Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts

Department of Periodontics, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 423, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Homeopathy: the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy (Impact Factor: 0.76). 04/2012; 101(2):92-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2012.02.003
Source: PubMed


Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells.
To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity.
Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses.
Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin.
Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin.

21 Reads
    • "However, Preethi et al.,[12] has demonstrated that calendula extract has no direct adverse effect on fibroblasts, but in fact, it can inhibit the cytotoxic effect on L929 fibroblast cells induced by LPS-stimulated macrophages. Also, Saini et al.,[33] has shown that calendula significantly inhibits human gingival fibroblast-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity. Lagarto et al., have demonstrated very low acute and subchronic oral toxicities of C. officinalis extract in Wistar rats.[34] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease progression involves multiple factors, including several oral microorganisms of the bacterial biofilm or commensal pathogens in oral cavity, which trigger inflammatory immune response in the host. There are chemical tools that fight any possibility of colonization and infection by a microorganism. Oral antiseptics are useful especially after periodontal surgery where they are almost indispensable to control the noxa, but at in the same time, they should facilitate the healing process of the cut tissues. The objective of this paper was to describe a case in which the use of 0.12% chlorhexidine as an oral antiseptic postoperatively favored no proper healing of mucosal tissues after free gingival grafting. As an alternative, mouthrinse with Calendula was prescribed, observing affected tissue healing within a few days. It is argued that in all post-operative surgical process, one should analyze risks and benefits and choose avoiding the possibility of postoperative infection or timely scarring. As an alternative, the calendula mouthrinse allowed timely cicatrization and it should be noticed that they have some antimicrobial properties and high-inductive ability for the tissue healing.
    Full-text · Article ·
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The continuous exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiations generates reactive oxygen species leading to photoaging in which degradation of dermal collagen and degeneration of elastic fibers occurs. Matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] enzymes are the proteolytic enzymes which have significant potentiality of cleaving Extracellular Matrix [ECM] against Ultraviolet [UV] radiation. The important MMPs are MMP1, MMP2 & MMP7 which promote skin cancer when irradiated by UV rays. In lieu of this, the investigation of MMPs and their inhibitors are constantly being studied for successive results. Recent researches has focused on some traditionally used bioactive moieties as natural matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors (MMPIs) and emphasized on the need of more extensive and specific studies on MMPIs, so that a good combination of natural or synthetic MMPIs with the conventional drugs can be evolved for cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the current view on the feasibility of MMPs as targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. This review also summarizes the role of small molecular weight natural MMPIs and a clinical update of those natural MMPIs that are under clinical trial stage.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Ageing research reviews
Show more