Vascularized free tissue transfer for reconstruction of ablative defects in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients undergoing salvage surgery following concomitant chemoradiation
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Service, Legacy Emanuel Hospital and Health Center, Portland, OR, USA.International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.57). 04/2012; 41(6):733-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2012.03.004
The purpose of this study was to determine whether chemotherapy delivered concurrently with external beam radiation therapy for loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancer affects the rate or severity of postoperative complications in patients who underwent salvage surgery for recurrent or persistent disease with simultaneous microvascular free flap reconstruction. The primary study group consisted of patients with head and neck malignancies that had undergone surgical salvage with microvascular free flap reconstruction for persistent or recurrent disease following definitive radiation or concomitant chemoradiation treatment. A group of demographically matched patients who underwent microvascular free flap reconstruction for non-malignant and malignant conditions who never received radiation were randomly selected to serve as a control group. The study cohort was divided according to radiation treatment. The overall success rate of flap reconstruction was 92%, with an overall complication rate of 23%. Concurrently administered chemotherapy did not appear to affect the type of or the complication rate. The results of this investigation indicate that microvascular free flap reconstruction of head and neck defects is highly predictable, results in relatively few major complications, and suggests that neither radiation alone nor concomitant chemoradiation has a statistically significant effect on overall flap survival or complication rate.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Current treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy and post-mastectomy radiotherapy, which may be deleterious for immediate reconstruction. A few trials have instead combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by preoperative radiotherapy. If safe and oncologically efficacious, mastectomy with immediate free autologous reconstruction (transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM)/deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap) could then achieve a shorter, simpler reconstructive journey with better cosmesis. No trials have been performed combining this neoadjuvant regime with free autologous reconstruction as an assessment end point. Methods: We performed a Pubmed/Medline search for oncological efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by preoperative radiotherapy and flap reconstruction of the breast. A new treatment sequencing protocol is proposed in which patients suitable for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by preoperative radiotherapy and likely mastectomy are selected. Positive chemotherapeutic response is followed by radiotherapy then surgery within 6 weeks comprising mastectomy/axillary clearance and immediate reconstruction (TRAM/DIEP). Non-responders are offered mastectomy, tissue expander reconstruction, adjuvant radiotherapy then delayed autologous reconstruction. Local/systemic recurrence rates, disease-free survival, complications, patient satisfaction and aesthetics are examined. Results: Between 1995 and 2012, 10 trials treated LABC patients using combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by preoperative radiotherapy. Compared with chemotherapy alone, increased complete pathological response, complete clinical remission, median survival and tumour-free survival were observed. Discussion: Our new treatment sequence protocol offers a simpler, more advantageous approach to LABC. We hypothesize equivalent oncological efficacy, optimized oncological management and surgical planning. The aim was to shorten and simplify the reconstructive journey through a single operation including gold-standard reconstruction, offering better cosmesis, fewer complications and reduced costs.
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ABSTRACT: Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient with Head and Neck Cancer Vassiliki Saloura, Alexander Langerman, Sonali Rudra, Robert Chin, and Ezra E.W. Cohen Head and neck cancer is a heterogeneous group of cancers, which require a multidisciplinary approach to achieve excellent treatment results. This article focuses on current treatment guidelines and controversies in the management of head and neck cancer. It also provides insight into future directions and newest advances in the treatment of head and neck cancer.
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ABSTRACT: The current review will focus on the therapeutic options for reconstruction of large and complex defects of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and the cervical esophagus following surgery for squamous cell carcinoma. The advantages and disadvantages of pedicled flaps, including the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) and supraclavicular artery flap (SAF), as well as the fasciocutaneous free flaps, including the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), the anterolateral thigh flap (ALT), and the jejunum free flap, are reviewed with particular emphasis on the literature from the past 2 years. For partial pharyngeal defects, several reconstructive options, that is, PMMF, RFFF, SAF, and ALT might all be appropriate. When large mucosal surfaces need reconstruction, RFFF seems to be the most utilized. Nevertheless in reviewing the literature, no specific pedicled or free flap seems superior over other options. In cases of tongue reconstruction ALT or RFFF may be appropriate. After circumferential resections of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus, free flaps achieve a significantly lower fistula and stricture rate compared to pedicled flaps with ALT and free jejunal flaps being used most commonly. However, donor-site morbidity and the complications of jejunal harvesting can be significant. Due to its great versatility, good reported functional and oncological outcomes, and reduced overall complication rate, the ALT flap warrants consideration. Finally, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) may provide future options for reconstruction. Currently the head and neck surgeon has a diverse armamentarium available to reconstruct even large and complex pharyngeal defects. Selecting the best reconstructive option must be individualized. Fasciocutaneous free flaps, that is, RFFF and especially ALT, are assuming a greater progressive role in pharyngeal reconstruction. TORS may eventually lead to new options for reconstructive surgery.
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