Neuroimaging, biochemical and cellular evidence of protection by mycophenolate mofetil on middle cerebral artery occlusion induced injury in rats
Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.European journal of pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.53). 04/2012; 684(1-3):71-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.03.037
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Presently, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the only approved drug for the management of acute ischemic stroke. However, it has limitations like narrow therapeutic window and increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. In previous studies, immunosuppressive agents such as cyclosporine A and tacrolimus have shown neuroprotection by improving neurological functions and infarct volume in models of ischemic stroke. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on the cerebral ischemic injury in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model in rats. MCAo was carried out in male Wistar rats by inserting an intraluminal thread. One hour after MCAo, the animals were treated with MMF (50, 100, 200mg/kg, i.p.). Reperfusion was done after 2h of occlusion. Thirty minutes after reperfusion, animals were subjected to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of neuroprotective effect of MMF. Twenty four hours after MCAo, motor performance was assessed and the animals were euthanized for estimation of brain malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide levels. The effect of MMF on apoptosis was also evaluated. MMF significantly attenuated the percent infarct area, apparent diffusion coefficient and signal intensity as compared to a vehicle treated group. Treatment with MMF prevented the motor impairment and significantly reversed the changes in levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide. MMF treatment significantly reduced the apoptosis. Data of the present study indicate neuroprotective effect of MMF in the experimental model of ischemic stroke.
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- "The present study demonstrated that HS produced multiple organ damage following HS and resuscitation, which suggested that organ injury, was due to, at least in part, to the increased production of NO. HS is associated with an increased production of NO. NO contributes to the pathophysiology of multiple organ damage that is associated with HS. An inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) is expressed during HS, which results in the excessive formation of NO that contributes to multiple organ injury. "
ABSTRACT: Background: Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to increase following hemorrhagic shock (HS). Peroxynitrite is produced by the reaction of NO with reactive oxygen species, leads to nitrosative stress mediated organ injury. We examined the protective effects of a potent inhibitor of NO synthase, aminoguanidine (AG), on myocardial and multiple organ structure in a rat model of HS. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats (300-350 g) were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 6 per group): (1) Normotensive rats (N), (2) HS rats and (3) HS rats treated with AG (HS-AG). Rats were hemorrhaged over 60 min to reach a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Rats were treated with 1 ml of 60 mg/kg AG intra-arterially after 60 min HS. Resuscitation was performed in vivo by the reinfusion of the shed blood for 30 min to restore normo-tension. Biopsy samples were taken for light and electron microscopy. Results: Histological examination of hemorrhagic shocked untreated rats revealed structural damage. Less histological damage was observed in multiple organs in AG-treated rats. AG-treatment decreased the number of inflammatory cells and mitochondrial swollen in myocardial cells. Conclusion: AG treatment reduced microscopic damage and injury in multiple organs in a HS model in rats.
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ABSTRACT: Rapamycin has been shown to protect against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) induced ischemic injury. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of rapamycin on the metabolic changes induced by MCAo was evaluated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of brain tissues. MCAo in rats was induced by insertion of nylon filament. One hour after ischemia, rapamycin (250µg/kg,i.p.) in dimethyl sulfoxide was administered. Reperfusion was done 2h after ischemia. Twenty-four hours after ischemia phospholipase A2 (PLA2) levels and metabolic changes were assessed. Perchloric acid extraction was performed on the brain of all animals (n=7; sham, vehicle; DMSO and rapamycin 250µg/kg) and the various brain metabolites were assessed by NMR spectroscopy. In all 44 metabolites were assigned in the proton NMR spectrum of rat brain tissues. In the vehicle group, we observed increased lactate levels and decreased levels of glutamate/glutamine, choline containing compounds, creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr), taurine, myo-inositol, γ-amino butryic acid (GABA), N-aspartyl aspartate (NAA), purine and pyrimidine metabolites. In rapamycin treated rats, there was increase in the levels of choline containing compounds, NAA, myo-inositol, glutamate/ glutamine, GABA, Cr/PCr and taurine as compared to vehicle control (P<0.05). Rapamycin treatment reduced PL A 2 levels as compared to vehicle group (P<0.05). Our findings indicated that rapamycin reduced the increased PLA2 levels and altered brain metabolites after MCAo. These protective effects might be attributed to its effect on cell membrane metabolism; glutamate induced toxicity and calcium homeostasis in stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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