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Acute effect of a single whole-body cryostimulation on prooxidant–antioxidant balance in blood of healthy, young men

Authors:
  • Uniwersity of Physical Education, Poland, Kraków
  • University of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland

Abstract and Figures

1.We have examined the prooxidative–antioxidative reaction to extremely low temperatures (−130 °C) during a one-time cryostimulation in 15 young, clinically healthy individuals.2.The total lipid peroxides as the total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) were measured in blood plasma collected in the morning of the day of cryostimulation, 30 min after the cryostimulation, and on the following morning.3.The level of stress expressed by total oxidative status in plasma, resulting from exposure to extremely low temperatures, was statistically significantly lowered 30 min after leaving the cryochamber than prior to the exposure. The next day, the TOS level still remained lower than the initial values. The TAS level decreased after leaving the cryochamber and remained elevated the following day.
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Author's personal copy
Acute effect of a single whole-body cryostimulation on
prooxidant–antioxidant balance in blood of healthy, young men
Anna Lubkowska
a,
, Monika Chudecka
b
, Andrzej Klimek
c
, Zbigniew Szygu"a
d
, Barbara Fra˛czek
e
a
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences of Szczecin University, al. Piasto
´w 40b, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
b
Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Natural Sciences of Szczecin University, al. Piasto
´w 40b, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland
c
Institute of Human Physiology, University School of Physical Education, P.O. Box 62 (AWF), 31-571 Krakow, Poland
d
Department of Sports Medicine, University School of Physical Education, P.O. Box 62 (AWF), 31-571 Krakow, Poland
e
Department of Human Nutrition, University School of Physical Education, P.O. Box 62 (AWF), 31-571 Krakow, Poland
article info
Article history:
Received 18 January 2008
Accepted 27 August 2008
Keywords:
Cryostimulation
Plasma oxidative capacity
Plasma antioxidative capacity
abstract
1. We have examined the prooxidative–antioxidative reaction to extremely low temperatures
(130 1C) during a one-time cryostimulation in 15 young, clinically healthy individuals.
2. The total lipid peroxides as the total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS)
were measured in blood plasma collected in the morning of the day of cryostimulation, 30 min after
the cryostimulation, and on the following morning.
3. The level of stress expressed by total oxidative status in plasma, resulting from exposure to
extremely low temperatures, was statistically significantly lowered 30 min after leaving the
cryochamber than prior to the exposure. The next day, the TOS level still remained lower than the
initial values. The TAS level decreased after leaving the cryochamber and remained elevated
the following day.
&2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
The whole-body cryotherapy (or cryostimulation) has found its
application in treating many diseases. In professional sports, its
usage has been beneficial in improving biological regeneration
and recovery from post-exercise muscle injury (Banfi et al., 2008;
Zimmer, 2003). Local or systemic use of extremely low tempera-
ture speeds up the healing process of impaired tissues, weakens
inflammable reaction, lowers muscle spasticity, and also has
analgesic properties (Yaumauchi et al., 1981;Bauer and Skrzek,
1999;Hubbard et al., 2004;Nadler et al., 2004;Krasuski and
Dederko, 2005).
Cooling tissue causes a decrease in the efficiency of cellular
respiration, releases enzymes from impaired cells, and inhibits the
breakdown of high-energy compounds (ATP, CP) and glycogen
(Zimmer, 2003). Cryostimulation causes muscle trembling and a
reduction in metabolism by about 50%, which decreases oxygen
demand. After 4 min of exposure to extremely low temperature
(from 100 t o 130 1C), the body experiences considerable
haemangiectasia (angio-osteodystrophy) and an increase in blood
supply to internal organs, which leads to an increase in muscle
oxygen concentration (Bauer and Skrzek, 1999;Zagrobelny and
Zimmer, 1999). A subsequent effect of exposing the body to
cryogenic temperature is a fall in lactate and histamine concen-
tration levels and an increase in bradykinin and angiotensin
concentrations, which, in effect, cause a considerable pain
reduction (Griffin and Reddin, 1981). Cryostimulation has also
been noted to increase the secretion of adrenotropic hormones
(ACTH), cortisol, adrenaline, norepinephrine, and testosterone in
plasma. Stimulation of adrenocorticotropin has been known to
reduce inflammation processes (Leppa
¨luoto et al., 2008). Initially,
cryotherapy was predominantly used on protracted inflammable
states accompanying rheumatic diseases. Research on the influ-
ence of cryostimulation on the production of reactive oxygen
species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and the antioxidative response of
the body, focused mostly on the treatment of people with
rheumatoid arthritis (Yaumauchi et al., 1981;Janiszewski, 1998;
Ksi˛ez
˙opolska-Pietrzak et al., 1999;Metzger et al., 2000). The
cryotherapeutic treatment of these individuals was accompanied
by kinesitherapy as an integral component of this form of
rehabilitation, and in the case of athletes, cryostimulation was
accompanied by physical training (Swenson et al., 1996;Woz
´niak
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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jtherbio
Journal of Thermal Biology
0306-4565/$ - see front matter &2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2008.08.003
Corresponding author. Tel.: +48 91 444 2754.
E-mail address: annalubkowska@tlen.pl (A. Lubkowska).
Journal of Thermal Biology 33 (2008) 464 –467
Author's personal copy
et al., 2002, 2007b;Krasuski and Dederko, 2005). In both cases, it
is difficult to interpret clearly the influence of low temperature
due to an increase in lipid peroxidation that is a result of an
increased ROS production during physical effort, as confirmed by
numerous studies (Alessio, 1993;Urso and Clarkson, 2003;
Bloomer et al., 2005, 2006;Metin et al., 2003).
An exposure to an acute cold temperature represents an
obvious stress, which could lead to various physiological and
metabolic reactions in the organism. Among others, prooxidan-
t–antioxidant processes play an important role in the develop-
ment of several various pathologies that could also trigger
adaptation changes to protect tissues against disturbances in the
pro–antioxidant balance (Dugue
´et al., 2005;Wozniak et al.,
2007b). Limited studies on the effect of whole-body cryostimula-
tion on total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidative status
(TAS) in the plasma of healthy men not involved in physical
exercise exist. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess
pro–antioxidant status in healthy, young men after one session
of whole-body cryostimulation.
2. Materials and methods
Fifteen healthy, 721 year old men, with a normal body weight
(body mass index BMIo28) and never previously exposed to any
form of cryotherapy, were recruited for this study.
The characteristics of the examined group are presented in
Table 1. All participants were asked to sign a written consent. The
project of the study was approved by the Bioethical Committee of
the Regional Medical Society in Cracow. Prior to engaging in the
experiment, all participants underwent a physical examination
to exclude any contraindications against cryostimulation. The
individuals were exposed to a one-time session of extremely low
temperature (130 1C) in a cryogenic chamber at the Ma"opolska
Center of Cryotherapy in Cracow, Poland, in groups of 4 persons
each. The session lasted 3 min.
Each participant’s entry to the cryochamber was preceded by a
30 s adaptation in the vestibule at a temperature of 60 1C. During
the procedure, the participants wore shorts, socks, wooden clogs,
gloves and a hat covering the auricles against frostbite. Blood
samples were obtained from an antecubital forearm vein after a
10 min rest in a sitting position, using vacutainer system tubes
(Sarstedt, Germany). During the day of cryostimulation, blood
specimens were collected after an overnight fasting, in the
morning between 8.00 and 8.30 am (sample A), 30 min after
cryostimulation, e.g. 9.00–9.30 am (sample B), and the next
morning, between 8.00 and 8:30 am (sample C). We examined the
entire blood morphology and carried out the smear analysis. After
centrifugation, the serum and plasma were divided into aliquots
and immediately deep-frozen at 70 1C. The total lipid peroxides
as the total oxidative status (TOS, PerOx) and the total antioxi-
dative status (TAS, ImAnOx) were measured with the photometric
test method, Immunodiagnostik AG, Bensheim-Germany. The
sensitivity of the assay for TOS was 7
m
mol/L, and the intra-
and inter-assay variability were p3.1% and p5.1%, respectively.
Detection limit for the TAS kit was 130
m
mol/L, and the intra- and
inter-assay variability were p2.3% and p2.43%, respectively.
2.1. Statistics
Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica 6
package. Data were checked for normal distribution using the
Shapiro–Wilk test. Since in some cases the data distribution was
not normal, the Friedman’s ANOVA for repeated measurements
was applied to examine the overall changes. Thereafter, the
Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired non-parametric data was
used to determine variations from the initial levels during the
experiment, as recommended for this type of data (Cohen, 1988).
Values of po0.05 were considered statistically significant. In
addition, correlation coefficients between variables were calcu-
lated using a Spearman analysis.
3. Results
The morphological parameters and haematologic coefficients
were observed to be within clinical and laboratory norms in all
the examined individuals (Table 1). The results of responses
to one-time whole-body cryostimulation are presented in Figs. 1
and 2.
According to the values provided by Immunodiagnostik AG, we
found that the level of stress, expressed by means of the total
oxidative stress (TOS ¼PerOx) in plasma was very low ¼138
m
mol/L (85–160
m
mol/L) in the initial samples (A). As a result of
cryostimulation we observed a statistically significant decrease in
TOS, to 131.1
m
mol/L (64–165
m
mol/L) 30 min after leaving the
cryochamber (B). On the day following the cryostimulation, the
TOS level rose slightly, to 132
m
mol/L (87–143
m
mol/L) (C) and was
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Table 1
Physical characteristics, hematological parameters and cortisol levels in the serum
of the examined men (the values are mean7SD, minimum, and maximum)
n Mean value7standard
deviation (SD)
Min Max
Height (cm) 15 180.1577.59 166.00 190.00
Body mass (kg) 74.7076.52 63.00 86.50
BMI (kg/m
2
) 23.0471.65 21.05 25.40
WBC (10
3
/
m
L) 4.3671.31 1.51 5.54
RBC (10
6
/
m
L) 5.1970.10 5.09 5.41
HGB (g/dL) 15.2370.53 14.5 16.2
HCT (%) 45.5571.18 43.9 47.1
MCV (fL) 87.8272.06 85.2 90.4
MCH (pg) 29.3970.83 28.1 31.0
PLT (10
3
/
m
L) 230.73738.53 139.0 287.0
Cortisol A (
m
g/dl) 10.6373.16 5.78 16.1
Cortisol B (
m
g/dl) 10.1072.77 6.26 15.2
BMIbody mass index; WBCwhite body cell, RBCred body cell, HGB
hemoglobin, HCThematocrit, MCVmean corpuscular volume, MCHmean
corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHCmean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration,
PLTplatelets, Cortisol Aserum cortisol values before, and Cortisol B30 min
after cryostimulation.
Total oxidative status
TOS
Median
25%-75%
Min-Max
A*
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
µmol/l
B* C
Fig. 1. Changes in plasma total oxidative status in healthy subjects at rest (A), at
30 min after cryostimulation (B) and in the morning the day after (C). *pp0.05
statistically significant difference B vs. A.
A. Lubkowska et al. / Journal of Thermal Biology 33 (2008) 464–467 465
Author's personal copy
still lower than the initial values, although the difference was
not statistically significant. Similarly, the initial level (A) of the
plasma total antioxidative status (TAS ¼ImAnOx): 193.00
m
mol/L
(165–228
m
mol/L) was low. The TAS level significantly decreased
to 166
m
mol/L (157–203
m
mol/L) 30 min after leaving the cryo-
chamber (B). The following day (C), an increase in TAS level up to
188
m
mol/L (171–226
m
mol/L) was observed, and was statistically
significant in relation to the B measurement the day before. One-
time cryostimulation did not lead to significant changes in serum
cortisol levels (Table 1).
4. Discussion
The reaction of the human body to extremely low temperature
in a cryochamber initially resulted in a vasospasm and then
vasodilation and massive tissue hyperemia (Janiszewski, 1998;
Zagrobelny and Zimmer, 1999;Nadler et al., 2004). As a result of a
reaction catalyzed by xanthine oxidase due to reperfusion, an
increase of ROS, causing damage to both nucleic acids and
proteins as well as lipid peroxidation was observed. Due
to thermogenic trembling, the production of heat can exceed
3–5 times the level of the heat produced in normal metabolic
state (Jackson and Sammut, 2004). Simultaneously, heat is lost
due to convection and the demand for ATP increases. A higher
demand for ATP increases the metabolism of oxygen in the
mitochondria (Ksi˛ez
˙opolska-Pietrzak et al., 1999;Bartosz, 2003).
This leads to the intensification of ROS generation, through a one-
electron reduction of oxygen (Kopprasch et al., 1997). Due to the
cooling and stimulation of metabolism, the mitochondria in a
body exposed to extremely low temperature conditions produce
10 times more anion-radical superoxides (and after its dismuta-
tion, perhydride) (Bartosz, 2003). Additionally, in hepatocyte
peroxisomes an intensification of the
b
-oxidation of fatty acids
and the consequential generation of perhydride occur (Hamel
et al., 2001).
Prior to carrying out the experiment, we anticipated that an
increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation products would
be seen, which was to increase plasma total oxidative level in the
subsequent blood samples after a single stay session in the
cryogenic chamber. However, our results show a statistically
significant drop in TOS, accompanied by a decrease in TAS in
plasma. Both parameters correlated highly with each other in the
B samples collected 30 min after leaving the cryochamber. It is
likely to be a result of a decreased ROS generation or a significant
participation of non-enzymatic systems in their removal.
Zagrobelny et al. (1993) observed a significant increase in
the concentration of adrenaline, norepinephrine, ACTH, and
beta-endorphins in blood serum 30 min after cryostimulation.
Catecholaminesimportant regulators of metabolismmay have
some impact on the production of reactive oxygen species.
Whilst only few studies on the influence of cryostimulation on
oxidative and antioxidative processes in the cells of ill and healthy
individuals have been published, it is suggested that repeated
cryochamber sessions may cause adaptive changes, for example
an increase in antioxidative capacity (Janiszewski, 1998). Woz
´niak
et al. (2007b) when compared with the activity of superoxide
dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase after training
accompanied by cryostimulation. It was found that their activities
were lower when training was preceded by exposure to extremely
low temperature conditions. Additionally, in the next experiment
it was found that low temperature solely caused neither a
labialisation of lysosomal membranes nor significant changes in
the activities of lysosomal hydrolases (Woz
´niak et al., 2007a).
Siems and Brenke (1992) and Siems et al. (1994) observed that
acute cold stimuli (such as winter swimming) induced a decrease
in major plasma antioxidants (i.e. ascorbic acid and uric acid) and
an increase in the concentration of hydroxynonenal in plasma
(a marker of lipid peroxidation).
Dugue
´et al. (2005) compared acute and long-term changes in
plasma antioxidant capacity in women who attended whole-body
cryotherapy regularly. They observed a significant increase in the
value of total peroxyl radical trapping antioxidant capacity of
plasma (TRAP) 2 min after cold stress in the first 4 weeks of their
study. Thirty-five minutes after application of cold stress, the
values of TRAP did not vary from the baseline values. These data
may suggest that cold stress activates antioxidant defense in the
body, especially at the initial stages of an adaptation period.
However, changes in the TRAP values showed significant varia-
tions between subjects. High individual variation of response to
stress caused by cold is confirmed by our own research, in
particular with regard to total oxidative status, which enables
estimation of lipid peroxidation increase.
Cortisol, the concentration of which increases in response to
stressogenic factors, is generally the most frequently investigated
marker in cryostimulation research. Reports on changes in its
concentrations are often contradictory. In this research, we did not
note any changes in cortisol concentration in serum caused by a
one-time session of cryotherapy. Zagrobelny and Zimmer (1999)
reported an increase in the concentration of this hormone in blood
serum after cryotherapy treatment, but Woz
´niak et al. (2007a) did
not report any statistically significant changes in cortisol con-
centrations both after a single stay session in a cryochamber, and
after 6 days of training accompanied by cryostimulation. They
observed, however, an increasing tendency in cortisol levels after
the sixth day of training, and then a decrease after the 10th day of
training in conjunction with cryostimulation. Leppa
¨luoto et al.
(2008) studying the effects of long-term winter swimming and
whole-body cryotherapy, observed that plasma cortisol exhibited
an insignificant increase after the first winter swimming, as did
ACTH. During whole-body cryotherapy, plasma cortisol at 15 min
after exposure was significantly lower in week 4 than in week 1.
After the 11th week of the study, plasma cortisol levels were lower
at 15 and 35min in comparison with the period preceding the
start of the experiment.
Limited literature on the influence of cryogenic temperatures
on antioxidative mechanism and on the generation of free radicals
leaves room for future research. The next step should be to
estimate the influence of cryostimulation series (in arrangements
most often used by patients and athletes) on plasma oxidative–
antioxidative coefficients.
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Total antioxidative status
TAS
Median
25%-75%
Min-Max
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
µmol/l
A* B** C**
Fig. 2. Changes in plasma total antioxidative status in healthy subjects at rest (A),
at 30 min after cryostimulation (B), and in the morning the day after (C). *pp0.05
statistically significant difference B vs. A, **pp0.01 statistically significant
difference B vs. C.
A. Lubkowska et al. / Journal of Thermal Biology 33 (2008) 464–467466
Author's personal copy
In conclusion, one session of whole-body cryostimulation
causes disturbances in the prooxidant–antioxidant balancethe
level of total oxidative status in plasma was statistically
significantly lowered 30 min after leaving cryochamber and
remained low the following day, whereas the level of total
antioxidative status decreased after cold exposure and elevated
the next day.
Acknowledgment
The authors express special thanks to all participants for their
participation in this research project.
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A. Lubkowska et al. / Journal of Thermal Biology 33 (2008) 464–467 467
... It has been documented that whole body cryotherapy (WBC) treatments have anti-inflammatory effects, resulting in reduced levels of oxidative stress [9][10][11][12][13]. Cold therapy (whole body cryotherapy and partial body cryotherapy) is used to relieve pain and eliminate inflammation. ...
... The standard procedure prescribed by rheumatologists, traumatologists or sports physicians includes a series of 20 WBC treatments [14]. A single treatment causes disruption of the prooxidative-antioxidant balance (PAB), with a decrease in total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidative status (TAS) of plasma, with their subsequent increase the next day after WBC treatment [9]. In turn, repetition of WBC treatments can cause adaptive changes in the human body in the form of increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and plasma antioxidant capacity, as well as a reduction in the concentration of oxidative stress markers (conjugated dienes and MDA). ...
... These changes have a positive effect on maintaining a higher level of PAB. In this way, there may be an increase in the anti-inflammatory properties of systemically used cryogenic temperatures and their protective effect against oxidative stress [9,10]. ...
Article
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Objectives: In obesity, there is a shift in the pro-oxidative-antioxidant balance towards the oxidationreactions. However, it has been shown that in people with normal body composition, after a series of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), the balance shifts in the opposite direction. Design: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of 20 WBC treatments on blood pro-oxidative-antioxidant balance. Interventions: Study included 14 obese (BMI > 35) and 10 non-obese volunteers. Methods: The total antioxidative (TAS/TAC) and pro-oxidative status (TOS/TOC) in serum and activity of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes were determined before the first and 2 hours after the last cryostimulation. Results: In the obese group, a significantly higher level of TOS/TOC, and its significant decrease after the WBC series, was observed. Cryotherapy had no influence on TAS/TAC level which was similar in both groups. Changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes were multidirectional. An increase in CAT activity in the obese group was observed. OSI, both before and after a series of treatments, was significantly higher in obese subjects. Conclusions: A beneficial effect on the level of TOS/TOC and CAT activity was indicated, but the proposed number of treatments for patients with class II obesity turned out to be insufficient. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry identifier: ACTRN12619000524190.
... Strengthening the systemic antioxidant defence may also be the result of a series of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) treatments, during which the body is exposed to cryogenic temperatures (from −110 • C to −160 • C) within 1-3 min [19][20][21][22][23][24]. There was no significant increase in the antioxidant defence immediately after a single WBC procedure [25]. After a series of WBC treatments, an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx) and plasma antioxidant capacity, as well as a decrease in the concentration of markers of oxidative damage to macromolecules were found [19,26]. ...
... However, the influence of lowered temperatures and WBC on human sirtuins level has not been researched so far. Additionally, the majority of studies on the effects of WBC on the body were conducted only among young people [19,20,23,25,[41][42][43]. Few works concern the reaction of the body of middle-aged and elderly people to the effects of cryogenic temperatures [44][45][46][47]. ...
... In our study among the group of young men, a single WBC treatment increased plasma CAT activity in non-training individuals (large clinical effect size). However, other researchers discovered that immediately after a single WBC procedure applied in young healthy men, there is an increase in GPx activity, with a simultaneous decrease for CAT activity in erythrocytes [57] and a significant reduction in TOS and TAC levels in the blood plasma [25]. On the other hand, the day following exposure, there is a significant increase in the level of TAC compared to the value measured immediately after the WBC procedure [25]. ...
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Background: The activity of antioxidant enzymes and sirtuins (Sirt) decreases along with age, which is counteracted by aerobic training. Sirtuins increase antioxidant defence. Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) increases total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in young men. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of 24 WBC treatments on the blood concentration of selected sirtuins and the level of antioxidant defence as well as oxidative stress index of training and non-training men depending on age. Methods: The study involved 40 males. In each group, there were 10 non-training older and young men (60 NTR and 20 NTR), and 10 older and young long-distance runners (60 TR, 20 TR). During an 8-week period, participants underwent 24 WBC treatments (3 min -130 °C), which were performed three times a week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday). The concentrations of Sirt1, Sirt3, TAC, total oxidative status and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the blood were determined before 1 WBC and after 1 WBC, 12 WBC and 24 WBC. Results: After 1 WBC, the activity of GPx and the concentration of Sirt1 and TAC in 60 TR and TAC in 60 NTR increased. After 12 WBC, the level of Sirt1 in 20 NTR and SOD in 20 TR increased. After 24 WBC, the level of Sirt1 increased in 60 TR and in 20 NTR, Sirt3 in 60 TR and SOD in 20 TR. Conclusions: Cryogenic temperatures increase blood levels of Sirt1 and Sirt3 and systemic antioxidant defence in men, but the effect is dependent on age, level of performed physical activity and the number of applied treatments.
... According to numerous recent reports, whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) has many beneficial effects on human health, including on body composition [22], blood circulation in tissue [23], antioxidant status [24,25], hematological markers [26], glucose homeostasis [27], and others. Nagashima et al. [28] reported that cryogenic treatment increases the metabolic rate and heat production by stimulating the activity of the sympathetic nervous system or non-shivering thermogenesis. ...
... In the current study, between 10 and 20 sessions no changes were observed in ADP levels. According to the literature, a similar effect in response to 10 WBC was reported by Ziemann et al. [13] and Lubkowska et al. [24], who combined cold exposure (20 WBC sessions) with a 6-month exercise program in overweight men. According to many reports, ADP levels in obese individuals, especially ones with visceral obesity, are lower than those in non-obese subjects [47,[49][50][51]. ...
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Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. While cold therapy influences the pro/antioxidative status of an individual, by affecting adipokine levels and the lipid profile, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the response to cold exposure is unclear. We analyzed the link between BMI and the differences in effects of whole-body stimulation, depending on the number of treatments, on specific physiological parameters in men. Twenty-seven non-active men were divided into three groups: N (n = 9, BMI < 24.9), IOb (n = 9, BMI 30.0–34.9), and IIOb (BMI ≥ 35.0). The subjects participated in 20 3-min cryochamber sessions (−120 ◦C), 1/day, 5 days/week. Body composition was analyzed before and after treatment. Blood adiponectin (ADP), leptin (LEP), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels, and the lipid profile were analyzed three times: at baseline and up to 2 h after 10 and 20 sessions. The 20 treatments caused significant changes in body composition. Between 10 and 20 whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) sessions, a significant decreased was observed in the LEP and TNF-alpha levels. No significant changes in the lipid profile were noted. However, a positive tendency to regain the metabolic balance in adipose tissue was apparent in the IOb group in the tested period (decreased TG levels, increased HDL levels or the HDL/LDL ratio, and significantly decreased visceral adiposity index levels). Collectively, for people with obesity increasing the number of treatments above the standard 10 should be recommended.
... Smolander et al. 2009 concluded that WBC treatments (-110°C), for 2 min, three times a week for 12 weeks, do not lead to disorders related to secretions of the growth hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin or thyroid hormones in healthy females. Lubkowska et al. 2008 explained that one session of whole-body cryostimulation causes changes in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance. The level of total oxidative status in plasma was statistically significantly decreased at 30 minutes after leaving the cryochamber and remained lower the following day, whereas the level of total antioxidative status decreased after cold exposure and increased the next day. ...
... This advantageous effectan increased level of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-12) -was maintained during the whole series of cryostimulations, and receded no earlier than after two weeks after the completion of the cryostimulations, regardless of the number of treatments. Lubkowska et al. 2008 observed the decreased level of pro-inflammatory IL-1 during the series of 5 and 10 treatment, in an examination two weeks after the last stimulation ,the IL-1 decrease was maintained only after the series of 20 cryostimulation treatments. Ihsan et al. 2013 mentioned that to date, only one study has examined the effect of post-exercise cold water immersion on muscle oxygenation and blood flow. ...
... Recent literature has shown that WBC is immunostimulating and yields an anti-inflammatory response, with a decrease of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases of anti-inflammatory mediators [52][53][54][55][56][57]. It also appears to improve the effect on redox balance in a session/treatment number-, age-, and fitness-dependent manner [58], probably through the decrease in the total oxidant production which, consequently, induces antioxidant activity [56,[58][59][60][61][62][63]. Thus, due to its widely recognized anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and exercise-mimicking effects [64], WBC is proposed as a promising add-on option in the multidisciplinary treatment of FM, considering also that diffuse inflammation is one of the sub mechanisms of depression [65], and that co-morbid depression is very common among FM patients, with a lifetime prevalence of 62-86% [66]. ...
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Currently, all available therapies for the control and management of fibromyalgia (FM) are mostly focused on relieving patients’ symptoms and improving their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the evidence supporting the beneficial effects of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) in patients with FM and evidence-based guidance on the possible adjuvant use of WBC in the treatment of FM. We searched the most recent literature by retrieving 10 eligible studies, 4 of which were abstracts only, from a total of 263 records. Thermal stress caused by cryostimulation induces an analgesic effect, improving pain, redox balance, and inflammatory symptoms in an exercise-mimicking fashion. In addition, it reduces the feeling of fatigue, improves mood, and reduces mental health deterioration with positive consequences on depressive states and improved sleep quality. Although the studies included in this review are not of sufficient quality and quantity to draw definitive conclusions about the effectiveness of WBC in FM, initial evidence indicates WBC as a promising add-on option in the multidisciplinary treatment of FM, due to its rapid action and high patients’ compliance. The application of WBC protocols has the potential to expand therapeutic options for the treatment of FM and related disorders; however, larger, high-quality primary studies are still needed.
... Although previous studies on athletes and healthy subjects had shown the beneficial antioxidant effect of WBC already after a limited number of sessions (Lombardi et al., 2017), a dose-dependency was observed in healthy men, with 20 sessions being the optimal number of sessions (Lubkowska et al., 2008(Lubkowska et al., , 2012. ...
Article
Currently available treatments for the management of obesity struggle to provide clinically significant weight loss and reduction of the chronic low-grade inflammatory state in order to reduce obesity-related complications. This scoping review aims to provide an up-to-date picture of the therapeutic effects of Whole-Body Cryostimulation (WBC) in patients with obesity and evidence-based indications for its complementary use in the treatment of obesity. We searched the literature until the end of August 2021, retrieving 8 eligible studies out of 856, all evaluated for their methodological quality using the Downs and Black checklist. Overall, the limited data presented in this review article seem to support the efficacy of WBC as an adjuvant treatment in obesity. The cryogenic stimulus has important anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects and its effectiveness is directly related to the individual percentage of fat mass and initial fitness capacity, mimicking an exercise-induced effect. Based on the limited results gathered, WBC emerges as a promising adjuvant therapy to reduce systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, abdominal obesity, and body mass. However, the data presented in this review article fail to reach definitive conclusions with regards to the efficacy of WBC in the treatment of obesity. Application of WBC protocols yields the potential to widen the therapeutic armor for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related disorders but larger, high-quality studies are still needed.
... In recent years, it was shown that cryotherapy positively affects blood circulation in the tissues. It also increases the use of fatty acids and improves immunity and antioxidant level [3,4]. However, there is still little data on the effect of cryostimulation on blood morphology parameters in the available literature, especially in the case of people with obesity. ...
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Background: Adaptation, including changes in blood properties, to whole-body cryostimulation may depend on many factors, including body mass. Aim: This study investigates whether hematological parameters change similarly in a group of people with obesity and a group of men with normal body weight after 10 and 20 cryostimulation treatments. Methods: In our non-randomized trial, the participants were divided into two groups based on their body fat percentage: 14 men with a high (HBF = 29.35%) and 10 with a normal percent of body fat (NBF = 11.40%) and subjected to 20 whole body cryostimulation treatments (-120°C for 2-3 minutes). Blood samples were taken before the first and after the 10th and 20th cryostimulation. The following parameters were determined: red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelets (PLT), red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD), mean platelet volume (MPV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (NEUT), lymphocytes (LYMPH), monocytes (MONO), eosinophils (EO) and basophiles (BASO). Results: Statistically significant differences were found in red blood cells parameters such as RBC, HCT, MCV and MCHC. Time influence was noted for HCT, MCV and MCHC. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant correlation (for time and group) for 2 paramateres: RBC and MCV. For platelet parameters statistically significant differences were found for PLT (group influence) and MPV (time and group interaction). In white blood cells parameters statistically significant differences in levels of LYMPH were noted. Higher levels were observed for HBF group. Conclusions: All observed changes were within the reference range, but hematological markers changed unevenly in people who are obese and non-obese. Therefore, it appears that an amount of fat tissue could be a factor causing the differences in adaptation to low temperature. It is suggested that 20 whole body cryostimulation sessions restore the state of homeostasis disturbed after 10 sessions. Trial registration: ACTRN 12619000524190.
... These findings are similar to our previous papers [15,19]. In contrast, Lubkowska et al. [31] presented that a single session of WBC could induce disturbances in prooxidant-antioxidant balance caused by decreasing TOS and temporarily, TAS. ...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) and subsequent kinesiotherapy on inflammatory endothelium and oxidative stress parameters in healthy subjects. Methods: The effects of ten WBC procedures lasting 3 min per day and followed by a 60-min session of kinesiotherapy on oxidative stress and inflammatory endothelium parameters in healthy subjects (WBC group n = 32) were analyzed. The WBC group was compared to a kinesiotherapy only (KT; n = 16) group. The following parameters were estimated one day before the start, and one day after the completion of the studies: oxidative stress parameters (the total antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP), paraoxonase-1 activity (PON-1), and total oxidative status (TOS)) and inflammatory endothelium parameters (myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), serum amyloid A (SAA), and sCD40L levels). Results: A significant decrease of PON-1 and MPO activities and TOS, SAA, and sCD40L levels as well as a significant FRAP increase were observed in the WBC group after the treatment. In addition, the SAA levels and PON-1 activity decreased significantly after the treatment in both groups, but the observed decrease of these parameters in the WBC group was higher in comparison to the KT group. Conclusion: WBC procedures have a beneficial impact on inflammatory endothelium and oxidative stress parameters in healthy subjects, therefore they may be used as a wellness method.
... However, during the selection of a cold treatment, and determining the purpose of its action, it should be noted that there is a two-phase vascular reaction to extremely low temperatures [15,16]. It is also essential that by the consensual reflexes, vascular reactions caused by the cold factor, occurring in the target may also arise in spaces distant from the area of the performed surgery [17,18]. e local cryotherapy procedure is based on the application of cold within the area subjected to the treatment. ...
Article
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Introduction: Temporomandibular joints (TMJs) play a very significant function in the activity of the locomotor system of the masticatory system. But they are often a source of pain, myopathy, myoarthropathy, and malfunction of their surrounding or internal structures. The treatment of a patient's discomfort associated with masticatory system dysfunctions strongly depends on their cause. Aim of the Study. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of selected physical factors: LED light therapy with electromagnetic field and cryotherapy for the level of pain, in the treatment of patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Materials and methods: The study included 60 patients of both genders with diagnosed TMD in a clinical trial. The participants were randomly divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 30 people and was subjected to separate therapies in which LED light therapy with electromagnetic field (MLT) and cryotherapy (CT) were applied. Results: Having assessed the results of the author's own research in terms of analgesic activity, determined on the VAS scale during the daily routine activity of the mandible and its individual movements, in general, each of the studied groups demonstrated a considerable decrease in the level of the patients' perception of pain (<0.001). Having compared both the therapeutic methods used, a greater reduction in the level of perceived pain was achieved with MLT (p=0.002). The type of therapy used turned out to be the only significant factor for the magnitude of this reduction. Conclusions: Conclusions based on the results of our own research indicate that the selected methods of treatment demonstrate an analgesic effect in terms of the overall discomfort in the course of TMD, and that they may be an alternative pain relief thereby reducing the patient's intake of painkillers.
... Велика кількість проведених наукових досліджень довело високу клінічну ефективність короткочасного впливу екстремально низької температури на організм людини. Результати таких досліджень в даний час активно застосовуються при відновлювальному лікування та реабілітації пацієнтів з різноманітною патологією опорно-рухового апарату в реабілітаційних клініках, ревматологічних центрах, а також спортивно-медичних установах в Європі [5,7,10,11,14]. ...
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In the present study we have investigated the influence of cryogenic temperatures and exercise on antioxidant enzyme activity in the erythrocytes of kayakers. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) have been assayed. The study was performed on 10 kayakers (Polish Olympic Team) who were training for 31 days to prepare for a competition. In the first ten days of training sportsmen additionally had a cryogenic chamber sessions. The blood samples were taken: before the start of the study, after the fifth and the tenth day of training accompanied with cryostimulation and on the seventh, fourteenth and twenty first day of exercise without cryogenic stimulation. GSHPx activity significantly increased after the fifth day of training and cryostimulation and decreased significantly after tenth day of training and cryostimulation. CAT activity did not show statistically significant increase after the fifth day of training and cryogenic session and a statistically significant decrease was observed on the tenth day. Training performed after the end of cryostimulation did not have statistically significant influence on SOD activity. Activity of CAT significantly decreased on the fourteenth day of training and GSHPx decreased significantly on the 21st day of exercise not preceded by cryostimulation. It is difficult to estimate the influence of cryogenic session on pro- and antioxidant mechanisms during exercise.
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Inhibition by insulin of long chain fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria is mediated in part by elevating malonyl-CoA levels, which inhibit carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I. Whether insulin alters peroxisomal oxidation has not been studied. We present data which show that insulin inhibits the oxidation of palmitic acid by peroxisomes (IC50 = 8.5 × 10⁻¹¹m) at hormone concentrations 100-fold less than those needed for mitochondrial inhibition (IC50 = 1.3× 10⁻⁸m). We used a purified peroxisome preparation to study the mechanism of insulin action. Insulin had a direct effect in the peroxisome preparations to decrease oxygen consumption, fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system activity and acyl-CoA oxidase by approximately 40%, 30% and 15%, respectively. Since insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) is an insulin-binding protein known to be in peroxisomes, we studied the effect of an inhibitory anti-IDE antibody on the ability of insulin to inhibit the fatty acyl-CoA oxidizing system. The antibody eliminated the inhibitory effect of insulin. We conclude that insulin inhibits peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation by a mechanism requiring IDE.
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Iron is essential for normal cellular functions. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the gener- ation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury and ultimately leads to aging. Aging in humans appears to result from a combination of genetically programmed phenomena and harmful environmental factors, both exogenous and endogenous. Aging is mainly due to the cumulative results of free radical oxidation of the protein, lipid and nucleic acid of our body by reactive oxygen species. Oxygen is a highly reactive atom that is capable of becoming part of potentially damaging molecules commonly called “free radicals.” Free radicals are capable of attacking the healthy cells of the body, causing them to lose their structure and function. Damage to cells caused by free radicals is believed to play a central role in the aging process and in disease progression.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 144-154).