Article

Caffeine Gum and Cycling Performance: A Timing Study.

1Department of Exercise Physiology, 163 Gym Annex, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 USA, Tel: (330) 672-2857
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 04/2012; 27(1). DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182541d03
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to determine the most efficacious time to administer caffeine (CAF) in chewing gum to enhance cycling performance. Eight male cyclists participated in 5 separate laboratory sessions. During the first visit, subjects underwent a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). During the next 4 visits, three pieces of chewing gum were administered at three time points (120 min pre-cycling, 60 min pre-cycling, and 5 min pre-cycling). In three of the four visits, at one of the time points mentioned previously, 300 mg of CAF was administered. During the fourth visit, placebo gum was administered at all 3 time points. The experimental trials were defined as follows: Trial A (-120), Trial B (-60), Trial C (-5), and Trial D (Placebo). Following baseline measurements, time allotted for gum administration, and a standard warm-up, participants cycled at 75% VO2max for 15 min then completed a 7 kj·kg cycling time trial. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Cycling performance was improved in Trial C (-5), but not in Trial A (-120) or Trial B (-60), relative to Trial D (Placebo). Caffeine administered in chewing gum enhanced cycling performance when administered immediately prior, but not when administered 1 or 2 hr prior to cycling.

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Available from: Jacob E Barkley, Jun 17, 2015
    • "Indeed, a study by Paton, Lowe, and Irvine (2010), has reported that chewing caffeinated gum (~3 mg · kg −1 ) allowed trained cyclists to rapidly offset fatigue and maintain exercise intensity during multiple repeated efforts of highintensity sprint activity. Similarly, caffeinated chewing gum has also been shown to enhance longer duration steady state endurance performance with trained cyclists when administered just 5 min immediately prior to exercise (Ryan et al., 2013). Despite the potential advantages of caffeine delivery via chewing gum, there remains little research into its efficacy with trained athletes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This investigation reports the effects of chewing caffeinated gum on race performance with trained cyclists. Twenty competitive cyclists completed two 30-km time trials that included a maximal effort 0.2-km sprint each 10-km. Caffeine (~3-4 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo was administered double-blind via chewing gum at the 10-km point following completion of the first sprint. Measures of power output, oxygen uptake, heart rate, lactate and perceived exertion were taken at set intervals during the time trial. Results indicated no substantial differences in any measured variables between caffeine and placebo conditions during the first 20-km of the time trial. Caffeine gum did however lead to substantial enhancements (mean ± 90% confidence limits (CLs)) in mean power during the final 10-km (3.8% ± 2.3%), and sprint power at 30-km (4.0% ± 3.6%). The increases in performance over the final 10-km were associated with small increases in heart rate and blood lactate (effect size of 0.24 and 0.28, respectively). There were large inter-individual variations in the response to caffeine, and apparent gender related differences in sprint performance. Chewing caffeine gum improves mean and sprint performance power in the final 10-km of a 30-km time trial in male and female cyclists most likely through an increase in nervous system activation.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Sports Sciences
    • "Laboratory visits were conducted on different days (less than 7 days between visits), at the same time of day to ensure that measurements were not affected by circadian variation or the hormonal milieu (Martin, Carpentier, Guissard, van Hoecke, & Duchateau, 1999; Phillips, Sanderson, Birch, Bruce, & Woledge, 1996). For the MVIF measurements, participants were asked to replicate their diet and activity patterns in the 24 h before each laboratory visit, abstain from strenuous exercise and alcohol consumption in the 24 h before each measurement and to refrain from consuming caffeine in the 4 h before each laboratory visit as the ergogenic effects of caffeine are not evident after this time (Ryan et al., 2013). Height (Seca, UK) and body mass (Seca, UK) were measured on the first laboratory visit. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF), cross-sectional area (CSA) and force per unit CSA measures, of the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle, using a custom-built dynamometer and ultrasonography. Twenty-seven participants completed MVIF and CSA measurements on two separate occasions under the same conditions. Reliability was determined using paired samples t-tests, systematic bias ratio and ratio limits of agreement (RLoA), intra-class correlation (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV). MVIF of the FDI muscle (mean ± s; 31.8 ± 7.6 N and 31.6 ± 7.3 N) was not different between trials (P = 0.63); RLoA between trials were 1.00 ×/÷ 1.09, ICC = 0.990 and CV = 3.22%. CSA of the FDI muscle (22.6 ± 6.9 and 22.9 ± 6.9 mm(2)) was also not different between trials (P = 0.31); RLoA between trials were 0.98 ×/÷ 1.19, ICC = 0.979 and CV = 6.61%. Force per unit CSA was not different between trials (1.49 ± 0.43 and 1.46 ± 0.44 N·mm(2); P = 0.18), RLoA were 1.02 ×/÷ 1.17, ICC = 0.985 and CV = 5.76%. The techniques used to determine MVIF and CSA of the FDI muscle were reliable and can be combined to calculate force per unit CSA.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Sports Sciences
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    • "Indeed, a study by Paton, Lowe, and Irvine (2010), has reported that chewing caffeinated gum (~3 mg · kg −1 ) allowed trained cyclists to rapidly offset fatigue and maintain exercise intensity during multiple repeated efforts of highintensity sprint activity. Similarly, caffeinated chewing gum has also been shown to enhance longer duration steady state endurance performance with trained cyclists when administered just 5 min immediately prior to exercise (Ryan et al., 2013). Despite the potential advantages of caffeine delivery via chewing gum, there remains little research into its efficacy with trained athletes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This investigation reports the effects of chewing caffeinated gum on race performance with trained cyclists. Twenty competitive cyclists completed two 30-km time trials that included a maximal effort 0.2-km sprint each 10-km. Caffeine (~3-4 mg · kg(-1)) or placebo was administered double-blind via chewing gum at the 10-km point following completion of the first sprint. Measures of power output, oxygen uptake, heart rate, lactate and perceived exertion were taken at set intervals during the time trial. Results indicated no substantial differences in any measured variables between caffeine and placebo conditions during the first 20-km of the time trial. Caffeine gum did however lead to substantial enhancements (mean ± 90% confidence limits (CLs)) in mean power during the final 10-km (3.8% ± 2.3%), and sprint power at 30-km (4.0% ± 3.6%). The increases in performance over the final 10-km were associated with small increases in heart rate and blood lactate (effect size of 0.24 and 0.28, respectively). There were large inter-individual variations in the response to caffeine, and apparent gender related differences in sprint performance. Chewing caffeine gum improves mean and sprint performance power in the final 10-km of a 30-km time trial in male and female cyclists most likely through an increase in nervous system activation.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Sports Sciences
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