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Abstract

There is a substantial body of literature related to the effects of a single session of exercise on cognitive performance. The premise underlying this research is that physiological changes in response to exercise have implications for cognitive function. This literature has been reviewed both narratively and meta-analytically and, although the research findings are mixed, researchers have generally concluded that there is a small positive effect. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated comprehensive analysis of the extant literature on acute exercise and cognitive performance and to explore the effects of moderators that have implications for mechanisms of the effects. Searches of electronic databases and examinations of reference lists from relevant studies resulted in 79 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Consistent with past findings, analyses indicated that the overall effect was positive and small (g=0.097 n=1034). Positive and small effects were also found in all three acute exercise paradigms: during exercise (g=0.101; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.041-0.160), immediately following exercise (g=0.108; 95% CI; 0.069-0.147), and after a delay (g=0.103; 95% CI; 0.035-0.170). Examination of potential moderators indicated that exercise duration, exercise intensity, type of cognitive performance assessed, and participant fitness were significant moderators. In conclusion, the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance are generally small; however, larger effects are possible for particular cognitive outcomes and when specific exercise parameters are used.

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... It is well known that exercise generally enhances cognitive function [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] . However, the environment in which exercise is performed may be just as important as the exercise itself [11][12][13] . ...
... In terms of cognition, acute outdoor exercise has primarily been found to enhance executive functions dependent on the prefrontal cortex, such as attention, working memory, and inhibitory control 1,3 . For instance, Bailey and colleagues 19 found that participants who walked in an outdoor natural environment performed significantly better on a cognitive task-the Stroop task-than those who walked inside. ...
... An intriguing finding in our study is that we did not see a specific increase in the measured index of cognitive function following a brief walk indoors (i.e., we did not see an increase in P300 amplitude), nor did we find an increase in cognitive performance. This result conflicts with a significant meta-analysis by Chang and colleagues 3 and fails to support the previously stated inference that brief exercise (less than 20 min) could promote cognitive function. The results imply that environmental location may facilitate attention restoration and improve indices of cognition without exercise. ...
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It is well known that exercise increases cognitive function. However, the environment in which the exercise is performed may be just as important as the exercise itself. Time spent in natural outdoor environments has been found to lead to increases in cognition similar to those resulting from acute exercise. Therefore, the benefits of both exercise and nature exposure suggest an additive impact on brain function when both factors are combined. This raises the question: what is the interaction between acute exercise and environment on cognition? We answered this question using electroencephalography to probe cognitive function using the oddball task before and after brief indoor and outdoor walks on 30 participants (average 21 years old, 95% CI [20, 22]). Our results demonstrate improved performance and an increase in the amplitude of the P300, an event-related neural response commonly associated with attention and working memory, following a 15-min walk outside; a result not seen following a 15-min walk inside. Importantly, this finding indicates that the environment may play a more substantial role in increasing cognitive function such as attention than exercise, at least in terms of acute exercise (i.e., a brief walk). With the world’s growing urbanization and the associated increase in sedentary time indoors, a deeper understanding of how these factors interact and influence cognition may be critical to combat adverse health effects.
... Given the importance of the said skills across the lifespan, strategies for their optimization have been extensively explored in the literature. Physical exercise has emerged as one of the most promising tools to benefit all aspects of executive function (Chang et al., 2012;Stillman et al., 2016;Oberste et al., 2019;Pontifex et al., 2019;Stillman et al., 2020). Of all of them, Inhibitory control is the most studied domain out of the three core EFs in its relationship to the effects of acute physical exercise (Pontifex et al., 2019). ...
... The dose-response relationship of both acute and chronic exercise has gained attention as an easily modifiable moderator variable in the exercise-cognition literature (Chang et al., 2012(Chang et al., , 2015Herold et al., 2019;Oberste et al., 2019;Ludyga et al., 2020). Evidence suggests that as long as a rest interval is introduced after a single bout of aerobic exercise, higher intensities should result in larger improvements in cognition (Chang et al., 2012;Oberste et al., 2019). ...
... The dose-response relationship of both acute and chronic exercise has gained attention as an easily modifiable moderator variable in the exercise-cognition literature (Chang et al., 2012(Chang et al., , 2015Herold et al., 2019;Oberste et al., 2019;Ludyga et al., 2020). Evidence suggests that as long as a rest interval is introduced after a single bout of aerobic exercise, higher intensities should result in larger improvements in cognition (Chang et al., 2012;Oberste et al., 2019). Along the same lines, exercise intensity was shown to modulate the exercise response-inhibition relationship, with highintensity interval training (HIIT) producing superior results, followed by vigorous continuous exercise. ...
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Introduction There is evidence in the literature that acute exercise can modify cognitive function after the effort. However, there is still some controversy concerning the most effective exercise modality to improve cognitive function in acute interventions. Regarding these different exercise modalities, the dose–response relationship between exercise intensity and cognitive response is one of the most challenging questions in exercise and cognition research. Methods In this study, we tested the impact of moderate-intensity (MICT), high-intensity (HIIT) exercise sessions, or control situation (CTRL) on cognitive inhibition (measured with the Stroop Test). Thirty-six young college students participated in this study, where a within-subject repeated measure design was used. Results ANOVA 2×3 demonstrated that HIIT improved the acute cognitive response to a higher degree when compared to MICT or CTRL ( p < 0.05). The cognitive improvements correlated with lactate release, providing a plausible molecular explanation for the cognitive enhancement ( r < −0.2 and p < 0.05 for all the Stroop conditions). Moreover, a positive trend in wellbeing was observed after both exercise protocols (HIIT and MICT) but not in the CTRL situation. Genetic BDNF single nucleotide polymorphism did not influence any interactions ( p < 0.05). Discussion In this sense, our results suggest that exercise intensity could be a key factor in improved cognitive function following exercise in young college students, with no additional impact of BDNF polymorphism. Moreover, our results also provide evidence that exercise could be a useful tool in improving psychological wellbeing.
... These functions are commonly classified into inhibition (i.e., the ability to refrain from impulsive responses and attention), working memory (i.e., the ability to manipulate and hold information in memory) and cognitive flexibility (i.e., the ability to shift between tasks and respond appropriately to the changing demands) [1]. Physical activity (PA) has been proposed to improve EF [2,3], wellbeing, selfesteem, resilience [4] and also mental health [5,6]. These are key components of academic performance, and it is crucial that they are developed in childhood [4,7]. ...
... The reviews examining the acute effect of PA on EF suggest that PA bouts longer than ten min and shorter than thirty min, comprising of submaximal or maximal intensities, might improve EF in adults and children [3,8]. However, from the short-term effects of PA on EF, only a small number of studies on children were included in the reviews mentioned, and Hillman et al. [9] and Schmidt et al. [10] recently reported that the most effective quantitative (e.g., intensity and duration) and qualitative PA (e.g., simple or cognitively enriched) is yet to be determined. ...
... Thirty-nine participants (9-12 years old: 29 boys; M age = 11 ± 1 years) were recruited from a handball club (n = 10) and a public school (n = 19) (participants in school sports) in Porto, Portugal and a football club (n = 10) in West Midlands, UK (i.e., convenience sampling). We considered the cognitive outcomes for a within-between interaction for a repeated measures ANOVA as the previous literature suggests small to moderate effects of PA on EF in children [2,3,9,40]. The minimum number of participants required to detect significant differences was 28, and this value was based on an a priori power calculation conducted using G-power software (Power = 0.8 and α = 0.05; ES(f) = 0.14-0.25 or η 2 p = 0.02−0.06) ...
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This online study investigated the acute effects of a cognitively demanding physical activity (CDPA) vs a simple physical activity (SPA) bout on children’s inhibitory and affective responses. Using a counterbalanced within-subjects’ crossover design, thirty-nine participants aged 9–12 years old (29 boys; Mage = 11 ± 1 years) performed a CDPA and a SPA bout online (via ZOOM) for 15 min. Inhibition (Stroop test) was measured at the baseline, 1 and 30 min following the physical activity (PA) bouts, and self-report measures of affect, mental and physical exertion were taken prior, during and post-PA. Additionally, 31 children took part in semi-structured focus groups to explore the factors affecting their enjoyment. The quantitative results suggest no significant differences on inhibitory responses, affect and physical exertion (all p > 0.05). However, the CDPA induced more mental exertion than the SPA did (p < 0.05). In the focus groups, four themes were identified: physical exertion (e.g., tiredness), social (e.g., teams/groups), environment (e.g., outdoors and competition) and emotional (e.g., fun/enjoyment). Some children (n = 18) reported that the CDPA condition confused them, and to make these activities more interesting and enjoyable, they suggested performing the activities outdoors (n = 15) and including other children as part of a group/team (n = 19). The findings suggest no additional benefit of a cognitively enriched physical activity compared to an SPA bout on the inhibitory responses, affect and enjoyment. Using the instructions provided and given the low cost, the easy administration and the minimal amount of equipment and time involved, either of the approaches may be used in a diversity of contexts (i.e., online, schools or outdoors), and it is worth exploring the effects of these conditions on other aspects of executive function.
... Acute aerobic exercise at light/moderate intensity improves cognitive performance (Chang et al., 2012;. The effects of acute resistance exercise on cognitive performance have received increasing attention, and recent reviews have suggested that resistance exercise also has the potential to improve cognitive performance (Soga et al., 2018;Wilke et al., 2019). ...
... The effects of acute resistance exercise on cognitive performance have received increasing attention, and recent reviews have suggested that resistance exercise also has the potential to improve cognitive performance (Soga et al., 2018;Wilke et al., 2019). It is widely speculated that an increase in arousal is responsible for these improvements in cognitive performance (Chang et al., 2012;Ando et al., 2020;. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for cognitive improvement following acute aerobic and resistance exercise remain unclear. ...
... Acute light aerobic exercise has been suggested to improve executive performance (Chang et al., 2012), and peripheral adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations increase after acute light aerobic exercise (i.e., 40% maximal oxygen uptake) (McMurray et al., 1987). If changes in peripheral biomarkers, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, are associated with alterations of the performance of executive functioning, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that an association between peripheral biomarkers and executive functioning can be observed even after light-intensity physical exercise. ...
... Acute aerobic exercise at light/moderate intensity improves cognitive performance (Chang et al., 2012;. The effects of acute resistance exercise on cognitive performance have received increasing attention, and recent reviews have suggested that resistance exercise also has the potential to improve cognitive performance (Soga et al., 2018;Wilke et al., 2019). ...
... The effects of acute resistance exercise on cognitive performance have received increasing attention, and recent reviews have suggested that resistance exercise also has the potential to improve cognitive performance (Soga et al., 2018;Wilke et al., 2019). It is widely speculated that an increase in arousal is responsible for these improvements in cognitive performance (Chang et al., 2012;Ando et al., 2020;. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for cognitive improvement following acute aerobic and resistance exercise remain unclear. ...
... Acute light aerobic exercise has been suggested to improve executive performance (Chang et al., 2012), and peripheral adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations increase after acute light aerobic exercise (i.e., 40% maximal oxygen uptake) (McMurray et al., 1987). If changes in peripheral biomarkers, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, are associated with alterations of the performance of executive functioning, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that an association between peripheral biomarkers and executive functioning can be observed even after light-intensity physical exercise. ...
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A growing body of research suggests that physical activity and exercise enhance a wide range of cognitive and affective wellbeing, including executive functions (Ludyga et al., 2020; Ishihara et al., 2021), memory (Wanner et al., 2020; Aghjayan et al., 2022), creative thinking (Aga et al., 2021; Chen et al., 2021), stress resilience (Arida and Teixeira-Machado, 2021; Belcher et al., 2021), and mental health (Chen et al., 2017; White et al., 2017). Exercise has also been recommended for the treatment of dementia (Cardona et al., 2021) and major depression (Cooney et al., 2013). However, it is still unclear what type, frequency and duration of physical activity and exercise bring the maximal benefits to a specific outcome in a specific population. Furthermore, how findings reported so far can be incorporated into people's everyday life and in educational and psychiatric contexts also remain unaddressed. Finally, the underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of the benefits of physical activity and exercise are still largely unclear. This Research Topic comprises twelve papers that help address these unsolved issues and advance our understanding of the cognitive and affective benefits of physical activity and exercise. Specifically, four important topics emerged from these studies. Firstly, even a short bout of physical activity or exercise at relatively low intensity may have cognitive and affective benefits. A real-life study by Matsumoto et al. reported that compared to using the elevator, stair-climbing at one's usual pace for three floors roundtrip boosted divergent creative thinking, as assessed by the Alternate Use test. Ando et al. found that both 30 min of aerobic and resistance exercise at a light intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) reduced participants' reaction time on a Go/No-Go task that measures executive function. However, changes in cognitive performance were not associated with several peripheral biomarkers, including adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, lactate, etc., which calls for further in-depth investigation on other potential mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefits of physical exercise. Physical activity and exercise at low intensities may also improve mental health and have anti-depressant effects. Legrand et al. found that brisk walking for 30 min either in an urban or a green, natural environment reduced participants' negative affect. However, only walking in the green, natural environment increased participants' positive affect, which emphasized the superior benefits of “green exercise” (Chen, 2018; Li et al., 2022). Given that depressed patients often have reduced exercise motivation and physical fitness, Sakai et al. developed an exercise program consisting of 15–25 min of cycling twice a week at an intensity that approaches but never goes higher than subjects' ventilatory threshold (considered light to moderate in intensity). In a pilot study, the authors reported promising therapeutic effects of this program in depressed patients. Secondly, the effect of high intensity exercise on cognitive performance may depend on the characteristic of exercise and participants. A review by Sudo et al. found that cognitive performance during acute high intensity aerobic exercise is generally impaired while no impairment and even improvement is observed when cognitive tasks are administered over 6 min after high intensity exercise. They also found that cognitive impairment during high intensity exercise is more likely to occur to individuals with low physical fitness and during cycling than running. Age may be another moderating factor but more research is required to reach sound conclusions. The authors also discussed the underlying mechanism of such cognitive-exercise interaction, including regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygenation and metabolism, neurotransmitters, and neurotrophic factors. In contrast to during high intensity exercise, cognitive performance during moderate intensity exercise may be more likely to be enhanced. In a study by Zheng et al., participants stayed sedentary (seating) or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 50% maximal aerobic power for 15 min while simultaneously performed a n-back task and undergone functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). It was found that the reaction time for the n-back task was faster in the cycling than seating condition, which was accompanied by reduced concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in several brain areas, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Ballester-Ferrer et al. investigated the effects of a 10-week high-intensity functional training program, in which all-out running, jumping rope, or muscle endurance exercise were performed for 10–30 min, 3 times per week. The authors found that while participants in the control group without such training showed no improvement on reaction time on tasks such as the Choice Reaction Test and Interference Test throughout the 10-week period, participants in the training group demonstrated shorter reaction time on these tasks. However, the effect of the training program on psychological wellbeing was absent. Thirdly, studies have been using mediation analysis to uncover the mechanisms of the benefits of physical activity and fitness. Potoczny et al. found that the effect of Karate training on satisfaction with life was fully mediated by self-control and reappraisal. Hernández-Jaña et al. found that cardiorespiratory fitness and speed-agility fitness but not muscular fitness mediated the association between BMI/central fatness and cognitive performance on eight tasks evaluating working memory, psychomotor speed, and fluid and logical reasoning, etc. Together with evidence that adiponectin, a hormone released by adipocytes, mediates the antidepressant-like and hippocampal neurogenesis enhancing effect of wheel running in mice (Yau et al., 2014), the latter study highlights the interaction between fitness and fatness in influencing cognitive and affective wellbeing. Fourthly, given that many individuals especially females (Clemente et al., 2016) are physically inactive, there are a number of ways for people to increase physical activity and use physical activity as a strategy to boost cognitive and affective wellbeing in everyday life. As suggested by Legrand et al., one may want to walk to work or walk for one bus stop while commuting and when walk, one may walk to choose greener routes. As suggested by Matsumoto et al., in the workplace, one may want to take the stairs rather than using the elevator whenever possible. Brown and Kwan suggested another strategy, replacing screen time with physical activity. Using isotemporal substitution analysis, the authors found that replacing screen time with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity or sleep is associated with enhanced mental wellbeing. Furthermore, Shen et al. suggests that rather than pure physical activity, activities that simultaneously require cognitive processing may bring greater benefits. The authors found that 8 weeks of Tai Chi Chuan, a mindfulness exercise that tries to integrate the body and mind, improved inhibitory control performance as indicated by reduced reaction time on a flanker task more than that by 8 weeks of brisk walking. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the authors found that the improved inhibitory control performance was correlated with spontaneous neural activity in the left medial superior frontal gyrus. Finally, Almarcha et al. suggests that compared to exercise programs prescribed by other people, co-designed exercise programs with inputs from the participants may bring greater benefits. The authors found that whereas a co-designed 9-week exercise program improved self-reported mental health in seven of eight scales used, a prescribed exercise program improved mental health only in three scales.
... Given its implications for improving a variety of daily tasks or endeavors (e.g., academic performance, problem solving), there has been an increased research interest over the last several decades on the effects of acute exercise and the timing (in relation to the cognitive task; Roig et al., 2016) of acute exercise (i.e., a single bout of exercise) on cognitive function (Brisswalter, Collardeau, & Rene, 2002;Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012;Etnier et al., 2016;Gomez-Pinilla & Hillman, 2013;Ishihara, Drollette, Ludyga, Hillman, & Kamijo, 2021;Labban & Etnier, 2011, 2018Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010;Loprinzi, Loenneke, & Storm, 2021b;Pyke et al., 2020;Salas, Minakata, & Kelemen, 2011;Tomporowski, 2003;Tomporowski, Ellis, & Stephens, 1987;Voss et al., 2020;Zuniga, Mueller, Santana, & Kelemen, 2019). Empirical work has demonstrated a potential intensity-dependent effect of acute exercise on cognition; moderate-intensity acute exercise may improve prefrontal cortex-dependent higher-order cognition (Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012), such as executive control, whereas vigorous-intensity acute exercise may improve highly automated behavior (McMorris, 2016). ...
... Given its implications for improving a variety of daily tasks or endeavors (e.g., academic performance, problem solving), there has been an increased research interest over the last several decades on the effects of acute exercise and the timing (in relation to the cognitive task; Roig et al., 2016) of acute exercise (i.e., a single bout of exercise) on cognitive function (Brisswalter, Collardeau, & Rene, 2002;Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012;Etnier et al., 2016;Gomez-Pinilla & Hillman, 2013;Ishihara, Drollette, Ludyga, Hillman, & Kamijo, 2021;Labban & Etnier, 2011, 2018Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010;Loprinzi, Loenneke, & Storm, 2021b;Pyke et al., 2020;Salas, Minakata, & Kelemen, 2011;Tomporowski, 2003;Tomporowski, Ellis, & Stephens, 1987;Voss et al., 2020;Zuniga, Mueller, Santana, & Kelemen, 2019). Empirical work has demonstrated a potential intensity-dependent effect of acute exercise on cognition; moderate-intensity acute exercise may improve prefrontal cortex-dependent higher-order cognition (Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012), such as executive control, whereas vigorous-intensity acute exercise may improve highly automated behavior (McMorris, 2016). Whether these intensity-dependent effects of acute exercise on global cognition extend to specific cognitive parameters, such as long-term episodic memory (defined as the remembrance of one's own previous experiences; Madan, 2020), is less clear (Loprinzi, Roig, Etnier, Tomporowski, & Voss, 2021e) and requires additional empirical investigation. ...
... These mixed findings in the literature were the impetus for the present study to evaluate the potential link between fitness/endurance and episodic memory performance. At this point, it is unclear why fitness may, potentially, have a different effect on episodic memory versus other aspects of cognition, but this is plausible as, for example, past meta-analytic work demonstrates that acute exercise may have different effects based on the evaluated cognitive outcome (e.g., executive function, reaction time, attention) (Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012). In addition to further evaluating this potential moderating role of fitness -to help coalesce the literature -the present study also evaluates whether this potential association is influenced by the post-exercise recovery period. ...
Article
Accumulating research demonstrates that acute exercise can enhance long-term episodic memory. However, it is unclear if there is an intensity-specific effect of acute exercise on long-term episodic memory function and whether this is influenced by the post-exercise recovery period, which was the primary objective of this experiment. Another uncertainty in the literature is whether aerobic endurance influences the interaction between exercise intensity and post-exercise recovery period on long-term episodic memory function, which was a secondary objective of this study. With exercise intensity and post-exercise recovery period occurring as within-subject factors, and fitness as a between-subject factor, 59 participants (Mage = 20 years) completed 12 primary laboratory visits. These visits included a 20-min bout of exercise (Control, Moderate, and Vigorous), followed by a recovery period (1, 5, 10, and 15 min) and then a word-list episodic memory task, involving an encoding phase and two long-term recall assessments (20-min and 24-h delayed recall). The primary finding from this experiment was that moderate and vigorous-intensity exercise improved memory function when compared to a non-exercise control. A secondary finding was that individuals with higher levels of aerobic endurance, compared to their lesser fit counterparts, had greater memory performance after exercise (moderate or vigorous) when compared to after a control condition. Additionally, individuals with higher levels of aerobic endurance, compared to their lesser fit counterparts, generally performed better on the memory task with longer post-exercise recovery periods. Future research should carefully consider these parameters when evaluating the effects of acute exercise on long-term episodic memory.
... Acute (i.e. performed within a day (Chang et al., 2012)) exercise effects on cognition have been the subject of previous research. Theoretical explanations, including exercise-induced increases in catecholamine release and in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, and changes in cerebral oxygenation, have been used to predict that moderate exercise would facilitate, while heavy exercise would impair, cognitive performance (Dietrich & Audiffren, 2011;McMorris et al., 2015). ...
... Theoretical explanations, including exercise-induced increases in catecholamine release and in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, and changes in cerebral oxygenation, have been used to predict that moderate exercise would facilitate, while heavy exercise would impair, cognitive performance (Dietrich & Audiffren, 2011;McMorris et al., 2015). However, in addition to exercise intensity, participant fitness (Brisswalter et al., 2002;Browne et al., 2017), type of exercise (Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010;Schapschroer et al., 2016), as well as cognitive task type (Browne et al., 2017;Chang et al., 2012;Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010;McMorris et al., 2016;McMorris & Hale, 2012;Schapschroer et al., 2016) and timing of assessment (Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010) could play roles in the acute exercise and cognition relationship. Another element that may help to explain equivocal results is the duration of the exercise (Schmit & Brisswalter, 2020). ...
... Though enhanced performance after fatigue may be unexpected, single-session exercise has previously also been shown to have positive effects on cognitive performance, with the exercise intensity, type and timing of the perceptual-cognitive performance, and participant fitness playing moderating roles (Chang et al., 2012;Schapschroer et al., 2016). Although only studies involving exercise that induced fatigue were included in the current review, it is possible that these variables could also help explain performance improvements after fatigue induced by physical or combined physical and mental exertion. ...
Article
Perceptual-cognitive performance is fundamental for the anticipation and decision-making demands of open-skill sports but may be disrupted by fatigue. This scoping review aimed to describe what is known about the effects of fatigue on perceptual-cognitive performance among open-skill sport athletes. Six databases were systematically searched. Articles were included if they involved open-skill sport athletes, a perceptual-cognitive task assessed on two or more occasions, and induction of acute fatigue confirmed by a manipulation check. Sixty-seven studies, chapters, and reviews were included. In 51% of studies, fatigue was induced through physical exertion, with the rest by mental exertion (27%), or a combination of physical and mental exertion (22%). Only 35% of studies involved sport-specific exertion to induce fatigue, and 29% included measures of participants’ subjective ratings that confirmed the presence of fatigue. Forty-seven percent of perceptual-cognitive tasks were sport-specific, and just 19% assessed perceptual-cognitive performance simultaneous to the fatigue-inducing exertion. Negative, positive, and no effects of fatigue on perceptual-cognitive performance were reported, and these equivocal findings may be attributable to methodological discrepancies between studies. Future research should include more sport-specific designs, as well as stressors other than fatigue, such as environmental and psychosocial stressors.
... Each item is scored between 0-3 and the total score is calculated. BDI scoring was conducted as follows: none or minimal depression < 10, mild to moderate depression (10-18), moderate to severe depression (19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29), and severe depression (30-63) (12). The Turkish validity and reliability study of the scale was performed by Hisli et al. in 1989 (13). ...
... The effect of acute PA on cognitive functions is dose-dependent (in terms of amount and intensity) (28). It is still impossible to say a similar conclusion with the same certainty for regular PA (29,30). ...
Article
Aim: Regular physical activity has been shown to have positive effects on general health, cognitive functions, and mental health. The vast majority of university students do not meet the physical activity recommendations of well-accepted guidelines. In this study, we aimed to determine the physical activity levels (PALs) of medical school students and the related factors. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, observational survey study. The survey was conducted with an online Google survey tool. Five hundred and twenty-eight students who approved the voluntary consent form were included in the study. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data and questions about personal lifestyle were used. The physical activity levels of the participants were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF), depression and anxiety levels were determined with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), respectively. Results: The mean total IPAQ-SF scores of the participants were 1658±1793.91 METs. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between BDI scores and PALs (r=-0.102, p=0.019). The PALs of those who had active hobbies and those who participated in regular sports activities were statistically significantly higher (p
... 36 Interestingly, the modulation of respiration is possibly associated with the DMN. 4 In the current study, the rate of correct responses and reaction time of cognitive functions were negatively correlated with the FC within the DMN during high-intensity exercise. During high-intensity exercise, brain activity within the DMN may increase to modulate respiration, while brain activity within the ATN may decrease to compensate for respiration. ...
... During high-intensity exercise, brain activity within the DMN may increase to modulate respiration, while brain activity within the ATN may decrease to compensate for respiration. 4,35 Changes in brain activity within the DMN and ATN could increase the FC between DMN and ATN, thereby decreasing the attentive function. ...
Article
Objective: Aerobic exercise may be associated with changes in brain activity within the default mode network (DMN) and dorsal attention network (DAN). We hypothesized that changes in functional connectivity (FC) within the DMN and DAN might be most effectively activated by moderate-intensity exercise. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and visuospatial attention tests after resting were performed before and after each of moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercises (10 min each) in 15 healthy male volunteers. Results: The reaction time during the attention test increased significantly, and the rate of correct responses decreased from moderate-intensity exercise condition to high-intensity exercise condition. FC within the DMN under high-intensity exercise condition was higher than that under pre-exercise and moderate-intensity exercise conditions. FC within the DAN under moderate-intensity exercise condition was the highest, whereas FC between the DMN and DAN under moderate-intensity exercise condition was the lowest. Changes in cognitive domain functions were associated with changes in FC between the DMN and DAN. Conclusion: Our results support the inverted-U hypothesis of maximum arousal efficacy during moderate exercise. Both cognitive domains, namely, the attention system and brain activity domains, may be better under moderate-intensity exercise than under high-intensity exercise.
... In contrast, significantly lower (faster response times) were evident in SRT during the POST-workload condition, which was evident when the SRT and CRT tasks were analyzed together and individually. The previous literature on the impact of physical exercise or workload on cognitive performance demonstrates that there can be positive, negative, or neutral effects, but this is largely dependent upon the intensity and duration of the workload [10,29,30]. The finding from the current study not only supports the previous literature's assertion that cognitive performance is not affected by short-duration exercise [15], as evident from the results of CRT, but also supports that response times in a cognitive-motor task are decreased (faster response times) in response to exercise [10,29,31], which may be attributed to a possible increase in cognitive arousal due to exercise, as well as to the potential learning effect of the task [10] as evident from the results of SRT. ...
... The previous literature on the impact of physical exercise or workload on cognitive performance demonstrates that there can be positive, negative, or neutral effects, but this is largely dependent upon the intensity and duration of the workload [10,29,30]. The finding from the current study not only supports the previous literature's assertion that cognitive performance is not affected by short-duration exercise [15], as evident from the results of CRT, but also supports that response times in a cognitive-motor task are decreased (faster response times) in response to exercise [10,29,31], which may be attributed to a possible increase in cognitive arousal due to exercise, as well as to the potential learning effect of the task [10] as evident from the results of SRT. ...
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Cognitive performance is negatively affected by the presence of noise, which is seen as a distractor and a stressor, especially in hazardous occupational environments. The addition of musculoskeletal fatigue that commonly accompanies occupational work due to noise interruption can further elevate risk and compromise safety. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of both individual and a combination of noise interference and physical workload on simple and choice response time tasks. Sixteen healthy male and female participants (age: 20 ± 1 years; height: 169.48 ± 8.2 cm; weight: 67.93 ± 12.7 kg) performed a simple (SRT) and choice response task (CRT) with three Blazepod™ light response time systems by striking with the dominant lower extremity from a seated position while listening to noises from a construction site (65–85dB) through headphones. Participants then performed a low-intensity musculoskeletal fatigue task and completed the above measures again. Response times (RT) (ms) from three trials of SRT and CRT, both without and with noise interference, before (PRE) and after the workload (POST), were averaged, and a 2 (Noise) × 2 (workload) × 2 (task) repeated measure ANOVA and a 2 (Noise) × 2 (workload) repeated measure ANOVA were performed for SRT and CRT, respectively, using JASP at an alpha level of 0.05. Results revealed a significant interaction between workload task (p = 0.041), as well as a main effect significance for the workload (p = 0.007) and noise (p = 0.044). The main effect significance also existed for workload in SRT (p = 0.009) and for noise in CRT (p = 0.002). In SRT, RT was significantly faster during the POST fatigue measure, suggesting a possible cognitive arousal and a learning effect improvement rather than a negative fatigue effect. In both SRT and CRT, as well as individually in CRT, RT was significantly slower due to noise interruption, negatively impacting performance, especially in the more challenging CRT compared to SRT. Thus, findings from the current study suggest that the impact of noise interruption is significant when the complexity of the response task is greater, and the potential cognitive arousal due to the workload and potential learning effects may influence response time performances. Finally, a lower extremity cognitive–motor task demonstrates response time behavior similar to such upper extremity cognitive–motor tasks.
... Recientemente, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, 2020) concluyó que tanto la AF de intensidad moderada como la vigorosa de corta duración tienen efectos positivos en la función cerebral, la cognición y el rendimiento académico durante la infancia . La relación positiva entre AF y cognición en niños está bien fundamentada: la AF provoca un aumento en el flujo sanguíneo, el factor neurotrófico derivado del cerebro y las catecolaminas plasmáticas (Chang et al., 2012). Se ha demostrado que la AF crónica altera la estructura y la función del cerebro a través de sinaptogénesis, neurogénesis y angiogénesis (Hillman et al., 2008). ...
... Puesto que la revisión previa de De Greeff et al. (2016) había encontrado un efecto positivo de los programas de AF aguda sobre la atención y las funciones ejecutivas, Masini et al. (2020) apuntaron dos posibles explicaciones de esos resultados contradictorios: a) la variabilidad de las medidas utilizadas en los estudios, y b) la diferente tipología (con o sin compromiso cognitivo) y duración de las intervenciones de DDAA. En otro metaanálisis, Chang et al. (2012) habían precisado el umbral de actividad de ≥ 20 min de MVPA para una mejora de la cognición; sin embargo, casi ninguna intervención de la revisión de Masini et al. (2020) alcanzaba o excedía los 20 min. Por otro lado, Schmidt et al. (2015) argumentaron que la AF que implica cognitivamente es más beneficiosa para las funciones cognitivas que la AF exclusivamente aeróbica. ...
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Introducción/objetivo: La realización de actividad física (AF) es considerada una manera muy rentable de mejorar la función neurocognitiva. Tanto la actividad física de intensidad moderada como la vigorosa de corta duración tienen efectos positivos en la función cerebral, la cognición y el rendimiento académico durante la infancia. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el efecto de los descansos activos (DDAA) en la atención y motivación de los estudiantes, así como examinar posibles diferencias en cuanto a sexo y curso. Métodos: Participaron 215 estudiantes (119 niñas) de 2.º a 6.º de primaria, con edades comprendidas entre 7 y 13 años (M = 9.18; DE = 1.55), distribuidos en grupo experimental (n = 108; 62 niñas) y grupo control (n = 107; 57 niñas). Se realizó un diseño cuasi experimental con medidas pre-post y metodología cuantitativa. El grupo experimental recibió un programa de DDAA (20-30/semana; 2-5 minutos cada descanso activo). Se utilizó el Test de caras-R y el PLOC adaptado. Resultados: Los resultados en atención mostraron diferencias significativas entre grupos solo en 3.º, cuyo programa se basó en DDAA de intensidad vigorosa protagonizados por los estudiantes. El grupo experimental reportó niveles elevados de motivación autodeterminada. Los cursos de menor edad se mostraron más autodeterminados. Conclusiones: Los DDAA de intensidad vigorosa pueden provocar efectos positivos sobre la atención y motivación autodeterminada de los estudiantes.
... A systematic review from the American College of Sports Medicine found strong evidence supporting that PA can improve CF, particularly in individuals with cognitive impairment (21). In line with this, several studies have shown that acute exercise (i.e., one single session) could improve CF in healthy individuals, an effect that was most pronounced after high-intensity aerobic exercise (24)(25)(26). Although few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted, one RCT showed that 24 weeks of aerobic exercise improved executive function and cerebral cortical thickness in a healthy population aged 20-67 (15). ...
... Aerobic HIIT has been shown to be particularly effective for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic health, also in SUD inpatients (41). Additionally, higher levels of aerobic fitness have been linked to better performance on neurocognitive tests (27), and both studies with acute (24)(25)(26)42) and chronic HIIT interventions (43) showed promising effects on CF. Since cognitive difficulties remain a critical obstacle for recovery and community integration in patients with SUD, exercise as adjunct therapy could play a vital role in restoring cognitive resources and improve treatment outcome. ...
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Introduction Substance use disorder (SUD) is characterized by cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction. Executive function is recognized as an important determinant of treatment outcome as it is associated with dropout rate, attendance to therapy and potential relapse after treatment termination. Physical activity can have beneficial effects on cognitive function, but there is still a lack of knowledge regarding potential benefits of aerobic exercise for executive function in SUD treatment. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cognitive function and the subsequent effect on treatment outcome in patients with SUD. Methods and analysis This study is a randomized controlled trial, including men and women ≥18 years with diagnosed SUD by ICD-10. The patients will be recruited from the department for inpatient treatment at Blue Cross - Lade Addiction Treatment Center, Trondheim, Norway. Participants will be randomized 1:1 into either HIIT (3x/week) + treatment as usual (TAU), or TAU alone. Study outcomes will be assessed at baseline, after eight weeks of intervention, and at 3- and 12-months follow-up. The primary outcome is to compare the change in executive function (via altered BRIEF-A score, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult) measured between the two study groups after eight weeks. Secondary outcomes include mapping of cognitive function in different subgroups (e.g. type of substance, age, fitness level), collecting self-reported information about quality of life, craving, sleep quality, etc., as well as assessing compliance to TAU and long-term treatment outcome. Ethics and dissemination The project was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee and will be performed in accordance with this protocol and the Declaration of Helsinki. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants prior to inclusion. This project will explore a novel approach to how exercise can be applied in SUD treatment, beyond the well-known effects on physical health. We expect to achieve new knowledge in regard to what extent HIIT can improve cognitive abilities and subsequent treatment outcome in SUD. Trial registration number https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT05324085 .
... A growing body of research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of acute exercise on cognition, particularly for tasks or task components with larger executive function (EF) demands [1][2][3][4][5]. Broadly defined, EF refers to a family of cognitive processes that enable the volitional control of thoughts, emotions, attention, and behaviors to complete task-oriented goals [6,7]. ...
... They are also a key determinant of successful aging [9] and efficiency of daily living, an indispensable part of everyday life [10,11] Accordingly, sustaining and improving EF has become an important public health issue. Critically, previous studies have shown that EF is enhanced following a single bout (i.e., dose) of exercise (also called acute exercise) [1][2][3][4]. ...
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Background Research has demonstrated that there is a beneficial effect of acute exercise on cognitive function; however, the moderators of the acute resistance exercise (RE) effect on executive function (EF) are underestimated. This systematic review aims to clarify the effects of acute RE on EF by examining the moderating effect of exercise intensity (light, moderate, and vigorous) and EF domains (inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility), as well as their interactions. Methods The search strategy was conducted in four databases (PubMed, Scopus, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane Library) prior to January 29, 2022. Included studies had to: (1) investigate acute RE in adults with normal cognition and without diagnosed disease; (2) include a control group or control session for comparison; (3) include outcomes related to the core EF domains; and (4) be published in English. The methodological quality of the included studies was judged according to the PEDro scale guidelines. Results Nineteen studies were included which included a total of 692 participants. More than half of the outcomes (24/42, 57.14%) indicate that acute RE had a statistically significant positive effect on overall EF. In terms of RE intensity and EF domain, moderate intensity acute RE benefited EF more consistently than light and vigorous intensity acute RE. Acute RE-induced EF benefits were more often found for inhibitory control than for working memory and cognitive flexibility. When considering moderators simultaneously, measuring inhibitory control after light or moderate intensity RE and measuring working memory or cognitive flexibility after moderate intensity RE most often resulted in statistically significant positive outcomes. Conclusion Acute RE has a beneficial effect on EF, observed most consistently for inhibitory control following moderate intensity RE. Future studies should include all exercise intensities and EF domains as well as investigate other potential moderators to enable a better understanding of the benefits of acute RE on EF.
... In light of previous studies, the question of whether HIIT affects general executive function or its specific subdomains remains unanswered (Moreau and Chou, 2019). It is also unclear whether specific HIIT characteristics affecting executive function could be investigated because, while the nature of typical exercise characteristics (e.g., exercise duration, exercise mode, and exercise intensity) have been observed to affect executive function (Chang et al., 2012), HIIT contains different exercise features (i.e., working/recovery time ratio and rest interval). Our findings serve as a supplement to prior research as evidence for positive influences on executive function through brief HIIT mode. ...
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Purpose To evaluate the effect of a short-term HIIT program on the selected health-related parameters for overweight/obese young adult women in a university context. Methods A total of 48 participants were randomly divided into two groups. The exercise group (HIIT) received a HIIT intervention of aerobics for 4 weeks, while the control group (CON) received no training. Body composition including waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF %), Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), the score of Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Stroop word-color test (SCWT) results were assessed before and after the intervention along with within- and between-group comparisons. Results All the indices were significantly improved in HIIT group ( p < 0.01) after 4 weeks of intervention. No significant changes were found in CON. There were significant differences between HIIT and CON in cardiovascular fitness ( p < 0.01), SDS ( p < 0.01) and SCWT ( p < 0.05) before and after 4 weeks. In addition, weekly measurements of HIIT effects showed significant changes ( p < 0.01) from the second week in the variables of body composition, VO2max, SDS and SCWT when compared with the baseline and maintained the tendency till the end of program. Conclusion The short-term HIIT aerobics of the campus program conducted in a non-lab setting induced significant improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, psychological well-being and executive function in overweight young female adults.
... Second, an objective measure of physical activity during intervention is missing. Regarding the role of intensity as moderator [24], it is acceptable to monitor the heart rate range in real-time during the intervention and collect data as a subjective index for all participants in the future. Third, although the real-world interventional setting is regarded as a strength in this study, it also inevitably increased other confounders. ...
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Background: Recent literature has demonstrated that acute physical activity benefits the transfer of executive functions. However, further studies indicated the type of variability in the effect of physical activity on executive functions. Therefore, this study initially explored the effect of a single bout of Chinese archery on subdomains of core EFs in preadolescent children; Method: Eligible participants were allocated either an intervention group (n = 36) or a control group (n = 36). The subjects in the intervention group received a 45-min Chinese archery session. The primary outcomes were the performance of core EFs (inhibition control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) in preadolescent children, assessed with psychological paradigms (Fish Flanker Task, N-Back Task, and DCCS (Border version), respectively). Paired t-test and ANCOVA were used to analyze the mean difference in the performance of core EFs within and between subjects, respectively; Results: Considering reaction time and accuracy, we explored the impressive performance in three cognitive tasks with acute Chinese archery; Conclusion: The finding suggests that a single bout of Chinese archery benefited three subdomains of core EFs in healthy preadolescent children.
... Εξαιτίας του γρήγορου μετασχηματισμού που υφίστανται οι ΕΛ κατά την παιδική ηλικία, έχουν προταθεί διάφορες παρεμβάσεις για τη βελτίωσή τους, με τα μέχρι στιγμής ερευνητικά δεδομένα να καταδεικνύουν πως αυτή μπορεί να συμβεί και μέσω της συμμετοχής σε προγράμματα φυσικής δραστηριότητας (ΦΔ) (Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012;Ludyga, Gerber, Pühse, Looser, & Kamijo, 2016;Vazou et al., 2019). Πιο συγκεκριμένα, αρκετοί ερευνητές διαπίστωσαν ότι, μετά από την εφαρμογή προγραμμάτων οργανωμένης ΦΔ 6-36 εβδομάδων, με συχνότητα 2 έως 4 φορές εβδομαδιαίως και διάρκεια κάθε διδακτικής μονάδας 10 έως 120 λεπτά, επέρχεται βελτίωση είτε μίας ή όλων των ΕΛ παιδιών σχολικής ηλικίας Hillman et al., 2014;Koutsandreou, Wegner, Niemann, & Budde, 2016). ...
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Τα τελευταία χρόνια, τονίζεται η σημασία συμμετοχής των παιδιών σε προγράμματα φυσικής δραστηριότητας (ΦΔ), καθώς συμβάλλουν στη βελτίωση όχι μόνο φυσιολογικών αλλά και γνωστικών παραμέτρων, όπως οι επιτελικές λειτουργίες (ΕΛ). Ωστόσο δεν έχει αποσαφηνιστεί ποιο από τα στοιχεία των προγραμμάτων ΦΔ προσφέρει τα μεγαλύτερα οφέλη στις ΕΛ. Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας ήταν η ανασκόπηση της υπάρχουσας βιβλιογραφίας σχετικά με την επίδραση προγραμμάτων ΦΔ, που δίνουν έμφαση (α) στην ένταση της ΦΔ, (β) στη γνωστική εμπλοκή των συμμετεχόντων ή (γ) στον συνδυασμό έντασης και γνωστικής εμπλοκής, στις ΕΛ παιδιών σχολικής ηλικίας. Για τον σκοπό αυτό, αναζητήθηκαν πειραματικές μελέτες στις ηλεκτρονικές βάσεις δεδομένων PubMed, Google Scholar και Sport Discus, χρησιμοποιώντας ως λέξεις-κλειδιά: (α) όρους σχετικούς με τη ΦΔ, όπως physical activity, physical education, sports, exercise και (β) όρους σχετικούς με τις ΕΛ, όπως executive functions, working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility. Είκοσι πειραματικές μελέτες πληρούσαν τα κριτήρια που τέθηκαν. Μεταξύ αυτών, 12 αφορούσαν στην άμεση επίδραση προγραμμάτων ΦΔ στις ΕΛ παιδιών σχολικής ηλικίας και 8 αφορούσαν στην επίδραση μακροπρόθεσμων προγραμμάτων ΦΔ. Από τα ευρήματα των μελετών φάνηκε ότι τόσο η συστηματική εφαρμογή ενός προγράμματος ΦΔ για αρκετές εβδομάδες, όσο και η χορήγηση μίας μόνο συνεδρίας ΦΔ μπορεί να ωφελήσει τις τρεις βασικές ΕΛ παιδιών σχολικής ηλικίας, με τον ανασταλτικό έλεγχο να βελτιώνεται ευκολότερα συγκριτικά με τις άλλες δύο ΕΛ. Όσον αφορά την ένταση της ΦΔ και τη γνωστική εμπλοκή των συμμετεχόντων, φάνηκε ότι αποτελεσματικά για την ενίσχυση των ΕΛ στη σχολική ηλικία είναι: (α) τα προγράμματα που προκαλούν μέτρια προς έντονη ΦΔ (ΜΕΦΔ) και (β) οι γνωστικά απαιτητικές δραστηριότητες. Ωστόσο, εξαιτίας της μεγάλης ετερογένειας μεταξύ των ερευνών, κρίνεται απαραίτητη περαιτέρω έρευνα για τον εντοπισμό των στοιχείων (π.χ. συχνότητα, διάρκεια, ένταση, είδος ΦΔ) των προγραμμάτων ΦΔ που θα προσφέρουν τα μεγαλύτερα οφέλη στις ΕΛ
... Katılımcıların algıladıkları zorluk derecekeri (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) Borg Skalası ile ölçülmüştür (Borg, 1982). Bu slaka 6'dan (çok çok hafif) 20'ye (çok çok zor) kadardır ve egzersizlerin standardize edilmesinde en sık kullanılan ölçeklerden biridir. ...
Article
Egzersizin insan sağlığına çok yönlü faydaları konusunda günümüzde en dikkat çeken konulardan birisi bilişsel sağlığa olan yararlarıdır. Yönetici işlevler, bir amaca ulaşmak için planlama, bilgiyi kullanma, soyut düşünme ve çıkarımlar yapma gibi birçok özelliği içine alan bir kavram olmakla birlikte aerobik egzersiz ile ilişkisi sık sık çalışılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı sporcu popülasyonunda, orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersizin yönetici işlevlerin ana fonksiyonlarından biri olan bozucu etkiye direnç üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Bu çalışmaya herhangi bir kronik hastalığı bulunmayan ve en az 3 yıldır aktif olarak spor yapan 16 sağlıklı erkek katılımcı (=21.31±1.4 yıl) dahil edilmiştir. Araştırma deseni olarak randomize karşılıklı dengeli çalışma dizaynı uygulanmıştır. Katılımcılar test süresince toplamda 4 ayrı gün laboratuvara gelmişler ve deneysel koşullar (orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersiz ve dinlenme) için laboratuvara geliş sıraları karşıt dengelenmiştir. Katılımcılar orta şiddetli aerobik egzersiz için %60, yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersiz için %80 kalp atım rezervinde 30 dakikalık egzersiz yapmışlardır. Dinlenme koşulunda ise egzersiz koşullarında geçen süre kadar dergi ve kitapların olduğu sessiz bir odada oturmaları sağlanmıştır. Test koşullarının öncesinde ve 15 dakika sonrasında bozucu etkiye direnç ölçümleri için Stroop testine alınmışlardır. Verilerin değerlendirilmesinde SPSS 22.0 paket programı kullanılmıştır. Katılımcıların farklı koşullardaki Stroop testi performansları arasındaki farkın belirlenmesi Two-Way Anova analizi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. İstatistiksel analiz sonuçlarına göre; Stroop testi doğru sayılarına ilişkin koşullar arası anlamlı bir farklılığa rastlanmamıştır (p>0,05). Katılımcıların Stroop testi reaksiyon zamanları orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersiz koşullarında, dinlenme koşuluna göre anlamlı düzeyde azalmıştır (p<0,05). Sonuç olarak bu çalışmada orta ve yüksek şiddetli aerobik egzersizin bozucu etkiye direnç üzerinde olumlu bir etkisinin olduğu ortaya konmuştur.
... Five years of exercise was not found to affect cognition (Zotcheva et al. 2022). A meta-analysis pointed out that the effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance are generally small; however, larger effects are possible for particular cognitive outcomes and when specific exercise parameters are used (Chang et al. 2012). To study the effect of music on individual cognition, the application of music plus cognitive training was determined to improve cognition in the elderly more effectively than cognitive training alone (Castro Coelho et al. 2020) and music improved cognition not only in older adults but also in stroke patients (Haire et al. 2021). ...
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Background: Video-induced negative affect may have an impact on cognition. In this study, acute exercise and music listening are used to explore their impact on individual cognition with video-induced negative affect. Method: All the participants were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 (n = 19, average age = 20.15) was not given any form of acute exercise or music listening; Group 2 (n = 20, average age = 21.33) was given music listening; Group 3 (n = 20, average age = 20.89) was given acute exercise; Group 4 (n = 20, average age = 21.03) only watched a video without being given any acute exercise or music listening; Group 5 (n = 19, average age = 20.68) was given music listening after watching a video; Group 6 (n = 18, average age = 21.32) was given acute exercise after watching a video. Results: In the pre-test, we found that there was no significant difference in negative affect, positive affect, and cognitive performance among the groups (p > .05). The post-test indicated that the negative affect of college students who watched the video (20.16 ± 8.34) was higher than that of college students who did not watch the video (11.12 ± 3.29). Acute exercise and music listening improved the cognitive performance of college students with video-induced negative affect. Acute exercise improved the cognitive performance of college students with non-video-induced negative affect, while music listening did not. Conclusion: The acute decline in the cognitive performance of college students caused by video-induced negative affect can be ameliorated by means of acute exercise and music listening.
... There is support in the literature for the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance (Chang et al., 2012). Aerobic exercise (AE) is a type of physical activity (PA) that is structured to achieve specific fitness goals (Caspersen et al., 1985). ...
... On average referees cover an overall distance longer than 11 km, which is considered to be an intense physical activity (Di Salvo, Carmont, & Maffulli, 2011). Meta-analyses show that physical load can influence attentional resources and thus cognitive processes, such as perception (Chang et al., 2012;Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010) and perception of temporal cues (Block et al., 2010). Therefore, the use of video technology should not only be investigated under rest but also under physical load. ...
... From a behavioral viewpoint, the relationship between physical exercise and cognitive functioning is complicated because of several factors, such as modality, intensity and duration of the physical activity impacting on brain and cognition [68][69][70][71]. Recently, a study documented that high-intensity intermittent running enhanced executive functions in adolescents, improving their reaction times and accuracy in attentional tasks [72]. ...
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In the brain and cognitive reserves framework, aerobic exercise is considered as a protective lifestyle factor able to induce positive effects on both brain structure and function. However, specific aspects of such a beneficial effect still need to be completely clarified. To this aim, the present narrative review focused on the potential brain/cognitive/neural reserve–construction mechanisms triggered by different aerobic exercise types (land activities; such as walking or running; vs. water activities; such as swimming), by considering human and animal studies on healthy subjects over the entire lifespan. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database. The studies analyzed here indicated that all the considered kinds of activities exert a beneficial effect on cognitive/behavioral functions and on the underlying brain neurobiological processes. In particular, the main effects observed involve the cognitive domains of memory and executive functions. These effects appear related to structural and functional changes mainly involving the fronto-hippocampal axis. The present review supports the requirement of further studies that investigate more specifically and systematically the effects of each type of aerobic activity, as a basis to plan more effective and personalized interventions on individuals as well as prevention and healthy promotion policies for the general population.
... Weightlifting and 100-meter sprints are two instances of anaerobic exercises. An improvement in cognitive functions and a greater sense of overall wellbeing have been linked to chronic aerobic exercise, according to a body of research ( (Chang et al., 2012). In this line, it was demonstrated that even a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves the wellbeing of MDD sufferers by enhancing mood and emotional states (Bartholomew et al., 2005;Basso and Suzuki, 2017). ...
... Complementing the above-mentioned literature on chronic exercise, a rapidly growing number of investigations have focused on the effects of a single session of exercise (i.e., acute exercise) on cognitive performance, reporting improvements in various aspects of cognition [for reviews, see: (Ai et al., 2021;Basso & Suzuki, 2017;Chang et al., 2012;Hsieh et al., 2021;Ishihara et al., 2021b;Levin et al., 2021;McSween et al., 2019)]. ...
Article
Background Given the extensive evidence on improvements in cognitive inhibition immediately following exercise, and the literature indicating that cognitive and motor inhibitory functions are mediated by overlapping brain networks, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of moderate intensity acute aerobic exercise on multi-limb motor inhibition, as compared to cognitive inhibition. Method Participants were 36 healthy adults aged 40–60 years old (mean age 46.8 ± 5.7), who were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. One-to-two weeks following baseline assessment, participants were asked to perform a three-limb (3-Limb) inhibition task and a vocal version of the Stroop before and after either acute moderate-intense aerobic exercise (experimental group) or rest (control). Results Similar rates of improvement were observed among both groups from baseline to the pre-test. Conversely, a meaningful, yet non-significant trend was seen among the experimental group in their pretest to posttest improvement in both cognitive and motor tasks. In addition, exploratory analysis revealed significant group differences in favor of the experimental group among highly fit participants on the 3-Limb task. A significant correlation was indicated between the inhibition conditions, i.e., choice in the motor inhibition and color/word (incongruent) in the cognitive inhibition, especially in the improvement observed following the exercise. Discussion Moderate-intensity acute aerobic exercise is a potential stimulator of both multi-limb motor inhibition and cognitive inhibition. It appears that high-fit participants benefit from exercise more than low-fit people. Additionally, performance on behavioral tasks that represent motor and cognitive inhibition is related. This observation suggests that fitness levels and acute exercise contribute to the coupling between cognitive and motor inhibition. Neuroimaging methods would allow examining brain-behavior associations of exercise-induced changes in the brain.
... A meta-analysis and systematic review showed that acute MVPA had an immediate positive effect on cognitive performance. 34 It suggests that at an acute level, the greater the training intensity, the stronger the effect on cognitive performance. In the present study, the intensity level was comparatively low, which might be the reason why not all aspects of executive functioning were improved. ...
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Background: University students often exhibit high levels of sedentary behavior that is negatively associated with cognition and mood. On the other hand, light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) may improve cognitive performance and mood. Therefore, this study investigated the acute effect of LIPA breaks during prolonged sitting on attention, executive functioning, and mood. Methods: A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Twenty-one healthy adults (15 women, age=24 ± 3y, BMI=23 ± 2kg/m2 ) completed three prolonged sitting conditions: (1) without a demanding cognitive task (SIT), (2) with a demanding cognitive task (COGN), and (3) with every 25 minutes sitting interrupted by a 5-minute walk (INTERRUPT). Attention, executive function (response inhibition, task shifting, and working memory updating), and mood were assessed before and after each condition. Results: Linear mixed models analyses showed that prolonged sitting frequently interrupted by LIPA (INTERRUPT) or with cognitively demanding activities (COGN) significantly improved task shifting compared to SIT. However, INTERRUPT did not significantly improve task shifting compared to COGN. No significant acute effects on attention, response inhibition, working memory updating, or mood were found. Conclusions: Frequent LIPA breaks or cognitively demanding activities have a selective, acute positive impact on one aspect of cognitive performance compared to idle sitting. No evidence were found that LIPA breaks have an acute improvement on attention, executive function and mood compared to sitting with cognitive loading. To further investigate the effect of PA on cognitive performance, it is necessary to consider cognitive loading and control for the cognitive activity during sitting in the experimental design.
... That is, when performed the cognitive testing immediately after exercise, light and moderate intensity exercise is more beneficial than high intensity exercise. However, when performed it following a delay (e.g., more than 1min), the positive effect of very light intensity exercise disappears, and, in contrast, more intense exercise (i.e., very hard) results in the biggest beneficial effects (Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012). Nevertheless, it has been suggested that the enhanced cognitive performance depicted by an inverted-U relationship between the size of the exercise workload and the activation level of the CNS is only observed with acute moderate-intensity exercise at levels close to or slightly above the lactate and noradrenaline thresholds because this is the point at which the optimal level of exercise-induced arousal has been reached, and the benefits are lost with any further increase in arousal (Chmura, Nazar, & Kaciuba-Uscilko, 1994;Jing et al., 2009). ...
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This study aimed to clarify the effects of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) protocols on peripheral neurotransmitters and on the neuropsychological performance of working memory and to explore underlying correlations. In a randomised cross-over trial, twenty-two adults in late middle age or older completed a single session of HIIE, MICE, or a control condition (rest) in counterbalanced order with a 7-day washout. Neuropsychological indices of working memory and neurotransmitter (norep-inephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) levels were measured at baseline and after an intense bout of either HIIE or MICE, or an intervention without exercise. Analyses of the results revealed no significant effect of HIIE on the neurotransmitters, but significantly high levels of norepinephrine and serotonin were induced by MICE. In terms of neuropsychological performance, a single session of HIIE and MICE shortened the participants' reaction times (RTs), whereas only MICE caused a significant increase in accuracy rates (ARs). Significant correlations were found between the changes in norepinephrine levels and ARs/RTs before and after the HIIE and MICE interventions , respectively. The results of this study suggest that an intense MICE protocol triggers higher norepinephrine and serotonin levels than HIIE does. The possible neurobiochemical factor (i.e., norepinephrine) underlying the HIIE/MICE-induced neuropsychological benefits (i.e., improved ARs and RTs) for working memory encoding and maintenance appears to be protocol-dependent. Systematic and prolonged investigations are required to further understand the effects/mechanisms specific to each exercise protocol in order to optimize the benefits of aerobic exercise interventions for long-term neurobiochemical and neuropsychological health.
... 7,8 Aerobic exercise training is widely reported as an effective approach to improve cognition, particularly for executive function processes. 9,10 Among several domains of cognitive executive function (e.g., response inhibition, response facilitation, cognitive flexibility, planning and execution), aerobic exercise may most strongly benefit response inhibitory control that engages inhibitory cortical networks. [11][12][13][14] The potential for aerobic exercise to improve inhibitory control is of particular interest in people after stroke who demonstrate degraded cortical inhibitory function, [15][16][17][18] which is linked to cognitive and motor dysfunction. ...
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Background: Aerobic exercise elicits striking effects on neuroplasticity and cognitive executive function but is poorly understood after stroke. Objective: We tested the effect of 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training on inhibitory and facilitatory elements of cognitive executive function and electroencephalography (EEG) markers of cortical inhibition and facilitation. We investigated relationships between stimulus-evoked cortical responses, blood lactate levels during training, and aerobic fitness post-intervention. Methods: Twelve individuals with chronic (>6mo) stroke completed an intensive aerobic exercise intervention (40-mins, 3x/week). Electroencephalography and motor response times were assessed during congruent (response facilitation) and incongruent (response inhibition) stimuli of a Flanker task. Aerobic fitness capacity was assessed as VO2-peak during a treadmill test pre- and post-intervention. Blood lactate was assessed acutely (<1 min) after exercise each week. Cortical inhibition (N2) and facilitation (frontal P3) were quantified as peak amplitudes and latencies of stimulus evoked EEG activity over the frontal cortical region. Results: Following exercise training, the response inhibition speed increased while response facilitation remained unchanged. A relationship between earlier cortical N2 response and faster response inhibition emerged post-intervention. Individuals who produced higher lactate during exercise training achieved faster response inhibition and tended to show earlier cortical N2 responses post-intervention. There were no associations between VO2-peak and metrics of behavioral or neurophysiologic function. Conclusions: These findings provide novel evidence for selective benefits of aerobic exercise on inhibitory control during the initial 4-week period after initiation of exercise training, and implicate a potential therapeutic effect of lactate on post-stroke cortical inhibitory function.
... Confirming these results, other studies reported that 15/30 min of moderate-intensity resistance exercise had a stronger positive impact on executive function, as assessed by the Stroop test [27,28]. More in detail, a comprehensive meta-analysis reported that exercise intensities may increase cognitive function [29]. ...
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The objective of this investigation was to explore in a sample of female students the effects of several acute plyometric training intensities (low, moderate, and high—55–65%, 70–80%, and 90–100% of maximal vertical jump performance, respectively) on cognition (attention) and psychological states (mood). Thirty-seven female students (mean age = 19.72 ± 0.73 years, mean body mass index = 19.51) participated in the current study. They were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: a high-intensity plyometric exercise (HIPE), a moderate-intensity plyometric exercise (MIPE), and a low-intensity plyometric exercise (LIPE). Before and immediately after each session for the three conditions, all participants underwent a cognitive performance test (d2 test) and filled in a battery of psychological questionnaires (the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS)). The data reported higher concentration performance and a lower number of errors in the MIPE when compared with HIPE (all, p-value < 0.05) groups, whereas no significant difference was found between other conditions (p-value > 0.05). The RPE value was higher in the HIPE (p-value < 0.001) and MIPE (p = 0.01) than in the LIPE, and in the HIPE than in the MIPE (p = 0.001) conditions. Concerning the BRUMS scale, fatigue (p = 0.005) was significantly different among the various conditions, being higher in HIPE with respect to MIPE and LIPE (all, p-value < 0.05) conditions. In conclusion, moderate-intensity plyometric exercise can be considered the best activity to improve visual attention. Practitioners may practice moderate-intensity plyometric exercises to improve concentration performance. However, due to the limitations of the present study (lack of a control group and between-subjects study design), further research in the field is warranted.
... Upon cessation from exercise, a blood sample was obtained immediately, and participants were given 10 min to recover before completing post-exercise cognitive testing in a quiet room. This period was based on metaanalytical finding showing the greatest effects for post-exercise cognitive enhancement occur when cognition was measured 10-19-min post-exercise (25). Following completion of cognitive testing, participants rested quietly watching a nature documentary until the 90 min post-exercise blood draw. ...
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Objective To investigate the effect of acute submaximal exercise, based on the spinal cord injury (SCI) Exercise Guidelines, on cognition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in people with SCI. Design Eight adults (7 males) with traumatic SCI volunteered in this pre-registered pilot study. In randomized order, participants completed submaximal intensity arm cycling (60% of measured peak-power output at 55–60 rpm) for 30 min or time-matched quiet rest (control condition) on separate days. Blood-borne BDNF was measured in serum and plasma at pre-intervention, 0 min and 90 min post-intervention. Cognition was assessed using the Stroop Test and Task-Switching Test on an electronic tablet pre- and 10 min post-intervention. Results Submaximal exercise had no effect on plasma [F (2,12) = 1.09; P = 0.365; η ² = 0.069] or serum BDNF [F (2,12) = 0.507; P = 0.614; η ² = 0.024] at either 0 min or 90 min post-intervention. Similarly, there was no impact of exercise on either Stroop [F (1,7) = 2.05; P = 0.195; η ² = 0.065] or Task-Switching performance [F (1,7) = 0.016; P = 0.903; η ² < 0.001] compared to the control condition. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between years since injury and resting levels of both plasma (r = 0.831; P = 0.011) and serum BDNF (r = 0.799; P = 0.023). However, there was not relationship between years since injury and the BDNF response to exercise. Conclusions Acute guideline-based exercise did not increase BDNF or improve aspects of cognition in persons with SCI. This work establishes a foundation for continued investigations of exercise as a therapeutic approach to promoting brain health among persons with SCI.
... Yirmi dk sonrası gerçekleştirilen ölçümler sonucunda, belirgin pozitif etkilerin azaldığı ortaya konulmuştur. 68 Yapılan bir araştırma, sağlıklı erkeklere uygulanan kesintili supramaksimal egzersiz çalışmasında, serebral oksijenizasyonun egzersiz ilerledikçe azaldığı belirlenmiştir. 69 fNIRS kullanılarak yapılan farklı araştırmalarda, egzersiz yükü ile serebral oksijenizasyon arasında ters U şekilli bir bağlantı olduğu belirlenmiştir. ...
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Aerobic activity is recognized as a powerful stimulant of the development for mental health. It has been revealed that exercise creates specific changes in the brain that are different from those that occur with learning or new experiences. The research will be an important reference source for future research, as the studies that reveal the changes of aerobic exercise protocols on cognitive performance will be examined in depth and additionally, the physiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between exercise and cognition will be examined. The research has been planned and put forward as a traditional review. Traditional reviews are studies that synthesize findings, results, and evaluations by examining 2 or more published studies on a particular topic, in which information obtained in different ways and from different sources is compiled without following a specific method. It is seen that there are many studies showing that both acute and chronic forms of aerobic exercise have positive effects on executive functions. However, it is obvious that there are many unknown conditions on the effect of aerobic exercise on executive functions. Therefore, it is thought that there is a need for researches that will take into account the variables such as exercise duration, frequency and intensity. In addition to this; demonstrating that participation in physical activity, exercise , games or physical education activities in children and young people contributes to cognitive processes besides the development of physical performance elements may contribute to an increase in the rate of participation in physical activities. This situation is also thought to be one of the factors that increase the importance of the research. At this point; it is thought that the research may be useful for academics who are interested in the subject to examine the current findings related to the research done, put forward new ideas, and design research.
... There is support in the literature for the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance (Chang et al., 2012). Aerobic exercise (AE) is a type of physical activity (PA) that is structured to achieve specific fitness goals (Caspersen et al., 1985). ...
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This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of aerobic-exercise (AE) on neurophysiological-functions and neuropsychological-functions in sleep-disturbed collegiates. 32 eligible students were included in study. They completed 30 minutes of single bout of moderate AE (at 60–70% of maximal heart rate reserve). Pre and post training measures were tested for both, neurophysiological-functions by recording eventrelated- potential-P300 [P300-amplitude and P300-latency], and for neuropsychological-functions by administering neuropsychological-test-battery [Attention, Working-memory, Sensorimotor-speed and Executive-function (EF)]. In experimental group, statistically significant improvements were observed when analyzed for all 3 (group-by-time interaction, main-time, and main-group) effects in neurophysiological-functions. However, results were not significant for all neuropsychological-functions measures except for EF. Correlation-analysis demonstrated no association between neurophysiologicalfunctions and neuropsychological-functions except for post-intervention (p300-latency and attention). It is therefore can be concluded that acute bout of AE may be a promising approach to improve cognitivefunctions in sleep-disturbed collegiates, however long-lasting effects are still unclear.
... Physical activity interventions included all interventions for children and adults in which sports and/or (aerobic) exercise were the main treatments. We focused on chronic (i.e., regular) (Guiney & Machado, 2013) physical activity as opposed to acute (i.e., a single bout) physical activity (Chang et al., 2012). ...
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Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the efficacy of physical activity interventions in the reduction of antisocial behavior in children and adults. Several possible moderators, including study design, sample characteristics (age, proportion male, and sample type), control group, and outcome characteristics (type of activity, duration, frequency), were also investigated. Methods A literature search was performed in the following databases: PubMed, Ebsco/SportDiscus, Ebsco/APA PsycINFO, Ebsco/ERIC, Ebsco/Criminal Justice Abstracts, Embase.com, and Clarivate Analytics/Web of Science Core Collection from inception to June 2021. Studies were eligible if they reviewed the effect of chronic physical activity interventions on antisocial behavior compared to wait-list, no-exercise, or attention control samples. The following studies were excluded: animal studies, studies reporting on acute exercise, studies including yoga or mindfulness as the sole measure of physical activity, and studies including substance (ab)use and/or smoking as the only outcome measure. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled effect sizes. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (version 2). Results The search yielded 29 studies, of which 20 were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicate a significant small-to-medium effect (g = − 0.26) with a 95% confidence interval ranging from − 0.48 to − 0.04 in favor of physical activity interventions. Significant moderators included type of control group, type of physical activity, and type of antisocial behavior, with larger effect sizes for comparisons with inactive control groups (g = − 0.31), interventions containing walking, jogging, or running as the main type of physical activity (g = − 0.87), and anger/hostility as an antisocial outcome measure (g = − 0.42). Conclusions Physical activity interventions may be a promising way to reduce antisocial behavior in children and adults. However, due to the overall high risk of bias in the included studies, more sound evaluation research is needed to better understand the functioning and to improve the possible implementation of physical activity interventions.
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After exercise training, improvement in cognitive function is associated with high parasympathetic nervous activity. However, the relationship between cardiac autonomic nervous activity and cognitive function after acute exercise may differ from that after chronic exercise, because parasympathetic nervous activity decreases with acute exercise. Here, we examined the relationship between parasympathetic nervous activity and cognitive function after acute exercise. Twelve male participants performed cognitive tasks in exercise and non-exercise conditions, with a randomized crossover design. Participants in the exercise condition ran on a treadmill for 10 min, with a running speed corresponding to a rate of perceived exertion (RPE) of 10–12 in each subject. Cognitive tasks were performed before and after both conditions. Heart rate variability during cognitive tasks was measured to evaluate autonomic nervous system activity. In the exercise condition, RPE was 11.1 ± 0.2 (mean ± SE) immediately after exercise. Exercise at RPE 10–12 improved reaction times in Go trials (from 687.8 ± 55.2 to 568.2 ± 45.9 ms, P < 0.05). In the non-exercise condition, cognitive performance remained stable throughout the experiment. In addition, parasympathetic nervous activity (high-frequency component of heart rate variability) remained low after exercise compared with before exercise (from 586.4 ± 122.5 to 372.8 ± 92.9 ms², P < 0.05). In contrast, parasympathetic nervous activity increased in the non-exercise condition (from 516.6 ± 94.9 ms² to 642.5 ± 85.6 ms², P < 0.05). The present results suggest that improvement in cognitive function after acute exercise may be related to reduced parasympathetic nervous activity.
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Physical activity (PA) and mindfulness are independently associated with improved cognitive function; however, the effects of their combination on cognitive function are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute bout of PA, mindfulness training, and combined PA and mindfulness training on changes in cognitive function and perceived cognitive ability. Using a repeated measures within-subjects design, adults (N = 29, M age = 28.6) completed three 20-minute counterbalanced conditions: a) mindfulness training (MIND); b) moderate-intensity walking (PA), and c) moderate-intensity walking while listening to PA-specific mindfulness training (PAMIND). Participants completed the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery and PROMIS Applied Cognition Short Form before and after each condition. Within-subjects repeated measures ANOVAs revealed inhibitory control, working memory, task shifting, processing speed and the fluid composite score ( P < .01 for all) improved from pre-to post-condition for all conditions. Perceived cognitive ability declined across all conditions pre- to post-condition ( P < .001); decreases were largest in the MIND condition. Cognitive performance improved following acute bouts of general mindfulness, PA, and the combination of the two, but perceived cognitive ability declined. Future work is warranted to examine effects in other populations and as a result of different PA and mindfulness doses and interventions.
Article
Background: the effect of acute exercise on cognition covers almost all stages of information processing, but few studies have focused on visual awareness. Reports on the appearance of faint speed-changes in the perception of stimuli were used as an index for visual awareness. Visual awareness was assessed after exercise or rest. Aside from the detection of speed-changes, speed-change discrimination was added as an index of perception. Results: the results showed that reports on the appearance of faint speed-changes were affected by acute aerobic exercise. The d’ index was higher after exercise. The hit rate for speed-change detection was marginally significantly higher after exercise than after the sedentary test condition. Analysis of the results obtained for the discrimination task showed that discrimination speed was boosted only when subjects were aware of the speed-change. Importantly, neither false alarm rate nor response bias was affected by exercise. Conclusions: acute moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise improved subjects’ awareness of speed changes. In addition, there was a perceptual advantage due to exercise.
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ABSTRACT Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by attention problems, impulsivity, and hypermobility. Children with ADHD often have low motor skills and executive functions (decision making, attention, problem solving, planning, organizing, etc.) and catecholamine neurotransmission problems. Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and gifted children have multiple interests. However, their ability to concentrate on a subject for a long time is limited. Therefore, it is recommended that these children's areas of interest be identified and directed to that area. Families and educators getting to know individuals with ADHD and their interests direction is very important. Their orientation to these areas will contribute to their academic and professional success and happiness, and will facilitate their integration into society. Individuals with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder considering the complementary methods in addition to the treatment; It is seen that physical activity applications and therapy approaches are frequently used. It has been reported that acute/chronic physical activity practices have positive effects on ADHD symptoms. In addition, it is stated that the effects of therapy approaches (occupation therapy, play therapy, movement and dance therapy, etc.) are great in children with ADHD. In this section, it will be tried to raise awareness about how different physical activities, sports and therapies that can be used in childhood can contribute to individuals with ADHD. Providing these activities to children during their education; their physiological and psychological development; We believe that it will guide them to become individuals who are compatible with the society by contributing to the improvement of their academic, social and motor skills.
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Background Physical activity (PA) is considered an important factor affecting academic achievement (AA). Different intensities of PA affect mental engagement (ME), which, in turn, affects AA. However, the role of ME in the relationship between PA and AA remains unclear. Objective This study aimed to examine the mediating and/or moderating role of ME (i.e. cognitive flexibility [COGFLEX], metacognition [META] and competitiveness achievement motivation [COMPETE]) in the relationship between PA (both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities) and AA. Method Structural equation modelling was used to build a mediated moderation model. A total of 68,144 students from eight economies who participated in the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment were included in the study. Results Moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) was significantly positively correlated and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) was significantly negatively correlated with AA in adolescents. COGFLEX, META and COMPETE were found to play a significant mediating role in the relationship between both types of PA (MPA and VPA) and AA. COGFLEX and COMPETE were found to moderate the relationship between VPA and AA. Conclusion ME plays a mediated moderation role in the relationship between the intensity of PA and AA. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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Physical activity (PA) has positive effects on various health aspects and neuronal functions, including neuronal plasticity. Exceeding a certain exercise frequency and duration has been associated with negative effects. Our study investigated the effects of excessive PA with a marathon run (MA) and regular PA (training and recovery phases) on electrocortical activity, as measured by electroencephalography (EEG). 30 healthy marathon runners (26 male, 45 ± 9 yrs) were enrolled in the study. Four resting-state 32 channel EEG recordings were conducted: 12 − 8 weeks before MA (T-1), 14 − 4 days prior to MA (T0), 1–6 days after (T2), and 13–15 weeks after MA (T3). Power spectrum analyses were conducted using standardized Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA) and included the following frequency bands: delta (1.5-6 Hz), theta (6.5-8.0 Hz), alpha1 (8.5–10 Hz), alpha2 (10.5–12.0 Hz), beta1 (12.5–18.0 Hz), beta2 (18.5–21.0 Hz), beta3 (21.5–30.0 Hz), and total power (1.5-30Hz). Statistical non-parametric mapping showed reduced power both in the alpha-2 (log-F-ratio= -0.705, threshold log-F-ratio = ± 0.685, p < 0.05) and in the delta frequency band (log-F-ratio= -0.699, threshold log-F-ratio = ± 0.685, p < 0.05) in frontal cortical areas after MA (T2 vs. T0). These effects diminished at long-term follow-up (T3). The results can be interpreted as correlates for subacute neuroplasticity induced by strenuous and prolonged PA. While previous studies reported an increase in alpha frequency during and directly postexercise, the adverse observation a few days after exercise cessation suggests counterregulatory mechanisms, whose complex origin can be suspected in subcortical circuits, changes in neurotransmitter systems and modulation of affectivity.
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The speed and accuracy of decision-making ( i.e. , executive function (EF) domains) is an integral factor in many sports. At rest, prolonged cognitive load (pCL) impairs reaction time (RT). In contrast, exercise improves RT and EF. We hypothesized that RT and EF during exercise would be diminished by prolonged ‘dual tasking’ as a consequence of pCL. To test the hypothesis, twenty healthy male participants performed four conditions [resting control (Rest), pCL only (pCL Rest ), exercise only (EX), and pCL + exercise (pCL EX )] in a randomized-crossover design. Both exercise conditions utilized a 50-min cycling exercise protocol (60% VO 2 peak) and the pCL was achieved via a 50-min colour-word Stroop task (CWST). Compared with Rest, pCL Rest caused a slowed CWST RT ( P < 0.05) and a large SD ( i.e. , intraindividual variability) of CWST RT ( P < 0.01). Similarly, compared with EX, the slowed CWST RT ( P < 0.05) and large SD of CWST RT ( P < 0.01) were also observed in pCL EX . Whereas the reverse-Stroop interference was not affected in pCL Rest ( P = 0.46), it was larger ( i.e. , declined EF) in pCL EX than EX condition ( P < 0.05). These observations provide evidence that the effort of pCL impairs RT and EF even during exercise.
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Although the acute effect of exercise on behavioral cognitive performance is well-documented in the exercise psychology field, a comprehensive evaluation on neuroelectric brain activity that determines healthy cognitive functioning following acute exercise is lacking. This systematic review included 39 studies examining acute exercise effects on P3 of event-related potential through its amplitude and latency, which reflect the amounts of attentional resources allocated to and the processing speed for categorizing a stimulus. Exercise has small effects on increasing amplitude and decreasing latency. The amplitude effect was moderated by age and the type, intensity, and duration of exercise, with a smaller effect being observed for individuals aged ≤18 and 19–35 than >60 years, for high-intensity than moderate-intensity exercise, for high-intensity interval training exercise than aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise, as well as for exercise lasting ≤10 and 11–20 than exercise lasting 21–30 min. The latency effect was moderated by exercise duration, with 11–20 min exercise showing a smaller effect than exercise lasting ≤10 min. These results demonstrated that acute exercise enhances allocation of attentional resources and processing speed needed to implement cognitive processes underlying goal-directed behavior. Further, these effects may be manipulated through targeting specific age groups and prescribing specific exercise parameters.
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Uspoređujući prošle generacije djece i adolescenata, svjedoci smo promjena životnih stilova pa tako novije generacije mladih postaju pretežno sjedilačke na globalnoj razini. Razina tjelesne aktivnosti u rapidnom je padu, dok su istraživanja njezinih dobrobiti u porastu. Kontinuirana tjelesna aktivnost pokazala se povezanom s brojnim zdravstvenim koristima, ali i s kognitivnim razvojem i mentalnim zdravljem. Kada je riječ o djeci i adolescentima, upravo redovita tjelesna aktivnost može na pozitivan način doprinijeti kognitivnom razvoju te pridonijeti brojnim psihološkim i fiziološkim koristima. To je posebice primjenjivo u djetinjstvu i adolescenciji jer su ta životna razdoblja pogodna za usvajanje zdravih životnih navika i stilova radi preveniranja pojave različitih oblika bolesti i promoviranja pozitivnoga mentalnog zdravlja. Svrha ovog rada jest kritički se osvrnuti na doprinos tjelesne aktivnosti kognitivnom razvoju i mentalnom zdravlju djece i mladih te donijeti zaključak na temelju cjelokupne analize.
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Fiziksel aktivite ve egzersizin fiziksel ve metabolik faydaları güçlü kanıtlarla bilinmektedir. Son zamanlarda karmaşık bilişsel süreçleri içeren yönetici işlevler üzerine sağladığı faydalar araştırma konusu olmuştur. Ancak araştırmaların çoğu kısa süreli egzersizin etkilerine odaklanmıştır. Bilişsel süreçler üzerine uzun süreli egzersizin faydalarını inceleyen sınırlı sayıda çalışma bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, gençlerde hafif-orta şiddetli aerobik egzersizin engelleyici bilişsel kontrol üzerindeki etkisini incelemektir. Araştırma 20-22 yaş aralığında 13 kız, 17 erkek (15 kontrol grubu, 15 deney grubu) katılımcı üzerinde yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, kişisel bilgi formu ve Eriksen ve Eriksen (1974) tarafından geliştirilen eriksen flanker task testi ön test-son test olarak uygulanmıştır. Deney grubundaki bireylere 12 haftalık hafif-orta şiddetli aerobik egzersiz programı uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen veriler JAMOVI (2.2.2) programı ile analiz edilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde betimleyici istatistikler kullanılmıştır ve tekrarlı ölçümler varyans analizi ve TukeyHSD testi uygulanmıştır. Deney ve kontrol grupları karşılaştırıldığında 12 haftalık hafif-orta şiddetli aerobik egzersizin engelleyici bilişsel kontrol üzerindeki etkisi anlamlı bulunmuştur (p<0,05). Sonuç olarak genç bireylerde fiziksel aktivite ve egzersize düzenli katılım, engelleyici bilişsel kontrole olumlu katkılar sağlamaktadır.
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Physical exercise has been shown to enhance memory and to increase neuroplasticity. Rodent studies have revealed modulating effects of signaling molecules of the immune system (cytokines) on hippocampal plasticity and memory. Acute and chronic exercise have been both found to alter the number and function of immune cells. Thus, physical exercise might enhance neuroplasticity via an altered immune response. In this study we tested whether multiple repetitions of a vocabulary learning task combined with a bout of cardiovascular exercise enhances learning in humans and whether memory improvements correlated with acute exercise-induced cytokine changes. Data of 52 participants (20–40 years of age) who were randomly assigned to a cardiovascular exercise group (cycling) or a control group (stretching) were analyzed. During the 10-week treatment, participants completed 18 learning-exercise sessions. In each of these sessions, the vocabulary learning task was always performed immediately before exercising started. To assess acute exercise-induced changes in cytokine levels, blood sampling was performed at rest and immediately after exercising in two of the sessions. Learning success measured as increase in learning across all sessions and vocabulary retention four weeks after the treatment had ended did not differ between groups. The cycling group showed a relatively larger acute increase in IL-6, IL-1ra, IL-4, and IFN-γ compared to the stretching group. Exploratory analyses revealed significant positive associations between within-session learning and acute exercise-induced increases in IL-6 and IL-1ra in the cycling group only. These results suggest that the immune system may act as a mediator of exercise-induced cognitive benefits.
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University students are of particular public health interest because they are at high risk for physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors. In conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic, sedentariness and physical inactivity were reinforced, as the pandemic led to an increase in home studying. Physical activity (PA) breaks have been identified as promoting factors for university students' physical and mental health. Therefore, the present study explored an approach to nudge students to take PA breaks at home while studying. The purpose was to test the effectiveness of digital nudging for PA breaks for 10 days using a randomized intervention design during the COVID-19 pandemic. It included an intervention group who received daily digital motivational prompts for PA break videos and a minimal intervention control group who got low-level access to PA break videos via a one-time link sent to the media library. Using a sample of university students in the southwest of Germany (n = 57), two-level binary logistic regression models were calculated to predict daily participation in PA breaks during the intervention period depending on the nudging intervention, as well as previous participation in PA breaks, the general PA level of the subjects before the intervention, the time spent on PA and on home studying in a day, the kind of day during the intervention (weekday vs. weekend), and the students' age. Results revealed that the digital nudging intervention did not show any significant effect on the likelihood to participate in PA breaks on a given day (0.69 ≤ β ≤ 0.75, p > 0.3). Instead, an individual-level effect revealed that the longer a student studied at home over the course of a day, the more likely he or she was to take a PA break (1.07 ≤ β ≤ 1.11, p < 0.001). Current findings show that individual characteristics such as daily time spent on home studying, which can change over the course of the intervention phase, are relevant considerations within nudging intervention in university setting. This provides initial insights especially for digital PA breaks for students during home studying.
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Background As brain function declines and cognitive ability declines, the benefits of resistance exercise to the brain of older people are gradually gaining attention. Objective The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanism and relationship between physiological factors such as vascular and neuronal degeneration and cognitive decline, and to categorize the differences in the effects of an acute and chronic resistance exercise intervention on cognitive function in healthy elderly people and the possible regulators of cognitive effects. Methods Using PubMed, Elsevier, Web of Science, X-MOL, CNKI, and Taiwan academic literature database, the research papers published in relevant journals at home and abroad until April 2022 were searched with Chinese and English keywords such as Resistance exercise, the elderly, hippocampus, memory performance, neurons, cognitive function. Pedro scale was used to check the quality of various documents, and the relevant research documents were obtained with the resistance exercise elements as the main axis for comprehensive analysis. Results and conclusion (1) Resistance exercise can have a beneficial effect on the brain function of the elderly through blood flow changes, stimulate nerve conduction substances and endocrine metabolism, promote cerebrovascular regeneration and gray matter volume of the brain, and prevent or delay the cognitive function degradation such as memory and attention of the elderly; (2) Acute resistance can temporarily stimulate hormone secretion in vivo and significantly improve the effect of short-term memory test, but it has little effect on the cognitive performance of the elderly; (3) Moderate-high intensity resistance exercise (50–80%1RM, 1–3 times/week, 2–3 groups/time) lasting for at least 6 months is more prominent for the improvement of cognitive function of the elderly, while the parameters such as resistance exercise intensity, exercise amount, duration, evaluation test time and differences of subjects may have different degrees of influence on cognitive benefits.
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Research on lifestyle factors and cognition has largely focused on identifying determinants of cognitive decline or possible cognitive enhancement in older adults. Much less attention has been devoted to the effects of various lifestyle factors on cognition from childhood through middle age and whether these factors can be exploited to optimize cognitive functioning. The present chapter reviews the literature related to various lifestyle factors in this age range, including exercise, sleep, nutrition, tobacco use, social engagement, and cognitively stimulating activity. We discuss the relevance of examining the impact of these lifestyle factors on brain and cognitive functioning, review potential mechanisms through which they influence cognitive functioning, and delineate the importance of early life activity engagement on later brain and cognitive health. Applications of lifestyle factor research to neuropsychological practice are then considered, as are challenges and future directions for lifestyle factor research in children and adults.
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A review of the literature indicates that acute bouts of physical activity exert short-term positive benefits on the behavior and cognitive functioning of youths without clinical disorders and on youths who have difficulty focusing attention, controlling impulsive actions, or who evidence high levels of motor activity. Prior research conducted has been largely atheoretical. Information-processing models are suggested to provide a framework for assessing the impact of physical activity and cognition and behavior.
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This study investigated gender differences in orienting and focusing visual attention at rest and under submaximal physical load. In two discriminative reaction time (RT) experiments, spatial cues of different size and compound stimuli with local and global target features were employed, and the demands on endogenous attentional control were manipulated by varying the probability that cue meaning matched cue position. Results demonstrated females' worse RT performance as compared to males both at rest and under physical load. At rest, females were also less able than males to endogenously override the automatic orienting of attention elicited by peripheral misleading cues, whereas they succeeded in performing it under physical load.
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The purpose of this study was to quantitatively combine and examine the results of studies pertaining to physical activity and cognition in children. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were coded based on design and descriptive characteristics, subject characteristics, activity characteristics, and cognitive assessment method. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated for each study and an overall ES and average ESs relative to moderator variables were then calculated. ESs (n = 125) from 44 studies were included in the analysis. The overall ES was 0.32 (SD = 0.27), which was significantly different from zero. Significant moderator variables included publication status, subject age, and type of cognitive assessment. As a result of this statistical review of the literature, it is concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning in children.
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The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of exercise duration concomitantly on energy expenditure and cognitive performance. The physical task was pedalling on a cycloergometer at an intensity of 60% Pmax (power reached with maximal aerobic power). The cognitive task was a visual choice reaction task (RT2). Twenty-two students without expertise in decisional activities participated over four sessions procedure during 10 treatment days. In a first session, individual Pmax was measured. The second session (session 2) was composed by RT tasks performed at rest. During the sessions 3 and 4 randomly presented, each subject completed a 10 min. bicycle ergometer test without or with a simultaneous RT task. Mean RT values, error RT values, pedal rate were collected in sessions 2 and 4 at the beginning (3-5 min) and at the end (8-10 min) of the exercise test. Heart rate was continuously recorded. The results showed a significant interaction effect between cognitive task and exercise duration for mean RT values (p < .025), heart rate values (p < .025) whereas it was not significant for the R T eITor rate and peda1 rate. With exercise duration, mean RT presented higher decrease at the end of the exercise testing (p < .01). These results are discussed principally in terms of intermediaries factors as activation or investment of attentional resources induced by exercise duration.
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The aim of this dual task paradigm study was to measure the effect of varying pedal rates matched for aerobic power output on energy expenditure and cognitive performance. The primary task was pedalling on a cycloergometer at an intensity of 50% Pmax; the secondary task was a probe simple reaction task (RT). Ten adults with a mean age of 28 years (SD =2 years) were observed over a three-phase procedure across 8 days. In phase 1, max and Pmax were measured; in phase 2, V02 was assessed at 50% Pmax for six imposed pedaling rates (30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 rpm) and at a freely chosen rate. ln phase 3, RT and the number of anticipated responses were assessed both at rest and under exercise conditions identical to those of phase 2. The results showed that both V02 and heart rate differed across the pedal frequencies despite matching to provide equal power outputs (P<0.025). When V02 and heart rate were plotted against pedal rate. Each curve could best be described by a parabolic equation and an physiologically optimal point was found for 50rpm. The mean values of V02 observed for the freely chosen rate were not significantly different from those observed for the optimal pedal rate (33.1 vs 32.4 ml kg-1min-1, P >0.05). When compared to the resting condition. RT and the number of anticipated responses increased during exercise; this increase was less marked at the optimal pedaling rate. The RT were identical for the freely-chosen rate and the optimal rate (228 vs 220 msec P>0.05). Although the percentage of anticipated responses was higher for the freely chosen rate. The regression between energy expenditure and RT was very high (r = 0.79. P<0.01). The present study confirms the existence of a physiological optimal pedalling rate for a constant power output on cycloergometer. But the most significant finding in this investigation was the strong positive relationship between VO2 and RT performance. These results are discussed in terms of the general concept of optimization. Focusing particularly on the attentional demands of pedalling at different rates.
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This experiment was performed in the aim of analyzing the influence of physical exertion on decisional processing in sports experts. 40 subjects were involved in the experiment. The first group (N=20) was composed of fencers and fencing masters, the second (N=20) of subjects who practised sport but who had no expertise in decisional sports. The two groups did not differ in physical condition. While pedalling on a cycloergometer at relative powers corresponding to 20, 40, 60 and 80% of their own maximal aerobic power, the subjects had to perform two choice reaction time tasks (2-RT and 4-RT). Performance scores were collected, and for all conditions, subjects were asked to assess the difficulty of the reaction time task. The results showed, for the experts, a monotonic increase in performance, as physical exertion increased. On the contrary, the performances of the non-expert group deteriorated as exertion increased. The error rate remained stable for each group over all conditions. Finally, the experts assessed tasks as more difficult than the non-experts, especially at high levels of exertion. These results showed that the improvement of the experts' performances in decision tasks under high physical exertion was related to an additional resource investment.
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In a review of the literature on the effect of physical exercise on information processing and cognition, the studies were classified according to the intensity and duration of the exercise intervention. The studies were evaluated on the basis of current theories of information processing. Although several studies suggest that exercise produces short-term facilitative effects on mental tasks, the relation remains problematic. It is concluded that inconsistencies among studies are due to the failure of researchers to use a theory-based parametric approach to the issue. (61 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The immediate and short-term after effects of a bout of aerobic exercise on young adults’ information processing were investigated. Seventeen participants performed an auditory two-choice reaction time (RT) task before, during, and after 40 min of ergometer cycling. In a separate session, the same sequence of testing was completed while seated on an ergometer without pedalling. Results indicate that exercise (1) improves the speed of reactions by energizing motor outputs; (2) interacts with the arousing effect of a loud auditory signal suggesting a direct link between arousal and activation; (3) gradually reduces RT and peaks between 15 and 20 min; (4) effects on RT disappear very quickly after exercise cessation; and (5) effects on motor processes cannot be explained by increases in body temperature caused by exercise. Taken together, these results support a selective influence of acute aerobic exercise on motor adjustment stage.
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The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance were examined using meta-analytic techniques. The overall mean effect size was dependent on the timing of cognitive assessment. During exercise, cognitive task performance was impaired by a mean effect of -0.14. However, impairments were only observed during the first 20min of exercise. Otherwise, exercise-induced arousal enhanced performance on tasks that involved rapid decisions and automatized behaviors. Following exercise, cognitive task performance improved by a mean effect of 0.20. Arousal continued to facilitate speeded mental processes and also enhanced memory storage and retrieval. Positive effects were observed following exercise regardless of whether the study protocol was designed to measure the effects of steady-state exercise, fatiguing exercise, or the inverted-U hypothesis. Finally, cognitive performance was affected differentially by exercise mode. Cycling was associated with enhanced performance during and after exercise, whereas treadmill running led to impaired performance during exercise and a small improvement in performance following exercise. These results are indicative of the complex relation between exercise and cognition. Cognitive performance may be enhanced or impaired depending on when it is measured, the type of cognitive task selected, and the type of exercise performed.
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It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of moderate intensity increases both basal as well as the end-exercise [BDNF](p) in young healthy men. This adaptive response, contrariwise to the recent findings in patients with metabolic disorders, was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance.
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To replicate 1986 work of Salmela and Ndoye on whether physical arousal from riding a stationary bicycle led to narrowing of attentional focus 17 subjects responded to a verbal 5-choice RT task while pedalling to exhaustion. Increased heart rates with increased physical stress (bicycle resistance increased) was not associated with narrowing of attention. When heart rates were 160 and 180 bpm, RTs to stimuli peripherally located to the right were slower than central ones. Further evaluation is required.
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exertion (treadmill) on mental performance (matching a comparison design). Nine pairs of monozygotic twins (boys aged 11 to 14 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups, one trained and one untrained, while eight boys of the same age served as a control group. The trained group underwent a specifically designed program lasting six months. The trained and untrained groups performed on the treadmill for 20 min. at a running speed intensity above their individual anaerobic thresholds. Mental performance was evaluated by analysing mean number of correct answers, time taken to reach correct answers (decision time), and wrong answers. A 3 x 2 (group x pre/posttest) analysis of variance with repeated measures on the last factor yielded no significant differences; however, significant pre- versus posttest differences on correct answers and decision times occurred among the exercised groups.
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The level and quality of concentration were tested before and after each lesson in one class session. Two of the four classes participated in physical education activities, and the other two studied science. Each subject matter was studied the beginning and at the end of the school day. The research design was 2 x 2 x 2 factorial (two subject matters, two times of the school day, and as a repeated measure two times of test for each group at the beginning and end of each lesson). The level and the quality of concentration found at the end of each lesson were significantly higher than at the beginning. The subject matters did not influence concentration. It may be concluded that the time of day was the main influence on concentration, so teachers' claims against physical education activity lessons can be rejected. The increase in concentration toward the end of the lesson implies the need for careful lesson planning or even the consideration of increasing duration of lessons.
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The Handbook of Cognition provides a definitive synthesis of the most up-to-date and advanced work in cognitive psychology in a single volume. The editors have gathered together a team of world-leading researchers in specialist areas of the field, both traditional and `hot’ new areas, to present a benchmark - in terms of theoretical insight and advances in methodology - of the discipline. This book contains a thorough overview of the most significant and current research in cognitive psychology that will serve this academic community like no other volume.
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Reaction times (RTs) of vocalization were examined for 20 normal subjects under two conditions, standing and walking. The RT during walking was not related to the phases of walking cycle. The difference in RTs (ΔRT) was obtained by subtracting RT for standing from that of walking. The correlation coefficient between RT for standing and ΔRT was significant and negative. ΔRTs for subjects with fast RT for standing were positive, whereas those with slow RT were negative. Assuming that the arousal level when standing is different between the faster and slower reactors, the probe-RT during walking would reflect not only the extra-attentional demands of walking but also the shift in arousal.
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Recent reviews of the literature have demonstrated that exercise has a positive impact on cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on executive functioning in college-age adults. For the experimental intervention, the effects of 20 min of self-paced moderate-intensity exercise on a treadmill were compared to the effects of a 20-min sedentary control period. Executive functioning was assessed using Stroop color-word interference and negative priming tests. Results indicated that the bout of exercise led to improved performance on the Stroop color-word interference task but no change in performance on the negative priming task. This finding suggests that exercise may facilitate cognitive performance by improving the maintenance of goal-oriented processing in the brain.
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Nearly 200 studies have examined the impact that either acute or long-term exercise has upon cognition. Subsets of these studies have been reviewed using the traditional narrative method, and the common conclusion has been that the results are mixed. Therefore, a more comprehensive review is needed that includes all available studies and that provides a more objective and reproducible review process. Thus, a meta-analytic review was conducted that included all relevant studies with sufficient information for the calculation of effect size (W = 134). The overall effect size was 0.25, suggesting that exercise has a small positive effect on cognition. Examination of the moderator variables indicated that characteristics related to the exercise paradigm, the participants, the cognitive tests, and the quality of the study influence effect size. However, the most important finding was that as experimental rigor decreased, effect size increased. Therefore, more studies need to be conducted that emphasize experimental rigor.
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Two experiments were carried out to examine the effect of moderate and maximal exercise on decision-making performance of college soccer players. In the first experiment decision-making performance on a simple test was compared with that on a complex task. Subjects (N = 10) were tested at rest and while cycling on a cycle ergometer at 70% and 100% of their maximum power output. Accuracy and speed of decision were the dependent variables. Speed of decision improved with exercise intensity. Exercise had no effect on accuracy of decision. In the second experiment, subjects (N = 20) were tested on the complex test only. Group 1 (N = 10) were instructed to answer as quickly and as accurately as possible. Group 2 (N = 10) were told that only accuracy was being measured. In fact both accuracy and speed of decision were used as dependent variables. A main effect for exercise showed that speed of decision at rest was significantly slower than during maximal exercise. There was no effect of exercise on accuracy of decision. It was concluded that exercise induced arousal affected speed of decision, regardless of task complexity or instructional set.
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In this study state-dependent learning in younger and older adults was compared. State was manipulated by having participants rest or exercise for 5 min, followed by exposure to 3 learning trials of a 20-item word list. After a 20-min delay, participants engaged either in the congruent or in the incongruent activity followed by free-recall trial, cued-recall, and recognition tests. Heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report of distress measures verified that the experimental conditions influenced the participants' physiologic state, but the distracter tasks did not. There was no difference in learning that was due to initial exercise condition, but both age groups showed greater recall when state was congruent before learning and delayed recall. This replicates previous research in which consistent state-dependent learning effects in younger adults were found and supports research suggesting that older adults spontaneously use contextual information to facilitate recall. The demonstration of state-dependent learning in older adults is discussed as an example of implicit memory not affected by aging.
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The influence of intermittent exercise on a choice-response time task was investigated. Two groups of 8 male soccer players (M age 20.9, SD=2.0) participated. They spent 4.4 (SD= 1.3) weekly hours on soccer training and had been playing soccer for 13 (SD=3.3) years. Multiple-choice reaction speed and response accuracy were measured four times. Between measurements, one group performed 8-min. blocks of intermittent exercise on a bicycle ergometer and one group rested. Analysis showed that reaction speed and response accuracy were not significantly different between the two groups. Furthermore, there were significant faster reaction times and a larger number of correct reactions through Block 2 in both the exercise and control group (p<.05), probably a result of learning processes and familiarization with the task procedures. Further research towards the specific influence of mode of exercise, intensity, work-rest ratio and duration of intermittent exercise, and the sensitivity of reaction time tasks will be necessary to clarify the relationship between intermittent exercise and cognitive performance.
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Nideffer's theory of attention and interpersonal style is based upon Easterbrook's 1959 postulates that psychological stress has predictable and sequential effects on attention, i.e., loss of attentional flexibility, attentional narrowing, and interiorization. These effects have not yet been demonstrated within a context for physical activity using exercise as the stressor. In the present study, subjects were required to react to a verbal five-choice reaction-time task while pedalling to exhaustion upon a bicycle. It was hypothesized that choice RTs and the number of omitted responses would increase predictably with the addition of the progressive exercise. There were distortions in reactions to progressive exercise. Initially, there was facilitation of performance by exercise for the conditions of rest, and exercise-induced heart rates of 115 beats per minute (bpm) with no differential effects across the attentional field. Between 115 and 145 bpm, there were universal decrements in performance, with diff...
Article
遠隔記憶障害を検出する場合,想起された内容の真実性,再学習の有無,興味や関心の個人差,時間的傾斜の検出の可否が問題となる。社会的なことがらを利用した遠隔記憶検査では興味や関心の個人差が,自伝的なことがらを利用した遠隔記憶検査では想起された内容の真実性が特に問題となる。また,比較的やさしい課題で健常群の天井効果を認める場合,または,比較的難しい課題で健忘群の床効果を認める場合には,時間的傾斜の有無に関して確実なことがいえなくなる。流暢性ベースの遠隔記憶検査は,単位時間内に知人の名前や体験した出来事をできるだけたくさん想起する課題であり,検査の構造上,天井効果が起こりえないために時間的傾斜の問題を考える場合には好都合である。また,内容の異なる遠隔記憶でも流暢性ベースで質問することにより,記憶以外の条件を等しくできる利点もある。コルサコフ症候群において,自伝的記憶流暢性検査の成績は,従来までの自伝的記憶検査の成績と有意な相関を認めており,遠隔記憶検査として有用性が高いと思われた。
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The effect of a physical exercise session on verbal, visuospatial and numerical performance was investigated in 186 men and 188 women, university students who were randomly divided into three experimental and three control groups. All subjects were tested on one of Eysenck's verbal, visuospatial, and numerical ability tests. The experimental groups were examined after a 40-min. intensive exercise session, while controls were tested without any prior fatiguing task. There was no significant difference among the groups, indicating that an intensive physical exercise session does not impair mental performance as measured here.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical activity on memory performance in preadolescents. Fifty-two students aged 11–12 years performed a test involving free-recall of items from a 20-item word list during three separate testing sessions at school. Two sessions directly followed physical education lessons (aerobic circuit training or team games) characterized by similar exercise intensities, but different cognitive and social interaction demands. A third, baseline session was not preceded by any lesson. For each session, the number of items recalled from the whole list and from its primacy and recency portions was recorded twice under conditions of immediate and delayed recall.Immediate recall scores in both primacy and recency portions were higher following the team games than in the baseline session, whereas delayed recall scores in the recency portion were higher after both team game and aerobic training. Results suggest that an acute bout of submaximal exercise, as performed by students during physical education class, may facilitate memory storage. The differential effects of qualitatively unique types of exercise on immediate and delayed recall suggest that memory storage processes may be facilitated not only by exercise-induced increases in physiological arousal, but also by the cognitive activation induced by cognitive exercise demands. Results are discussed highlighting the importance of relationships between acute exercise and memory storage for mental health promotion.
Article
The effects of a constant, sub-maximal workload (60%VO2max) on visual attention were investigated in two experiments by means of a computerised attentional test which was performed both at rest and while cycling. Two main aspects of the attentional performance were considered: the orienting of attention in the peripheral visual space (space-based aspect) and the focusing of attention on global and local features of visual objects (object-based aspect). The space-based aspect was investigated by presenting peripheral cues which predicted the size and position of a following target stimulus. The object-based aspect was investigated by means of compound stimuli (e.g. a global "H" letter composed from local "E" letters) containing the target stimulus either at the global or at the local level. Results show the following effects of the sub-maximal workload: (1) a general facilitation of reaction speed; (2) a specific modulation of attention depending on task demands. With higher task demands (i.e. frequent misleading cues), subjects better succeeded in suppressing the automatic orienting triggered by the misleading cue and in directing attention on task relevant global features of visual objects located elsewhere. Thus, the sub-maximal workload might enhance the flexibility in shifting a broad attentional focus in the visual space.
Article
This study investigated the focusing of visual attention, with and without, a constant submaximal workload (60% VO2max), on a cycloergometer in two experiments. Two main dimensions of attentional focusing were considered: the space/object‐based dimension and the exogenous/endogenous dimension. These dimensions were investigated by means of the following attention task: A cue of varying size was presented centrally and followed, after a variable interval, by a compound letter with global and local features. Participants were required to react to a predefined target letter, which could be either the global form or one of the local elements of the compound letter. Results confirm the effect of reaction time (RT) reduction under submaximal workloads. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the physical load reduces the RT cost, which has to be paid when a misleading cue causes a disadvantageous focusing of attention. This effect of physical load is presumably mediated by increased allocation of attentional resources and enhanced speed of attentional refocusing. This interpretation is discussed both in terms of the type of attentional operations involved (zooming in vs. zooming out) and the type of control exerted on the attentional focusing (exogenous vs. endogenous).