Megadose Bromazepam and Zolpidem Dependence: Two Case Reports of Treatment with Flumazenil and Valproate

a Medical Service for Addictive Disorder, Department of Internal Medicine , University of Verona , Verona , Italy.
Substance Abuse (Impact Factor: 1.62). 04/2012; 33(2):195-8. DOI: 10.1080/08897077.2011.638735
Source: PubMed
Download full-text


Available from: Fabio Lugoboni
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Insomnia is a commonly reported clinical symptom. The annual prevalence of insomnia symptoms has been reported to range from 35–50% of the population, 1 including cases of in-somnia disorders occurring at 10–22%, 2,3 although the exact frequency depends on the diag-nostic criteria applied. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms in Korea was reported to be 17– 23%, 4,5 including Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis in 5% of the patients. 4 Insomnia is predictive of psychiatric disorders, including de-pression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or drug abuse, and is also associated with physical function and quality of life. The prevalence of insomnia is greater in the elderly population. 4,5 Insomnia shows a female predisposition which is consistent and progressive with age, becom-ing more prevalent in the elderly. 6 Additionally, it has been reported that chronic benzodiaze-pine or hypnotic drug users are most often elderly. 7,8 The pharmacokinetics and clearance of hypnotic drugs may be altered in elderly individuals compared to younger individuals. It is well known that benzodiazepine, which has a long half-life, may be associated with an in-creased incidence of adverse events, such as confusion or falling down, among the elderly. 9-11 Several hypnotic drugs have been approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Physicians can also prescribe many hypnotic medications for insomnia without KFDA indication, including antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, and sedative antidepressants such as am-itriptyline and trazodone antihistamine. Many people who suffer from sleep problems do not Correspondence Background and ObjectiveaaThis study aimed to characterize patterns of hypnotic drug prescription based on age and gender using data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Patients Sample (HIRA-NPS) of South Korea.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Benzodiazepines (BZD) are among the most widely prescribed drugs in developed countries. Since BZD can produce tolerance and dependence even in a short time, their use is recommended for a very limited time. However, these recommendations have been largely disregarded. The chronic use of BZD causes a number of serious side effects, i.e., cognitive impairment, falls, traffic accidents, dependence and tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of 62 consecutive high-dose BZD-dependent patients seeking a BZD detoxification. Methods: Patients seeking BZD detoxification were evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the short form-36 questionnaire (SF-36). Results: Patients showed a significant reduction of QoL as measured by either SF-36 or GHQ-12. In particular, the greater impairment was observed in the items exploring physical and emotional status. Physical functioning was the item more influenced by the length of BZD abuse. Female patients showed a greater reduction of QoL compared to male, at least in some of the explored items. Social functioning scores were greatly reduced. Conclusions: The present study shows for the first time that high-doses BZD dependent patients have a reduced QoL and a reduced social functioning, along with high levels of psychological distress.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Show more