Male hubris and female humility? A crosscultural study of ratings of self, parental, and sibling multiple intelligence in America, Britain, and Japan

Article · January 2001with 1,975 Reads 
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Abstract
In this study, 213 American, 229 British, and 164 Japanese students estimated their own multiple IQ scores and that of their parents (mother and father) and siblings (first and second brother and sister). A Sex×Culture ANOVA on the three factors that underlie the seven intelligence types (verbal, numerical, cultural) showed consistent culture and many sex effects, but no interactions. Male participants rated their own overall IQ and that of their fathers, but not their mothers and sisters, higher than did female participants as predicted. Male participants also rated their numerical IQ, but not verbal or cultural IQ, higher than females. There were consistent and clear culture differences. The Americans rated their multiple IQ scores higher than the Japanese (around 6–10 points) with the British intermediate between the two. All participants rated their fathers' (and brothers') numerical IQ higher, and verbal IQ lower, than their mothers' and sisters', as found previously. Overall results showed consistency in the sex differences in ratings across cultures but differences in level of estimated IQ, possibly as a result of cultural demands for modesty.

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  • ... Two types of questionnaires have been commonly used in differentiating estimates of intelligence: one relies on the concept of general intelligence, or g (Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Byrd & Stacey, 1993), and the other on Gardner's (1983) concept of multiple intelligences, traditionally comprising seven dimensions (Fong & Martin, 1999;Furnham & Baguma, 1999;Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001;and Furnham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002). More recently, Gardner (Gardner, 1999) has added naturalistic, existentialist, and spiritual dimensions to his original seven (GMI). ...
    ... Studies have compared estimates of the original seven dimensions of Gardner's multiple intelligences among American and African respondents (Furnham & Baguma, 1999); among American, British, and Japanese respondents (Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001); among British, Hawaiian, and Chinese-Singaporean respondents (Furnham, Fong & Martin, 1999); and among British and Iranian respondents (Furnaham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002). Some of the differences in findings among these studies relate to self-estimates for the logical, spatial, musical, and intrapersonal dimensions. ...
    ... Mean ratings were obtained for estimates of GMI and the logical and spatial dimensions of GMI. Table 1 reports the means for eight national groups, as obtained in seven previously published studies (Beloff, 1992;Byrd & Stacey, 1993;Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Rammstedt & Rammsayer, 2000;Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001;Furnham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002) and the present study. GMI self-estimates were nonsignificantly higher for females than males; GMI estimates were lower for mothers than fathers. ...
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  • ... In the present study, we examined cross-cultural differences in SAI between British and Chinese undergraduates. This is important because, although previous work has examined SAI among East Asian populations (e.g., Japanese: Furnham et al., 2001;Hong Kong Chinese: Yuen & Furnham, 2005) as well as conceptions of intelligence among Chinese respondents (e.g., Biggs & Watkins, 1996;Stevenson & Lee, 1996;Zhang & Wu, 1994), to our knowledge no previous work has examined SAI among mainland Chinese. As such, this study adds to extant studies by focusing on a population that remains relatively under-represented in the SAI literature. ...
    ... Nonverbal-logical intelligence was added because previous work has shown that Chinese respondents rate verbal skills as less important than their Western counterparts (Chen & Chen, 1988), whereas emotional 1 Although the distinction between individualism and collectivism remains one of the most prominent constructs in cross-cultural psychology (e.g., Vandello & Cohen, 1999), at least one recent review concluded that cultural differences these constructs "were neither as large nor as systematic as often perceived" (Oyserman, Coon, & Kemmelmeier, 2002). This appears to be an ongoing debate within cross-cultural psychology (e.g., see Schimmack, Oishi, & Diener, 2005), and our view here is that collectivism is likely to be related to lower SAI, as evidenced in previous work (e.g., Furnham et al., 2001;Yuen & Furnham, 2005). intelligence has not been previously examined in the context of SAI. ...
    ... As predicted, the present study also revealed cross-cultural differences in SAI, although these were limited to higher SAI among Britons compared with Chinese participants on overall and nonverbal-logical intelligences. The suggestion of a 'modesty bias' among Chinese participants relative to Britons is consistent with previous work among similar populations (e.g., Furnham et al., 1999Furnham et al., , 2001Swami et al., 2006;Yuen & Furnham, 2005) and can be explained as a function of the lower likelihood of selfenhancing among members of collectivist cultures. In addition to cultural differences in individualism-collectivism, Chinese respondents in particular may also hold specific beliefs about intelligence that enhance self-effacing biases. ...
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    The present study examined self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in Britain and mainland China. In total, 102 British and 111 Chinese undergraduates estimated their overall intelligence as well as 14 other multiple intelligences. Results showed that men had higher SAI on overall, linguistic, mathematical-logical, creative, and nonverbal-logical intelligences. In addition, Britons had higher SAI than Chinese on overall, linguistic, mathematical-logical, and nonverbal-logical intelligences. These results support a male hubris-female humility bias and a cultural modesty effect in self assessments of multiple intelligence.
  • ... Prior work has suggested that on self-report measures of ability, men tend to overclaim their levels of ability, while women tend to underclaim (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001). However, Furnham, Hosoe, et al. (2001) did not assess ability directly; therefore, it is possible that men's higher claims of ability are due to gender differences in actual ability and thus do not represent overclaiming. ...
    ... Prior work has suggested that on self-report measures of ability, men tend to overclaim their levels of ability, while women tend to underclaim (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001). However, Furnham, Hosoe, et al. (2001) did not assess ability directly; therefore, it is possible that men's higher claims of ability are due to gender differences in actual ability and thus do not represent overclaiming. Although the present study was not designed to test this hypothesis, this possibility was assessed indirectly by comparing the effect sizes of the gender differences in ASC to the effect sizes of the gender differences in the three SAT scores (math, verbal, and writing). ...
    ... An interesting finding in the present study is the fact that the effect sizes for the gender differences in SAT math and writing scores were similar to the effect sizes for the gender differences in maximal math and verbal ASC, respectively. This runs counter to reports from Marsh et al. (1988) that gender differences in ability did not fully account for gender differences in ASC, and to the suggestion by Furnham, Hosoe, et al. (2001) that men tend to overestimate their abilities while women tend to underestimate. An additional result that was interesting, especially in light of the mean gender differences, is that across genders, the correlations between ASC scores and academic indicators were mostly similar. ...
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  • ... Two types of questionnaires have been commonly used in differentiating estimates of intelligence: one relies on the concept of general intelligence, or g (Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Byrd & Stacey, 1993), and the other on Gardner's (1983) concept of multiple intelligences, traditionally comprising seven dimensions (Fong & Martin, 1999;Furnham & Baguma, 1999;Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001;and Furnham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002). More recently, Gardner (Gardner, 1999) has added naturalistic, existentialist, and spiritual dimensions to his original seven (GMI). ...
    ... Studies have compared estimates of the original seven dimensions of Gardner's multiple intelligences among American and African respondents (Furnham & Baguma, 1999); among American, British, and Japanese respondents (Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001); among British, Hawaiian, and Chinese-Singaporean respondents (Furnham, Fong & Martin, 1999); and among British and Iranian respondents (Furnaham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002). Some of the differences in findings among these studies relate to self-estimates for the logical, spatial, musical, and intrapersonal dimensions. ...
    ... Mean ratings were obtained for estimates of GMI and the logical and spatial dimensions of GMI. Table 1 reports the means for eight national groups, as obtained in seven previously published studies (Beloff, 1992;Byrd & Stacey, 1993;Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Rammstedt & Rammsayer, 2000;Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001;Furnham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002) and the present study. GMI self-estimates were nonsignificantly higher for females than males; GMI estimates were lower for mothers than fathers. ...
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    This study investigated lay perceptions of intelligence among Lebanese university students. Gardner’s multiple intelligence questionnaire was administered to a sample of 548 students. They were asked to estimate their own, their mother’s, and their father’s intelligence. The study investigated whether gender and academic-major dif erences would appear for respondents' selfestimates of Gardner's multiple intelligences and for their estimates of Gardner's spatial and logical dimensions for their fathers and mothers, using the parents' educational levels as a covariate. Main gender ef ects were found for the estimates of father's and mother's intelligence, with father's and mother's educational levels as a covariate. Interaction ef ects were found between gender and major, with females in business rating father's intelligence higher than males. Fathers received higher ratings overall than mothers
  • ... We start by shortly reviewing the relevant literature about gender differences in creative self-beliefs. In particular, we look for possible causes of the so-called "male-hubrisfemale-humility bias" (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002) and show that males tend to overestimate their abilities, while females underestimate them. We theorize that this bias may be (at least partially) caused by differences in teachers' expectations regarding male and female students' creativity, which, consequently, stem from gender stereotypes (Baer & Kaufman, 2008) and teachers' implicit theories of creativity in press). ...
    ... Despite the lack of systematic intergender differences in the average creative potential (Baer & Kaufman, 2008;Harris, 2004, but see Karwowski et al., in press, for a discussion about intergender differences in variability of creative potential), males' advantage over females in real-word creative accomplishment is well-established (Abra & Valentine-French, 1991;Helson, 1990;Piirto, 2004), similarly to more positive creative self-beliefs among men, which came to be known as the male hubris-female humility bias (Furnham et al., 2002;Karwowski, 2011). Domain-specific analyses show that men are inclined to assess their creative abilities higher than women in science-analytic creativity (Kaufman, 2006), problem solving (Hughes, Furnham, & Batey, 2013), and creativity in sports (Hughes et al., 2013;Kaufman, 2006), whereas women assess their creative abilities higher in the social area (Kaufman, 2006) and the arts (Hughes et al., 2013;Kaufman, 2006). ...
    ... The first variable was the level of creativity estimated on an IQ-type scale (M = 100, SD = 15). Teachers were provided with a short explanation of normal curve characteristics and asked to assess the creativity of each student in the class by using this scale (see Furnham et al., 2002;Kaufman, 2012, for a similar approach). The second question asked teachers to assess whether each of the students in the class "had a lot of ideas," using a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 = not at all, and 5 = definitely yes. ...
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    Creative self-beliefs, such as creative self-efficacy, predict creative activity and achievement. Still little is known, however, about the factors that shape such self-beliefs. Drawing on Bandura's sociocognitive theory, this longitudinal study tests the role of teachers' expectations on students' domain-specific creative self-efficacy. Teachers' ratings of students' creativity were substantially related to students' creative self-perception a semester later and this effect was significantly stronger among female than male students. We discuss these findings in terms of the accuracy of teachers' beliefs and the consequences of their influence on students' creative self-perception.
  • ... In this paper, we suggest and test a novel mechanism that contributes to gender disparities in founding rates. We draw on research showing that entrepreneurship is driven by the degree to which founder's persist in the face of favorable or unfavorable conditions (Gimeno et al. 1997, Hayward et al. 2006, as well as research on gender differences related to assessments of success (Beyer 1990, Furnham et al. 2002 to suggest that female founders will be less likely to engage in serial entrepreneurship when their first attempts fail, decreasing the likelihood that they become successful entrepreneurs. However, while women are less likely to engage in low quality entrepreneurship in the face of failure, they are also less encouraged than men by prior success, which would result in a reduction in serial entrepreneurial activity associated with high quality opportunities, further decreasing the rate of successful female entrepreneurs. ...
    ... The degree of persistence in the face of positive and negative signals are important to the question of founding rates because they appear to vary greatly by gender. The "male hubris, female humility" effect has been repeatedly identified in many studies and contexts: men consistently overestimate their own abilities while women consistently underestimate theirs (Beyer and Bowden 1997, Beyer 1990, 1998, Cross and Madson 1997, Furnham et al. 2002). These findings have been shown to be "universal" across multiple cultures (Furnham et al. 2002). ...
    ... The "male hubris, female humility" effect has been repeatedly identified in many studies and contexts: men consistently overestimate their own abilities while women consistently underestimate theirs (Beyer and Bowden 1997, Beyer 1990, 1998, Cross and Madson 1997, Furnham et al. 2002). These findings have been shown to be "universal" across multiple cultures (Furnham et al. 2002). ...
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    Men are far more likely to start new ventures than women. We argue that one explanation of this gap is that women respond differently to signals of past entrepreneurial success due to the “male hubris, female humility” effect. We argue that as a result women are disproportionately less likely to persist in second founding attempts than men when they have succeeded or failed by large margins. Using a data set of serial founders in crowdfunding, we find evidence supporting this prediction. We then turn to a unique survey of founders in crowdfunding in order to examine alternative explanations. We find support for a variety of systematic differences between male and female founders, but the persistence effect remains. While decreased persistence in the face of low quality opportunities benefits women individually, we argue that it disadvantages women as a group, as it leads to 25.3% fewer female-led foundings in our sample than would have occurred if women reacted similarly to men.
  • ... Two types of questionnaires have been commonly used in differentiating estimates of intelligence: one relies on the concept of general intelligence, or g (Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Byrd & Stacey, 1993), and the other on Gardner's (1983) concept of multiple intelligences, traditionally comprising seven dimensions (Fong & Martin, 1999;Furnham & Baguma, 1999;Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001;and Furnham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002). More recently, Gardner (Gardner, 1999) has added naturalistic, existentialist, and spiritual dimensions to his original seven (GMI). ...
    ... Studies have compared estimates of the original seven dimensions of Gardner's multiple intelligences among American and African respondents (Furnham & Baguma, 1999); among American, British, and Japanese respondents (Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001); among British, Hawaiian, and Chinese-Singaporean respondents (Furnham, Fong & Martin, 1999); and among British and Iranian respondents (Furnaham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002). Some of the differences in findings among these studies relate to self-estimates for the logical, spatial, musical, and intrapersonal dimensions. ...
    ... Mean ratings were obtained for estimates of GMI and the logical and spatial dimensions of GMI. Table 1 reports the means for eight national groups, as obtained in seven previously published studies (Beloff, 1992;Byrd & Stacey, 1993;Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Rammstedt & Rammsayer, 2000;Furnham, Hosoe & Tang, 2001;Furnham, Shahidi & Baluch, 2002) and the present study. GMI self-estimates were nonsignificantly higher for females than males; GMI estimates were lower for mothers than fathers. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
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  • ... Average team age was included because humility has been theorized to be valued more by older people (Tangney, 2000). Leaders' age, gender, and tenure as team leader were included as they relate to several aspects of leadership (e.g., Barbuto, Fritz, Matkin, & Marx, 2007;Gilbert, Collins, & Brenner, 1990 (Furnham et al., 2001). Team size (number of employees) was included as it can influence team processes (e.g., Carson, Tesluk, & Marrone, 2007) and have possible impact on team PsyCap (Dawkins et al., 2015;Meneghel et al., 2016). ...
    ... ). They also relate to humility (e.g.,Exline & Hill, 2012;Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001;Owens & Hekman, 2012;Owens et al., 2013) and may influence leaders' descriptions of themselves and their teams. Percent female within the team was included because literature suggests that females show more humility than males ...
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    We hypothesize that (a) the level of humility expressed by leaders predicts team performance through, serially, team humility and team PsyCap, and (b) the strength (i.e., consensus within the team) of the leader humility, team humility and team PsyCap moderates the paths of that hypothesized model. A sample comprising 82 teams (82 leaders; 332 team members) was collected. Team members reported leader humility, team humility and team PsyCap. Leaders reported team performance. To handle the risks of common method bias, each mediating path of the hypothesized model is based on data from two different subsamples within each team. Our model’s most novel theoretical contribution is the (moderated mediated) connection between leader humility, collective humility, and team PsyCap, and this was consistently supported in our data. Our inconsistent findings dealing with the relationship between team PsyCap and performance is well established in the literature and our results in both sub-samples were in the theorized direction. The study contributes to understand why, how and when humble leaders are more effective.
  • ... The results of several large studies (e.g., Colom et al., 2000;Colom and García-López, 2002; see also a review by Halpern and LaMay, 2000) have demonstrated that men and women are equivalent with reference to their general intelligence. However, men have been found to rate their own numerical IQ and their overall IQ higher than women do when it comes to self-estimated intelligence ( Furnham et al., 2001;Ortner et al., 2011; see also a meta-analysis by Syzmanowicz and Furnham, 2011). Furnham et al. (2001) discussed the sex differences in self-estimations as influenced by lay conceptions about general intelligence and mathematical and spatial abilities, which are male normative. ...
    ... However, men have been found to rate their own numerical IQ and their overall IQ higher than women do when it comes to self-estimated intelligence ( Furnham et al., 2001;Ortner et al., 2011; see also a meta-analysis by Syzmanowicz and Furnham, 2011). Furnham et al. (2001) discussed the sex differences in self-estimations as influenced by lay conceptions about general intelligence and mathematical and spatial abilities, which are male normative. Such widely known stereotypes are supposed to impair the targets of these stereotypes, in this case women, and can be a driver of sex disparities when it comes to a high-stakes test situation. ...
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  • ... There are also specific measures designed to assess an individual's tendency toward "overclaiming" (e.g., Paulhus, Harms, Bruce, & Lysy, 2003;Ziegler, Kemper, & Rammstedt, 2013). In addition, there have been assertions made that, on average, men tend to overestimate their abilities, and women tend to underestimate their abilitiesa phenomenon referred to as "male hubris/female humility" (e.g., see Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002). ...
    ... As a result, these kinds of measures have been endorsed as providing an accurate representation of an individual's propensity toward selfenhancement (e.g., see Paulhus et al., 2003;Ziegler et al., 2013). Such measures have also been used to address patterns of the accuracy of subjective judgments of ability, and to assess gender differences in hubris/humility regarding self-reported abilities (for a discussion of this concept, see Furnham et al., 2002). However, two central problems confound the interpretation of such scales. ...
    Article
    Extant measures that purport to assess overclaiming of an individual's knowledge provide checklists of real and bogus items, and typically assess overclaiming on the basis of the number of bogus items endorsed by the respondents. Such measures have two salient shortcomings. First, the procedure for selecting foils (e.g., that may sound familiar to respondents) may influence the likelihood of endorsement — such as the use of ‘attractive distractors.’ Second, real items endorsed by the respondents are not necessarily ‘true’ indicators of the individual's knowledge, but confound knowledge with self-enhancement, because there is no assessment of the individual's actual knowledge. We present a study of overclaiming of vocabulary knowledge that provides a signal detection theory assessment, including self-claimed knowledge and an objective test of knowledge. Ability, personality, self-concept and other predictors were assessed, along with gender. Self-claimed vocabulary knowledge was highly correlated with objectively assessed knowledge. In contrast to investigations without explicit checks on actual knowledge, current results indicated that higher ability individuals evidenced slightly greater overclaiming than lower ability individuals.
  • ... 9 In this study, arrogance is operationalized simply as the conceptual opposite of humility. example, humility has been operationalized as low self-esteem (Knight & Nadel, 1986;Weiss & Knight, 1980) and the negative difference between self and other evaluations (i.e., evaluating self lower than others, Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001). But these two operationalizations fail to capture the virtuous view of humility mentioned above. ...
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    In this chapter, we explore the meaning and relevance of humility within the context of organizations. After briefly reviewing the history of the construct of humility and synthesizing past definitions of humility, we discuss extant research exploring the impact of humility on individual performance, prosocial behavior, team processes, and leadership. We conclude by discussing the potential boundary conditions for the usefulness of humility in organizations and offering ideas for future research.
  • ... The reason why there are mathematicallogical and social differences by the male over females may be the Turkish culture's ethical values. In the research conducted by Furnham, Hosoe and Tang (2002), it is found that the male students scored higher in logicalmathematical intelligence than the females. In the research conducted by Hamurcu and others, it is also found that the male students scored higher in logicalmathematical intelligence than the females. ...
  • ... Both psychology and business research has reported that men consistently overestimate their abilities and subsequent performance, while women routinely underestimate both (Kay & Shipman, 2014a;Reuben, 2011). Studies completed in over 30 countries have shown a female humility and male hubris effect in estimates of intelligence, with men inclined to rate their overall intelligence significantly higher than do women (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001). Gender role stereotypes may play a part in a more general "female humility and male hubris" phenomenon, since people tend to define and measure intelligence as well as leadership competence in male terms. ...
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    Informed by extant literature, we develop a framework of women’s leadership development that integrates the key factors affecting women’s leadership development (challenging organizational contexts, work-life integration and career/life-stage concerns) and the characteristics of women’s leadership presence. We define leadership presence as a combination of a woman’s unique voice, style of engagement, and positive contributions—composed of her self-confidence, self-efficacy, influence, and authenticity. We apply the framework to three composite executive coaching scenarios developed from our collective executive coaching experiences. The applications illustrate how a coach’s guiding questions, focused on appropriate combinations of key factors and leadership presence developmental needs, can effectively facilitate women’s leadership development. Practical implications for executive coaching practice as well as directions for future research are discussed.
  • ... In order to understand the construct clearly and achieve a solid construct conceptualization, researchers must first define a construct in unambiguous terms with a clear, concise conceptual definition and in a positive direction without circular or tautological argument (Edwards and Bagozzi 2000;Jarvis et al. 2003;MacKenzie et al. 2011). Monetary Intelligence (MI) is a type of social intelligence, similar to emotional intelligence (EI) (Engelberg and Sjoberg 2006;Fox and Spector 2000;Furnham et al. 2002;Goleman 1995;Mayer et al. 1999;Petrides and Furnham 2001;Wong and Law 2002), cultural intelligence (CI) (Earley and Mosakowski 2004), and coping intelligence (Srivastava and Tang 2015). The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Trait Emotional Intelligence meet the criteria of a standard intelligence scale (Mayer et al. 1999;Petrides et al. 2004). ...
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    Monetary Intelligence Theory asserts that individuals apply their money attitude to frame critical concerns in the context and strategically select certain options to achieve financial goals and ultimate happiness. This study explores the bright side of Monetary Intelligence and behavioral economics, frames money attitude in the context of pay and life satisfaction, and controls money at the macro (GDP per capita) and micro levels (Z income). We theorize: Managers with low love of money motive but high stewardship behavior will have high subjective well-being: pay satisfaction and quality of life. Data collected from 6,586 managers in 32 cultures across six continents support our theory. Interestingly, GDP per capita is related to life satisfaction, but not to pay satisfaction. Individual income is related to both life and pay satisfaction. Neither GDP nor income is related to Happiness (money makes people happy). Our theoretical model across three GDP groups offers new discoveries: In high GDP (rich) entities, “high income” not only reduces aspirations—“Rich, Motivator, and Power”, but also promotes stewardship behavior—“Budget, Give/Donate, and Contribute” and appreciation of “Achievement”. After controlling income, we demonstrate the bright side of Monetary Intelligence: Low love of money motive but high stewardship behavior define Monetary Intelligence. “Good apples enjoy good quality of life in good barrels”. This notion adds another explanation to their low magnitude of dishonesty (risk aversion for gains of high probability) (Tang et al. 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s10551-015-2942-4). In low GDP (poor) entities, high income is related to poor Budgeting skills and escalated Happiness. These managers experience equal satisfaction with pay and life. We add a new vocabulary to the conversation of monetary intelligence, income, GDP, happiness, subjective well-being, good and bad apples and barrels, corruption, and behavioral ethics.
  • ... The different treatment of female and male students may be responsible for the often observed differences in creative self-beliefs among boys and girls (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002;Karwowski, 2011). Despite the lack of systematic differences in the level of creative potential between women and men (Baer & Kaufman, 2008), a tendency for higher creative self-efficacy among men, referred to as "male-female hubris humility bias," was already observed (Beghetto, 2006;Karwowski, 2011;Karwowski, Lebuda, Wisniewska, & Gralewski, 2013). ...
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    We examine the structure of implicit theories of creativity among Polish high schools teachers and the role those theories play for the accuracy of teachers' assessment of their students' creativity. Latent class analysis revealed the existence of four classes of teachers, whose perception of a creative student differed: two of these classes defined a creative student incoherently with the existing theories of creativity, and the other two classes did that in accordance with Kirton's (1976) theory of creativity styles, that is, as adaptors or innovators. Teachers who perceived a creative student as an adaptor tended to more accurately assess the creativity of females, whereas teachers perceiving a creative student as an innovator more accurately assessed the creativity of males. We discuss the theoretical and practical consequences of these findings.
  • ... . Ms Charest is the only woman CEO in our sample for misreporting firms. This seems to contradict the argument put forward byFurnham et al. (2002) andFurnham (2005) as to the contrasting hubristic tendencies of women and men. However, while there is some evidence that men may be more hubristic than women, it is often based on tasks and experiments which limit their generalization. ...
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    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how the tension between a firm’s CEO power features and externally observable hubris attributes may determine the likelihood of financial misreporting. Design/methodology/approach – The analyses are based on a sample of 16 Canadian firms for which there were formal accusations of financial reporting fraud filed by securities regulators, assorted with regulatory sanctions; as well as 16 firms matched on industry and size with no evidence of financial misreporting. Findings – The findings suggest that firms accused of financial misreporting exhibit features of strong CEO power and hubris as reflected in their relations with the self, others and the world. Governance mechanisms do not seem to be effective in detecting or preventing financial misreporting, with independent boards of directors proving especially ineffectual. Social implications – The findings suggest that formal governance processes may get coopted by a CEO with hubristic tendencies. Originality/value – While the tentative model is more explanatory than predictive, it opens up a new research area as it brings the concept of hubris into accounting research.
  • ... These results create an opposite situation with our study. Furnham et al. (2002) conducted a study with British, American and Japanese participants aimed at identifying intelligence types. As a result of this study, no significant difference was found between men and women in the field of verbal linguistic intelligence. ...
  • ... There are some studies that focused on actual, psychometrically measured intelligence among Korean people (Lynn & Song, 1994), but no studies appear to have been done on self-estimated intelligence. There are a few self-estimated intelligence studies which looked at people in Asian countries including China (Zhang & Gong, 2001), Hong Kong (Yuen & Furnham, 2005) and Japan (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001). ...
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    This study set out to examine gender and personality effects on self-estimated multiple intelligence. In all, 124 Koreans made self-estimates of 24 different kinds of intelligence. They also completed a short personality test. Results showed that males gave higher estimates than females on many different types of intelligence. Openness to experience, agreeableness and neuroticism were found to correlate with self-estimated intelligence. Income and education were also correlated with various self-estimated intelligence measures, but not overall self-estimated intelligence. The different intelligences factored into interpretable dimensions. Results were similar to those from different countries. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.
  • ... A large body of research done in many different countries indicates that males consistently tend to estimate their intelligence, especially mathematical and spatial abilities, significantly higher than females (Furnham, 2001;Swami & Furnham, 2010) Studies on gender differences in intelligence ratings of others show the same pattern as self-ratings but with less significant "discriminatory" trends. People's ratings of their mothers', grandmothers' and daughters' intelligence tend to be significantly lower than those of their fathers', grandfathers' and sons', respectively (Bennet, 1996;Furnham et al., 2001;Furnham & Rawles, 1995;Neto & Furnham, 2011). Moreover, most studies looking at the estimated intelligence of others have been based on real people (relatives, famous people) rather than on experimentally manipulated, hypothetical "target" people. ...
    Article
    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.
  • ... Furnham and Baguma [27] found a significant national difference between American and Africans on the mean score for Gardner's [6] seven multiple intelligences; White Americans reported a higher mean estimate on the logical and spatial component (mathematical) and musical and bodily kinesthetic (cultural), while Africans rated higher verbal IQ. Furnham et al. [28] compared American, British and Japanese students on three factors that underlie Gardner's seven multiple intelligences. Males' self-estimates of intelligence were higher than those for females across cultures, where Americans gave the highest estimates followed by British and Japanese. ...
    Article
    A sample of 648 Lebanese and 252 Indian students estimated their intelligences based on Gardner's 10 multiple intelligence. Males rated higher their body kinesthetic and religious dimension (spiritual) while females rated higher their verbal and intra-personal estimates of intelligence. Using the educational level of the parent, no significant correlation with self-estimates of intelligence for each of the national samples was reported. Differences appeared between Indian and Lebanese samples on the cognitive components of intelligences, namely, verbal, spatial and logical abilities. ANOVA results showed that a higher logical component higher than their female counterparts and Indian males and females.
  • ... Behavioral and ambiguity uncertainties can be addressed in a number of ways. Individual traits such as always saying "yes [255,256,257,258]," and group behaviors such as Groupthink [259,260,261,262,263] can be addressed or mitigated. Dysfunctional teams can be transformed into high-performing teams that produce good results. ...
    Technical Report
    Full-text available
    Complex systems engineering projects are increasingly prevalent in our world. Technical requirements for complex systems usually break out individual subsystems parameters. For instance, each subsys- tem on a spacecraft can be assigned target mass, volume, power consumption, and other technical requirements. These tangible variables are often traded between subsystems engineers to maximize subsystem design utility. This in turn helps to maximize overall system utility. Design margins are also often assigned to these design variables during early stages of the design process. Risk, reliability, robustness, and uncertainty have until this point not been part of subsystems param- eter trading and design margins. This research aims to formalize a method of trading and margining these design variables among subsystems with the end eect of maximizing system utility and system integrity. Further, this research will investigate how dierent stakeholders in the complex system de- sign process value and perceive risk, reliability, robustness, and uncertainty. This research will also be extended to examine the role culture plays in the valuation of these variables. This paper presents a literature synthesis on the topics of the methods and tools of design Trade Studies, and the research and practice of risk and uncertainty in collaborative design and model based engineering. Initial thoughts are presented on how to incorporate risk and uncertainty into Trade Studies in collaborative design environments. A summary of future areas of research is included. Expected contributions of the overall research and a rough plan are outlined.
  • ... Second, prior studies find that women exhibit less overconfidence in decision-making (see, e.g., Estes and Hosseini (1988)) and less hubris about their abilities (e.g., Furnham, Hosoe and Tang (2002)). In a corporate setting, Huang and Kisgen (2013) find that female executives display lower overconfidence by making fewer acquisitions and debt issuances. ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    We use a unique hand-collected dataset on corporate lawsuits to examine the effect of female representation in top management on corporate litigation. We find that firms with higher representation of women in the top management team face fewer lawsuits overall, particularly lawsuits related to product liability, environment, medical liability, labor and contracts. These results continue to hold under several alternative specifications and accounting for endogeneity using a novel instrument. The results are driven by the presence of multiple women in top management positions and are likely due to gender diversity in top management rather than an artifact of tokenism. Among firms with higher litigation risk, greater representation of female executives positively impacts the value of cash holdings. Overall, our results uncover an important and previously unidentified benefit of gender diversity in top management.
  • ... Second, we did not have demographic information for participants. Previous research has found that men perceive themselves to be more creative than women (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001; Karwowski, 2011; Karwowski, Gralewski, & Szumski, 2015) and men are also perceived by others as being more creative than women (Lau & Li, 1996; Proudfoot, Kay, & Koval, 2015 ). Last, we only used one conceptualization of friendship: friendship strength. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between friendship ties and creativity. Based on the homophily hypothesis, we predicted friendship ties would more likely occur between people similar to each other on creativity-related attributes. We also predicted students would be more likely to report friendship ties with peers who have higher creativity scores in general. Across a pilot and primary study, we examined the relationship between friendship strength among high school students in a pilot study (Study 1) and friendship nominations among elementary school students in a primary study (Study 2) with creativity. In Study 2, but not Study 1, we found that friendship nominations were more likely to occur when scores on a creativity task were similar. In both studies, we found that popularity was positively related to originality (Study 1) and creativity (Study 2). The results indicate that elementary school students nominated peers as friends who are similar to them when it comes to creativity and that there is a positive relationship between popularity and creativity
  • ... Barber and Odean [2001] examined the trading pattern of investors and found that men trade 45% more frequently than women; they concluded that men are more overconf ident relative to women. Furnham, Hosoe, and Tang [2002] reported that women exhibit less hubris about their abilities. ...
  • ... I controlled for participant's sex because previous research has suggested that females tend to be more humble than males (Furnham et al., 2002;Owens et al., 2013). Furthermore, women receive less recognition for their achievements than men do and often deflect attention off of themselves (Fels, 2004). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Although experts are valuable assets to organizations, they suffer from the curse of knowledge and cognitive entrenchment, which prevents them from being able to adapt to changing situational demands. In this study, I propose that experts’ performance goal orientation resulting from pressures to perform contributes to their flexibility, but this mechanism can be moderated by learning goal orientation and humility. Data from a small sample of healthcare professionals suggested that performance goal orientation partially explained the mechanism of why experts may be inflexible. Humility, both as self-report and other-report measures, was found to be the most consistent moderator of this indirect effect. Experts with low levels of humility suffered from the negative effects of performance goal orientation, leading them to be less flexible compared to their counterparts with higher levels of humility. Experts who reported high levels of humility, on the other hand, were perceived to be more flexible as their expertise increased. Meanwhile, learning goal orientation partially moderated the indirect effect of expertise on flexibility through performance goal orientation. These findings lead to new conversations on how to get experts unstuck and highlight the importance of developing humility as both a personal virtue and a strategic advantage for organizations.
  • ... We note there are limitations of using a single item survey with self-reported knowledge measures. The majority of respondents to our survey were male, and studies have shown that males tend to over-rate their knowledge, skills, grades, etc and females tend to under-rate their performance [29]. It does appear, however, among stakeholders, increased understanding of the animals increased understanding of the regulatory context of their recovery and repellents as a socially acceptable means of managing the conflict. ...
    Article
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    The recovery of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) populations is an environmental success story, but it has created new challenges given their interactions with sport fisherman. Economic losses to the Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel (CPFV) stems both from the loss of fish, as well as the costs of fuel and time spent traveling to new fishing areas to avoid pinnipeds. Management solutions require a firm understanding of the public's perceptions of an issue. To address this shortcoming, we surveyed recreational anglers' perceptions of California sea lions and conducted a content analysis of media coverage of California sea lions in Southern Californian newspapers. We found that as anglers' knowledge of California sea lions increased, their subjective knowledge of the Marine Mammal Protection Act increased as well and they were less likely to advocate the use of lethal removal to manage sea lion issues. Avid fishers were more likely to consider shooting all sea lions as acceptable, and less likely to view controls to restrict human activity from sea lion areas as favorable. Anglers that expressed negative sentiments after an interaction with sea lions while fishing were more likely to view punishing the sea lion favorably, but less likely to view exposing the sea lions to pain as favorable. Our content analysis showed that most articles were about tourism and entertainment and the majority of articles focused on negative effects to sea lions. The media's framing might obscure the successful recovery of California sea lions and flame growing management concerns with stakeholders like anglers, dock workers, and marina occupants. Our survey showed that among stakeholders, increased understanding of the animals increased understanding of the regulatory context of their recovery and repellents as a socially acceptable means of managing the conflict. Thus, we have shown that knowledge among the public and stakeholders will enhance management efforts. Conservation management professionals can influence public attitudes by interacting with the media as well as using communications strategies that highlight the ecological mechanisms behind the conflict as well as the management actions.
  • ... Hubris. It is also possible that a high-performing firm would consider outcomes in a "gain framework" based on its positive past experiencedue to CEOs' hubris (Hayward et al., 2004;Piazza and Castellucci, 2014) or due to simple complacency that could have built over time by a history of prior successes (Bothner et al., 2008) or gender differences (Furnham et al., 2001). In this case, the observed preference of high-status CEOs for high-risk/high-visibility projects would imply that high-status CEOs would tend to fail more often than their low-status counterparts and incur substantial status losses due to their excessive risk seeking. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    A failure of a large corporate investment project launched by a CEO may affect not only CEO's bonus and equity holdings, but also personal status and future career prospects. Yet, Merton's (1968) “Matthew Effect” would suggest that the risks and benefits associated with risky investment projects may be different for CEOs of different status. High-status CEOs are better able to decouple their status from their firm's performance failure and are in a better position to claim credit for the firm's successes. On the other hand, given that third parties have greater reluctance to accept quality claims of low-status actors, lower status CEOs might not receive a commensurate credit for the success of a project, but might be exposed to a disproportionate amount of blame in case of project failure. Since actors are usually aware of the presence of the Matthew Effect in their field, we can expect that the differential outcomes produced by it will be factored into actors' expected utility calculations, affecting CEOs' attitudes to risk and visibility of their investment prospects. The findings from a 19-year sample of U.S.-based cellular telephone operators provide support for the theorized relationship between the Matthew Effect and CEOs' investment choices.
  • ... On the basis of previous research (see, e.g., Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002;Lee & Ashton, 2004;McCormick, Tanguma, & Lopez-Forment, 2003;Prime, Jonsen, Carter, & Maznevski, 2008), one might have expected this study to find differences in perceptions of leader effectiveness, confidence, and/or humility according to the sex of the principal and/or teacher. Somewhat surprising, such differences were not found. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Humility in leadership has received growing scholarly attention in recent years. However, the literature is devoid of empirical studies of the relationship between humility, confidence (an attribute consistently linked to effective leadership) and leader effectiveness. This quantitative study examined the understudied relationships among these three concepts. In this study, 137 teachers from K-12 educational settings completed a survey measuring their perceptions of their principals' confidence, humility and leader effectiveness. Results showed that humility and confidence were strongly and positively related to each other and to leader effectiveness. The findings provide support for the importance of humility and confidence as attributes of effective leadership and have potentially important implications for educational leadership.
  • ... Female investors tend to invest more conservatively (see, e.g., Hudgens and Fatkin (1985), Johnson and Powell (1994), Sundén and Surette (1998) and Bernasek and Shwiff (2001)), and female executives adopt safer corporate policies (see, e.g., Faccio, Marchica and Mura (2015) and Francis et al. (2015)). Similarly, prior studies find that women also exhibit less overconfidence in decision-making (see, e.g., Estes and Hosseini (1988)) and less hubris about their abilities (e.g., Furnham, Hosoe and Tang (2002)). Moreover, women tend to be more trustworthy and more compliant with rules and regulations (see, e.g., Baldry (1987), Barnett, Bass and Brown (1994), Bernardi and Arnold (1997), Fallan (1999), and Beu, Buckley and Harvey (2003)). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    We find that firms where women have more power in the top management team, measured by female executives’ plurality and pay slice, face fewer operations-related lawsuits. This effect is robust to several treatments of endogeneity and does not appear to be driven by female executives' greater willingness to settle the cases. Evidence from a simultaneous equations approach suggests that firms where women executives have more power avoid lawsuits partly by avoiding some risky but value-increasing firm policies, such as more aggressive R&D, intensive advertising, and policies inimical to other parties.
  • ... Therefore, we expect firms with a greater proportion of women in top management to avoid risky corporate activities that might lead to lawsuits. Similarly, prior studies find that women exhibit less overconfidence in decision-making (see, e.g.,Estes and Hosseini (1988)) and less hubris about their abilities (e.g., Furnham,Hosoe and Tang (2002)). In a corporate setting, Huang and Kisgen (2013) find that female executives display lower overconfidence by making fewer acquisitions and debt issuances. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    We use a unique hand-collected dataset on corporate lawsuits to examine the effect of female representation in top management on corporate litigation. We find that firms with higher representation of women in the top management team face fewer lawsuits overall, particularly lawsuits related to product liability, environment, medical liability, labor and contracts. These results continue to hold under several alternative specifications and accounting for endogeneity using a novel instrument. The results are driven by the presence of multiple women in top management positions and are likely due to gender diversity in top management rather than an artifact of tokenism. Among firms with higher litigation risk, greater representation of female executives positively impacts the value of cash holdings. Overall, our results uncover an important and previously unidentified benefit of gender diversity in top management.
  • ... Th e author showed that school climate correlated positively with creative self-effi cacy, as well as mastery goals in the classroom. At the same time, creative self-effi cacy was higher among males than females -consistent with the so-called "male-hubris-female-humility-eff ect" (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002 ;Karwowski, 2011 ). Karwowski ( 2011 ) showed that creative self-effi cacy was also associated with socioeconomic status, as con- sidering oneself a creative person, as well as creativity itself, are more fre- quently valued within middle-and upper-class families and those with more education and greater aspirations. ...
  • ... Later studies on SAI primarily studied its relationship with gender (Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2001;Furnham, Zhang, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2005;Syzmanowicz & Furnham, 2011). These studies correctly proposed that (a) males estimate their intelligence at higher levels than females (b) and people estimate the intelligence of male family members (i.e. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The primary goal of the current article is to “take stock” of the “other” relationships of self-assessed intelligence (SAI). The current article groups the relationships of SAI into four categories: constructs associated with intelligence (openness, emotional intelligence), tendencies and opportunities to develop intelligence (conscientiousness, education, age, SES, prior IQ test experience), constructs associated with biased self-assessments (extraversion, neuroticism, narcissism, honesty-humility, race), and positive states and life achievements (positive self-regard, psychological well-being, academic achievement). The meta-analytic results demonstrate that almost all variables from these four categories significantly relate to SAI, with the exception of prior IQ test experience. These relationships are also consistent when accounting for psychometric intelligence, and no studied moderator variables consistently influence the magnitude of these results.
  • ... As demonstrated by Furnham & Fukumoto (2008), Japanese parents generally rate their children lower in cognitive abilities, than parents from USA and European countries. Cross-cultural differences in parental ratings of intelligence are usually explained by the socially desired behavioral and personality traits in different cultural communities, for example, modesty in Japan (Furnham, Hosoe et al., 2002;Furnham, Fukumoto, 2008). ...
  • Article
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  • Chapter
    Research suggests that positive emotions can prevent burnout as well as lead to greater motivation and work satisfaction. In the past decades, there has been increasing interest to apply positive psychology constructs like strengths and hope in school settings to empower teachers and students. Motivation in teachers and students are related and interactive. By observing motivational thought patterns include attitudes, attributions, and goal attainments of teachers, students develop their motivation to learn. Based on the literature review as well as our own research and practical experience, this chapter will first explore the theoretical supports from perspectives of positive psychology on character strength, hope as a cognitive motivational system, interpersonal relationships and notice of positive events as the four pillars in teachers’ motivation and empowerment. These altogether formulate the SHINE intervention approach. It will then discuss specific intervention examples in SHINE in school settings. By internalizing the positive psychology knowledge and skills at a personal level, teachers can promote the building of positive psychological resources at an institutional level and hence be able to generate sustainable benefits among themselves and students.
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    Two-hundred-and-fourteen Zulus rated their own and their children's overall and multiple intelligences. Parents gave similar ratings: highest for verbal, intra- and inter-personal intelligence and lowest for musical and bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence. Female first-born children received higher ratings than male first-born children. The strongest predictor of the children's overall estimated IQ was the parents overall estimated IQ and the age of the child. Results are compared to other similar studies in the area.
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    Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las intenciones de ser activos en el futuro de un grupo de escolares adolescentes así como qué variables podrían predecir mejor esta. Participaron 480 escolares de 11 a 16 años (M= 13.33 años; DT= 1.41) de los cuales 309 fueron varones y 171 mujeres de centros de la Comunidad de Madrid y Castilla La Mancha. Todos ellos cumplimentaron el Inventario de Conductas Saludables HBSC en la versión española de Castillo et al. (1997), referido a aspectos personales, sociales y ambientales de la práctica de actividades físicas y deportivas. Los resultados mostraron que la tasa de participación y de práctica en actividades deportivas está descendiendo en general y de forma particular en las chicas. La comparación con el estudio de 1997 así lo atestigua. Para los participantes las variables que mejor predicen su intención de practicar en el futuro fueron las autopercepciones de competencia deportiva, de forma física y de salud, a las cuales habría que añadir la práctica de las personas más significativas y la pertenencia activa a un club deportivo. De este estudio se desprende una consecuencia muy clara, la necesidad de incrementar la práctica en estas edades, de ofrecer experiencias confirmatorias que les permitan fortalecer su competencia real en el ámbito deportivo, sobre todo en el caso de las chicas. Palabras Clave: hábitos de práctica, HBSC, género, estilo saludable de vida Abstract The present study aimed to analyze the intention to be active in the future of a group of adolescents and which variables could best predict this intention. Participated 480 students from Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, aged 11 to 16 years (M = 13.33 years, SD = 1.41) of which 309 were men and 171 women. They completed the HBSC Inventory in its Spanish version (Castillo et al., 1997) referred to personal, social and environmental aspects of the practice of physical and sporting activities. The results showed that the rate of participation and practice in sports is declining in general and particularly in girls. The comparison with the 1997 study attests well. For these participants the variables that best predict intention to practice in the future were the self-perceptions of athletic competition, physical fitness and health, to which should be added the practice of significant people and active membership of a sports club. This study shows a clear result, the need to increase the practice in this age, to provide confirmatory experiences that allow them to see their proficiency in sport, especially in the case of girls. Keywords: habits of practice, HBSC, gender, healthy lifestyle
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    This study examined the test-retest reliability of self-assessed intelligence in a community sample of 157 British women and men. Participants provided ratings of self-assessed intelligence along eight domains over a period of six months and one year. Correlation analyses showed that test-retest reliabilities were weak-to-moderate at both six months (r =.10 to.71) and one year (r =.08 to.80). At both testing periods, scores for musical intelligence showed the highest correlations, whereas scores of interpersonal intelligence were not significantly correlated with those obtained during initial testing. Repeated measures analyses of variance showed a slight decline in estimates, although the effect sizes of these differences were small (ηp2 =.01 to.08). Overall, the present results suggest caution in using measures of self-assessed intelligence among community samples.
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    While leader humility has been linked to a number of positive outcomes, existing research speculates that expressions of humility may not be viewed positively in organizations with a highly directive or masculine culture – such as the military. Research has also suggested that men and women may be perceived differently when behaving humbly. A combination of four studies revealed that military superiors do take a positive view of humble behaviors in their subordinates, but it is not clear that humble leaders are viewed as having more potential than those who exhibit other positive leadership behaviors. Further, it appears that gender and humility interact to affect perceptions of leadership potential in the military, with humble men receiving more benefit from acting humbly than their female counterparts.
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    We draw on eight different lab and field samples to delineate the effects of expressed humility on several important organizational outcomes, including performance, satisfaction, learning goal orientation, engagement, and turnover. We first review several literatures to define the construct of expressed humility, discuss its implications in social interactions, and distinguish expressed humility from related constructs. Using five different samples, Study 1 develops and validates an observer-report measure of expressed humility. Study 2 examines the strength of expressed humility predictions of individual performance and contextual performance (i.e., quality of team member contribution) relative to conscientiousness, global self-efficacy, and general mental ability. This study also reveals that with regard to individual performance, expressed humility may compensate for lower general mental ability. Study 3 reports insights from a large field sample that examines the relationship between leader-expressed humility and employee retention as mediated by job satisfaction and employee engagement as mediated by team learning orientation. We conclude with recommendations for future research.
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    Teachers' beliefs play a significant role in students' academic attainment and career choices. Despite comparable attainment levels between genders, persistent stereotypes and beliefs that certain disciplines require innate ability and that men and women have different ability levels impede students' academic career paths. In this study, we examined the prevalence of U.S. mathematics teachers' explicit general and gender-specific beliefs about mathematical ability and identified which teacher characteristics were associated with these beliefs. An analysis of data from 382 K-8 teachers in the USA indicated that overall, teachers disagreed with the idea that general and gender-specific mathematical ability is innate, and agreed with the idea that hard work and dedication are required for success in mathematics. However, our findings indicate that those who believed mathematics requires brilliance also tended to think girls lacked this ability. We also found that teachers who were teaching mathematics to 11-to 14-year old students seemed to believe that mathematics requires innate ability compared with teachers who were teaching mathematics to 5-to 10-year-old students. In addition, more experienced teachers and teachers who worked with special education students seemed to believe less in the role of hard work in success in mathematics, which could have serious consequences for shaping their students' beliefs about their academic self-concept and future career-related decisions.
  • Investigations of the uses of self-reports of ability An inquiry as to popular views on intelligence and related topics
    • De Nisi
    • A Shaw
    De Nisi, A., & Shaw, J. (1997). Investigations of the uses of self-reports of ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 641–644. A. Furnham et al. / Intelligence 30 (2001) 101–115 114 rFlugel, J. (1947). An inquiry as to popular views on intelligence and related topics. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 27, 140–152
  • Bias in IQ perception
    • M Byrd
    • B Stacey
    Byrd, M., & Stacey, B. (1993). Bias in IQ perception. The Psychologist, 6, 16
  • IQ in question: the truth about intelligence
    • M Howe
    Howe, M. (1997). IQ in question: the truth about intelligence. London: Sage.
  • Successful intelligence
    • R Sternberg
    Sternberg, R. (1997). Successful intelligence. New York: Plume.
  • Bias in IQ perception. The Psychologist, 6, 16 Investigations of the uses of self-reports of ability
    • M Byrd
    • B Stacey
    • De
    • A Nisi
    • J Shaw
    Byrd, M., & Stacey, B. (1993). Bias in IQ perception. The Psychologist, 6, 16. De Nisi, A., & Shaw, J. (1997). Investigations of the uses of self-reports of ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 641 – 644.
  • Metaphors of mind: conceptions of the nature of intelligence
    • R Sternberg
    Sternberg, R. (1990). Metaphors of mind: conceptions of the nature of intelligence. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Intelligence reframed
    • H Gardner
    Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed. New York: Basic Books.
  • Learned optimism Social psychology across cultures
    • M P Seligman
    • M Bond
    Seligman, M. (1990). Learned optimism. New York: Pocket Books. Smith, P., & Bond, M. (1998). Social psychology across cultures. London: Prentice-Hall.
  • Article
    This paper reports on two studies, each concerned with sex differences in the estimates of Gardner's 'seven basic types of intelligence'. In the first study, 180 British adults were asked to estimate their own intelligence on the seven intelligence factors. Only one (mathematical/logical) showed a significant sex difference, with males believing they had higher scores than females. Factor analysis of these seven scales yielded three interpretable higher-order factors. There was a similar sex difference on only one factor (mathematical/spatial intelligence), which showed males rating themselves higher than females. In the second study, 80 student participants completed the same seven estimates of intelligence,plus a standard sex-role inventory, in order to separate sex and sex role in the self-estimation of intelligence. A series of sex x sex-role ANOVAs showed some effects, particularly for mathematical, musical, and spatial intelligence, bur nearly always for sex and not sex role. Results suggest that previous studies which found consistent sex differences in self-estimates of overall intelligence ('g') may have over-exaggerated the issue as the difference is clearly confined to a limited number of factors of intelligence. Copyright (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Article
    Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian data show that a nation can make significant gains on a culturally reduced test while suffering losses on other tests. The Dutch data prove the existence of unknown environmental factors so potent that they account for 15 of the 20 points gained. The hypothesis that best fits the results is that IQ tests do not measure intelligence but rather a correlate with a weak causal link to intelligence. This hypothesis can also explain differential trends on various mental tests, such as the combination of IQ gains and Scholastic Aptitude Test losses in the United States.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Correlations between single-item self-reports of intelligence and IQ scores are rather low (.20-.25) in college samples. The literature suggested that self-reports could be improved by three strategies: (1) aggregation, (2) item weighting, and (3) use of indirect, rather than direct, questions. To evaluate these strategies, we compared the validity of aggregated and unaggregated versions of direct measures with four indirect measures (Gough's Intellectual efficiency scale, Hogan's Intellect composite scale, Sternberg's Behavior Check List, and Trapnell's Smart scale). All measures were administered to two large samples of undergraduates (Ns = 310, 326), who also took an IQ test. Although results showed some success for both direct and indirect measures, the failure of their validities to exceed .30 impugns their utility as IQ proxies in competitive college samples. The content of the most valid items referred to global mental abilities or reading involvement. Aggregation benefited indirect more than direct measures, but prototype-weighting contributed little.
  • Book
    This book is about differences in intellectual capacity among people and groups and what those differences mean for America's future.(preface) The major purpose of this book] is to reveal the dramatic transformation that is currently in process in American society---a process that has created a new kind of class structure led by a "cognitive elite," itself a result of concentration and self-selection in those social pools well endowed with cognitive abilities. Herrnstein and Murray explore] the ways that low intelligence, independent of social, economic, or ethnic background, lies at the root of many of our social problems. The authors also demonstrate the truth of another taboo fact: that intelligence levels differ among ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(jacket)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This research assessed gender differences in the accuracy of self-perceptions. Do males and females with equal ability have similar self-perceptions of their ability? Three measures of accuracy were used: accuracy of self-evaluations, calibration for individual questions, and response bias. As hypothesized, for a masculine task, significant gender differences were found for all three measures: Females' self-evaluations of performance were inaccurately low, their confidence statements for individual questions were less wel calibrated than males; and their response bias was more conservative than males'. None of these gender differences were found for feminine and neutral tasks. As hypothesized, strong self-consistency tendencies were found. Expectancies emerged as an important predictor of self-evaluations of performance for both genders and could account for females' inaccurately low self-evaluations on the masculine task. How females' inaccurate self-perceptions might negatively affect achievement behavior and curtail their participation in masculine domains is discussed.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This study investigated gender differences inthe accuracy of self-perceptions and whetherself-perception biases are related to negative recallbiases. Participants were 275 female and 213 malecollege students. Approximately 10% of the participantswere minorities (mostly African American and Asian). Ona masculine task, gender differences in self-perceptionswere found for three measures of accuracy: The accuracy of self-evaluations, calibration,and response bias. Females underestimated theirperformance, were less well calibrated, and showed amore conservative response bias than did males. Ashypothesized, no gender differences in the accuracy ofself-evaluations were found for feminine and neutraltasks. Participants' expectancies mediated the genderdifferences in post task self-evaluations ofperformance. In addition, evidence for a negative recallbias was found. Females were more likely than males torecall their mistakes even with performance and accuracyof self-evaluations controlled. The implications of females' greater self-perception biases onmasculine tasks are discussed and suggestions for futureresearch are made.
  • Article
    A series of previous studies with studentparticipants has shown that females' self-IQ estimatesare significantly lower than those of males. In thisstudy, 184 mostly white British adults estimated their own IQ and that of their children. The resultswere in line with previous studies, in that males ratedtheir IQ higher than females (108 vs. 104). Both sexesrated their male children higher than their female children (109 vs. 102). Males tendedmore than females to believe there is a greaterdifference between the intelligence of female and malechildren, but this was not significant. Results wereconsidered in terms of the current sociobiological andsociocultural explanations for sex differences inability.
  • Article
    Seven task-oriented teams worked together forbetween 4 and 6 months on a project. At the end of thetask, members were each subject to four task-performanceratings: from self, superior, team-peers, and a consultant who was part of the team. Therewere fewer than chance differences between the differentteams on the congruence measures so the data wascombined. While the congruence between self and manager, self and peer, and self and consultant ratingswere very low, the manager peer, manager consultant, andpeer consultant congruence was overall high. Observablebehaviors like forward planning and communication showed overall highest congruence while lessobservable cognitive variables showed much lowercongruence. These results are similar to previousstudies in the area. Implications of the use of theseratings in management development areconsidered.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Correlations between single-item self-reports of intelligence and IQ scores are rather low (.20–.25) in college samples. The literature suggested that self-reports could be improved by three strategies: (1) aggregation, (2)item weighting, and (3) use of indirect, rather than direct, questions. To evaluate these strategies, we compared the validity of aggregated and unaggregated versions of direct measures with four indirect measures (Gough’s Intellectual efficiency scale, Hogan’s Intellect composite scale, Sternberg’s Behavior Check List, and Trapnell’s Smart scale). All measures were administered to two large samples of undergraduates (Ns = 310, 326), who also took an IQ test. Although results showed some success for both direct and indirect measures, the failure of their validities to exceed .30 impugns their utility as IQ proxies in competitive college samples. The content of the most valid items referred to global mental abilities or reading involvement. Aggregation benefited indirect more than direct measures, but prototype-weighting contributed little.
  • Article
    Following J. Reilly and G. Mulhern (1995), the authors examined the relationship between self-estimated and psychometrically measured IQs in men and women. In this study, 53 male and 140 female British undergraduates estimated their overall IQs. About 4 months later, they completed a spatial-intelligence (mental-rotation) test. The men estimated their scores significantly higher (120) than the women did (116) and also obtained significantly higher test scores (6.94) than the women did (4.43). There was a very modest but significant correlation between self-estimated IQ and actual IQ score (r = .16). The correlation was significant for the men (r = .27, n = 53) but not for the women (r = .09, n = 140). Removal of a small number of outliers had no significant effect on the results.
  • Article
    Sex differences in the Scottish standardisation sample of the WISC-R are analysed and compared with those in the American standardisation sample. The two data sets showed virtually identical sex differences. Boys obtained higher means on the Full Scale IQ and the Verbal and Visuospatial factors, while girls obtained a higher mean on the Memory factor. The sex differences were not greater in older children as compared with younger. Boys tended to show greater variabilities.
  • Article
    This paper reports on two studies, each concerned with sex differences in the estimates of Gardner's ‘seven basic types of intelligence’. In the first study, 180 British adults were asked to estimate their own intelligence on the seven intelligence factors. Only one (mathematical/logical) showed a significant sex difference, with males believing they had higher scores than females. Factor analysis of these seven scales yielded three interpretable higher-order factors. There was a similar sex difference on only one factor (mathematical/spatial intelligence), which showed males rating themselves higher than females. In the second study, 80 student participants completed the same seven estimates of intelligence, plus a standard sex-role inventory, in order to separate sex and sex role in the self-estimation of intelligence. A series of sex×sex-role ANOVAs showed some effects, particularly for mathematical, musical, and spatial intelligence, but nearly always for sex and not sex role. Results suggest that previous studies which found consistent sex differences in self-estimates of overall intelligence (‘g’) may have over-exaggerated the issue as the difference is clearly confined to a limited number of factors of intelligence. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Participants were 131 (69 women, 62 men)students in Introductory Psychology, Social Psychology,and Computer Science courses. Eighty-six percent of thesample was Caucasian. The goals of this study were to assess (a) how accurate students'preexamination expectancies and postexamination gradeevaluations are and whether gender differences in theaccuracy of expectancies and grade evaluations onexaminations exist, (b) whether expected grades predictpostexamination grade evaluations even with actualgrades controlled (self-consistency effect), and (c)whether students' grade expectations and evaluationsbecome more accurate with experience. Throughout thecourse of a semester, students estimated their gradesfor each of their examinations. Students overestimatedtheir grades at all points in the semester, although women in Introductory Psychology overestimatedtheir grades less than men did. Students' expectedgrades were a better predictor of their postexaminationgrade evaluations than were their actual grades. For Introductory Psychology students,expectancies and grade evaluations became more accurateas the semester progressed. The importance of accurateself-perceptions regarding academic performance isdiscussed.
  • Article
    Evidence from 27 samples indicates that the mean IQ in Japan is higher than in the United States by around one-third to two-thirds of a standard deviation. Analysis of results from the standardization in Japan in 1975 of the new revised version of the American Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children shows that the Japanese–American disparity in mean IQ has increased during the twentieth century. Among the younger generation the mean Japanese IQ is approximately 111.
  • Article
    Examined sex differences in the attribution of IQ scores. 161 female and 84 male (21–34 yrs old) psychology students completed a questionnaire and were asked to estimate their own, their parents', their grandparents', and 15 occupational groups' average IQs. Results show that males rated their IQs higher than females and both sexes rated their fathers' IQs as higher than their mothers'. Grandfathers received higher IQ estimates than grandmothers. There was a wide distribution of IQ scores among occupational groups from cleaner, bricklayer and hairdresser, to lawyer, doctor and professor. Thus, despite the fact that psychology attaches no significant gender differences to general intelligence, psychology students appeared to believe in the superiority of males. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Three experiments investigated experts' and laypersons' conceptions of intelligence. In Exp I, 61 persons studying in a college library, 63 entering a supermarket, and 62 waiting for trains in a railroad station were asked to list behaviors characteristic of either "intelligence," "academic intelligence," "everyday intelligence," or "unintelligence," and to rate themselves on each. In Exp II, 140 experts and 122 laypersons (excluding students) were asked to rate various properties of the behaviors listed in Exp I; the laypersons also rated themselves on the 3 kinds of intelligence and took the Henmon-Nelson Tests of Mental Abilities. In Exp III, 65 laypersons received written descriptions of behaviors characterizing fictitious people and were asked to rate these people's intelligence. Results show that well-formed prototypes corresponding to the various kinds of intelligence, that these prototypes were quite similar for experts and laypersons, were closely related to certain psychological theories of intelligence, and were used in the evaluation of one's own and other's intelligence. Moreover, proximity of one's behavioral self-characterizations to an ideal prototype was strongly related to intelligence. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    [Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(3) of Psychological Bulletin (see record 2008-10701-001). In this article, it was wrongly stated that that U. Schallberger put forward a hypothesis or hypotheses concerning the magnitude of Swiss IQ gains; in fact, he did not. The erratum includes the author's clarification.] Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian data show that a nation can make significant gains on a culturally reduced test while suffering losses on other tests. The Dutch data proved the existence of unknown environmental factors so potent that they account for 15 of the 20 points gained. The hypothesis that best fits the results is that IQ tests do not measure intelligence but rather a correlate with a weak causal link to intelligence. This hypothesis can also explain difficult trends on various mental tests, such as the combination of IQ gains and Scholastic Aptitude Test losses in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    The authors of this . . . textbook remedy the neglect of cultural influences within social psychology by introducing the student to the field from a cross-cultural perspective. Starting with the well-known classic studies, they show how the validity of empirical findings can be usefully extended, and they draw from a wide range of theories and research reported by social psychologists in many countries from around the world. These studies clearly demonstrate that processes such as self-perception, communication, conformity, leadership and decision making all occur differently in cultural groups which are more collective and less individualistic. [The authors] expose student and teacher alike to the implications of these differences, which are crucial to a clear understanding of intergroup behaviour, cross-cultural negotiation, multinational enterprise building, immigration and acculturation. [This book] is especially aimed at the beginning or intermediate student of social and organizational psychology, and psychology in general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Research has shown that gender differences in self-perceptions exist. However, interpretational ambiguities make it impossible to determine whether these gender differences are due to the operation of biases. The present research investigated whether gender differences in biased self-perceptions exist by assessing the accuracy of posttask self-evaluations of performance. In accordance with self-consistency theory, it was hypothesized that Ss' expectancies affect their posttask self-evaluations. For example, men who generally have high expectancies on masculine-gender-typed tasks were hypothesized to evidence overly positive self-evaluations. Women, who generally hold low expectancies on masculine tasks, were hypothesized to hold overly negative self-evaluations. Results confirmed that self-consistency tendencies can partially explain self-perception biases. The implications of these findings for women's achievement behavior and self-confidence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Several studies have shown above-chance agreement of self-reports on extraversion and conscientiousness with ratings by strangers, indicating that ratings by strangers might be quite accurate. Because self-reports are a less-than-ideal criterion to evaluate the accuracy of stranger ratings, however, the present study compared them also with ratings by acquaintances and with targets' performance on an intelligence test. Ratings of extraversion, conscientiousness, and intelligence by strangers having been exposed to a videotape of targets were significantly related to self-reports of these traits as well as to ratings by acquaintances. Moreover, ratings of intelligence by strangers were related to targets' measured intelligence, provided that judges had been exposed to a sound film of the targets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Previous studies have shown that when parents estimate their own and their children's overall IQ (general intelligence), fathers estimate their own scores significantly higher than mothers estimate their own scores, and both parents estimate their sons’ IQ higher than their daughters’ (Furnham & Gasson, 1998). This study looks at differences in parental estimation of children's multiple intelligences based on Gardner's (1983) seven-dimensional model. In all, 112 parents estimated their own and their sons’ and daughters’ ability on each of seven specific dimensions (verbal, mathematical, spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal). As before, males (fathers) rated themselves as more intelligent on mathematical and spatial intelligence than females (mothers) rated themselves on these intelligences. Results indicated that differences in perception of children's intelligence lay only in the areas of mathematical and spatial intelligence, which may be conflated with lay concepts of overall intelligence. Overall, mothers rated their children higher on mathematical and spatial intelligence than did fathers, and both parents indicated that they thought their sons more numerate than their daughters. This result was stronger for the first child than for the second, suggesting the cultural significance attached to first-born sons (primogeniture).
  • Article
    Previous research has demonstrated that men's IQ self-estimates are significantly higher than women's (Beloff, 1992; Bennett, 1996; Furnham & Rawles, 1995). Study I examines the hypothesis that men's self enhancement relative to women is unlikely to be general, but specific to abilities viewed as masculine. Participants were required to estimate their ability over each of Gardner's (1993) “intelligences” and to indicate the extent to which they viewed each type of intelligence as either masculine or feminine. The data confirmed the hypothesis. Study 2 replicated these findings. Moreover, it established that participants' population estimates for men's and women's abilities showed consensus between men and women: the population mean for men was judged to be significantly higher in the cases of logical-mathematical and visuo-spatial ability, but in women, higher for personal, musical, and linguistic ability. Taken together, these findings are interpreted in the light of gender schema theory (Bern, 1981) as suggesting that abilities are viewed as differentially relevant to men's and women's gender schemas.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    A total of 421 parents from four Southern African countries (Nambia, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) estimated their own and their children’s multiple intelligences. There were consistent country and sex differences in self-estimates. Nambians tended to give lowest self-estimates and Zambians highest self-estimates. Contrary to previous findings from other continents females gave higher self-estimates than males on all seven multiple intelligences. These results were mirrored in the estimation of children: females gave higher scores than males and Zambians gave highest estimates and Nambians lowest. Reasons for these findings are discussed.
  • Article
    Advisor: Martin Sharp. Paper (M. Ed.)--Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley, 1995.
  • Article
    Males have larger brains than females, even when corrected for body size, and brain size is positively correlated with intelligence. This leads to the expectation that males should have higher average levels of intelligence than females. Yet the consensus view is that there is no sex difference in general intelligence. An examination of the literature shows that the consensus view is wrong. Among adults, males have slightly higher verbal and reasoning abilities than females and a more pronounced superiority on spatial abilities. If the three abilities are combined to form general intelligence, the mean for males is 4 IQ points higher than the mean for females. Among children up to the age of around 14 yr the sex differences are smaller because girls mature earlier than boys. The evolutionary selection pressures responsible for greater intelligence in males are discussed.
  • Article
    This study sought to examine differences between estimated intelligence and measured IQ among males and females. Forty-six male and 80 female participants were asked to estimate their own IQ and to complete the Digit Symbol and Vocabulary tests from the WAIS. Analysis of group data revealed a significant gender difference in self-estimated IQ, with male self-estimates higher on average than those of females. Moreover, male self-estimates were found to be significantly higher overall than their measured IQs and female self-estimates were lower than measured IQ, although not significantly. Consideration of these results at individual level, however, indicated that, for the majority of subjects, the overall pattern of results for males and females was strikingly similar and that statistically significant group differences were due to a few ‘outliers’ who displayed large discrepancies between estimated and measured IQ. It was concluded that speculation about the causality of inaccurate self-estimates of IQ should not be based on the assumption that gender differences at group level represent a generalized tendency on the part of either sex to either over-confidence or lack of confidence with regard to their own intelligence.
  • Article
    Over four hundred young people from Britain, Hawaii and Singapore estimated their own, their parents and their siblings IQ score on each of Gardner (1983)fundamental human intelligences: verbal (linguistic), logical (mathematical), spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, interpersonal and intrapersonal. They also answered six simple questions concerning intelligence tests. There were both cultural and sex differences in the estimation of overall own intelligence score. Males gave higher scores than females (109 vs 107) while the British gave the highest score (109) compared with the Singaporeans (106) and Hawaiians (104). Factor analysis of the seven dimensions yielded either a two or three factor solution, the latter being verbal (verbal, inter-intrapersonal), mathematical (mathematical and spatial), and musical (musical, body-kinesthetic). There were consistent sex differences in the estimations of the three factors for self, but not of parents, and only marginally of sisters. Males more than females, and the British more than the other groups, were more likely to believe in sex and race difference in intelligence.
  • Article
    Children's intelligence increased in the United States by approximately 3 IQ points per decade over the period 1932-78. New evidence shows that these increases have been sustained during the last 20 years. Two recent studies indicate that the rates of increase for 1972-89 and 1978-89 were 3.3 and 3.5 IQ points per decade, respectively.
  • Article
    Sex differences in intelligence is among the most politically volatile topics in contemporary psychology. Although no single finding has unanimous support, conclusions from multiple studies suggest that females, on average, score higher on tasks that require rapid access to and use of phonological and semantic information in long-term memory, production and comprehension of complex prose, fine motor skills, and perceptual speed. Males, on average, score higher on tasks that require transformations in visual-spatial working memory, motor skills involved in aiming, spatiotemporal responding, and fluid reasoning, especially in abstract mathematical and scientific domains. Males, however, are also over-represented in the low-ability end of several distributions, including mental retardation, attention disorders, dyslexia, stuttering, and delayed speech. A psychobiosocial model that is based on the inextricable links between the biological bases of intelligence and environmental events is proposed as an alternative to nature-nurture dichotomies. Societal implications and applications to teaching and learning are suggested.