Article

Yoga in schizophrenia: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

University Psychiatric Centre Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Kortenberg, Belgium.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (Impact Factor: 5.61). 04/2012; 126(1):12-20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2012.01865.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary treatment on general psychopathology, positive and negative symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQL) for people with schizophrenia.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were considered whether they investigated a yoga intervention in patients with schizophrenia. The selection of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers.
Only three RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Lower Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores and subscale scores for positive and negative symptoms were obtained after yoga compared with exercise or waiting list control conditions. In the same way, the physical, psychological, social and environmental HRQL as measured with the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) increased more significantly after yoga than after exercise or waiting list control conditions. None of the RCTS encountered adverse events. Dose-response relationships could, however, not be determined.
Although the number of RCTs included in this review was limited, results indicated that yoga therapy can be an useful add-on treatment to reduce general psychopathology and positive and negative symptoms. In the same way, HRQL improved in those antipsychotic-stabilised patients with schizophrenia following yoga.

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    • "en after a single 30 - min yoga session ( Vancampfort et al . , 2009 ) . Recent Cochrane reviews found that two of three randomised studies reported improvements in psychological , social and occupational outcomes in schizophrenia in response to yoga therapy compared to physical exercise alone or a waitlist control ( Gorczynski & Faulkner , 2010 ; Vancampfort et al . , 2012 ) . Mindful yoga is a modified Hatha yoga practice first introduced by Kabat - Zinn ( 2003b ) in Mindfulness - Based Stress Reduction ( MBSR ) pro - grammes . When practising mindful yoga , awareness of physical sensations is fostered , accessing present moment attention with more ease than with unstructured meditation ( Salmon , Lush ,"
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    ABSTRACT: Although emerging evidence of yoga interventions shows benefits for people with schizophrenia, research is lacking regarding yoga interventions among forensic inpatients. This pilot study investigated the acceptability and effectiveness of an eight-week mindful yoga programme in improving psychological outcomes in 26 forensic inpatients. Outcome measures included the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), as well as a qualitative component post-intervention and at two month follow-up. Trends in the predicted direction suggested reductions in clinical symptoms over time, specifically anxiety. Key themes revealed increased body awareness, relaxation, and self-directed yoga practices and breathing techniques for anxiety management. Ninety-two percent reported acceptance of the programme. Preliminary findings are encouraging and warrant further research into the application of mindful yoga in the management of distress and risk with forensic inpatients.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology
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    • "en after a single 30 - min yoga session ( Vancampfort et al . , 2009 ) . Recent Cochrane reviews found that two of three randomised studies reported improvements in psychological , social and occupational outcomes in schizophrenia in response to yoga therapy compared to physical exercise alone or a waitlist control ( Gorczynski & Faulkner , 2010 ; Vancampfort et al . , 2012 ) . Mindful yoga is a modified Hatha yoga practice first introduced by Kabat - Zinn ( 2003b ) in Mindfulness - Based Stress Reduction ( MBSR ) pro - grammes . When practising mindful yoga , awareness of physical sensations is fostered , accessing present moment attention with more ease than with unstructured meditation ( Salmon , Lush ,"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although emerging evidence of yoga interventions shows benefits for people with schizophrenia, research is lacking regarding yoga interventions among forensic inpatients. This pilot study investigated the acceptability and effectiveness of an eight-week mindful yoga programme in improving psychological outcomes in 26 forensic inpatients. Outcome measures included the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure as well as a qualitative component post-intervention and at two-month follow-up. Trends in the predicted direction suggested reductions in clinical symptoms over time, specifically anxiety. Key themes revealed increased body awareness, relaxation and self-directed yoga practices and breathing techniques for anxiety management. Ninety-two percent reported acceptance of the programme. Preliminary findings are encouraging and warrant further research into the application of mindful yoga in the management of distress and risk with forensic inpatients.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology
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    • "Duraiswamy et al. (58) showed that yoga had superior efficiency in comparison to exercise training (58). Similarly, a recent review of randomized control trials showed that yoga therapy might serve as a useful add-on treatment to reduce general psychopathology and positive and negative symptoms (59). Although yoga methods might differ enormously, it is thought to create inner, physical, and emotional balance through the use of body postures (called asanas) combined with breathing techniques (pranayama). "
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    ABSTRACT: Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives. In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training (CT) followed by a 6-week period of interval training (IT), each regime two times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1). We observed that IT was far more effective than moderate CT in increasing HRV, as indicated by root mean of squared successive difference (improvement to baseline 27 versus 18%), and reducing resting HR (-14 versus 0%). Improvement in VT1 (21 versus -1%) was only observed after IT. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by CT to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of IT on HR regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Psychiatry
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