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Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cynara cardunculus extracts

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Abstract

The whole, fresh involucral bracts of cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L. (Compositae), were extracted with EtOH and an aqueous suspension of the obtained EtOH extract was partitioned successively with CHCl3, EtOAc and n-BuOH, leaving a residual water extract. All obtained extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using following in vitro methods: FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay, and scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Antimicrobial activity was estimated using a microdilution technique against food-borne, mycotoxin producers and human pathogenic bacteria and micromycetes. The following bacteria were tested: Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, as well as micromycetes: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium funiculosum, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium tricinctum and Alternaria alternata. Results showed that all extracts possessed concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. In biological assays, C. cardunculus extracts showed antimicrobial activity comparable with standard antibiotics.

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... Quercetin is a powerful antioxidant with a high scavenging capacity for DPPH free radicals [45]. Apigenin and luteolin, as well as their glycosides, have been seen to be potent antioxidants in other research [46]. The antioxidant activities of luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside, have previously been reported against DPPH free radical scavenging [46,47]. ...
... Apigenin and luteolin, as well as their glycosides, have been seen to be potent antioxidants in other research [46]. The antioxidant activities of luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside, have previously been reported against DPPH free radical scavenging [46,47]. ...
... In comparison with other species of Cynara spp., Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, S. epidermidis, and E. coli were all found to have antibacterial properties in C. cardunculus. On the other hand, C. scolymus showed antimicrobial effect against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and C. albicans [46,49]. Table 4. DIZ values of the two extracts of C. humilis. ...
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In Morocco, Cynara humilis L. is used in traditional medicine. The objective of this research was to research the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of hydroethanolic extracts from the C. humilis plant’s leaves and roots. The content of polyphenols and flavonoids was evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu’s and aluminum chloride assays. Two techniques were used to evaluate antioxidant properties: antioxidant capacity in total (TAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH). In antimicrobial assays, five pathogenic microbial strains were studied including two Escherichia coli, one coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and one Candida albicans, by two techniques: agar disk diffusion and microdilution. Leaves had a greater content of flavonoids 27.07 mg QE/g of extract and the polyphenols 38.84 mg GAE/g of extract than root 24.39 mg QE/g of extract and 29.39 mg GAE/g of extract, respectively. The TAC test value of the 0.77 mg AAE/g extract in the leaf extract was found to be significantly greater than that of the 0.60 mg EAA/g extract in the root extract. The DPPH antioxidant assay IC50 values of the root and leaf extract were 0.23 and 0.93 µg/mL, respectively. C. humilis extracts showed an antimicrobial effect against all tested strains, the inhibitory zone (DIZ) have values in the range between 12 and 15 mm. Moreover, the root extract showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against coagulase-negative Staphylococcus with an IC50 value of 6.25 mg/mL. The higher content of flavonoids and polyphenols in the hydroethanolic extracts of C. humilis leaves and roots demonstrates that they have a significant antimicrobial and antioxidant effect, as found in this study.
... Where, Abs control expresses the absorbance of the control and Abs sample is the absorbance of the sample. To compare the radical scavenging power of the essential oils, IC 50 , which represents an effective concentration of the samples with a 50% inhibitory capacity of DPPH was used (Kukic et al., 2008). ...
... Phenolic compounds have an important antioxidant role as a good barrier against oxidative reactions. As shown by many studies, there was a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and phenolics content of natural resources (plants) (Kukic et al., 2008;Nanasombat and Wimuttigosol, 2011;Zeljkovi c et al., 2017;Tohidi et al., 2017). Sriti et al. (2011) reported that the DPPH scavenging ability of Canadian and Tunisian coriander seeds essential oil were 60000 and 61000 μg/mL, respectively. ...
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Coriander seeds essential oil is used in food preparation, perfume, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In this study, extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds was done by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) methods. Chemical composition, total phenol contents, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of essential oils were measured and the results were compared between HD and MAHD methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the essential oils had inhibitory effect on the bacterial membrane and cell wall. Results showed that total phenol contents and antioxidant activity increased under heat and microwave conditions. Coriander seeds essential oil had a very strong effect on Candida albicans. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of coriander seeds than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil extracted by MAHD showed better antimicrobial activity, higher phenols yield and antioxidant activity. According to the results of GC-MS, linalool was the most common constituent of both essential oils.
... They have been used to produce biomass for energy; and oil for human consumption, biodiesel, and animal feed [14,15]. The leaves are used in traditional medicine due to their high content in bioactive compounds such as cynarin and silymarin [2,4,[14][15][16][17][18][19]. Moreover, the cultivation of cardoon in large areas is gaining interest as feedstock for novel industrial bio-based products (e.g., conversion into biopolymers or as a source of cellulose for nanometric technological applications) [20,21]. ...
... Nonetheless, more studies are needed for a better evaluation of the potential antimicrobial activities of cardoon leaves. Kukíc et al. [17] studied the antifungal activities of C. cardunculus involucral bract extracts, which showed potential antifungal activities. This may suggest that cardoon leaves may have antifungal activities too. ...
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Cardoon, Cynara cardunculus L., is a perennial plant whose flowers are used as vegetal rennet in cheese making. Cardoon is native from the Mediterranean area and is commonly used in the preparation of salads and soup dishes. Nowadays, cardoon is also being exploited for the production of energy, generating large amount of wastes, mainly leaves. These wastes are rich in bioactive compounds with important health benefits. The aim of this review is to highlight the main properties of cardoon leaves according to the current research and to explore its potential uses in different sectors, namely the food industry. Cardoon leaves are recognized to have potential health benefits. In fact, some studies indicated that cardoon leaves could have diuretic, hepato-protective, choleretic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-carcinogenic, and antibacterial properties. Most of these properties are due to excellent polyphenol profiles, with interesting antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. These findings indicate that cardoon leaves can have new potential uses in different sectors, such as cosmetics and the food industry; in particular, they can be used for the preparation of extracts to incorporate into active food packaging. In the future, these new uses of cardoon leaves will allow for zero waste of this crop.
... For turnip leaves, our results were consistent with those presented by Aires et al. (2011) with EC 50 values of 1.32 mg/mL in water extracts from turnip leaves and roots from Portugal. Regarding wild cardoon, our results showed better antioxidant activity for DPPH scavenging activity assay, than the ethanolic extracts of (96% v/v) of the leaf blade of cardoon from Slovenia, reported by Kukić et al. (2008), that presented higher EC 50 values (EC 50 values = 0.157 mg/mL), and therefore a poorer antioxidant activity. However, the opposite was observed for the infusion preparations were the EC 50 values from the Slovenian plants were lower for DPPH scavenging activity (EC 50 values = 0.173 mg/mL). ...
... However for wild cardoon, previous studies reported good antibacterial activity in other parts of wild cardoon, thus also bio-wastes (Dias et al., 2018). Kukić et al. (2008) reported lower MIC values in the hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of fresh involucre bracts of cardoon from Bratislava against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (1.0 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/ mL, respectively); however is important to state that the bacteria strains used were ATCC, which present a lower resistance profile when compared to the ones studied herein (clinical isolates with high resistance profile). ...
Article
The recovery of bio-wastes to obtain high added value compounds is of great interest for the pharmaceutical, medicinal and food industries. Therefore, the aerial parts of turnip (Brassica rapa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and leaf blade of wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori) were characterized regarding their nutritional composition, as also their content in soluble sugars, organic acids, fatty acids, and tocopherols. Furthermore, their hydroethanolic extracts and infusion preparations, were profiled regarding individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS and their antioxidant, antibacterial and hepatotoxic activities were evaluated. Regarding the nutritional content, wild cardoon revealed the best results, however it was radish and turnip that showed higher values for organic acids and phenolic compounds. The hydroethanolic extract and infusion preparation of wild cardoon stood out for its antioxidant and antibacterial activity. Overall, the hydroethanolic extracts seemed more effective (regarding antioxidant and antibacterial activity) than the infusions. Total phenolic acids proved to be strongly correlated with the antioxidant and antibacterial (against Morganella morganii) activities. This study showed that the discarded parts of these plants can be used as an important natural source of valuable nutrient content and new and safe bioactive compounds, beneficial for human health. Moreover, the extraction of those compounds from underused parts of turnip, radish and cardoon could be used to preserve foods, avoiding artificial additives and thus, contributing to the development of new natural ingredients.
... Bergamot polyphenols do not seem to have a choleretic effect. Wild cardoon also possess anti-inflammatory proprieties (16)(17)(18). ...
... Cynaropicrin has potent suppressive effects on TNF-α (17). In addition, wild cardoon recovers other biologically active compounds, such as caffeoylquinic acids, luteolin, and apigenin derivatives, all of which have potential important effects on human health (17,18). ...
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Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the world. However, no effective pharmacological treatment for this condition has been found. Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of a nutraceutical containing bioactive components from Bergamot citrus and wild cardoon as a treatment for individuals with fatty liver disease. The primary outcome measure was the change in liver fat content. Methods: A total of 102 patients with liver steatosis were enrolled in a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. The intervention group received a nutraceutical containing a Bergamot polyphenol fraction and Cynara Cardunculus extract, 300 mg/day for 12 weeks. The control group received a placebo daily. Liver fat content, by transient elastography, serum transaminases, lipids and glucose were measured at the baseline and the end of the study. Results: We found a greater liver fat content reduction in the participants taking the nutraceutical rather than placebo (−48.2 ± 39 vs. −26.9 ± 43 dB/m, p = 0.02); The percentage CAP score reduction was statistically significant in those with android obesity, overweight/obesity as well as in women. However, after adjustment for weight change, the percentage CAP score reduction was statistically significant only in those over 50 years (44 vs. 78% in placebo and nutraceutical, respectively, p = 0.007). Conclusions: This specific nutraceutical containing bioactive components from Bergamot and wild cardoon reduced the liver fat content during 12 weeks in individuals with liver steatosis over 50 years. If confirmed, this nutraceutical could become the cornerstone treatment of patients affected by liver steatosis. Clinical Trial Registration: www.isrctn.com, identifier ISRCTN12833814.
... Several of these molecules have some interesting biological activity without its sugar molecule. For example, apigenin, a chemical compound of the family of flavones, a subclass of flavonoids, has been studied for its multiple biological activities such as anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties (Akroum, Bendjeddou, Satta, & Lalaoui, 2009;Basile, Giordano, López-Sáez, & Cobianchi, 1999;Funakoshi-Tago, Nakamura, Tago, Mashino, & Kasahara, 2011;Kukić et al., 2008). The apigenin-6-glucoside and apigenin diglucoside were identified in our methanol extract (Table 3). ...
... The apigenin-6-glucoside and apigenin diglucoside were identified in our methanol extract (Table 3). In few articles, only some glycosylated molecules have also demonstrated antimicrobial activity, for example, apigenin-7-glucoside in Kukić et al. (2008) as well as kaempferol-3-O-glucoside in Akroum et al. (2009). Therefore, we cannot exclude the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the antimicrobial activity of the extracts, despite their association to a sugar moiety. ...
Article
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Extracts from white birch have been reported to possess antimicrobial properties, but no study has linked the chemical composition of bark extract with antimicrobial activity. This study aimed to identify white birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) bark extracts with antimicrobial activity and elucidate its composition. In order to obtain the highest extraction yield, bark residues >3 mm were retained for extraction. A total of 10 extraction solvents were used to determine the extraction yield of each of them. Methanol and ethanol solvents extracted a greater proportion of molecules. When tested on eight microorganism species, the water extract proved to have the best antimicrobial potential followed by the methanol extract. The water extract inhibited all microorganisms at low concentration with minimal inhibitory concentration between 0.83 and 1.67 mg/ml. Using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to a time‐of‐flight quadrupole mass spectrometer, several molecules that have already been studied for their antimicrobial properties were identified in water and methanol extracts. Catechol was identified as one of the dominant components in white birch bark water extract, and its antimicrobial activity has already been demonstrated, suggesting that catechol could be one of the main components contributing to the antimicrobial activity of this extract. Thus, extractives from forestry wastes have potential for new applications to valorize these residues. We have shown that several extracts of white birch bark residues display natural antimicrobial activity. Among them, the water extract followed by the methanol extract proved to have the best antimicrobial potential. For the first time, extracts were characterized using ultrahigh‐performance liquid chromatography‐quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry, which led to the identification of several molecules including catechol, predominant in the water extract, which is known to have antimicrobial activity.
... The total antioxidant potential of the extract was determined using the plasma ferric reduction ability (FRAP) according to Kukić et al. (2008). The results were expressed as μmol Fe 2+ mg −1 sample. ...
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Salicylic Acid (SA) is a plant hormone that stimulates the growth and metabolism of plants, also acting as an abiotic elicitor. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SA on leaf production, leaf area and synthesis of secondary compounds in yarrow plants. The experiments were conducted under field conditions in two consecutive years and received SA foliar applications (T1 - control; T2 - 1.0 mmol L-1 applications at 20, 60 and 100 days after planting (DAP) and T3 - 1.0 mmol L-1 applications at 100 DAP during three days). The exogenous application of SA resulted in increases in leaf area (total and specific), number of leaves and leaf mass ratio of yarrow plants, polyphenolic compounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase enzymes and the antioxidant activity of the plant extract. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of phenolic compounds revealed increases in the amounts of quinic acid and rutin. The results of this research lead us to affirm that SA exerted both the hormonal effect on number of leaves and leaf area, and also acted as eliciting substance.
... In a previous study, we studied the bioactive properties of cardoon heads also analyzed in the present work and despite the antioxidant capacity associated with tocopherols, the anticipation that the sample Car B with the highest tocopherols content would show the greater antioxidant activity was not verified. This fact suggests that other classes of compounds, such as phenolic compounds, could be also related to the demonstrated antioxidant potential [19], while Kukić et al. [44] suggested that β-sitosterol possessed a strong antioxidant capacity in extracts obtained from cardoon bracts. Despite that, the highest content of α-tocopherol in this sample could be associated with the highest content in PUFAs (see Table 2) highlighting the protective effects of tocopherols against lipid peroxidation [45,46]. ...
Article
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Cardoon is a multi-purpose crop with several industrial applications, while the heads (capitula) are edible and commonly used in various dishes of the Mediterranean diet. Several reports in the literature study the chemical composition of the various plants parts (leaves, flower stalks, bracts, seeds) aiming to industrial applications of crop bio-waste, whereas for the heads, most of the studies are limited to the chemical composition and bioactive properties at the edible stage. In the present study, cardoon heads were collected at six different maturation stages and their chemical composition was evaluated in order to determine the effect of harvesting stage and examine the potential of alternative uses in the food and nutraceutical industries. Lipidic fraction and the content in fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, and free sugars were determined. Lipidic content decreases with the maturation process, while 22 fatty acids were detected in total, with palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids being those with the highest abundance depending on harvesting time. In particular, immature heads have a higher abundance in saturated fatty acids (SFA), whereas the samples of mature heads were the richest in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The α-tocopherol was the only isoform detected being present in higher amounts in sample Car B (619 µg/100 g dw). Oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids were the detected organic acids, and the higher content was observed in sample Car E (15.7 g/100 g dw). The detected sugars were fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and raffinose, while the highest content (7.4 g/100 g dw) was recorded in sample Car C. In conclusion, the maturation stage of cardoon heads influences their chemical composition and harvesting time could be a useful means to increase the quality and the added value of the final product by introducing this material in the food and nutraceutical industries.
... Since seed bank and soil microorganisms are affected by the same soil physical, chemical, and biological characteristics (e.g., soil texture, structure, pH, O 2 and CO 2 content, etc.), it is reasonable to assert that changes in the seed bank are correlated to changes in the microbial community (Chee-Sanford et al. 2006). The antimicrobial activity of C. cardunculus leaf extracts is well documented in literature (Kukić et al. 2008;El Sohaimy 2014). Caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids are the chemical compounds involved in its antimicrobial activity (Scavo et al. 2019b). ...
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Weeds are one of the most important pests in agroecosystems, causing considerable economic losses on the production. The widespread use of herbicides during the last decades has led to an increased search for more environmentally sustainable methods for weed management. The manipulation of allelopathic interactions between crops and weeds, such as the introduction of an allelopathic species within a crop rotation, represents a valid alternative. In a multidisciplinary approach, we evaluated the effects resulting from three consecutive years of cultivation, in two different areas, with the three botanical varieties of Cynara cardunculus L. (globe artichoke, cultivated and wild cardoon), compared with a classic Mediterranean wheat/faba bean rotation and an olive grove, on the quali/quantitative weed soil seed bank and the changes in the eubacterial communities. Furthermore, the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic leaf extracts of cultivated cardoon against three bacteria involved in the soil N-cycle was investigated. In both areas, C. cardunculus caused a significant reduction (from − 34 to − 50%) on the amount of weed seeds in all treatments compared to controls; in some cases, a reduction of the number of weed species was observed. On one hand, the presence of cultivated cardoon had a negative influence towards Bacillus subtilis, while on the other, a positive one towards the beneficial soil bacteria Pseudomonas putida and Azospirillum brasilense. Moreover, methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts from cultivated cardoon showed an inhibitory activity on B. lichenoformis, while there were no negative effects on Rhizobium leguminosarum and Sinorhizobium meliloti, two important bacteria involved in biological N 2 fixation. These results confirmed, for the first time, the field allelopathic activity of C. cardunculus in monoculture and the possibility of introducing it within a crop rotation as an indirect method for a chemical-free weed seed bank control while respecting soil eubacterial communities.
... Luteolin phenolic compound was also found in two varieties of artichoke in leaves and heads. Pandino et al. (2013) and Kukic et al. (2008) reported that, luteolin are of interest since they show antimicrobial activity and inhibit cholesterol synthesis. ...
... Regarding the phenolic content according to the part of the plant, some authors reported it to be higher in the heart and inner bracts of artichoke [4,8,10,18,24], while others described the non-edible parts of the plant (outer bracts, leaves and stems) as being more enriched in polyphenolic compounds [6,7,38,39]. The variety of the vegetable and time of harvesting are also important factors to take into account [1,5,10] when comparing results from previous studies, mainly conducted on Mediterranean varieties. ...
Article
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Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is considered one of the most significant sources of phenolic antioxidants in nature. However, more than 60% of its total volume is discarded for consumption purposes, making available an abundant, inexpensive and profitable source of natural antioxidants in the discarded fractions. Polyphenolic antioxidants from a South American variety of artichoke agro-industrial discards (external bracts and stems) were obtained by mild extraction processes. Best results were achieved at 40 °C, 75% of ethanol and 10 min of reaction, obtaining 2.16 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and 55,472.34 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g of antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses determined that caffeoylquinic acids comprise up to 85% of the total polyphenolic content, and only around 5% are flavonoids. Inulin content in the artichokes residues was recovered (48.4% dry weight (dw)), resulting in an extract with 28% of inulin in addition to the aforementioned antioxidant capacity. The artichoke discard extract in a concentration of 500 mg/L produced a strong decrease in Caco-2 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines viability, whereas healthy fibroblasts maintained their viability when the extract was concentrated at 1500 mg/L. These results suggest that the artichoke extract presents a good anti-proliferative potential effect on Caco-2 and MCF-7 cells.
... Fungal growth and luteolin degradation were similar at luteolin concentrations up to 200 mg L -1 ; however, at luteolin concentrations greater than 200 mg L -1 , both fungal growth and the ratio of luteolin degradation significantly decreased, suggesting that the maximum luteolin concentration in culture that could be effectively degraded by this fungus was 200 mg L -1 . It was reported that 100 mg L -1 of luteolin completely inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium ochrochloron, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium tricinctum and Alternaria alternate (Kukić et al. 2008). In this study, strain B3 grew well in 200 mg L -1 of luteolin. ...
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Phytoestrogens are plant-derived hormonally active compounds known to cause varied reproductive , immunosuppressive and behavioral effects in vertebrates. In this study, biodegradation of luteolin, a common phytoestrogen, was investigated during incubation with endophytic fungus Phomopsis liq-uidambari. The optimum concentration of luteolin as sole carbon source supplied in culture was 200 mg L-1 , which allowed 97 and 99 % degradation of luteolin by P. liquidambari in liquid culture and soil conditions, respectively. The investigation of the fungal metabolic pathway showed that luteolin was first decomposed to caffeic acid and phloroglucinol. These intermediate products were degraded to protocatechuic acid and hydroxyquinol, respectively, and then rings were opened by ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Two novel genes encoding the protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase were successfully cloned. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that expression levels of mRNA of these two genes increased significantly after P. liquidambari was induced by the intermediate products caffeic acid and phloroglucinol, respectively. These results revealed that P. liquidambari can biode-grade luteolin efficiently and could potentially be used to bioremediate phytoestrogen contamination.
... Therefore, the source of the antimicrobial activities of M. calabura leaves is suspected to be one or both of these compounds, which bear similarities to 3,11,13-triacetylcynaratriol or hexaborane-12. Cynara cardunculus produces a sesquiterpene lactone, named cynaratriol, and this plant has been reported to possess antimicrobial properties (Kukić et al., 2008). As opposed to cynaratriol, hexaborane is a compound with no antibacterial effects (Gnanadeebam and Viswanathan, 2014). ...
Article
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the bacteria that triggers nosocomial diseases. Bacterial resistance requires continuous exploration of active antimicrobial substances from various sources, including medicinal plants. Leaves of cherry (Muntingia calabura L.) reportedly contain three classes of compounds, namely, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. This research was designed to identify active antimicrobial substances in cherry leaves that could inhibit the growth of MRSA. It employed the Kirby-Bauer test to examine the antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts of Muntingia calabura L. (EMC) against MRSA. Through GC-MS, active substances were detected from the presence of active spots on TLC plates, as determined by direct-contact bioautography. The TLC used silica gel F254 as the stationary phase and chloroform:ethyl acetate (9:1) as the mobile phase. The antimicrobial activity test results showed that the zone of inhibition of 10% w/v EMC was 10.91±0.75 mm in diameter. At 5% w/v and 2.5% w/v, EMC created zones of inhibition with diameters of 8.5±0.25 mm and 7.25±0.25 mm, respectively. Meanwhile, at 1.25% w/v, it showed no inhibitory activities. Based on the TLC-Bioautography profile, the active spot that produced zones of inhibition was located at Rf 0.04 mm. The GC-MS analysis of this spot detected the presence of two compounds: the first compound had a similarity index of 35% with 3,11,13-triacetycynaratriol, and the second one had a similarity index of 80% with hexaborane-12. Cynaratriol is known to posses antimicrobial activity, whereas hexaborane is the opposite. In conclusion, the minimum inhibitory concentration of EMC for MRSA is 2.5% w/v. Also, the active compounds of EMC bear 35% similarities to 3,11,13-triacetycynaratriol.
... The FRAP was determined by Kukic et al. (2008). The FRAP reagent was obtained mixing 25 mL of acetate buffer 0.3 M, 2.5 mL of 10 mM TPTZ ((2.4.6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine), and 2.5 mL of an aqueous solution of 20 mM ferric chloride. ...
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The aim of this study was to characterize spray-dried and lyophilized powders made from winery by-products and to evaluate their effect on the oxidative stability of chicken pâté. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity, and microencapsulation efficiency were evaluated in the extracts. Two pâté formulations containing grape pomace lyophilized (GPWL) and grape pomace microencapsulated (GPWM) were produced. In addition, a sodium erythorbate and a control batch were used to compare the effects. The pâtés were evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay during refrigerated storage (4 °C/42 days). Although the microencapsulation efficiency was 90.03%, the GPWL was statistically more effective in the lipid oxidation inhibition in chicken pâté than GPWM. However, the addition of both natural antioxidants in chicken pâté resulted in lower TBARS values than pâté treated with synthetic antioxidant due to the presence of gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, coumaric acid and trans-resveratrol with high antioxidant activity. Thus, the bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity detected in the GPWL and GPWM opened possibilities for use as a potential ingredient in chicken pâté and other meat products.
... The FRAP was determined by Kukic et al. (2008). The FRAP reagent was obtained mixing 25 mL of acetate buffer 0.3 M, 2.5 mL of 10 mM TPTZ ((2.4.6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine), and 2.5 mL of an aqueous solution of 20 mM ferric chloride. ...
Preprint
This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities (AA) of lyophilized rosemary extract and lyophilized sage extract and their effects on the oxidative stability of poultry pátê. For this purpose, four poultry pátê formulations with rosemary, sage, sodium erythorbate, and a control (without antioxidants) were produced. The rosemary and sage were characterized according to total phenolic compounds (TPC), and AA by several methods. The poultry pátês stored at 4°C were evaluated by the lipid oxidation. High concentrations of TPC were detected in rosemary extract and sage extract (46.48 and 41.61 mg GAE/g: Gallic acid equivalent respectively). The AA of rosemary and sage extracts by free radical-scavenging were 4745.72 and 2462.82 µmol Trolox/g, respectively. The high concentration of catechin, rutin, myricetin and p-coumaric acids in these extracts may be responsible for the strong inhibitory action against food pathogens. Besides these compounds can be responsible for the best performance in inhibiting lipid oxidation in poultry pátês during the storage. This study suggests that rosemary and sage extracts may be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products.
... The DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity of the leaves was estimated by the method of Kukic et al. (2008) with some modifications . The antioxidant activity was determined as the percentage of DPPH scavenging through discoloration by the following equation: (A Control -A Sample ) / A Control × 100. ...
Article
The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of exogenous application of 1 mM Jasmonic acid (JA), an endogenous plant growth regulator, on mitigation of oxidative and osmotic stresses caused by various levels of NaCl: none (0 mM), light (50 mM), moderate (150 mM), and severe (300 mM) in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seedlings. Salt stress without any change in leaf water content negatively affected seedlings growth from the aspect of plant height, root length, leaf morphological properties, plant biomass and levels of pigments, reducing sugars, starch, proteins and free amino acids, but accumulated higher levels of non-reducing sugars, total phenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, proline and increased activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). JA-treated seedlings exhibited a significant increase in growth parameters and activities of APX and PPX under salt stress, with hyper-accumulation of metabolite levels, but accumulated lower amounts of dry matter in roots and decreased the activity of PPO. These results clearly showed that exogenous JA treatment protected roselle seedlings against salt-induced damage through up-regulating the activity of H2O2-decomposing enzymes, osmoprotectants biosynthesis, and the accumulation of metabolites.
... Only an extract from leaves was tested for antimicrobial activity, showing growth inhibition of S. aureus and E. coli. Kukić et al. (2008) also showed the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of cardoon leave extracts. Besides their strong antioxidant activity, the cardoon inflorescences showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains, the lowest MIC being observed for L. monocytogenes . ...
Article
Plants have been traditionnally used for centuries in cheese manufacturing, either for their aromatic properties or as technological auxiliaries (e.g. milk-clotting enzyme preparations, cheese wrappers). Some of these plants are known to have antimicrobial and / or antioxidant properties and could also act as natural preservatives for raw milk and derived dairy products. This review examined the traditional uses of plants in dairy processing, and then focuses on known antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of their extracts (e.g. maceration, decoction, essential oil). Known effects of theses plants on technological flora (starter cultures and microorganisms implicated in cheese ripening) were also summarized, and the potential for plant extracts used in combination with hurdle technologies was explored. Then, legal restriction and bioactivity variations from a culture media to a food matrix was reviewed: non-toxic bioactive molecules found in plants, extract preparation modes suitable with foodgrade processing restrictions, the role of the food matrix as a hindrance to the efficiency of bioactive compounds, and a review of food legislation. Finally, some commercial plant extracts for milk preservation were discussed. Keywords: raw milk; cheese; plants; plant extracts; natural preservatives
... Many studies have been conducted about artichokeboth C. scolymus L. and C. cardunculusextracts. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities (Kukic et al. (2008)), phenolic composition of plant parts (Ramos et al. (2014)), ultrasound assisted polyphenol extraction (Saleh et al. (2016)), antiparasitic and hepatoprotective properties were reported (EL-Deen et al. (2017)). ...
... The pure aglycone, luteolin, have demonstrated an efficacy similar to artichoke extract in inhibiting lipid peroxidation; luteolin-7-O-glucoside, have demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of LDL oxidation; copper chelating properties of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin have suggest a potential role for chelation in the antioxidative effects of artichoke extract (Brown & Rice-Evans 1998). Chrysoeriol have shown the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in low density lipoprotein induced by -Evans et al 1996), and antimutagenic activity in S. typhimurium TA98 (Kukić et al 2008). ...
... The antimicrobial activity of heterocyclic compound studied by turbidometric assay (42)(43)(44)(45) ...
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A facile and green protocol has been developed for the synthesis of 2- arylbenzothiazole derivatives in high to excellent yields using ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN) as an acidic ionic liquid and their use as dual solvent-catalysts at room temperature. The Synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungus (Candida albicans). The antioxidant activities of these compounds were determined by DPPH scavenging activity. The key advantages of this protocol are high yields, short reaction times, mild reaction condition, eco-friendly, easy workup, no need of purification of products by chromatographic method and reusability of the catalyst.
... Phenolic compounds were dominated by chlorogenic acid, followed by cynarine and caffeic acid, which is notably different than in the methanol extracts studied by Wang et al. [46]. Kukić et al. [48] analyzed the total phenolic content in five extracts (including water extract) obtained from the involucral bracts of C. cardunculus. As much as 4600 mg CAE/ 100 g DM was measured in the water extract; however, the highest content of total polyphenols was found in n-BuOH extract and amounted to 6200 CAE/100 g DM (Table 4). ...
... Phenolic compounds were dominated by chlorogenic acid, followed by cynarine and caffeic acid, which is notably different than in the methanol extracts studied by Wang et al. [46]. Kukić et al. [48] analyzed the total phenolic content in five extracts (including water extract) obtained from the involucral bracts of C. cardunculus. As much as 4600 mg CAE/ 100 g DM was measured in the water extract; however, the highest content of total polyphenols was found in n-BuOH extract and amounted to 6200 CAE/100 g DM (Table 4). ...
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In this study, leaf extracts from the Green Globe cultivar of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), a herbaceous plant of the Asteraceae family, were analyzed to determine the levels of basic nutrients, selected macroelements (K, P, Ca, Mg, and Na) and microelements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Cd, and Ni), and their ratios. The antioxidant activity (aa) of the extract was evaluated using ABTS˙⁺ and DPPH˙⁺ radicals and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (III) (FRAP). Total polyphenolic content was also determined. Macroelement concentrations in the artichoke leaf extract can be presented in descending order as follows: K > P > Ca > Mg > Na. Microelement content in the extract was as follows: Zn > Fe > Cr > Mn. We determined the ratios of elements in artichoke leaf extracts and compared them against the recommended dietary allowance, adequate intake, or tolerable upper intake level. Mean total phenolic content in artichoke leaf extracts was high – 2795 mg CAE/100 g dry matter (DM). The ABTS˙⁺ assay showed a very high ability of artichoke extract to scavenge free radicals (79.74%), and the antioxidant capacity measured at 1060.8 Trolox/1 g DM. The results show that artichoke extract is a valuable source of minerals and antioxidants that could have applications in the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases caused by oxidative damage.
... C. cardunculus L. is a good source of components beneficial to health, such as polyphenols, which play a relevant role in its pharmacological properties [6,7]. The leaves are recognized in traditional medicine for their therapeutic potential as a diuretic, cardiotonic, antidiabetic, antihemorrhoidal, and antimicrobial agent, among others [1,[8][9][10]. Additionally, it has been used throughout animal studies, demonstrating its pharmacological properties, namely its anti-inflammatory effect. ...
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Background: Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) is a plant generally associated as an ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The polyphenols present in this plant provide pharmacological and nutritional properties. C. cardunculus L. has been used throughout animal studies, which demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Since there is not a known cure, the research of new possible pharmacological approaches is essential. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract of C. cardunculus L. dry leaves in a 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. Methods: CD-1 mice with TNBS-induced colitis received an intraperitoneal (IP) administration of C. cardunculus L. once per day for 4 days. Results: The C. cardunculus L. demonstrated a beneficial effect in this experimental model of IBD with anti-inflammatory action through the reduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. It also demonstrated a beneficial influence on the extra-intestinal manifestations related to IBD, with the absence of significant side effects of its use. Conclusions: The extract of C. cardunculus L. dry leaves can become an interesting tool for new possible pharmacological approaches in the management of IBD.
... For example, CGA has been described as a bioactive molecule against obesity, diabetes, cancer, and for its role in cardio and neuro-protection [25]. Moreover, cardoon extracts have potential in the prevention of hepatic and cardiac oxidative stresses [26,27], and they have been studied for their anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities related to the presence of flavonoids [24,28]. Therefore, the recovery of such nutraceuticals would be impactful for their possible downstream uses. ...
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Towards a Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis)-Based Abstract: Cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis L.) is a promising candidate species for the development of plant cell cultures suitable for large-scale biomass production and recovery of nutraceuticals. We set up a protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, which can be used for the improvement of cardoon cell cultures in a frame of biorefinery. As high lignin content determines lower saccharification yields for the biomass, we opted for a biotechnological approach, with the purpose of reducing lignin content; we generated transgenic lines overexpressing the Arabidopsis thaliana MYB4 transcription factor, a known repressor of lignin/flavonoid biosynthesis. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization, including metabolic and transcriptomic analyses of AtMYB4 overexpression cardoon lines, in comparison to wild type, underlining favorable traits for their use in biorefinery. Among these, the improved accessibility of the lignocellulosic biomass to degrading enzymes due to depletion of lignin content, the unexpected increased growth rates, and the valuable nutraceutical profiles, in particular for hydroxycinnamic/caffeoylquinic and fatty acids profiles.
... The dried powder of olive leave (10 g) was extracted in triplicate, using EtOH (96% v/v) at room temperature, under stirring. The aqueous suspension of the concentrated EtOH extract was evaporated to dryness and used for all investigations (Kukic et al. 2008). ...
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Background: Olive leaves are of great interest, especially in traditional medicine. The polyphenols contained in olive leaves play an important role in this respect, as they have anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Olive leaves share phenolic compounds with other plants, but they also contain phenolic compounds belonging to the Oleaceae family. Methods: We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by HPLC and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhimurium. Result: The results reveal that the olive leaves may constitute a good source of antimicrobial agents. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of five phenolic compounds: oleuropein, ascorbic acid, rutin, catechinand verbascoside and for the first time ascorbic acid. At low concentrations, olive leaf extracts showed an unusual antibacterial action, which suggests their great potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic compounds.
... The aerial parts of the plant were already extensively studied regarding their phenolic composition and showed to be variable depending on the maturation stage, parts collected and genotype (Dias et al. 2018;Ramos et al. 2014). C. cardunculus extracts already showed distinct biological activities such as antimicrobial (Kukić et al. 2008), antiproliferative (Ramos et al., 2017), antioxidant and anti-inflammatory (Ben Salem et al. 2017). ...
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Plants are important sources of chemical compounds with various applications. These are usually associated with the secondary metabolism of plants which is tightly linked to the interactions with the surrounding environment. These compounds usually accumulate in low amounts, sometimes leading to the overexploitation of the source plant. Hence, development of alternative platforms for the production of these compounds represents a more sustainable solution. Among such platforms, hairy roots (HR) cultures are often used for their ability to produce the same secondary metabolites as the original plant. Cynara cardunculus L. or cardoon has been used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Distinct parts of the plant have been studied and found to produce secondary metabolites with health promoting properties. In this work, HR cultures from cardoon were characterized regarding their secondary metabolites production and potential biological activities. Methanolic extracts contained compounds that belong, almost exclusively, to the hydroxycinnamic acid group. These extracts showed maximum total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of 46 mg GAE/g DW and 98 μmolTE/g DW, respectively, at day 35 of the growth curve. This extract also showed antiproliferative activity on colorectal cancer cells (EC50 1.16 ± 0.07 mg/mL). This work demonstrates the potential of cardoon HR as alternative sources for valuable hydroxycinnamic acid compounds with important biological activities.
... Its phytoconstituents are diverse in chemical patterns and in pharmacodynamic effects. Cynarin, chlorogenic acid, and anthocyanins are antioxidants (Kukić et al. 2008;Mehmetçik et al. 2008). Flavonoids (e.g., luteolin and its 7-O-glucoside) and caffeoylquinic acids derivatives (e.g., cynarin) are hepatoprotectives (Adzet et al. 1987;Gebhardt and Fausel 1997;Mehmetçik et al. 2008). ...
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In vitro culture of Cynara cardunculus subsp. scolymus was induced from bracts and leaves, using different phytohormone combinations. The most suitable one was 1-naphthaleneacetic acid: 6-benzylaminopurine (NAA-BAP), 3:1 mg/L. Modification of different phytohormone combinations altered the profile of C. cardunculus subsp. scolymus secondary metabolites as revealed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Rutin was recorded at 1.77 mg/g DW in leaf callus (not detected in leaves). After addition of 100 µM of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as elicitor, 1.20 mg/g DW of cynarin was recorded in bract-derived callus and 1.18 mg/g DW in leaf-derived callus (not detected in leaves and bracts). Leaf callus enriched with NAA-BAP (3:1 mg/L) showed more elevated levels of rutin, cynarin, cynaropicrin, and pinoresinol (1.43, 1.2, 1.14, and 1.48 mg/g DW, respectively) as compared to the cultivated artichoke (0.0, 0.0, 0.40, and 0.0 mg/g DW, respectively). Moreover, elicitation of this callus by addition of 50 µM MeJA elevated luteolin, quercetin, cynarin, and chlorogenic acid levels relative to the initial callus. Higher Total Phenolics Content (TPC) was recorded in leaf and bract calluses (106 ± 2.69 and 55.19 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g DW, respectively) compared to leaves and bracts of cultivated plants (69.04 ± 0.05 and 19.42 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g DW, respectively).
... The mixture was stirred and kept at room temperature in a dark place for 30 min. Then, the absorbance of the samples was recorded at 517 nm and the percentage of DPPH scavenging was computed according to the method described by Kukić et al. (2008). Afterwards, the radical inhibitory activity was expressed based on the amount of the extract required for initial reduction of DPPH at 50% (half-maximal inhibitory concentration; IC 50 ). ...
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Barberry fruit (BF) has a long history as a folk remedy due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cholagogic properties. This study was performed to determine the dietary effect of BF extract on serum and skin mucus immune parameters, antioxidant status, and stress-selected gene expression in Siberian sturgeon. One hundred and fifty fish (30 ± 1 g initial weight) were fed with different levels of BF extract including 0 (control), 150, 300, 600, and 750 mg kg⁻¹ for 8-week. After the feeding trial, the counts of white blood cells and lymphocytes were increased in BF-added groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The highest levels of serum complement component 4, lysozyme activity, and alternative complement were obtained in 750 mg kg⁻¹ BF extract treatment (P < 0.05). The highest activities of protease, alkaline phosphatase, and esterase were obtained in the skin mucus samples of the fish fed with 750 mg kg⁻¹ BF extract (P < 0.05). The group fed diets supplemented with 600 and 750 mg kg⁻¹ BF extract showed the highest mucus lysozyme activity (P < 0.05). The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were increased in fish treated with different levels of BF extract (P < 0.05), while malondialdehyde content was decreased in BF-added groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Heat shock protein and cytochrome P450 mRNA expressions were lowest in the 750 mg kg⁻¹ BF extract treatment group, while the highest levels of both genes were found in the control group (P < 0.05). The results showed marked improved antibacterial capacity of Siberian sturgeon fed dietary BF against Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Lactococcus garvieae. This study unveiled the promising results of dietary BF extract, especially at 750 mg kg⁻¹, in the regulation of immune and antioxidant defense systems along with the stress responses in Siberian sturgeon.
... From past to present, there are plenty of studies conducted that different Cynara cardunculus L. species and their parts (stalk, leaf, flower, etc.) have several various phenolic compounds [80][81][82][83][84][85]. These phenolic compounds have many properties such as antioxidant activity, health-promoting benefits, and nutritional values [85,[91][92][93][94][95][96]. All organs of the Cynara cardunculus L. contain these compounds, mostly in leaves and seeds [97]. ...
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In this paper, the regions where Cynara cardunculus L. is cultivated in Turkey are revealed, with data obtained from several locations in Turkey. Furthermore, the installation of active biogas plants in these regions has been identified, and the utilization of Cynara cardunculus L. residues as a biomass source, particularly in Izmir biogas plants, has been investigated. To begin, the amount of Cynara cardunculus L. cultivated in the world and Turkey has been determined. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)’s recent data for 2019, approximately 1.6 million tons of Cynara cardunculus L. were produced globally, with Turkey accounting for nearly 2.5% of this quantity. The data from the Biomass Energy Potential Map for Turkey (BEPA) was reviewed, and it was calculated that approximately 40 thousand tons of Cynara cardunculus L. are produced in Turkey each year. Furthermore, the agricultural production of this crop in Turkey generates roughly 225 thousand tons of residues. In comparison to other regions, the Izmir region generates 32.5% of Turkey’s Cynara cardunculus L. residues. However, no research on the evaluation of this residue potential and the utilization of Cynara cardunculus L. residues in biogas production has been conducted to date. As a result, it was aimed at the residual potential of Cynara cardunculus L. in various regions of Turkey, as well as its potential utilization as a biomass resource for biogas plants in these areas. It has been calculated that 1.65% of the Izmir population could supply its energy demands by utilizing the energy equivalent of the Izmir region’s wastes.
... Additionally, the anti-obesity effect of chlorogenic acid was reported in mice [105]. Furthermore, several reports also showed further biological potential of artichoke and cardoon extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, such as antimicrobial [106][107][108][109], anti-inflammatory [110], and antitumor properties [111,112]. ...
Article
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Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is a Mediterranean plant and member of the Asteraceae family that includes three botanical taxa, the wild perennial cardoon (C. cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori), globe artichoke (C. cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. Fiori), and domesticated cardoon (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC.). Cardoon has been widely used in the Mediterranean diet and folk medicine since ancient times. Today, cardoon is recognized as a plant with great industrial potential and is considered as a functional food, with important nutritional value, being an interesting source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, minerals, inulin, fiber, and sesquiterpene lactones. These bioactive compounds have been vastly described in the literature, exhibiting a wide range of beneficial effects, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, lipid-lowering, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antihemorrhoidal, cardiotonic, and choleretic activity. In this review, an overview of the cardoon nutritional and phytochemical composition, as well as its biological potential, is provided, highlighting the main therapeutic effects of the different parts of the cardoon plant on metabolic disorders, specifically associated with hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and antidiabetic activity.
... 26 beta-Sitosterol accounted for roughly 2 wt % from DCM extracts of studied hybrids, and this sterol possesses pharmaceutical effects in inhibiting the growth ofEscherichia colibacteria. 27 These insights here suggest us to utilize these lipophilic extracts as potential agents for antibacterial uses. The hypothesis was that lipophilic substances present at inner bark can be extracted using DCM, and those suberin-derived lipophilic components located within the macromolecule matrix of outer bark require harsh conditions to liberate their monomers out. ...
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Although extractives have been symbolized as major bioactive pharmacological compounds fromSalix(Salicaceae) bark, we speculated that these pharmaceutical effects cannot be solely attributed to phenolic components and their derivatives, but the long-chain suberin acids also contribute to their therapeutic effects. Hence, isolation and deconstruction of suberin were conducted, for the first time, to enrich our knowledge about the macromolecular components at the cell wall of willow bark. Saponification was adopted to obtain suberin extracts at a yield of approximately 5 wt % based on the bark of the studied hybrids. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry allowed qualification and quantification of 23 compounds from the released suberin monomers, from which fatty acids represented majority of the isolated suberin, namely, fatty acid methyl esters (C17–C19); mono-carboxylic acid (C7–C16); alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acid (C7–C16); and omega-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids (C16–C22). Additionally, the lipophilic extractive was dominated by piceol, heptacosane, β-sitosterol, and fatty acids (C16–C28) from the studied hybrids. These findings could boost our integrative approach toward full valorization of willow bark.
... Based on the obtained results, it should be concluded that in S 2 and S 3 , with average rainfall (394 and 243 mm, respectively, from May to September), irrigation of plants every 7 and 14 days increased the apigenin content and decreased the luteolin content. Although many factors determine the content of phenolic compounds (variety, harvest date, part of the plant, conservation of the raw material, extraction technique), our results are consistent with those obtained in previous studies (Kukić et al., 2008;Lombardo et al., 2012, Nouraei et al., 2018. ...
Article
Globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus (L.) Fiori] is a proven source of nutraceutical compounds with high bioavailability. However, different pre- and post-harvest variables may affect plant secondary metabolism. In this view, the present study investigated the influence of irrigation frequency and drying temperature on the yield of dry leaf biomass and its pharmacological value in terms of polyphenol content. The field treatments included three irrigation frequencies (7, 14 and 21-day intervals) with a single dose of 10 mm water, and control (not irrigated). Artichoke biomass leaves were collected from 120-day plants and dehydrated using different air temperatures (30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C). The samples were analyzed for polyphenolic compounds by HPLC method. Antioxidant activity was also studied by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Irrigation frequency significantly influenced the yield of dry leaf biomass with a greater increase in the case of irrigation frequency every 7 and 14 days than every 21 days. The content of caffeoylquinic acids (TCQA) was higher under soil water deficit conditions than in the raw material obtained from plants irrigated with different frequencies. The drought stress caused by the lack of additional irrigation increased the content of chlorogenic and ferulic acids in the biomass leaves. Higher drying temperatures (40 and 50 °C) increased the content of cynarine by 100% and 132% and ferulic acid by 100% and 172%, respectively, compared to biomass leaves dried at 30 °C. Irrigation frequency influenced the content of flavonoids, and frequency every 7 and 14 days than 21 days reduced apigenin and increased luteolin content. A high correlation between the content of TCQA and the frequency of irrigation and drying temperature was reported.
Chapter
Fruit and vegetables are processed for economical and logistical reasons in order to improve their commercial shelf‐life and digestibility, in accordance with the consumer habits of each country or to facilitate the consumption by special groups. Fruit and vegetables share beneficial health effects due to both bioactive compounds present in their composition although they differ widely in the nature and ratio of them. The distribution and type of flavonoids and other bioactive compounds in the onions strongly depend on the cultivar, the agronomic practices, environmental characteristics, and the layer of the onion. The stabilization of the by‐products before subjecting them to extraction is a critical phase that requires the study of the most suitable conditions to prevent the degradation of bioactive compounds. Vegetable waste and by‐products has been demonstrated to be a good source of valuable biomolecules that has been associated with health‐promoting properties in humans.
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Cardoon is a multi‐purpose and versatile Mediterranean crop, adapted to climate change, with a wide spectrum of potential applications due its added value as a rich source of fibers, oils and bioactive compounds. The Cynara species are a component of the Mediterranean diet and have been used as food and medicine since ancient times. The important role of cardoon in human nutrition, as a functional food, is due to its high content of nutraceutical and bioactive compounds such as oligofructose inulin, caffeoylquinic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, sesquiterpenes lactones, triterpenes, fatty acids and aspartic proteases. The present review highlights the characteristics and functions of cardoon biomass which permits the development of innovative products in food and nutrition, pharmaceutics and cosmetics, plant protection and biocides, oils and energy, lignocellulose materials, and healthcare industries following the actual trends of a circular economy.
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Fruit and vegetable wastes derived from the agri-food industry are generated in large amounts and they can cause great environmental contamination because they have a high moisture content and microbial load. However, both their structural parts (stems, leaves, peels, pulps, seeds, and roots) and the residues resulting after the extraction of their juices are rich in different valuable compounds such as antioxidants, oils, fiber, fatty acids, isoprenoids, lipids, proteins, saponins, and phytoestrogens. Such bioactive compounds can be used as pharmaceutical exci-pients, food additives, or included in pharmaceutical formulations or food matrices for obtaining nutra-ceutical products and functional foods, respectively. The aim of this review is to present the most promising alternatives for the valorization of selected fruit and vegetable wastes, currently underexploited, as well as the challenges that may arise when considering the valorization of these wastes in the form of value-added bioactive products. This is exemplified through the revision of the opportunities offered by artichoke, cardoon, asparagus, and pomegranate, which generate large amounts of waste during their processing. A final section is devoted to present the emerging technologies that are being developed for an efficient extraction of bioactive compounds from vegetable matrices.
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عنصر روی (Zn2+) یکی از عناصر کم‌مصرف ضروری برای رشد گیاهان است. در پژوهش حاضر، اثر غلظت‌‌های مختلف روی بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی گیاه ریحان (Ocimum basilicum L.) بررسی شد. گیاهچه‌های ریحان در فواصل زمانی 3 روزه و برای مدت 30 روز در معرض غلظت‌‌های صفر، 50، 100، 200، 400 و 800 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر روی قرار گرفتند. میزان رشد ریشه و بخش‌های هوایی، تعداد برگ در هر بوته، سطح برگ، میزان رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی، قندها و پروتئین‌های محلول کل، ترکیبات فنلی، ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی گیاه و محتوای عناصر معدنی روی و پتاسیم بر اثر تیمار تا غلظت 200 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر روی به‌طور معنی‌دار افزایش یافتند. محتوای آهن و کلسیم گیاه متناسب با افزایش غلظت روی به‌شدت کاهش یافت؛ ولی میزان منیزیم تغییر نکرد. نتایج بیان‌کنندة نقش دوگانة روی با غلظت بهینة 200 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر بودند و در غلظت‌های بیشتر یا کمتر میزان رشد، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی و میزان ترکیبات فنلی کاهش یافتند؛ درحالی‌که تجمع قندها و پروتئین‌های محلول کل همگام با افزایش غلظت روی رخ داد. به‌هرحال کاهش این مقادیر در بیشترین غلظت روی به مقدار شاهد نرسید و بیشتر از آن بود که نشان می‌دهد گیاه ریحان مقاومت بسیار زیاد نسبت به تنش فلز روی دارد و با تجمع نسبی روی در خود با رشد در نواحی آلوده به این عنصر نقش مؤثری در تغذیة روی در انسان دارد. نتایج حاصل نشان‌دهندة نقش مهم روی در محافظت از گیاه ریحان در برابر رادیکال‌های آزاد اکسیژن هستند.
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Nowadays, the transformation activity of the food industry results in the generation of a huge amount of daily discarded vegetables wastes. One of those undervalued by-products are produced during the post-harvesting and processing process of artichokes. In the present research, the potential of artichokes’ bracts and stalks have been evaluated as a natural source of phenolic compounds which could be used as bioactive food ingredients, among others. In this study, the bioactive composition of those wastes has been evaluated using recent advances in extraction and analytical technologies, concretely, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray time-of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) analysis. To achieve this goal, first, the extraction process was evaluated by a comparative study using GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) solvents (mixtures of ethanol and water) at different temperatures (40–200◦C). The second step was to deeply characterize the composition of individual polyphenols by HPLC-ESI-TOF/MS in order to establish a comparison among the different PLE conditions applied to extract the phenolic fraction. The analysis revealed a wide variety of phenolic-composition, mainly phenolic acids and flavonoids. The results also highlighted that high percentages of ethanol and medium-high temperatures pointed out to be useful PLE conditions for recovering this kind of phytochemicals, which could be used in different applications, such as functional food ingredients, cosmetics, or nutraceuticals.
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In the present investigation fresh leaf sheaths of locally cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) populations and artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L.) edible sprouts from northern and central Italy were analysed for their total and individual phenolic content. Twelve phenolic compounds, belonging to monocaffeoylquinic, dicaffeoylquinic, and dicaffeoyl-succinylquinic acids were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantified by HPLC-diode array detection (DAD). A significant variability was assessed within cardoon accessions cultivated in the same region, with total phenolic content in the range 20,835-27,051, 11,268-31,937, 11,911-30,016, 8853-34,961, 8794-22,628 mg kg⁻¹ of dry matter (DM) in artichoke sprouts, and cardoon stalks from Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Piedmont, and Marche, respectively. Four cardoon samples, one from Emilia-Romagna (Cardo di Cervia), one from Tuscany (Cardo di Lucca), and two from Piedmont (Cardo Gobbo di Nizza Monferrato), showed a total phenolic content higher than 30,000 mg kg⁻¹ DM. The present investigation represents a first contribution to characterise for their phenolic composition Italian cardoon and artichoke populations that still play an important role in local economy and are highly appreciated for their sensory properties.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana has been widely used in Brazilian popular medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Aerial parts are used as an infusion to treat arthrosis and arthritis, to relieve rheumatic and stomach pains, and intestinal disorders due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic anti-nociceptive, digestive and hepatoprotective properties. Aim of the study This study aimed to characterize the of M. albicans (Sw.) Triana fruits extract (MAFRE) chemical profile and to evaluate its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, as well as its toxicity. Materials and Methods Maceration with methanol as liquid extractor was used to prepare MAFRE. M. albicans (Sw.) Triana fruits chemical composition was characterized by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MSand GC-FID (fatty acid methyl esters composition from lyophilized fruits). MAFRE antioxidant potential was evaluated in vitro using a combination of assays: Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, DPPH• and ABTS radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). In vitro antiproliferative activity was investigated in four human tumor cell lines (U251, 786-0, HT29 and MDA-MB-231) while the effect on the non-tumor cell viability was assessed in the VERO cell line using the on-step MTT assay. In addition, in vivo anti-inflammatory effect was assessed by Croton oil-induced ear edema in mice followed by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity evaluation. Results Thirty-five compounds were identified by UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Among it flavonoids derived from quercetin (8), myricetin (1), kaempferol (2), terpenoids (6) and other compounds (18).GC-FID analysis identified and quantified nine fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, elaidic, oleic, eicosenoic, and linoleic acids. The most abundant fatty acids were polyunsaturated fatty acids (5.33 ± 0.17 mg g⁻¹), followed by saturated fatty acids (2.38 ± 0.07 mg g⁻¹) and monounsaturated fatty acids (1.74 ± 0.09 mg g⁻¹). The extract revealed high content of phenolic compounds (43.68 ± 0.50 mg GAE/g of extract), potent antioxidant, and ferrous chelating capacities. Morever, it proved to be non-toxic to the Vero Cells, not affecting cells viability (95% of viable cells). No antiproliferative effect against human tumor cell lines were found. Furthermore, MAFRE significantly (p<0.05) reduced ear edema (≈35%) and MPO activity (84.5%) having a statistical effect similar to traditional steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusions Taken together, the results evidenced that M. albicans fruit extract has antioxidant properties, a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, fatty acids, and also topical anti-inflammatory activity with low toxicity of extract on VERO cells. Through the ethnomedicinal study, these findings supporting the popular use of M. albicans, but also highlight that not only aerial parts and leaves deserve attention, but the fruits also have anti-inflammatory proprieties and can be a source of phenolic compounds and other substances with potential health benefices.
Article
The lipophilic composition of Allium triquetrum L. bulbs, flowers and leaves was studied for the first time, by GC-MS. Sixty-two compounds were firstly identified in A. triquetrum L. Fatty acids represented the major lipophilics in the studied extracts, with (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic and (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acids as the major constituents of this family. A long chain aliphatic ketone, namely hentriacontan-16-one, was mainly found in flowers and leaves. Flowers and leaves showed also to be rich in, respectively long chain aliphatic alkanes and alcohols. Sterols, monoglycerides, aromatic compounds and long chain aliphatic aldehydes were found at lower amounts. The antibacterial activity of A. triquetrum bulbs, flowers and leaves extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth was in vitro assessed. Bulbs and flowers extracts showed significant MRSA growth inhibition Overall, these valuable findings can contribute for the valorization of A. triquetrum L., as a source of added-value phytochemicals, specifically antibacterial agents and/or toward nutraceutical applications
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In the present investigation, a mild, efficient and simple procedure has been developed for the synthesis of xanthene derivatives is described via three component condensation of aromatic aldehydes with β- naphthol or dimedone or mixture of β-naphthol and dimedone using Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, triphenyl(propyl-3-sulphonyl)phosphonium toluene-sulfonate under solvent-free conditions. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and fungus (Candida albicans). The antioxidant activities of these compounds were determined by DPPH scavenging free radical method. Present methodology has a number of advantages such as mild reaction condition, inexpensive catalyst, stable at room temperature and it was also found that this catalyst might be recovered quantitatively and reused without much loss of catalytic activity.
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Cynara cardunculus subsp. cardunculus, belonging to Asteraceae family, and widely distributed in the Mediterranean area, exhibits high nutraceutical and nutritional potential, as compared to the cultivated varieties. This work reports, for the first time, on genetic and metabolic characteristics of three natural populations of C. cardunculus present in the Pollino National Park (Calabria, Italy), referred to as wild cardoons, collected in different areas (Castrovillari, Trebisacce and Sibari). One wild and one cultivated sardinian genotypes were also analysed as comparison. Six nuSSRs markers, were used to assess population structure and diversity. The obtained results showed that all three populations genetically diverge from the cultivated one and cluster with sardinian wild populations. Moreover, PCoA and Bayesian clustering analyses evidenced that Trebisacce and Sibari populations were closer to each other compared to Castrovillari one. HPLC analysis, also revealed a metabolic profile particularly rich in phenolic acids for Sibari population which also exhibited the highest capacity to protect linoleic acid from peroxidation. To long-term, these results could be useful to preserve biodiversity and promote ecotypes with major nutraceutical proprieties.
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Cardoon meal is a by-product of oil extraction from the seeds of Cynara cardunculus and can serve as a novel alternative feedstuff for ruminants. This study examined the rumen fermentation, biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FA) and microbial community in lambs fed a concentrate diet containing 15% dehydrated lucerne (CON, n = 8) or cardoon meal (CMD, n = 7) for 75 days preslaughter. Diets did not influence rumen fermentation characteristics and the abundance of bacteria, methanogens, fungi, or protozoa. Rumen digesta in CMD-fed lambs displayed a higher concentration of total saturated FA and lower total odd- and branched-chain FA and monounsaturated FA. Feeding CMD decreased total trans-18:1 isomer and the ratio of trans-10 to trans-11 C18:1, known as the “trans-10 shift”. Amplicon sequencing indicated that the rumen bacterial community in CMD-fed lambs had lower diversity and a higher relative phyla abundance of Proteobacteria at the expense of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres. At the genus level, CMD mediated specific shifts from Prevotella, Alloprevotella, Solobacterium and Fibrobacter to Ruminobacter, suggesting that these genera may play important roles in biohydrogenation. Overall, these results demonstrate that cardoon meal can be used as a feedstuff for ruminants without negatively affecting rumen fermentation and microbiota but its impact on biohydrogenation may influence the FA composition in meat or milk.
Article
Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus), an herbaceous perennial plant able to grow with high productivity in dry and hot regions, as well as in unproductive soils, was used as a biomass source for the production of both bioactive compounds derived from leaves and proteins extracted from seeds. Naviglio® technology was found as an efficient method to obtain a cardoon leaf extract (CLE) characterized by high phenol content and oxygen scavenging activity. On the other hand, cardoon proteins (CPs) were demonstrated to give rise to handleable greenish films endowed with promising mechanical and barrier properties in the presence of glycerol used as plasticizer. Hence, the CLE was used to functionalize the films that were further characterized. Film microstructure observed by SEM revealed a good compatibility among CPs and CLE, showing a uniform distribution of the leaf extract components throughout the film network that reflected, in turn, an improvement in the mechanical and barrier properties of the obtained material. In addition, the CLE containing films exhibited higher hydrophobicity, as indicated by the contact angle measurement and by the evaluation of water solubility and swelling degree experiments. Finally, CLE-containing films showed a marked antioxidant activity, highlighting the potential of Cynara cardunculus to be exploited as a biorefinery where different low-value renewable biomass materials are turned in several higher value bio-based products.
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Hesperidin hydrolysates (HHS) was produced by the hydrolysis of hesperidin (HDN) in previous studies. The potential components in HHS were identified by LC-MS, and minor components (MCS) in HHS were isolated. Antioxidant activities by radical-scavenging capacities, reducing capacity and β-carotene-linoleate assay, anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production of RAW 264.7 cells, and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of HDN, HHS, MCS and henperetin (HTN) were investigatedin present study. HHS showed higher radical scavenging activities, higher reducing capacity, and higher inhibitory activity in the β-carotene-linoleate assay than HDN. HHS inhibited the production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines of RAW 264.7 cells more strongly than HDN. HHS also intensively inhibited α-glucosidase activity whereas HDN showed little activity. In addition, the effects of MCS on above activities showed it play a synergistic part with HTN. This work suggested that hydrolyzation of HDN enhance the activities, and provided valuable information on effective utilization of HDN.
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The aim of this study is to explore the chemical composition and potentiality (such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and antidiabetic substances) of Cynara cornigera L. shoot system extract harvested from the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Methanolic extract of C.cornigera shoot system displayed no antibacterial effect on all tested microorganisms. Although the methanolic extract possessed a significant radical scavenging activity for TPC, TFC, DPPH˙, ferric reducing capacity, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum assay, it did not show any antidiabetic activity. In addition, no essential oil was determined in the chemical composition of the extract. These results indicated that the presence of antioxidant substances of shoot system extract of C. cornigera can be effective against harmful effects of free radicals. Due to this property, its use in human nutrition in Northern Cyprus becomes even more important.
Article
Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were tested for dried MeOH extracts of Hieracium calophyllum (CAL), H. coloriscapum (COL), H. pseudoschenkii (PSE), H. valdepilosum (VAL) and H. glabratum (GLA) herbs (flowering aerial parts), their 2 sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) 8‐epiixerisamine A and crepiside E, and dried CH2Cl2 extract of H. scheppigianum (SCH) herb. In microdilution test, extracts showed activity on all tested microorganisms (8 bacteria, 10 fungi). The best effect was exhibited by SCH and CAL on Salmonella Typhimurium (MIC=1.7−2.5 mg/mL MBC=3.4−5.0 mg/mL), and SCH and VAL on Candida albicans (MIC=2.5 mg/mL MFC=5.0 mg/mL). SLs showed notable effect on all tested fungi Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium funiculosum, C. albicans and C. krusei (MIC=0.15−0.4 mg/mL MFC=0.3−0.8 mg/mL). In MTT test, extracts inhibited growth of all tested cancer cells (HeLa, LS174 and A549), with the best effect on HeLa (IC50=148.1 μg/mL for SCH, and 152.3−303.2 μg/mL for MeOH extracts); both SLs were active against HeLa cells (IC50=46.2 µg/mL for crepiside E and 103.8 µg/mL for 8‐epiixerisamine A). Extracts and SLs showed good safety profile on normal MRC‐5 cells.
Article
Background: The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the raisins may reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black seeded raisin consumption on blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in hyperlipidemic patients. Methods: Thirty-eight hyperlipidemic patients aged 41.05 ± 10.4 years were recruited to this two-armed, randomized, controlled intervention trial. Participants were instructed to consume 90 g per day black seed raisin in the intervention group, and control group received no intervention. BP, lipid profile, and plasma levels of TAC, MDA, hs-CRP, and FBS were determined at baseline and week 5. Results: After 5 weeks, the diastolic BP reduced significantly in raisin group compared with baseline (81.80 ± 10.22 vs 77.05 ± 11.03, P = 0.001) and TAC was significantly increased in raisin group compared with the control group (394 ± 116.93 vs 479 ± 122.31, P = 0.001). The serum level of MDA in the raisin group was significantly lower compared with the control group (1.35 ± 0.88 vs 1.39 ± 0.67, P = 0.039). No significant changes were found in lipid profile, SBP, hs-CRP, and FBS. Conclusion: These results suggest that consumption of black raisin which is rich in polyphenolic compounds has beneficial effects on some cardiovascular risk factors especially blood pressure and serum antioxidant capacity in patients with hyperlipidemia. Trial registration: Trial registration number: IRCT2015091624049N1. This study was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT). URL of trial registry record: https://www.irct.ir/trial/20395.
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Globe artichoke extracts are rich in bioactive ingredients that use in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. The present work was focused on determination of phenolic profile, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activity of Globe artichoke bracts and receptacles ethanolic extracts. Bracts and receptacles ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive extraction method. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were determined followed by quantification the phenolic profile using HPLC. Also, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer properties were evaluated. The bracts ethanolic extract exhibit higher total phenolic and flavonoid (56.3 and 755.4 μg mL⁻¹, respectively) than receptacles extract. Thirteen phenolic compounds were found in bracts extract and catechin was the major (16.04 mg mL⁻¹), while eight compounds were found in receptacle extract. Bracts and receptacles ethanolic extracts showed antibacterial activity against 7 species of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with MIC values ranged from 0.08 to 0.77 mg mL⁻¹ and antifungal activity against 8 species of mycotoxigenic fungi with MIC values 0.87–4.16 mg mL⁻¹. Globe artichoke bracts extract showed strong antioxidant activity including DPPH (6.42 μg mL⁻¹), ABTS (32.7 μg mL⁻¹) and FRAP (209.1 μmol mL⁻¹), comparing to receptacles extract which had 28.2, 39.24 μg mL⁻¹ and 493.9 μmol ml⁻¹ with DPPH, ABTS and FRAP, respectively. Similar trends were observed against cancer cell lines, bracts extract had higher activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (0.514 and 0.847 mg mL⁻¹, respectively) than receptacles (0.661 and 0.1.724 mg mL⁻¹, respectively), while both extracts have not activity against HCT116 cell lines. Globe artichoke bracts and receptacles had sufficient amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents and showed antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activities which could be one of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications pillars.
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Flavonoids, commonly occurring antioxidants in foods, have been compared in a dose-response manner with vitamins C and E and beta-carotene and found to be powerful antioxidants using an in vitro lipoprotein oxidation model. This model simulates the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, which results in atherosclerosis. Of the flavonoids and flavonoid-related compounds, flavonols found in tea are the most powerful natural antioxidants. These results provide a mechanism for the beneficial epidemiological effect of dietary flavonoids on heart disease.
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The antioxidant activities and total phenolics of 28 plant products, including sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, wheat germ, buckwheat, and several fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants were determined. The total phenolic content, determined according to the Folin−Ciocalteu method, varied from 169 to 10548 mg/100 g of dry product. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract evaluated according to the β-carotene bleaching method expressed as AOX (Δ log A470/min), AA (percent inhibition relative to control), ORR (oxidation rate ratio), and AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient) ranged from 0.05, 53.7, 0.009, and 51.7 to 0.26, 99.1, 0.46, and 969.3, respectively. The correlation coefficient between total phenolics and antioxidative activities was statistically significant. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; phenolics; medicinal plants; oilseeds; buckwheat; vegetables; fruits; wheat products
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A method is presented which, for the first time, enables preparations to be tested cost-effectively and on a large scale to determine their fungicidal effect. A possible residual effect of the preparation on the fungi during the incubation period is prevented by completely washing out any traces of preparations that are nearly insoluble in water from the fungal suspension by means of a cell harvester and using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as the solvent. With its automated procedure, the method enables antimycotics to be tested in 8 or 12 concentrations with reproducible results. Despite the capital investment that is necessary, the new method is much more cost-effective than the original methods because the personnel involved per test compound can be considerably reduced.
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Endothelial dysfunction, which is more often observed in conduit arteries such as the aorta, carotid, femoral, and brachial arteries, is largely due to alterations in cellular signal transduction initiated by an escalating cycle of damage triggered by oxidative stress. This phenomenon is exacerbated in the elderly, where a progressive loss of vascular endothelial function and concurrent loss of vasomotor control is frequent. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the wild artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) is able to increase the production of the vasorelaxant factor nitric oxide by cultured aortic endothelial cells. We now extended that study to verify (1) the vasorelaxant potential of C. cardunculus on isolated rat aortic rings and (2) whether the vasomodulating properties of C. cardunculus are maintained in vivo, after administration to aged rats. The results demonstrate that the wild artichoke and its main components, namely, luteolin and apigenin, improve aortic relaxation when added to the incubation bath. Moreover, the feeding of wild artichoke [10 mg (kg of polyphenols)(-1) day(-1)] to aged rats significantly restores proper vasomotion, to a degree similar to that observed in young animals. This study provides further justification to the advice to consume wild greens as part of a balanced diet and suggests that close attention should be paid to the diet of the elderly, because it can effectively modulate important parameters of cardiovascular risk.
Conference Paper
The antibacterial activity of the dichloromethanic and ethanolic extracts of Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) was investigated. Dichloromethanic extracts, in concentrations of 5mg/ml, completely inhibited the growth with a bactericidal effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis. Five different components with antimicrobial activity were identified.
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The present work was carried out to evaluate the polyphenolic composition of the fresh alcoholic extract of Cynara scolymus var. spinoso sardo. Three different methods were used: HPLC/UV, direct spectrophotometric at 330 nm and spectrophotometric with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (770 nm). The antioxidant properties were evaluated by determining its ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) free radical and by measuring the induction period of soybean oil in its presence or in its absence. The activity was compared with that of the same extract after lyophilization, with standard polyphenols either isolated or mixed (in conformity with artichoke composition) and with synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). There was a considerable quantity of polyphenols in the fresh extract of Cynara scolymus L. var. spinoso sardo and their antioxidant activity in both of the tests used was comparable with BHA and chlorogenic acid activity.
Chapter
This chapter presents the general cultural concepts related to fungal culture media. Agar is made in many countries, some of which are self-supporting in production or are nearly so. The type of seaweed from which agar is produced is different in every country. Agars of different origin differ considerably in chemical composition and also to a greater or lesser extent in gelling capacity, melting point, hardness (percentage needed for a certain set), and viscosity. The differences depend on the type of seaweed used. Most countries use mixtures comprised of proportions of different species, the time of harvesting (condition of the weed), and the weather conditions of each individual year on which the growth of the weed will depend. Differences also arise in processing, which entail cleaning, weather bleaching, pounding, boiling, blending, acidification during boiling, addition of previous boilings, chemical bleaching, straining, setting, alternate freezing and thawing, and drying. The selection of a satisfactory medium for stimulating growth and sporulation of a particular fungus can only be found by test. A few general principles that may guide ones choice are also presented.
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Cynara cardunculus is a diploid (2n=2x=34) species, native to the Mediterranean basin, which belongs to the family of Asteraceae. It includes globe artichoke, cultivated cardoon, as well as their progenitor wild cardoon. The species is a source of biophenols and its leaf extracts have been widely used in herbal medicine as hepatoprotectors and choleretics since ancient times. Globe artichoke leaves have been found to be rich in compounds originating from the metabolism of phenylpropanoids however, to our knowledge, the leaf polyphenolic composition of the two other forms within the species, cultivated and wild cardoon, have not yet been properly investigated. Two main classes of polyphenols have been detected by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/MS analyses: caffeoyl esters and flavonoids. The compounds which are the result of esterification of caffeoylquinic acid moiety with succinic acid, previously detected in other members of the Asteraceae family, were detected in cardoon leaves for the first time.
Article
The analysis of polyphenols of leaves and different parts (outer, intermediate and inner bracts, and receptacle) of heads in five globe artichoke cultivars of Campania region (Italy) and one accession of cultivated cardoon was performed. Data obtained suggest that the edible parts (receptacles with inner and intermediate bracts) of these cultivars of artichoke could represent a good source of health-promoting polyphenols and therefore encourage a nutriceutical use of this species, as an alternative to the more traditional phytopharmaceutical applications of leaf extracts. Moreover, it was demonstrated that single polyphenols accumulate preferentially in specific parts of the heads and in specific genotypes.
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Six compounds, hispidulin-glucuronide (1), hispidulin-7-O-d-glucoside (2), 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside (3), β-sitosterol (4), 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A (5) and coniferyl aldehyde (6), were isolated from Salvia plebeia and identified by UV, IR, Mass, 1H and 13CNMR spectra. Their antioxidant activities were investigated individually and compared with butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) (8) and α-tocopherol (7) by the oxidative stability instrument (OSI) at 100°C. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 had strong antioxidant activities, but compounds 1, 2 and 6 had low antioxidant activities at 0.02 and 0.04% levels.
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Studies encompassing variation of milk clotting time with the concentration of proteases extracted from Cynara cardunculus were performed; milk clotting time dependence is not linear, and a model was postulated that fits well the experimental data obtained, and hence may be useful in predicting changes during the cheesemaking process. Parallel studies were also conducted pertaining to proteolysis of a mixture of ovine and caprine caseins, in attempts to investigate the stability of the aforementioned coagulating enzymes in crude or in pure form, with or without previous incubation for a certain time under typical ripening conditions. The enzymes exhibited an increase in activity whenever previous incubation had taken place. Moreover, the extent of enzyme-mediated proteolysis was always higher on caprine than on ovine milk caseins.
Article
This work gives an overview of traditional and alternative applications of Cynara cardunculus L. The traditional applications are the use of the blanched stalks as an edible vegetable and the use of the flowers as a rennet substitute to make cheese. Alternatively, C. cardunculus can be cultivated as an energy crop and be used for industrial purposes. As an energy crop it is grown using a perennial cultivation system especially developed for producing biomass. The valuable crop produced in this case is the whole aboveground biomass. Two types of products can be harvested: lignocellulosic biomass and oil seeds. Cynara lignocellulosic biomass is a solid biofuel that can be used directly for heating or for electric power generation. The seeds, due to their high oil content, can also be used for energy applications, for example, as raw materials for biodiesel production. In addition to the energy applications of the crop, other alternative applications, such as green forage for ruminants, paper pulp production and pharmacological active compounds extraction, are also discussed.
Article
A method is presented which, for the first time, enables preparations to be tested cost-effectively and on a large scale to determine their fungicidal effect. A possible residual effect of the preparation on the fungi during the incubation period is prevented by completely washing out any traces of preparations that are nearly insoluble in water from the fungal suspension by means of a cell harvester and using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as the solvent With its automated procedure, the method enables antimycotics to be tested in 8 or 12 concentrations with reproducible results. Despite the capital investment that is necessary, the new method is much more cost-effective than the original methods because the personnel involved per test compound can be considerably reduced. Zusammenfassung: Es wird eine Methode vorgestellt, die erstmals eine breite und kostengünstige Prüfung von Präparaten auf ihre fungizide Wirkung ermöglicht. Durch die vollständige Auswaschung von schwer wasserlöslichen Präparatresten aus der Pilzsuspension mit Hilfe eines Zellerntegerätes und der Anwendung von Polyethylenglycol (PEG) 400 als Lösungsmittel wird ein möglicher Residualeffekt (Verschleppungseffekt) des Präparates auf die Pilze während der Inkubationsperiode verhindert Durch automatisierte Verfahrensschritte gestattet die Methode die Pruning von Antimykotika in 8 bzw. 12 Konzentrationen mit reproduzierbaren Ergebnissen. Das neue Verfahren ist trotz notwendiger Investitionen deutlich kostengünstiger als das ursprünglich eingesetzte, weil der Personaleinsatz pro Prüfsubstanz wesentlich reduziert werden kann.
Article
The isolation of (−)-arctigenin (1) and (−)-arctigenin 4′-glucoside from the seeds of Cynara cardunculus, and of hentriacontane and eicosyldocosanoate from the leaves is reported, along with 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra of 1.
Article
From involucral bracts of Cynara cardunculus L. were scopolin and scopoletin isolated by extraction, distribution between mutually immiscible solvents and chromatography. Isolates were identified by spectral data, comparison with authentical samples and literature data. Scopolin was isolated in Cynara cardunculus L. for the first time.
Article
This work reassumes with ones previously published on this journal describing isolation and identification of constituents from artichoke - Cynara cardunculus L. After extraction with ethanol and distribution between mutually immiscible solvents four fractions were obtained. From butanolic one flavonoid glycosides apigenine-7-rutinoside and luteoline-7-rutinosine (scolymoside) were isolated. Both substances were identified by spectral means and by the comparison with literature data.
Article
From an ethanolic extract of the flower buds of Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae), two monodesmosidic saponins, cynarasaponin B and a new cynarasaponin K, were isolated. The isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic means and by comparison with standards and the literature data.
Article
Triterpene saponins of ursane and oleane type isolated from the involucral bracts of Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae) were investigated in in vitro assays for their activity on the complement system. The anticomplementary activity of bidesmosidic saponins on the classical pathway activation of the complement was higher than the activity of monodesmosidic saponins, but esterification of the carboxylic group of glucuronic acid in the sugar residue resulted in a significant decrease in anticomplementary activity.
Article
The volatile oil of the Lebanese Za'atar (Origanum syriacum L.) was characterized for its thymol and carvacrol content using gas-liquid chromatography. These two compounds constituted the major components of the oil and were present in equal proportions of 30% in the volatile oil extracted from the leaves and shoot tips of the Origanum plant during the preflowering stage. The percentage of carvacrol in the essential oil increased to 62% after flowering and maturation, while the concentration of thymol decreased to 14%. Origanum oil extracted from plants collected during midseason was evaluated for its antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium species. The oil exhibited strong inhibitory action against the three fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oil was found to be 0.1 μl/ml of yeast extract sucrose broth for the fungi tested.
Article
Ten phenolic compounds were isolated from a butanol fraction of sage extracts. Their structures were determined by spectral methods (NMR, MS, IR). Among them, a novel compound, 4-hydroxyacetophenone-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, was identified. Two test systems, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and radical cation ABTS•+ scavenging activity, were used to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The most active compounds were found to be rosmarinic acid and luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside. Keywords: Sage; Salvia officinalis; phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity
Article
Successive chloroform, ethanol, and ethyl acetate partitions of extracts from Cynara scolymus L. leaf, head, and stem were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 15 microbial species, including 7 foodborne bacterial pathogens, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida lusitaniae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, and 4 molds, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum, Mucor mucedo, and Cladosporium cucumerinum using the disk diffusion assay technique. The leaf extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms, followed by the head and stem extracts, and the ethanol fraction showed the most significant antimicrobial activity against all of the tests among 3 soluble fractions of extract, followed by the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the agar and broth dilution method ranged from 1.25 to 10.0 mg/mL. The MIC of ethanol fraction of leaf extracts was the lowest by comparison with the other 2 extracts. The MIC for fungi was at or below 2.5 mg/mL and for bacteria was at or above 2.5 mg/mL.
Article
Four new iridoid glucosides 1–4, named blumeosides A–D, were isolated from the methanolic stem-bark extract of Fagraea blumei G. DON. (Loganiaceae). They were accompanied by the benzyl-alcohol derivative di-O-methylcrenatin (5) and the flavone C-glucoside swertisin (6). The structures of 1–4 were established by spectroscopic methods, including FAB-MS, and 1H- and 13C-NMR, and by alkaline hydrolysis. Blumeosides A (1) and C (3) are 10-O-(2,5-dihydroxytercphthalo) adoxosidic acid and 10-O-(2-hydroxyterephthalo)adoxosidic acid, respectively. In blumeosides B (4) and D (2), both carboxylic groups of the terephthalic-acid moiety are esterified by adoxosidic-acid units, Blumeosides A–D (1–4) inhibited bleaching of crocin induced by alkoxyl radicals. Blumeosides A (1) and D (2) also demonstrated scavenging properties towards the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hvdrazvl (CDPPH) radical in TLC autographic and spectrophotometric assays.
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Six compounds hispidulin-7-glucuronide (1), β-sitosterol (2), conferyl aldehyde (3), 2′-hydroxyl-5′-methyoxybiochanin A (4), and hispidulin-7-O-d-glycoside (5), 6-methoxyluteolin-7-glycoside (6) were isolated from Salvia plebeia and identified by UV, IR, Mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. Their antioxidant activities were investigated individually and compared with α-tocopherol by the oxidative stability instrument (OSI) at 40 °C. The oils extracted from Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus with supercritical fluid (SCF) CO2 and ethyl acetate, respectively, were used as substance oils, which were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially in the long chain PUFA icosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n − 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n − 3). β-Sitosterol, 2′-hydroxyl-5′-methyoxybiochanin A and 6-methoxyluteolin-7-glycoside exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which increased markedly with increasing concentration, and even stronger than α-tocopherol. The results indicate that the components extracted from S. plebeia should preserve the quality of ascidian oil from ascidian oxidative deterioration.
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A facile and inexpensive preparation of 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (cynarin) from the leaves Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae) without the use of any chromatographic steps is described. The procedure is based on separation of the fraction rich in 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isomerisation of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid to cynarin and, owing to its higher polarity, the simple isolation of cynarin from the reaction mixture. Cynarin inhibited HIV-1 replication in MT-2 cell culture at non-toxic concentrations similar to other previously tested dicaffeoylquinic acids, which have been recently established as a potent and highly selective class of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.
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Flavonoids represent a diverse group of phytochemicals which possess the capacity to act as antioxidants in vitro. This study examined the free radical scavenging properties of a luteolin-rich artichoke extract and some of its pure flavonoid constituents by assessing their ability to prevent Cu2+-mediated LDL oxidation. Artichoke extract retarded LDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner as measured by a prolongation of the lag phase to conjugated diene formation, a decrease in the rate of propagation and a sparing of endogenous LDL alpha-tocopherol during oxidation. The pure aglycone, luteolin (1 microM), demonstrated an efficacy similar to that of 20 microg/ml artichoke extract in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside, one of the glycosylated forms in the diet, also demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of LDL oxidation that was less effective than that of luteolin. Studies of the copper-chelating properties of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin suggest a potential role for chelation in the antioxidative effects of artichoke extract. Overall, the results demonstrate that the antioxidant activity of the artichoke extract relates in part to its constituent flavonoids which act as hydrogen donors and metal ion chelators, and the effectiveness is further influenced by their partitioning between aqueous and lipophilic phases.
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From an ethanolic extract of the flower buds of Cynara cardunculus L. (Asteraceae), apigenin-7-methylglucuronide and chlorogenic acid were isolated. The isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic means, by comparison with authentic samples and literature data.