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The Effects of Video on Cognitive Load and Social Presence in Multimedia-Learning

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Abstract

Two studies examined the use of video in multimedia learning environments. In Study 1, participants (N = 26) viewed one of two versions of a computer-based multimedia presentation: video, which included a video of a lecture with synchronized slides, or no video, which included the slides but only an audio narration of the lecture. Learning, cognitive load and social presence were assessed, but a significant difference was found only for cognitive load, with video experiencing greater cognitive load, t (24) = 2.45, p < .05. In Study 2, students (N = 25) were randomly assigned to either video or no video condition. Background knowledge and visual/verbal learning preference were assessed before viewing the presentation, and learning, cognitive load, and social presence were assessed after viewing. No significant differences were found for learning or social presence. However, a significant visual/verbal learning preference by condition interaction was found for cognitive load, F (1,21) = 4.51, p < .05: low visual-preference students experienced greater cognitive load in the video condition, while high visual-preference students experienced greater cognitive load in the no video condition.

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... Second, during "learning", information is gathered and processed in the student's working memory. Visual and auditory information are treated separately, in two channels [11,20,21]. The visuospatial sketchpad processes the visual information, such as an image on the screen, and the phonological loop handles auditory stimuli, such as the voice of the professor. ...
... Too much load on the visuospatial sketchpad has been found to limit the ability of students to attend to all the content presented visually in multimedia learning, thus inhibiting the student's acquisition of knowledge [4,12,21], and also negatively impact their engagement (attention, emotions) [4,9,12]. Further, instructor presence does not necessarily elicit better engagement, satisfaction, and perceived learning [8,12,21]. ...
... Too much load on the visuospatial sketchpad has been found to limit the ability of students to attend to all the content presented visually in multimedia learning, thus inhibiting the student's acquisition of knowledge [4,12,21], and also negatively impact their engagement (attention, emotions) [4,9,12]. Further, instructor presence does not necessarily elicit better engagement, satisfaction, and perceived learning [8,12,21]. The benefits of social presence and nonverbal communication can be counterbalanced by more demand being placed on the visual channel due to the processing of social cues [11,12]. ...
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Millions of students follow online classes which are delivered in video format. Several studies examine the impact of these video formats on engagement and learning using explicit measures and outline the need to also investigate the implicit cognitive and emotional states of online learners. Our study compared two video formats in terms of engagement (over time) and learning in a between-subject experiment. Engagement was operationalized using explicit and implicit neurophysiological measures. Twenty-six (26) subjects participated in the study and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions based on the video shown: infographic video or lecture capture. The infographic video showed animated graphics, images, and text. The lecture capture showed a professor, providing a lecture, filmed in a classroom setting. Results suggest that lecture capture triggers greater emotional engagement over a shorter period, whereas the infographic video maintains higher emotional and cognitive engagement over longer periods of time. Regarding student learning, the infographic video contributes to significantly improved performance in matters of difficult questions. Additionally, our results suggest a significant relationship between engagement and student performance. In general, the higher the engagement, the better the student performance, although, in the case of cognitive engagement, the link is quadratic (inverted U shaped).
... Keller and Becker (2020) explored the role of teachers' emotions in students' responses and found that teachers' emotions were related to students' emotions. Although studies support that teachers' emotions are essential to students' learning, there are still some studies which have found that the presence of the teacher had no significant effects on students' learning (Homer et al., 2008;Kizilcec et al., 2014). That is, the effects of teachers' presence and emotions on students' learning are still to be further explored. ...
... Although emotions are essential to students' cognitive process, the internal mechanism of teachers' emotions in students' learning is still to be further explored. Kizilcec et al. (2015) supported that most students favor lectures with the teacher's presence, while some studies have proposed that teachers' emotions harmed students' learning (Homer et al., 2008). That is, there is no consensus on the role of teachers' emotions in students' learning. ...
... The emotion expressed by the teacher's expressions in lectures could shorten this distance (Wang et al., 2019). However, Homer et al. (2008) found no significant differences between the social presence of students who learned in the video or no-video conditions. Thus, exploring the role of teachers' emotions in students' perceived social presence would be valuable for improving our understanding of online teaching. ...
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Understanding the role of teachers’ facial expressions in students’ learning is helpful to improve online teaching. Therefore, this study explored the effects of teacher’s facial expressions on students’ learning through analyzing three groups of video lectures. Participants were 78 students enrolled in three groups: one with an enhanced-expression teacher, one with a conventional-expression teacher, and one with the teacher’s audio only. ANOVA was used to explore whether video lectures instructed by the enhanced-expression teacher were better than those instructed by the conventional-expression teacher and the audio-only teacher for facilitating students’ learning, and what is the role of the teacher’s emotions in students’ perceived social presence, arousal level, cognitive load, and learning. The results showed that the video lecture by the enhanced-expression teacher was better than those with the conventional-expression teacher and with the audio-only for facilitating students’ social presence, arousal level, and long-term learning. Interestingly, it was found that the teacher’s emotions could relieve students’ cognitive load. These results explained the inconsistency of existing studies by exploring the mechanism of teachers’ emotions in students’ learning. It also provides teachers with practical guidance for video lecture design.
... Intrinsic cognitive load depends on the inherent nature of the materials being learned. The more complex the information learners must process, the higher the intrinsic cognitive load they experience [30]. This is due to the level of element interactivity. ...
... The second category is extraneous cognitive load, which is unnecessary and consumes limited cognitive processing capacity due to improper instructional design [31]. Lastly, germane cognitive load develops when a motivated student is endeavoring to process and integrate new information [30]. It may be primed by an engaging learning task [20]. ...
... Both intrinsic and extraneous loads could impede learning while germane load may facilitate learning. These three kinds of cognitive load would compete for the limited resources of working memory, and cognitive overload happens when the information overwhelms the working memory capacity [30]. As a consequence, learning is somewhat thwarted due to the fact that information is not selected and processed optimally. ...
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Motivation. Despite the widespread use of video lectures in online and blended learning environments, there is still debate whether the presence of an instructor in the video helps or hinders learning. According to social agency theory, seeing the instructor makes learners believe that s/he is personally teaching them, which leads to deeper cognitive processing and, in turn, better learning outcomes. Conversely, according to cognitive load theory, adding an image of the instructor may hinder attentional engagement with lecture content due to split-attention effect. Not only are theoretical propositions conflicting, but so is the empirical evidence as well. Objective. This study investigates the effects of the presence of the instructor’s face in the corner of an educational video on learning outcomes, perceived cognitive load, and perceived social presence in the context of foreign language vocabulary learning. Method. In an online quasi-controlled experiment with between-subject design, 112 participants were randomly assigned to view a 10-min-long educational video in one of two conditions: instructor-present or instructor-absent. As for the latter condition, the face was shown only at the introduction of the presentation. Afterwards, participants completed a retention test as well as a cognitive load and social presence questionnaire. Results. No significant differences were found for any dependent variable. Conclusion. Individuals differ so much in their language aptitude as well as motivation to perform well that random assignment is probably not enough to ensure balanced groups in this particular study context. Besides, the approach that we used to measure cognitive load as well as social presence is not suited for between-subject design, even though it was previously used in such settings.
... The instructor's facial expression, eye gaze, body orientation, gestures, and sizes have been testified to have various consequences on learners' learning performance and attention allocation [13][14][15][16][17]. However, some researchers claimed that the instructor's presence might capture students' attention to the learning materials and impose a higher cognitive load on the students [18][19][20]. ...
... More recently, Hew and Lo [26] demonstrated that secondary school students had the highest scores in the recall and application questions in the video lectures with the teacher's talking head. However, other studies using similar paradigms failed to find such an instructor presence effect [19,20,27,28]. For example, Homer and his colleagues [20] asked adult participants to view video lectures with the speaker or a no-video lecture with the audio and slides. ...
... However, other studies using similar paradigms failed to find such an instructor presence effect [19,20,27,28]. For example, Homer and his colleagues [20] asked adult participants to view video lectures with the speaker or a no-video lecture with the audio and slides. They assessed the learning, cognitive load, and social presence in two groups of participants. ...
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The instructor’s presence on the screen has become a popular feature in the video lectures of online learning and has drawn increasing research interest. Studies on the instructor presence effect of video lectures mainly focused on the features of the instructor, and few have taken learners’ differences, such as gender, into consideration. The current study examined whether male and female learners differed in their learning performance and eye movement features when learning video lectures with and without the instructor’s presence. All participants (N = 64) were asked to watch three different types of video lectures: audio-video without instructor presence (AV), picture-video with instructor presence (PV), and video-video with instructor presence (VV). They watched nine videos, three of each condition, and completed a reading comprehension test after each video. Their eye movement data were simultaneously collected when they watched these videos. Results showed that learners gained better outcomes after watching the videos with a talking instructor (VV) than those with the instructor’s picture (PV) or without the instructor (AV). This finding suggests that the dynamic presence of the instructor in video lectures could enhance learning through increased social presence and agency. Gender differences were found in their attention allocation, but not behavioral learning performance. When watching the videos with a talking instructor (VV), female learners dwelt longer on the instructor, while males transited more between the instructor and the text. Our results highlight the value of instructor presence in video lectures and call for more comprehensive explorations of gender differences in online learning outcomes and attention distribution.
... As a result, many researchers believe that instructor image is one kind of extra information that can lead to redundant information in the visual channel. When instructor image is presented in the online course videos, it increases extraneous load and hinders the learner's information processing integration (Mayer, 2005;Homer et al., 2008;Kizilcec et al., 2014). ...
... On the one hand, many studies found that instructor presence was able to increase learner's sense of social presence and interest, promote attention investment, stimulate positive emotions, and improve academic performance (Guo et al., 2014;Kizilcec et al., 2014). On the other hand, there were also studies that showed instructor presence did not have a significantly positive impact on online learner's social presence, cognitive load, and academic performance, and may even have a negative impact on learning achievement (Homer et al., 2008). This was partly due to external factors such as experimental design, measurement tools, and teaching style. ...
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This study investigated the effects of the changes in the image and voice of instructors in online video courses on online learner's learning achievement, social presence, learning satisfaction, and academic emotion. Two simultaneous online experiments were conducted with 122 college students in the image experiment, where the course videos varied in terms of the instructor's image (original image, face-beautified image, virtual image, and no image), and 93 college students in the voice experiment, where the course videos varied in terms of the instructor's voice (original voice, mutated voice, computer-synthesized voice). The results showed that learners viewing videos without instructor images had better learning achievements and less academic boredom relative to those who viewed videos with instructor images. However, the real instructor images were able to promote learners' learning satisfaction of instructor-student interaction more than no image and virtual image and promote satisfaction of instructor teaching more than virtual image. Meanwhile, learners' evaluation of the real instructor images was better than that of the virtual instructor image, and their evaluation of the face-beautified instructor image was better than the original image. Moreover, learners evaluated real instructor voices better than the computer-synthesized voice. In addition, the linear regression analysis revealed that the evaluations of both instructor's image and voice had a positive relationship with learners' social presence, learning satisfaction, and enjoyment, whereas they had a negative relationship with learner's boredom. And the evaluation of the instructor's image positively predicted student's transfer learning achievement. Thus, we suggested that the way of instructor presence should be well-designed and integrated with the course's instructional design and image and voice processing technology can be applied to assist online video course development.
... The image of the interviewer was present at the beginning and end of the videos and the voice of the interviewer was heard throughout the video in the withinterviewer video. Previous studies show that even though learners prefer to see the image of the instructor, adding the image of the instructor leads to higher cognitive load (Homer et al., 2008) and learners only focused on the image of the instructor less than half of the learning time (Colliot and Jamet, 2018). It is thus questionable whether other settings with different degrees of interviewer presence moderate the learning outcome. ...
... Another possible area of future research would be to measure the moderation effect of the learner's cognitive learning style on interviewer presence. Homer et al. (2008) showed that the cognitive load triggered by the image of the instructor can be moderated by the learner's cognitive learning style. For example, when the instructor's image is absent, learners with high visual preference have higher cognitive load, whereas learners with low visual preference have higher cognitive load when the instructor's image is present. ...
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Interviews with scholars and experts are becoming more and more popular as e-learning materials. Yet how an interview video should be edited is mostly based on personal preference rather than on rigorous scientific research. Thus this study tested whether showing the interviewer in educational interview videos can affect the learning outcome. Two interview learning materials on two topics (eye tracking and text-picture integration) were conducted by the author and edited in two versions. One version was with the interviewer and the other version was without the interviewer, the latter's image and voice being edited out. Psychology students (N = 180) watched either the video with or the one without the interviewer and answered the corresponding questions. Results in an online experiment yielded a better learning outcome in the video without the interviewer than in the video with the interviewer. It is probable that the absence of the interviewer can protect participants from extraneous processing and a split-attention effect. The without-interviewer video, segmented by displaying interview questions in keywords on slides, seemed to assist participants in managing the essential processing. The absence of the interviewer may avoid the confusion of multiple instructors, which fosters the generative processing. This study provides practical and pedagogical implications and suggests that removing the image and voice of the interviewer is likely to promote learning.
... There is limited research on how to leverage social presence theory to advance technology design. Moreover, although a small number of studies have focused on technology design, most of them have emphasized the integration of anthropomorphism elements in technology design to elicit consumer perceptions of social presence [e.g., 30,33,63]. The extant literature on social presence theory ignores the potential power of the collective presentation of massive isolated users online, which coincides with the original definition of social presence-that is, "being with another" through the virtual channel. ...
... The possible reason for the negative relationship between social presence perception and consumers' perceptions of review understandability is that, when consumers read and make sense of clustered review information from different individuals, they are motivated to understand the nuanced logical relationships among the leading and reply messages. Thus, they are more likely to experience a high level of cognitive dissonance [33]. Next, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings. ...
Article
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Since most of today’s consumers make purchase decisions based on online reviews, managers and researchers have been keen to determine how best to present review information in an online shopping context to maximize their persuasive power. Most online reviews are presented post-by-post, whereby individual reviewers express their respective opinions but lack group dynamism. As a result, it is worth asking what would happen if individual reviews are presented as a group? Drawing on social presence theory and information adoption literature, we propose a research framework to investigate the influences of two alternative presentation forms of review information (i.e., individual-based vs. group-based) on multiple-facet consumer evaluation of reviews, as well as their adoption of review information. By conducting two experiments (Study 1: N = 319; Study 2: N = 101), we find that, when given the same review information, consumers presented with the grouped review information rated higher review quality and credibility, but lower understandability, than consumers who were presented with individual review information. In addition, review quality, credibility, and understandability mediated the influence of review presentation forms on the consumer adoption of review information. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... En este sentido, los estímulos visuales (como una imagen en la pantalla) y verbales (la voz del profesor) se abordan por separado en dos canales. Se ha demostrado empíricamente que las entradas de vídeo y audio aumentan simultáneamente el compromiso del alumno y, por tanto, conducen a un mejor rendimiento [39][40][41]. Además, hay que tener en cuenta que, dado que la capacidad humana para atender a toda la información presentada es limitada, un exceso de información inhibe la adquisición de conocimientos por parte del alumno. Varios autores [40,42] destacan que la presencia del instructor no consigue necesariamente un mayor compromiso, satisfacción y aprendizaje percibido en los alumnos. ...
... Además, hay que tener en cuenta que, dado que la capacidad humana para atender a toda la información presentada es limitada, un exceso de información inhibe la adquisición de conocimientos por parte del alumno. Varios autores [40,42] destacan que la presencia del instructor no consigue necesariamente un mayor compromiso, satisfacción y aprendizaje percibido en los alumnos. Otros autores [39,43] afirman que no existe un formato óptimo para los videotutoriales. ...
Article
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La pandemia de Covid-19 ha afectado a todos los ámbitos de la vida, incluida la educación. Las universidades se han visto obligadas a impartir sus clases en un entorno semipresencial u online, lo que ha llevado a los profesores a adaptar sus metodologías tradicionales de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Los profesores de la asignatura Matemáticas de las Operaciones Financieras de la Universidad de Almería (España) han creado video-tutoriales para que los alumnos puedan pre-parar de forma autónoma la parte teórica de la asignatura, dejando las clases presenciales para los ejercicios prácticos. Este artículo pretende analizar la eficacia de los video-tutoriales y la autonomía que finalmente consiguen los alumnos en su aprendizaje. Para ello, se ha realizado un cuestionario en el que, a través de 21 preguntas, se han evaluado los constructos Autonomía, Eficacia, Profundidad, Formato, Reto y Uso. A partir de estas seis variables latentes, el modelo propuesto mediante la metodología de Modelización de Ecuaciones Estructurales por Mínimos Cuadrados Parciales (PLS-SEM) reveló que los estudiantes consideraban que el Formato y la Profundidad de los video-tutoriales eran cruciales para un aprendizaje realmente efectivo en su desempeño y para promover su autonomía. En cambio, las variables Reto y Uso fueron mal valoradas. Este artículo presenta un modelo de valoración original, que tiene la virtud de lograr una predicción del 78,6% y, además, tiene un alto poder predictivo. Abstract The Covid-19 pandemic has affected all walks of life, including education. Universities have been forced to teach in a blended or online environment, which has led professors to adapt their traditional teaching-learning methodologies. The professors of the subject Mathematics of Financial Operations at the University of Almeria (Spain) have created video tutorials so that students can autonomously prepare the theoretical part of the subject, leaving the face-to-face classes for the practical exercises. This article aims to analyse the effectiveness of video tutorials and the autonomy finally achieved by students in their learning. For this purpose, a questionnaire was carried out in which, through 21 questions, the constructs Autonomy, Effectiveness, Depth, Format, Challenge and Use were assessed. Based on these six latent variables, the proposed model using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) methodology revealed that students considered the Format and Depth of the video tutorials crucial for genuinely effective performance learning and promoting their autonomy. On the other hand, the variables Challenge and Use were poorly rated. This article presents an original valuation model, which has the virtue of achieving a prediction of 78.6% and, in addition, has high predictive power.
... In this sense, visual (such as an image on the screen) and verbal (the professor's voice) stimuli are addressed separately in two channels. It has been empirically proved that video and audio input simultaneously increase the student's engagement and therefore lead to better performance [39][40][41]. ...
... Furthermore, it is necessary to keep in mind that, given that the human capacity to attend to all the information presented is limited, too much information inhibits student's knowledge acquisition. Several authors [40,42] have highlighted that the instructor's presence does not necessarily bring about better engagement, satisfaction, or perceived learning in the students. Moreover, other authors [39,43] state that there is no optimal format for video tutorials. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all walks of life, including education. Universities have been forced to teach in a blended or online environment, which has led professors to adapt their traditional teaching–learning methodologies. The professors of Mathematics of Financial Operations at the University of Almeria (Spain) have created video tutorials so that students can autonomously prepare the theoretical part of the subject, leaving the face-to-face classes for practical exercises. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of video tutorials and the autonomy finally achieved by students in their learning. For this purpose, a questionnaire was carried out in which, through 21 questions, the constructs Autonomy, Effectiveness, Depth, Format, Challenge, and Use were assessed. Based on these six latent variables, the proposed model using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) methodology revealed that students considered the Format and Depth of the video tutorials crucial for genuinely effective performance learning and promoting their autonomy. On the other hand, the variables Challenge and Use were poorly rated. This article presents an original valuation model, which has the virtue of achieving a prediction of 78.6% and, in addition, has high predictive power.
... There is some literature suggesting that multimedia incorporating the instructor on-screen are more engaging (Guo, Kim & Rubin 2014), increase perceived student learning and satisfaction (Wang & Antonenko 2017), and lead to better learning performance when compared to other presentation styles (Chen & Wu 2015). However, integration of the instructor into multimedia content needs to be carefully considered as picture-in-picture styles have the potential to lead to increases in cognitive load due to the split attention effect (Homer, Plass & Blake 2008;Mayer 2017). Nonetheless, these instructorcentric styles of presentation certainly appear to be preferable to other styles such as voice-over presentation which can increase cognitive load for students (Chen & Wu 2015), and are least likely to be completely watched by students when compared to other presentation styles such as interviews or talking heads (Ozan & Ozarslan 2016). ...
Article
Transformations in contemporary higher education have led to an explosion in the number of degrees delivered online, a significant characteristic of which is the incorporation of multimedia to support learning. Despite the proliferation of multimedia and growing literature about the affordances of various technologies, there are relatively few examples of how judgements are made regarding choosing and actioning multimedia development decisions for educational developers. The case study presented here is framed within an institution-wide project for the development of fully online degrees that utilised a collaborative approach to curriculum and multimedia development. This example focuses on the establishment and operation of a collaborative approach to curriculum development in which multidisciplinary development teams invested considerable resources in researching improvements to their multimedia practices and processes. This article reflects on the collaborative team approach to multimedia design and development by examining the team’s experiences and practices through the lens of existing multimedia research, in order to understand the convergence between multimedia theory and the practicalities of developing multimedia within the constraints of large-scale online curriculum development. Through these reflections, four lessons learned will be explicated which will inform those engaged in employing similar approaches in other contexts. These lessons learned identify the benefits and potential issues associated with: 1. the approach used by the collaborative development team to support the production of multimedia, 2. the practices and process used by the collaborative development team to facilitate the creation of concise multimedia presentations, 3. the impacts of establishing teaching presence through videos created by the course writer and online course facilitator, and 4. the presentation styles used by course writers and the tools they used during multimedia production.
... Furthermore, spatial orientation of specimens in videos can be challenging for some students to interpret, which could negatively impact their learning (Homer et al., 2008). This sentiment was prevalent in the students' feedback in the present study. ...
Article
In March 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19) global pandemic forced many post‐secondary institutions to move their teaching online, which had a substantial impact on students enrolled in laboratory‐based courses in fields like human anatomy. This descriptive study collected students’ perspectives on the transition to remote education, with specific attention to the teaching activities, resources, and assessments used in an undergraduate Clinical Human Visceral Anatomy course at McGill University. Through inductive semantic thematic analysis, student‐held values for effective remote education were identified and grouped into the following themes: (1) preferences for communication, (2) values for remote learning activities and resources, (3) values for remote assessment, and (4) perceived positive and negative impacts of remote education on learning. Students generally valued having clear communication, opportunities for both synchronous and asynchronous learning activities, and flexible assessment formats that maintained alignment with the course outcomes and activities. Many felt that remote education had a net‐negative impact on their learning, satisfaction, and sense of community. However, there were no significant differences in grades on laboratory quizzes administered before and after the shutdown (P = 0.443), and grades on the remote final examination were significantly higher than those on the in‐person midterm examination (P < 0.001). These findings are discussed in the context of modern educational theories and practices related to remote teaching. Strategies for facilitating a student‐centered environment online are also proposed. Future longitudinal research into learning outcome attainment and the evolving perspectives of students and instructors operating in remote education contexts is warranted.
... GL requires a conscious mental effort or effortful strategies invested in learning. Previous studies have documented a direct association between GL and motivation, engagement, and the metacognition construct (86,87). Similarly, this study found a significant increase in the motivation and engagement levels of the overall cohort of students who attended the CLTbased online lecture. ...
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This study explored the impact of online lectures that were developed using principles of cognitive load theory (CLT) and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML) on health profession students’ lecture comprehension, cognitive load, cognitive engagement, and intrinsic motivation in learning. A total of 215 first-year undergraduate students in medical, dentistry, and nutrition programs participated in this pre-post quasi experimental study. The students attended a typical face-to-face lecture on Day-1 of the intervention, followed by a CLT-based online lecture eight weeks thereafter. Their comprehension of the lecture topics was measured through pre- and post-lecture assessments, and their cognitive load, cognitive engagement, and motivation were measured immediately after each lecture session. The analysis revealed that the CLT-based online lectures promoted the students’ comprehension of the lecture content (p <0.001), self-perceived learning (p <0.001), engagement toward the learning material, and motivation to learn (p = 0.025). It was also effective at reducing the students’ intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads (p <0.001), Hence, designing online lectures using CLT and CTML principles could be an effective method to promote students’ knowledge and comprehension, cognitive engagement, and learning motivation. However, further research is needed to investigate the applicability and impact of CLT-based online lectures in non-health profession disciplines.
... Previous studies on video lectures have shown that students' perception of social presence which involves the degree of students' awareness of and the representation of the instructor in the video lectures and their ability to interact with the instructor (Weidlich & Bastiaens, 2017) can sensitively reflect the degree of a sense of interacting with a "real" instructor while watching the video lectures when the instructor varied his/her characteristics (e.g. eye gaze; Homer et al., 2008;Wang, Pi, et al., 2019). Future work can measure students' sense of social presence, instead of parasocial interaction. ...
Article
This study tested the mutual effects of the instructor's eye gaze and facial expression on students’ eye movements (i.e. first fixation time to the slides, percentage dwell time on the slides, and percentage dwell time on the instructor), parasocial interaction, and learning performance in pre-recorded video lectures. Students (N = 118 undergraduate and graduate students) were assigned to watch one of four videos in a 2 (gaze: direct, guided) × 2 (facial expression: surprised, neutral) between-groups design. Contrary to our hypotheses, eye movement data showed that students who watched the video lecture with the instructor's guided gaze and surprised face showed longer first fixation time to the slides and lower dwell time on the slides; these students also had lower learning scores. Instructor eye gaze and facial expression did not influence students’ ratings of parasocial interaction. Our results suggest that in reference to social cues during video lectures with slides, “more” is not necessarily “better.” The findings have practical implications for designing pre-recorded slide-based video lectures: An instructor is cautioned against using multiple social cues simultaneously, especially in video lectures in which the instructor and the visual learning materials compete for students’ attention.
... Both social and parasocial processes are thus not only found to affect cognitive, but also metacognitive, emotional, and motivational processes and vice versa (e.g., Homer et al. 2008;Fiz-Pérez et al. 2016;Schramm and Wirth 2010) leading to the following hypothesis: ...
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For a long time, research on individuals learning in digital environments was primarily based on cognitive-oriented theories. This paper aims at providing evidence that social processes affect individual learning with digital materials. Based on these theories and empirical results, a social-processes-augmented theory is suggested: the Cognitive-Affective-Social Theory of Learning in digital Environments (CASTLE). This CASTLE postulates that social cues in digital materials activate social schemata in learners leading to enhanced (para-)social, motivational, emotional, and metacognitive processes. To substantiate this theory, socio-cognitive theories are used, which predict social influences on learning with digital materials. Besides, previous empirical findings are presented assuming that with a rising number of social cues in digital materials, the influence of social processes increases. Finally, consequences regarding the design of digital learning media are discussed.
... SPT contends that users are motivated to choose a certain media when they perceive a high level of social presence, partly because humans have a desire for psychological connections with other humans. Prior research indicated that face-to-face interactions convey the greatest social presence followed by multimedia (audio plus video) and then audio only, while text-based interaction is considered to have the least social presence (e.g., Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997;Homer et al., 2008). Several studies have found that the ways in which technology users evaluate and respond to artificial agents are largely determined by their perceived social presence (e.g., Cheung et al., 2011;Pitardi & Marriott, 2021). ...
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From requesting Alexa to set a reminder to asking Google Assistant to make a call, artificial intelligence-enabled voice assistants are quickly melding into our lives. This study aims to understand why users interact with a voice assistant system. Results from an online survey identified four types of motivations underlying the use of voice assistants: entertainment, companionship, dynamic control, and functional utility. Results showed that functional utility and dynamic control were positively related to users’ satisfaction, while companionship and entertainment were not. The effect of social presence on users’ satisfaction was also explored. The moderation analyses showed that social presence not only had a main effect but also played a significant role in increasing satisfaction among the users who perceived low levels of functional utility and dynamic control. This study advances a growing body of human-AI interaction literature by demonstrating the underlying mechanism behind voice assistants’ use. Practical and theoretical implications are also discussed.
... Das Tool erlaubt mittels LTI eine Anbindung an verschiedene Lernmanagementsysteme wie Moodle, ILIAS oder OpenOLAT. (Homer et al., 2008). Trotz dieser Aspekte bieten Videos die Möglichkeit, eine soziale Interaktion, die im praktischen Unterricht stattfindet, zeitlich ‚einzufrieren' und diese wieder erlebbar zu machen. ...
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An deutschsprachigen Hochschulen fördern engagierte Lehrende mit großem Einsatz und unter Verwendung innovativer Ansätze ihre Studierenden in den Naturwissen- schaften und deren Didaktiken in deren persönlicher Entwicklung. Ein Austausch über die Lehrkonzepte – auch über Standortgrenzen hinweg – findet dabei leider nur selten statt. Dies erschwert es, die Lehrpraxis sukzessive und standortübergreifend weiterzuentwickeln, von erprobten Konzepten zu profitieren und bindet Ressourcen für Innovation und Weiterentwicklung im sprichwörtlichen Neuerfinden des Rades. Dem möchten wir mit dem Buch „Lehrkräftebildung neu gedacht“ begegnen und einen Impuls zum Austausch und zum Diskurs geben. Insgesamt 35 Beiträge aus den Fachdidaktiken der Chemie, Biologie, Physik und Naturwissenschaften geben einen beeindruckenden Überblick über das Spektrum von innovativen Lehrformaten im Lehramt an 32 verschiedenen Hochschulstandorten in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz.
... Das Tool erlaubt mittels LTI eine Anbindung an verschiedene Lernmanagementsysteme wie Moodle, ILIAS oder OpenOLAT. (Homer et al., 2008). Trotz dieser Aspekte bieten Videos die Möglichkeit, eine soziale Interaktion, die im praktischen Unterricht stattfindet, zeitlich ‚einzufrieren' und diese wieder erlebbar zu machen. ...
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Kompetenzentwicklung im Bereich des unterrichtens leidet häufig unter mangelnden Lehrgelegenheiten für Studierende und geeigneten Rahmenbedingen für deren Analyse und Diskussion. Gleichzeitig bergen retrospektive Analysen von Lehrsituationen das Risiko, dass aufgrund von a) Unklarheiten in Bezug auf die exakten tatsächlichen Abläufe (die nicht reproduzierbar sind), b) einer eingeschränkten Glaubwürdigkeit aufgrund fehlender Multiperspektivität bzw. fehlender Akzeptanz der Dozierendenperspektive sowie c) zeitlichen Limitierungen für gemeinsame Besprechungen nicht das volle Potenzial solcher Veranstaltungen ausgeschöpft werden kann. Der Artikel beschreibt ein Lehrkonzept, imit dem mittels digitaler Tools (frei zugänglich und DSGVO konform) genau diese Herausforderungen gelöst werden, indem beginnend mit einer Videographie von Studierenden eine Dokumentations- und Analyse-Struktur geschaffen wird, die für alle Studierenden (auch zur Selbstevaluation) zur orts- und zeitunabhängigen Reflexion geöffnet werden kann.
... Das Tool erlaubt mittels LTI eine Anbindung an verschiedene Lernmanagementsysteme wie Moodle, ILIAS oder OpenOLAT. (Homer et al., 2008). Trotz dieser Aspekte bieten Videos die Möglichkeit, eine soziale Interaktion, die im praktischen Unterricht stattfindet, zeitlich ‚einzufrieren' und diese wieder erlebbar zu machen. ...
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Sowohl das Arbeiten mit Modellen als auch das Experimentieren sind wesentliche Bestandteile der Erkenntnisgewinnung. Im naturwissenschaftlichen Unterricht finden beide Prozesse häufig getrennt voneinander statt. Das digitale Werkzeug Augmented Reality (AR) ermöglicht es, ein reales Experiment zeitgleich durch ein digitales Modell zu überlagern. Die Überprüfung von Modellen wird dadurch direkt im Experiment erfahrbar, was eine neuartige Auseinandersetzung mit fachlichen Inhalten ermöglicht.
... To analyze the challenges of virtual interviews, we applied the theory of cognitive load (3)(4)(5)(6). Cognitive load is a psychological construct, initially described by Sweller in 1988 (7). It is based on evidence that sensory information is processed by the brain's "working memory" into bundles of information to be stored in the brain's long-term memory. ...
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The impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has dramatically affected virtually all aspects of health care use, including patient care, research, and education. Among the groups affected were prospective applicants to graduate medical education training programs. To ensure a safe and equitable process for residency and fellowship application, multiple accrediting bodies strongly recommended that training programs conduct fellowship and residency interviews in a virtual format. With little experience in virtual interviewing, most programs, including ours, were compelled to make substantial changes to the traditional interview format. We present some of the unanticipated challenges we experienced with virtual interviewing in the context of cognitive load theory. We use cognitive load theory to highlight why the challenges existed. We also offer practical tips to minimize the cognitive load experienced with virtual interviewing so that trainees and programs alike derive maximal benefit when using virtual communication platforms.
... The absence of teacher support is another problem with course videos. Without teacher support, students, especially beginners not familiar with video topics, often encounter difficulty in comprehending the video content and sustaining their attention (Homer, Plass, & Blake, 2008). Thus, teacher support should be provided to assist students to comprehend video content and improve their learning engagement (Ronchetti, 2010;Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker Jr, 2006). ...
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While course videos are powerful teaching resources in online courses, students often have difficulty sustaining their attention while watching videos and comprehending the content. This study adopted teacher annotations on videos as an instructional support to engage students in watching course videos. Forty-two students in an undergraduate course at a university in Taiwan were randomly divided into a control group that watched a course video without teacher annotations, and an experimental group that watched a course video with teacher annotations. The collected data included a learning engagement survey, students’ video watching behaviors, and student interviews. The results showed that there were differences in student learning engagement between the control and experimental groups. The teacher annotations increased students’ behavioral and cognitive engagement in watching the video but did not increase their emotional engagement. In addition, this study identified how students learned when watching the course video with the teacher annotations through highlights of the video content, literal questions, reflective questions and inferential questions. The results concluded that teacher annotations and student learning engagement were positively correlated. The students acknowledged that their retention and comprehension of the video content increased with the support of the teacher annotations.
... In a multimedia learning environment, the two theories that are inherently mentioned are Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) [50] and Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) [51]. In the understanding of the CLT and CTML, it is known that providing irrelevant information in visual or verbal form is not supposed to help learning [52]. Moreover, Mutlu-Bayraktar and Cosgun's [53] study systematically reviewed articles from 2015 to 2019 that reported detailed information on cognitive load and multimedia learning, as well as understanding learners' cognitive processes. ...
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The flipped teaching method has become increasingly mature and critical. Previous flow experience studies have concentrated on game-based learning, and cognitive load studies have concentrated on different types of teaching materials (e.g., video). Due to the characteristic differences between problem-based learning and the Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate (CDIO) engineering design, the authors were interested in applying the CDIO engineering design to the flipped programming course. This study was proposed to measure students’ cognitive load and flow experience by using CDIO engineering design in the flipped programming course, which used a one-group pretest–post-test nonequivalent-groups design method for 16 weeks. This study recruited 40 college students (males = 14, females = 26) who were first-year freshmen attending a university as its subjects. The results indicate that the students showed no significant improvement between cognitive load and gender difference in cognitive load and flow experience, but that they significantly improved some dimensions of flow experience. This study provides implications and evidence related to applying the CDIO engineering design in flipped programming courses.
... Previous studies investigated mainly the effect of incorporating the instructor's face in slide-based video lectures and revealed that students prefer this format (relative to the "just narration" format) for the self-reported reason that this presentation style supported them in being more focused and feeling more connected (Kizilcec et al., 2015). The findings in this field also support the image principle of multimedia learning that states that students do not necessarily learn better from a multimedia lesson when the instructor's image is added to the screen (Homer et al., 2008;Kizilcec et al., 2015;Wilson et al., 2018). Two possible reasons have been suggested: i) the resulting social cue is too weak to induce such positive social responses in learners, which could surpass the generated attention division between the two video inputs (instructor versus slides) (Kizilcec et al., 2014); ii) the instructor's body language (gaze guidance, hand gestures, body posture, etc.) is not available to guide the student's attentional focus or to accentuate key aspects of the presentation (Stull et al., 2018). ...
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As a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, many higher education programs had to switch to synchronous online teaching. Teachers suddenly faced pressing unaddressed challenges, such as how to better transfer their “presence” from the traditional classroom to the online space in a way that keeps students engaged. This paper explores new venues for increasing the quality of synchronous online learning. We propose the notion of broad on-slide presence, pillared on an increased instructor expressiveness and an elevated instructor slide-content interaction. We conducted four studies to investigate the benefits of delivering lectures in this format, using a mixed methods research approach. We combined survey methodology with transversal design and structural equation modelling with qualitative methodology using discourse analysis of teacher interviews. Results revealed a significant increase in perceived knowledge gain and attentional engagement, and an improved and more personal student experience. At the same time, the instructor’s broader on-slide presence also resulted in an increased teacher satisfaction.
... Consistent with cognitive load theory (Chandler & Sweller, 1991;Homer, Plass, & Blake, 2008), visuals can be an important complement to the text of a campaign by easing the processing of information (Courtney, Dutta, & Li, 2017;Yang, Li, et al., 2020). For instance, prospective backers may surf the content of an online platform and spend a minimal amount of time on individual campaigns. ...
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This study used meta-analytic methods complemented with an “attracting the crowd” framework to develop and test a model that connects campaign characteristics to fundraising outcomes. The proposed framework suggests that all paths between a crowdfunding campaign and its outcomes run through a single primary mechanism – attracting the crowd. A total of 36 separate meta-analytic associations across 112 samples (k = 112) with more than 3.5 million observations (N = 3,546,755) were computed to examine the proposed framework. Results suggest that the amount of text, videos, and positive tone of a campaign have a positive association with the number of backers contributing to a campaign. Number of backers in turn showed a positive association with funding amount and funding success. The results support the proposed framework and suggest that number of backers is a key mechanism that connects campaign characteristics to funding amount and funding success. A post hoc analysis was also performed to examine the association between gender and funding outcomes. The results suggest that the gender of those seeking funding has little direct influence on number of backers, funding amount, and funding success, which offers support for arguments of gender equality in online fundraising. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... While several studies have found positive influence of providing instructor presence in online video (e.g., Chen & Wu, 2015;Wang & Antonenko, 2017), other studies revealed no or negative effects of it on learning or learner perceptions (Homer, Plass, & Blake, 2008;Kizilcec et al., 2014). The empirical evidence for the support of incorporating an instructor in online video is limited and conflicting. ...
... Contradictory results were also found in different studies. For example, Homer, Plass, and Blake (2008) found that teacher presence in a video may increase a learner's cognitive load, perhaps because of the split-attention effect created by the teacher and the PowerPoint slides. In contrast, Guo and colleagues (2014) found that teacher presence has a positive effect on the number of videos students watch, perhaps because it helps learners form a sense of interacting with "real" teachers face-to-face (Tu, 2002). ...
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Network analytics has the potential to examine new behaviour patterns that are often hidden by the complexity of online interactions. One of the varied network analytics approaches and methods, the model of collective attention, takes an ecological system perspective to exploring the dynamic process of participation patterns in online and flexible learning environments. This study selected “Fundamentals of C++ programming (Spring 2019)” on XuetangX as an example through which to observe the allocation patterns of attention within MOOC videos, as well as how video features and engagement correlate with the accumulation, circulation, and dissipation pattern of collective attention. The results showed that the types of instructions in videos predicted attention allocation patterns, but they did not predict the engagement of video watching. Instead, the length and whether the full screen was used in the videos had a strong impact on engagement. Learners were more likely to reach a high level of engagement in video watching when their attention had been circulated around the videos. The results imply that understanding the patterns and dynamics of attention flow and how learners engage with videos will allow us to design cost-effective learning resources to prevent learners from becoming overloaded.
... In this regard, the students may have watched videos tailored to the flipped environment out of necessity, but they may not have gained meaningful learning experiences as a result. Previous research has shown that videos can increase cognitive load (Homer et al., 2008). Above a certain level, increased cognitive load negatively affects learning performance (Sweller, 1994). ...
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Programming knowledge is more important than ever in the digital world. However, teaching programming can be challenging, especially with novice learners. Considerable research has been conducted into the most effective methods for teaching programming. Extreme apprenticeship, a variation of cognitive apprenticeship, is a method that has been used in teaching programming at university level in recent years. Because this method focuses particularly on completing lots of exercises with coaching and guidance, it may solve many problems related to learning programming. Flipped learning can be useful for student preparedness and providing sufficient theoretical knowledge at the beginning of the course. This study compares the applications of the extreme apprenticeship method, flipped extreme apprenticeship, and traditional classroom, analyzing them at the university level in terms of their effects on academic achievement and engagement coupled with gender differences. The findings of the study indicate that the extreme apprenticeship and flipped extreme apprenticeship instructional methods improve academic achievement and student engagement in introductory programming more than the traditional method. The results of the research point to important directions for the development of the extreme apprenticeship method in programming instruction and provide a guide for instructors. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10639-022-11055-y.
... On the contrary, other studies revealed no or negative effects of instructor presence in video lectures on learning outcome or learner perceptions. Homer, Plass, & Blake (2008) conducted an experiment in which undergraduate students viewed one of two versions of a computer-based multimedia presentation on The Millennium Dialogue on Child Development: one included slides with lecturer's image, and the other only with audio narration. They compared two conditions by measuring recall and transfer of knowledge, as well as using a social presence questionnaire. ...
... The result implies that it is vital to engage more young people of Bangladesh socially to increase their participation in offline and online activities. Notably, of the three motives, the excitement motive was found to have a stronger relationship with social presence and commitment, which has matched the findings from previous research (Hwang and Soo, 2015;Homer et al., 2008). In contrast, the convenience motive does not hold any correlation with them, which was unexpected and partially contradicted the result of previous research (Hwang and Soo, 2015). ...
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Abstract Purpose – Existing literature affirms that almost half of the young generation has remained unemployed worldwide. On the contrary civic engagement can be a powerful tool in combating this problem. However, the influencing factors that encourage the active participation of young adults yet to be identified. The purpose of this paper is to fill the research gap by creating and validating a research model by including three motives social presence commitment and online offline civic engagement. Design/methodology/approach – The study took a quantitative approach to conduct a cross-sectional study. In total, 214 data were collected from the member of a Facebook group of Bangladesh named Foodbank, a restaurant review page through the online questionnaire. After that structural equation modelling techniques have been used to analyse the data, test the model validity and hypothesis. Findings – The result shows that both commitment and social presence influence offline and online civic engagement. Excitement motives have a higher effect than information and convenience motive. Besides, 8 out of 10 hypotheses have shown significant results, with only the convenience motive not having any positive influence and effect on social presence and commitment. Practical implications – Almost 47.6 out of 158.5 million are young people who are incapable of contributing fully to national development due to a lack of civic engagement. The outcome of this study will be useful for the Government of Bangladesh, as well as for non-governmental organisations and decisionmaking authorities to form assessments and develop policy on how to engage the young generation in civic activities to achieve further socio-economic development in the country. Originality/value – This study contributes to existing literature with newly developed relationships between social presence-civic engagement and commitment-civic engagement. These unique relationships have been empirically tested and resulted insignificant. The study also identifies that it is vital to engage young people more in social works and increase their participation in offline and online activities.
... At the same time, other studies revealed no or negative effects of instructor presence in video on learning or cognitive load. Homer, Plass, & Blake (2008) conducted an experiment in which undergraduate students viewed one of two versions of a computer-based multimedia presentation on The Millennium Dialogue on Child Development: one included slides with instructor's video, and the other only slides with audio narration. They compared two conditions by measuring recall and transfer of knowledge, as well as using a social presence questionnaire. ...
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With the increasing popularity of online teaching, online platforms such as MOOC have been one of the research focuses for educational researchers all over the world. However, online courses still face many challenges. The most noticeable challenge is the higher than usual dropout rate. It is reasonable to assume that these challenges are likely due to its most used format, namely video-based content delivery. Typical video-based content delivery is direct broadcast or taped lectures of the human teachers. The primary goal of this review paper is to explore possible roles of human teachers in such video-based online learning environments. High percentages of teachers are inexperienced “actors” so they focus more on the correctness of the content they lecture and pay less attention to the presentation of themselves. They may not fully be aware when and how to be part of the video. When they are in the video, what would be the most engaging gestures and their potential influence on students’ learning. One simple fact is often observed that the appearance of the teacher in video lectures may help students engage. The importance of the potential roles of the teachers can be explained by several theories, such as parasocial theory, social presence theory, and social agent theory. These theories suggest that real human teachers in video-based learning environments promote learning; Other theories such as cognitive theory of multimedia learning and cognitive load theory believe that real human teachers may hinder learning. While different theories predict teachers’ roles differently, in this review article, we found such inconsistencies in several empirical studies. We observed in the selected studies that real human teachers only have a small impact on students' learning, subjective experience, and attention process. Specifically, in video-based lectures, the presence of teachers only has a weak effect on learning (retention test, d = 0.23 and transfer test, d = 0.1). From the selected 20 studies on retention tests, only 4 studies (20%) show that real human teachers in the video can improve students' retention test, and 2 (10%) of the studies show that real human teachers can hinder students' retention test. From a total of 12 studies that measure transfer, 3 (25%) of them show that real human teachers can improve students' transfer test scores. In terms of subjective experience, teachers' influence on students has a medium effect size on perceived learning (d = 0.49), learning interest (d = 0.5) and large effect size on learning satisfaction (d = 2.21). Of the 5 studies that discussed perceived learning, 3 of which (60%) found that real human teachers can improve students' perceived learning and 1 of which (20%) found that real human teachers can reduce students' perceived learning. Of the 7 studies that explored the influence of real human teachers on students' learning interest, 3 (42%) of which showed that real human teachers promote students' interest in learning. Of the 3 studies that explored the impact of real human teachers on satisfaction, 2 of which (67%) found that adding real human teachers to videos increased students' satisfaction ratings. With regard to the attention of the processing, the presence of teachers reduced the fixation time of learners (d = -2.02). Of the 4 studies included in this report 3 of which (75%) found that learners' total fixation time on learning materials was significantly less than the condition with teachers than that without teachers. Our review of the literature suggests that future research needs to pay close attention to the following four aspects of video-based learning 1) presentation of real teachers, we need to explore the effects of factors that had been mostly ignored, such as nonverbal cues (such as gazing and gesture) and proportion of teachers’ image and learning contents. 2) learners' characteristics, especially learners' cultural differences and learning preferences (such as visual preferences). 3) learning materials, the levels of difficulty of learning materials, different domains (such as humanity or STEM) and types of knowledge (such as procedural and declarative). These factors interactively determine teachers' influence on students’ learning; We also understand that there are challenges for systematically studying the effect of teachers with the three variables. One of the challenges is to select the right research methods. We suggest that objective methods would be a good first choice to explore cognitive processing (such as eye gaze, attention switching between task interest areas) and cognitive neural activities (such as EEG) that teachers affect students' learning.
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Although the chemical literature contains many studies of multimedia-based learning and teacher enthusiasm, there is a paucity of research on whether and to what extent teacher enthusiasm in video lectures affects students’ learning, especially in chemistry. In this context, this mixed-method study used eye tracking and quantitative analysis to investigate how a teacher with different levels of enthusiasm influenced students’ learning in video lectures. Junior middle-school students were selected to engage in this eye-tracking research. We set up 35 such students as a group to view an experimental video with a low level of teacher enthusiasm, and 35 others as another group to view another experimental video with a high level of teacher enthusiasm. The essential tool for capturing the students’ visual attention was an EyeLink 1000 Plus eye tracker. The total dwell time, fixation counts, average fixation duration, and transition counts were recorded and analyzed, and the results showed that the teacher enthusiasm in the video lectures had an indirect positive effect on the students’ self-efficacy and learning performance and was negatively associated with cognitive load. In addition, students paid more attention to the teacher with the higher level of enthusiasm.
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The present study aims to find out the effectiveness of video based active learning in certain selected contents of mathematics in IX th standard students. To realize the differences between pre-test scores of control group and experimental group in the achievement of mathematics, the investigator adopted experimental method for the study. The researcher had taken sixty IX th standard Tribal students from Coimbatore for finding effectiveness video based active learning for mathematics learning. The researcher divided the population into experimental group and control group. The investigator adopts video based active learning method as an instructional strategy for experimental group.
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This chapter reviews research linking the importance of community in an increasing engagement in online courses from an interdisciplinary perspective. Additionally, we identify applicable teaching strategies that focus on the important elements of community building, namely teaching, social, and cognitive presence.
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This research investigates how learning groups affect student learning from two perspectives: first, the amount of group work students do, and second, the role that they take within the group. It is not clear from the current research how a student’s role in collaborative learning affects his/her development of critical thinking and the construction of knowledge. The present study looks into whether the positive relationships found between collaboration and germane cognitive load are affected by a learner’s role within the group. Using cognitive load theory, this study analyzed survey responses from a group of university students (n = 1399) who engaged in collaborative study groups when taking online classes in South Korea. While it was found that the amount of collaboration a student engaged in positively affected levels of germane load and that their level of contribution negatively moderated that relationship. In other words, while more group work is beneficial, students who contribute less to the group have greater gains from higher levels of collaboration than students who take a more active role.
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We present a freely available, easy to use system for promoting teacher presence during slide-supported online lectures, meant to aid effective learning and reduce students’ sense of isolation. The core idea is to overlay the teacher’s body directly onto the slide and move it and scale it dynamically according to the currently presented content. Our implementation runs entirely locally in the browser and uses machine learning and chroma keying techniques to segment and project only the instructor’s body onto the presentation. Students not only see the face of the teacher but they also perceive as the teacher, with his/her gaze and hand gestures, directs their attention to the areas of the slides being analyzed.
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Although instructional videos with on-screen instructors have become prevalent in various learning contexts, their effect has been questioned because of mixed findings in the literature. This meta-analysis study aimed to elucidate the overall effect of instructor-present videos on learning, cognitive load, motivation, and social presence and to indicate potential moderators. It analyzed 20 experimental studies where participants watched an instructional video with or without an on-screen instructor. According to the findings, the effects of instructor presence on learning and social presence were not statistically significant. However, instructor-present videos had a significant impact on increasing cognitive load and motivation. Furthermore, moderator analyses for knowledge acquisition outcome revealed (marginally) significant differences in effect sizes based on human embodiment and study setting, favoring instructional videos featuring only the instructor’s hand and being watched in laboratory settings. Based on these findings, the present study provides important directions for future research and practices.
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The worldwide outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic led to many changes in the methods used to impart education, with nearly all university courses in Japan transitioning to an online format, particularly video conferencing of live lectures. Considering the difficulties students face in remaining engaged during online lectures, we propose methods to maximize student participation by displaying a real-time animated avatar of the teacher’s face over the lecture slides. Students were presented with photos of different teachers and asked to select whom they would prefer to take a class with, and whom they would not prefer. An open-source deep fake tool was then used to animate the selected photos by following the facial expressions of a teacher in real-time. These animations were superimposed over the lecture slides in an online class. Our experimental results show that students taught by their preferred teacher’s animated avatar posted more comments, which was the form of feedback used, compared to when they were taught by a less preferred teacher’s avatar on the slides. We speculate that a change in the teacher’s avatar influences active student participation in online learning.
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As the rampant pandemic witnessed significant growth in online learning, numerous studies focused on designing attractive videos to improve the quality of teaching. For an effective instructional video, whether a teacher should be present on the screen remained controversial. Therefore, the study conducted bibliometric analyses to review the previous evidence on the relationships between teacher presentation types and learning performance, attention distribution, and learning perceptions. The clustering results quantitatively proved that researchers paid more attention to the empirical studies on the effect of teacher presence. Both positive and negative influence of teacher presence on learning outcomes and perceptions has also been presented. Additionally, eye-tracking results showed that teachers attracted relatively more attention in teacher-present videos. Future studies should resort to more objective methods to address the controversy and emphasize the value of the individual difference to avoid one-size-fits-all presentation types, thus enhancing the quality of videos.
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In recent years the use of instructional videos with on-screen instructors has gained global popularity in college classrooms and across private industries. However, it is not clear if including the instructor on-screen in an instructional video provides any benefit to learners, and the research in the area has not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review to examine the impact of an on-screen instructor on learning and affect. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Our analysis of the results showed no consistent, compelling evidence that an instructor should be included on-screen in instructional videos, as non-significant and mixed results were pervasive throughout the literature. However, we also did not find convincing evidence to leave an instructor out of the instructional video, as some studies found that learners were more satisfied when the instructor was visually-present. We explore these results in more depth, highlight the need for more studies in the area, and outline potentially productive frameworks for systematic lines of research.
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In the first half of 2020, primary and secondary school teaching was transformed into online teaching in China, and the teaching effects have attracted considerable attention. This article collects relevant data on the effects of online learning among primary and middle school students through questionnaire surveys to study the impact of parents and teachers on learning effects, provide an experience for future online education and improve the quality of online education for primary and secondary school students in the future. Through empirical analysis, this article draws three main conclusions. First, parents improve students’ offline social presence, while teachers or classmates improve their online presence. Both changes have a significant positive impact on students’ subjective learning effects. Second, parents are more helpful with regard to the improvement of students’ objective learning effects. Third, in terms of age, parents have a greater influence on younger students. The innovation of this article is that the object of the study is primary and secondary school students. The article considers not only the role of teachers but also the role of parents, thereby filling gaps in the previous literature. JEL codes: I20, I21, I25
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Communicating clearly about their socially responsible activities is becoming increasingly important for companies, as a growing number of stakeholders with different goals, knowledge, and language skills seek information on corporate social responsibility (CSR). Furthermore, the ability to communicate clearly is particularly appreciated in the workplace. To fill a gap in CSR communication training, this article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of an interdisciplinary and multimodal online module whose goal is to train Dutch-speaking business students in the production of accessible CSR content in English. After presenting our module, we discuss its implications for future training and for corporate communication.
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In recent years, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, online classes have become a common way for teachers and students to have lessons. In order to improve the learning efficiency of online courses, teachers can help students improve classroom efficiency and academic performance by changing different instructional methods. This paper first reviews the previous research on teacher presentation and compares and lists the differences between this experiment and the previous paper. This paper mainly explores whether using online learning tools before class can improve students' English scores through experiments. After the online class, interviews are conducted with the students to further demonstrate the questionable sections of the research.
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Social presence is a critical social factor to be examined in distance education. The existing instrument, developed for non-computer-mediated communication, is unable to measure social presence in an online learning environment. Several studies have investigated social presence but an instrument appropriate for computer-mediated communication must be developed before cogent studies can be conducted. An analysis of the studies on social presence is accomplished leading to the development and validation of an instrument to measure social presence in the computer-mediated communication environment. This instrument was theoretically grounded in the dimensions derived from an extensive review of the literature and thus reflects a consensus of the perceptions of online social presence. The results indicate that social presence contains three dimensions, social context, online communication, and interactivity and, privacy.
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The authors tested the hypothesis that personalized messages in a multimedia science lesson can promote deep learning by actively engaging students in the elaboration of the materials and reducing processing load. Students received a multimedia explanation of lightning formation (Experiments 1 and 2) or played an agent-based computer game about environmental science (Experiments 3, 4, and 5). Instructional messages were presented in either a personalized style, where students received spoken or written explanations in the 1st- and 2nd-person points of view, or a neutral style, where students received spoken or written explanations in the 3rd-person point of view. Personalized rather than neutral messages produced better problem-solving transfer performance across all experiments and better retention performance on the computer game. The theoretical and educational implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How can cognitive load in visual displays of computer simulations be optimized? Middle-school chemistry students (N = 257) learned with a simulation of the ideal gas law. Visual complexity was manipulated by separating the display of the simulations in 2 screens (low complexity) or presenting all information on 1 screen (high complexity). The mode of visual representation in the simulation was manipulated by presenting important information in symbolic form only (symbolic representations) or by adding iconic information to the display (iconic + symbolic representations), locating the sliders controlling the simulation separated from the simulation or integrating them, and graphing either only the most recent simulation result or showing all results taken. Separated screen displays and the use of optimized visual displays each promoted comprehension and transfer, especially for low prior-knowledge learners. An expertise reversal effect was found for learners' prior general science knowledge. Results indicate that intrinsic and extraneous cognitive load in visual displays can be manipulated and that learners' prior knowledge moderates the effectiveness of these load manipulations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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When new information is presented to learners, it must be processed in a severely limited working memory. Learning reduces working memory limitations by enabling the use of schemas, stored in long-term memory, to process information more efficiently. Several instructional techniques have been designed to facilitate schema construction and automation by reducing working memory load. Recently, however, strong evidence has emerged that the effectiveness of these techniques depends very much on levels of learner expertise. Instructional techniques that are highly effective with inexperienced learners can lose their effectiveness and even have negative consequences when used with more experienced learners. We call this phenomenon the expertise reversal effect. In this article, we review the empirical literature on the interaction between instructional techniques and levels of learner experience that led to the identification of the expertise reversal effect.
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The results of two of our recent empirical studies were considered to assess the usefulness of subjective ratings and cardiovascular measures of mental effort in instructional research. Based on its reliability and sensitivity, the subjective rating-scale technique met the requirements to be useful in instructional research whereas the cardiovascular technique did not. It was concluded that the usefulness of both measurement techniques in instructional research needs to be investigated further.
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This chapter is divided into two parts. The first describes the effect of Pat Rabbitt's influence in encouraging the first author to use the increasingly sophisticated methods of ageing research to answer questions about the fundamental characteristics of working memory, together with reflections on why so little of this work reached publication. The second part presents a brief review of the literature on working memory and ageing, followed by an account of more recent work attempting to apply the traditional method of experimental dissociation to research on normal ageing and Alzheimer's disease. The discussion suggests that even such simple methods can throw light on both the processes of ageing and the understanding of working memory.
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The Study of Human Development PART 1: IN THE BEGINNING Biocultural Foundations Prenatal Development and Birth PART 2: INFANCY The First Three Months Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy Social and Emotional Development in Infancy PART 3: EARLY CHILDHOOD Language Acquisition Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Social and Emotional Development in Early Childhood Contexts of Development PART 4: MIDDLE CHILDHOOD Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood School as a Context for Development Social and Emotional Development in Middle Childhood PART 5: ADOLESCENCE Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Social and Emotional Development in Adolescence Appendix Glossary References Indexes
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This paper examines research on social presence theory and the implications for analyzing interaction, communication, collaborative learning, and the social context of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Two studies that examined whether social presence is largely an attribute of the communication medium or users' perception of the medium are discussed. It can be concluded from the results that even though CMC is considered to be a medium that is low in social context cues, it can be perceived as interactive, active, interesting, and stimulating by conference participants. However, it is the kind of interactions that take place between the participants, and the sense of community that is created during the conference, that will impact participants' perceptions of CMC as a "social" medium. Therefore, the impetus falls upon the moderators of computer conferences to create a sense of online community in order to promote interaction and collaborative learning.
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Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT). Across both experiments, students in Group AN outperformed students in Group AT in recalling the steps in the process on a retention test, in finding named elements in an illustration on a matching test, and in generating correct solutions to problems on a transfer test. Multimedia learners can integrate words and pictures more easily when the words are presented auditorily rather than visually. This split-attention effect is consistent with a dual-processing model of working memory consisting of separate visual and auditory channels.
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Students viewed a computer-generated animation depicting the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1) or the operation of a car's braking system (Experiment 2). In each experiment, students received either concurrent narration describing the major steps (Group AN) or concurrent on-screen text involving the same words and presentation timing (Group AT). Across both experiments, students in Group AN outperformed students in Group AT in recalling the steps in the process on a retention test, in finding named elements in an illustration on a matching test, and in generating correct solutions to problems on a transfer test. Multimedia learners can integrate words and pictures more easily when the words are presented auditorily rather than visually. This split-attention effect is consistent with a dual-processing model of working memory consisting of separate visual and auditory channels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reports findings on the use of a partly auditory and partly visual mode of presentation for geometry worked examples. The logic was based on the split-attention effect and the effect of presentation modality on working memory. The split-attention effect occurs when students must split their attention between multiple sources of information, which results in a heavy cognitive load. Presentation-modality effects suggest that working memory has partially independent processors for handling visual and auditory material. Effective working memory may be increased by presenting material in a mixed rather than a unitary mode. If so, the negative consequences of split attention in geometry might be ameliorated by presenting geometry statements in auditory, rather than visual, form. The results of 6 experiments supported this hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes a research instrument (the Verbalizer–Visualizer Questionnaire) which measures individual differences on a verbalizer–visualizer dimension of cognitive style. This 15-item true–false questionnaire was found, in 4 studies with right-handed high school and college students, to be unaffected by social desirability response bias and to have an acceptable level of test–retest stability. This questionnaire also showed statistically significant theoretically important associations with other experiential, behavioral, and physiological events. Its relation to eye movement responses has a systematic component, but the conditions which control this component require investigation in their own right. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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English-speaking college students who were enrolled in a German course read a 762-word German language story presented by a computer program. For key words in the story, students could choose to see a translation on the screen in English (i.e., verbal annotation) or view a picture or video clip representing the word (i.e., visual annotation), or both. Students remembered word translations better when they had selected both visual and verbal annotations during learning than only 1 or no annotation; students comprehended the story better when they had the opportunity to receive their preferred mode of annotation. Results are consistent with a generative theory of multimedia learning that assumes that learners actively select relevant verbal and visual information, organize the information into coherent mental representations, and integrate these newly constructed visual and verbal representations with one another. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How can animation be used to promote learner understanding of scientific and mathematical explanations? In this review, we examine the role of animation in multimedia learning (including multimedia instructional messages and microworld games), present a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, and summarize our program of research, which has yielded seven principles for the use of animation in multimedia instruction. These include the multimedia principle (present animation and narration rather than narration alone), spatial contiguity principle (present on-screen text near rather than far from corresponding animation), temporal contiguity principle (present corresponding animation and narration simultaneously rather than successively), coherence principle (exclude extraneous words, sounds, and video), modality principle (present animation and narration rather than animation and on-screen text), redundancy principle (present animation and narration rather than animation, narration, and on-screen text), and personalization principle (present words in conversational rather than formal style). Animation can promote learner understanding when used in ways that are consistent with the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.
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This paper is concerned with some of the factors that determine the difficulty of material that needs to be learned. It is suggested that when considering intellectual activities, schema acquisition and automation are the primary mechanisms of learning. The consequences of cognitive load theory for the structuring of information in order to reduce difficulty by focusing cognitive activity on schema acquisition is briefly summarized. It is pointed out that cognitive load theory deals with learning and problem solving difficulty that is artificial in that it can be manipulated by instructional design. Intrinsic cognitive load in contrast, is constant for a given area because it is a basic component of the material. Intrinsic cognitive load is characterized in terms of element interactivity. The elements of most schemas must be learned simultaneously because they interact and it is the interaction that is critical. If, as in some areas, interactions between many elements must be learned, then intrinsic cognitive load will be high. In contrast, in different areas, if elements can be learned successively rather than simultaneously because they do not interact, intrinsic cognitive load will be low. It is suggested that extraneous cognitive load that interferes with learning only is a problem under conditions of high cognitive load caused by high element interactivity. Under conditions of low element interactivity, re-designing instruction to reduce extraneous cognitive load may have no appreciable consequences. In addition, the concept of element interactivity can be used to explain not only why some material is difficult to learn but also, why it can be difficult to understand. Understanding becomes relevant when high element interactivity material with a naturally high cognitive load must be learned.
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This research was the first attempt to empirically evaluate visitors’ experience while browsing a Web site. A flow model was proposed and tested with the structural equation modeling method. It was found that in the context of human–computer interactions while browsing a Web site, flow experience was characterized by time distortion, enjoyment, and telepresence. There was adequate evidence to conclude that the interrelationships among elements of a Web site were closely related to people's flow experience. This research also found that flow experience while browsing a Web site influenced a number of important outcomes that are typically expected by Web site developers. First, when people are in a state of flow they tend to learn more about the content presented in the Web site. Second, the increased learning leads to changes of attitude and behavior, including taking positive actions.
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To be truly useful for media theory, the concept of presence should be applicable to all forms of virtual environments including those of traditional media like television and traditional content such as advertising. This study reports the results of an experiment on the effects of the visual angle of the display (sensory saturation) and room illumination (sensory suppression) on the sensation of telepresence during normal television viewing. A self-report measure of presence yielded two factors. Using [Gerrig's (1993)] terminology for the sense of being transported to a mediated environments, we labeled the two factors “arrival,” for the feeling of being there in the virtual environment, and “departure,” for the feeling of not being there in the in physical environment. It appears that being in the virtual environment is not equivalent to not being in the physical environment. A path analysis found that these two factors have very different relationships to viewer memory for the experience and for attitude change (i.e., buying intention and confidence in product decision). We theorize that the departure factor may be measuring the feeling that the medium has disappeared and may constitute a deeper absorption into the virtual environment. The study did not find evidence that visual angle and room illumination affected the sensation of telepresence
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This work presents a systematic analysis of the psychological phenomena associated with the concept of mental representations - also referred to as cognitive or internal representations. A major restatement of a theory the author of this book first developed in his 1971 book (Imagery and Verbal Processes), this book covers phenomena from the earlier period that remain relevant today but emphasizes cognitive problems and paradigms that have since emerged more fully. It proposes that performance in memory and other cognitive tasks is mediated not only by linguistic processes but also by a distinct nonverbal imagery model of thought as well. It discusses the philosophy of science associated with the dual coding approach, emphasizing the advantages of empiricism in the study of cognitive phenomena and shows that the fundamentals of the theory have stood up well to empirical challenges over the years.
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A variety of researches are examined from the standpoint of information theory. It is shown that the unaided observer is severely limited in terms of the amount of information he can receive, process, and remember. However, it is shown that by the use of various techniques, e.g., use of several stimulus dimensions, recoding, and various mnemonic devices, this informational bottleneck can be broken. 20 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Virtual reality (VR) is typically defined in terms of technological hardware. This paper attempts to cast a new, variable-based definition of virtual reality that can be used to classify virtual reality in relation to other media. The defintion of virtual reality is based on concepts of "presence" and "telepresence," which refer to the sense of being in an environment, generated by natural or mediated means, respectively. Two technological dimensions that contribute to telepresence, vividness and interactivity, are discussed. A variety of media are classified according to these dimensions. Suggestions are made for the application of the new definition of virtual reality within the field of communication research. s t ) - r technologies social responses to communication c SRCT Paper #104 Page 3 Jonathan Steuer Defining VR: Dimensions Determining Telepresence Defining Virtual Reality: Dimensions Determining Telepresence Virtual reality (VR) has typically been portrayed as a medium, l...
The social psychology of telecommunications Visitors' flow experience while browsing a web site: its measurement, contributing factors and consequences
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Short, J., Christie, B., & Williams, E. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. New York: Wiley. Skadberg, Y. X., & Kimmel, J. R. (2004). Visitors' flow experience while browsing a web site: its measurement, contributing factors and consequences. Computers in Human Behavior, 20, 403–422.
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Working memory: the multiple-component model Models of working memory: mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control
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Baddeley, A. D., & Logie, R. H. (1999). Working memory: the multiple-component model. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory: mechanisms of active maintenance and executive control (pp. 28–61).
Prior knowledge principle
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The expertise reversal effect
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