and the HOMA-IR. Interestingly, we observed a negative correlation between serum adiponectin and both dietary fat intake and endotoxin levels. The present results indicate an association between dietary fat intake and endotoxin level, which was highly correlated with a decreased pro-inflammatory state and an improvement in HOMA-IR. In addition, this benefits effect may be associated with an increased adiponectin level, which suggests that the interdisciplinary therapy was effective in improving inflammatory pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Nutrition Journal
Show more