Impact of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 in Living Donor Liver Transplantation

Department of Surgery and Multidisciplinary Treatment, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
American Journal of Transplantation (Impact Factor: 5.68). 04/2012; 12(6):1479-85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04037.x
Source: PubMed


Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an endemic retrovirus in southwestern Japan, which causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy in a minority of carriers. Here, we investigated the impact of HTLV-1 status in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Twenty-six of 329 (7.9%) HTLV-1 carriers underwent primary LDLT. One recipient negative for HTLV-1 before LDLT received a graft from an HTLV-1 positive donor. Eight donors were HTLV-1 positive. Twenty-seven recipients (13 male and 14 female; mean age 52.5 years) were reviewed retrospectively. ATL developed in four recipients who ultimately died. The intervals between LDLT and ATL development ranged from 181 to 1315 days. Of the four ATL recipients, two received grafts from HTLV-1 positive donors and two from negative donors. The 1-, 3- and 5-year HTLV-1 carrier survival rates were 91.3%, 78.3% and 66.3%, respectively. Fulminant hepatic failure as a pretransplant diagnosis and a pretransplant MELD score ≥ 15 was identified as risk factors for ATL development in this study (p = 0.001 and p = 0.041, respectively). In conclusion, LDLT can be performed for HTLV-1 positive recipients. However, when fulminant hepatic failure is diagnosed, LDLT should not be performed until further studies have revealed the mechanisms of ATL development.

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Available from: Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Oct 20, 2014
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    • "The immunosuppressive state has been reported to potentially contribute to ATL development in HTLV-1 carriers. There were several case reports of ATL developed in HTLV-1 carriers undergoing immunosuppressive treatment after living-donor liver transplantation (Kawano et al., 2006; Yoshizumi et al., 2012) and kidney transplantation (Hoshida et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) infection and often occurs in HTLV-1-endemic areas, such as southwestern Japan, the Caribbean islands, Central and South America, Intertropical Africa, and Middle East. To date, many epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the incidence of ATL among general population or HTLV-1 carriers and to identify a variety of laboratory, molecular, and host-specific markers to be possible predictive factors for developing ATL because HTLV-1 infection alone is not sufficient to develop ATL. This literature review focuses on the epidemiology of ATL and the risk factors for the development of ATL from HTLV-1 carriers, while keeping information on the epidemiology of HTLV-1 to a minimum. The main lines of epidemiological evidence are: (1) ATL occurs mostly in adults, at least 20-30 years after the HTLV-1 infection, (2) age at onset differs across geographic areas: the average age in the Central and South America (around 40 years old) is younger than that in Japan (around 60 years old), (3) ATL occurs in those infected in childhood, but seldom occurs in those infected in adulthood, (4) male carriers have about a three- to fivefold higher risk of developing ATL than female, (5) the estimated lifetime risk of developing ATL in HTLV-1 carriers is 6-7% for men and 2-3% for women in Japan, (6) a low anti-Tax reactivity, a high soluble interleukin-2 receptor level, a high anti-HTLV-1 titer, and high levels of circulating abnormal lymphocytes and white blood cell count are accepted risk factors for the development of ATL, and (7) a higher proviral load (more than 4 copies/100 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) is an independent risk factor for progression of ATL. Nevertheless, the current epidemiological evidence is insufficient to fully understand the oncogenesis of ATL. Further well-designed epidemiological studies are needed.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Frontiers in Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: In a study of living donor living transplants, while survival did not differ between HTLV‐1 positive and negative recipients, 15% of HTLV‐1 positive recipients developed HTLV‐1 related lymphoma. See article by Yoshizumi et al on page 1479.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · American Journal of Transplantation

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