Article

Twenty-five years of sprawl in the Seattle region: Growth management responses and implications for conservation

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

To study the effects of growth management efforts on urban fringe areas in Washington State’s Puget Sound region, USA, this study documents and quantifies transformations in land cover and land-use from 1974 to 1998 for a 474 km2 study area east of Seattle. Geo-referenced aerial photographs (orthophotos) were digitized, then classified, to compare patch patterns (clustered versus dispersed vegetation, remnant versus planted vegetation), size, development type (single-family housing, multi-family housing, commercial) and percent vegetative cover between 1974 and 1998 images. Changes in interior forest habitat and amount of edge were also calculated. The study showed that suburban and exurban landscapes increased dramatically between 1974 and 1998 at the expense of rural and wildland areas. Settled lands became more contiguous while rural and wildland areas became more fragmented. Interior forest habitat in wildland areas decreased by 41%. Single-family housing was the primary cause of land conversion. Current growth management efforts prioritize increasing housing density within urban growth boundaries (UGBs), while limiting densities outside these boundaries. The study demonstrated that housing density has indeed increased within these boundaries, but at the same time, sprawling low-density housing in rural and wildland areas constituted 72% of total land developed within the study area. Therefore, policies to reduce the density of settlement outside urban centers, in part to protect ecological systems, may have unintended environmental consequences. This has implications for those urban areas, both in the United States and in other countries, considering growth management strategies.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In the state of Washington, many cougar populations overlap with exurban and suburban environments, making them ideal for long-term research on predator responses to anthropogenic disturbance. In western Washington at the foothills of the Cascade Mountains, cougars occur throughout a well-defined wildland-urban gradient (0->10 residences/ha; Robinson et al. 2005, Kertson et al. 2013. Examination of cougar space use along this gradient revealed that resident cougars exhibited similar movement patterns in wildland and residential environments (Kertson et al. 2011b) but varied markedly in their space use. ...
... We examined cougar kill site locations in a 4450km 2 study site encompassing portions of King, Snohomish, and Pierce counties in Washington, USA (590,000 E, 5,260,000 N; Fig. 1 The study site is topographically complex and characterized by a gradual east-west gradient spanning wildland, exurban (<2.5 residences/ ha), suburban (2.5-10 residences/ha), and urban (>10 residences/ha) environments (Robinson et al. 2005, Kertson et al. 2011b. Private timberland, Washington Department of Natural Resources forest, and United States Forest Service holdings comprise the majority of the eastern portion of the study site. ...
... To create a building density predictor variable, we quantified urbanization within the study site using ArcMap 10.4 (Silverman 1986) and GIS parcel data from King and Snohomish counties, Washington, USA. We acquired parcel data for years 2007 and 2015 (King County) and 2004 and 2016 (Snohomish County) through the University of Washington Libraries media archive, along with the associated assessor's tables containing parcel attribute data, and created landscape categories based on Robinson et al. (2005) and Alberti et al. (2007), and urbanization was quantified as the density of built structures per hectare. We used the 2004 and 2007 shapefiles to approximate the extent of landscape development at kill site locations in both Snohomish and King counties during study period 1, whereas the 2015 and 2016 shapefiles Department of Fish and Wildlife during period 1 was smaller (3500 km 2 ), although King County portions of the study site were identical. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humans have dramatically altered ecosystem structure through landscape manipulation, often leaving refuge patches of suitable habitat for wildlife amidst inhospitable terrain. Large carnivores are especially vulnerable to such habitat modification because they tend to have low population densities and wide‐ranging movements necessitated by their food requirements. Cougars (Puma concolor), unlike many other large carnivores, have demonstrated an ability to exploit resources in fragmented and managed landscapes. The influence of increasing landscape development on cougar foraging behavior, however, has yet to be fully elucidated. Accordingly, we investigated variation in cougar use of three prey types (synanthropes, ungulates, and rodents) along a wildland–urban gradient in western Washington to determine how urbanization affects the foraging ecology of this apex predator. We predicted that cougar diets would comprise more synanthropic prey (e.g., prolific urban species) and fewer deer as a function of increasing residential development. Generalized linear mixed model results showed that the odds of cougar predation on synanthropic prey did increase with urbanization. The odds of ungulate predation, however, remained relatively consistent across the wildland–urban gradient despite cougar use of black‐tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) increasing over time. These results suggest that cougar–ungulate predator–prey systems can persist in landscapes with substantial human presence. The odds of forest‐associated rodent (Castor sp., Aplodontia sp.) predation decreased with increasing development, suggesting that urbanization may coincide with more intensive beaver management near residences and thereby reduce beaver and mountain beaver presence in exurban landscapes in western Washington. Most cougars exhibited similar diets, but certain individuals deviated significantly from the population averages characterizing use of all three major prey categories. This variation suggests that cougar population responses to urbanization are unlikely to be uniform and that cases of human–cougar conflict may be linked to individual cats, rather than the population as a whole.
... However, sprawl is increasingly seen as an important and growing concern that imposes a wide range of social and environmental costsespecially in the area of rising energy prices. According to Robinson et al (2005), awareness of the costs of sprawl has pushed policy makers around the world to create various regulations and incentives to reduce this phenomenon. ...
... In the years before the adoption of the Transport Efficiency Act, the federal government's spending on walking and cycling facilities was about $ 4 to $ 6 million a year. Since then, the amount of federal funding has increased significantly (more than $ 296 million in 2000) (Rodriguez & Goerman, 2004). ...
... However, sprawl is increasingly seen as an important and growing concern that imposes a wide range of social and environmental costsespecially in the area of rising energy prices. According to Robinson et al (2005), awareness of the costs of sprawl has pushed policy makers around the world to create various regulations and incentives to reduce this phenomenon. ...
... In the years before the adoption of the Transport Efficiency Act, the federal government's spending on walking and cycling facilities was about $ 4 to $ 6 million a year. Since then, the amount of federal funding has increased significantly (more than $ 296 million in 2000) (Rodriguez & Goerman, 2004). ...
... However, sprawl is increasingly seen as an important and growing concern that imposes a wide range of social and environmental costsespecially in the area of rising energy prices. According to Robinson et al (2005), awareness of the costs of sprawl has pushed policy makers around the world to create various regulations and incentives to reduce this phenomenon. ...
... In the years before the adoption of the Transport Efficiency Act, the federal government's spending on walking and cycling facilities was about $ 4 to $ 6 million a year. Since then, the amount of federal funding has increased significantly (more than $ 296 million in 2000) (Rodriguez & Goerman, 2004). ...
... However, sprawl is increasingly seen as an important and growing concern that imposes a wide range of social and environmental costsespecially in the area of rising energy prices. According to Robinson et al (2005), awareness of the costs of sprawl has pushed policy makers around the world to create various regulations and incentives to reduce this phenomenon. ...
... In the years before the adoption of the Transport Efficiency Act, the federal government's spending on walking and cycling facilities was about $ 4 to $ 6 million a year. Since then, the amount of federal funding has increased significantly (more than $ 296 million in 2000) (Rodriguez & Goerman, 2004). ...
... The phenomenon of increasingly large urban areas taking up a greater proportion of the available land area is often termed urban sprawl [1]. Various studies and papers such as Peter Baus, Rastislav Krivosudsky [2], Batty, Besussi, Chin [3] and Robinson et al. [4] have documented the negative environmental impacts that can be linked to urban sprawl, while other studies (e.g. Hasse and Lathrop) [5] have discussed the increased social costs associated with the provision of public infrastructure as cities increase in size. ...
... In the paper the authors drew mainly from the theory of urban sprawl as: Anas, Pines [14], Antrop [11], Baus, Krivosudsky [2], Batty, Besussi, Chin [3], Hasse, Lathrop [5], Halas, Dzupinova [20], Ourednicek [17], Pichler-Milanovic [7,10], Robinson, Newell, Marzluff [4], Sveda [18], Nechyba, Walsh [13], Sveda, Podolak [19] etc. ...
Chapter
We might perceive the suburbanization as a form of urbanization processes when it comes to the migration of population and their activities from the town to its background. The term urban sprawl is understood as a violent development of suburban areas, which is prevailingly related to the origination of large residential regions in the surrounding of large cities. Urban sprawl has many negative consequences for residents and the environment, water and air pollution, increased traffic and jams, parking. A long-term problem of the Slovak Republic is taking up arable soil for property development, especially in the field of residential projects. The factors which contributed to agriculture land grabbing are primarily caused by new housing, industrial and commercial locations as well as in the transport infrastructure. The paper points to problems of the urban sprawl of towns (on the example of the biggest city district Bratislava - Petržalka), which induce several negative effects.
... Mainly because of the country's topography, most urban settlements are 41 located in its Central Plateau region, which accounts for about one third of the total 42 Swiss territory, The Central Plateau is characterized by elevations that range from 400 43 to 700m, a continental temperate climate with mean annual temperatures of 9-10 • C 44 and mean annual precipitation of 800-1400 mm, and a dominating vegetation of mixed 45 broadleaf forest. 46 In line with the country's federalist government structure, the Swiss spatial planning 47 system is distributed between the federal state, the 26 cantons and 2495 municipalities. 48 The federal state specifies the framework legislation and coordinates the spatial building zones almost entirely autonomously [20]. ...
... The lack of 351 coordination between of planning authorities is widely regarded as one of the main 352 causes of urban sprawl [42,43], and the revision of the Swiss Federal Act on regional The fragmentation of natural habitats, as observed in the three Swiss urban 357 agglomerations of this study, has been extensively linked to negative impacts on 358 biodiversity and key ecosystem functions [44]. Nevertheless, growth management 359 policies that misappreciate the residential preferences for low-density environments 360 might inadvertently encourage households to relocate further away from the 361 agglomeration centers, resulting in longer commute times and an overall increase of 362 sprawl at the regional scale [45,46]. On the other hand, the interspersion of patches of 363 natural land within urban agglomerations provide valuable ecosystem services to its 364 residents, such as the reduction of air pollution, alleviation of maximum temperatures, 365 absorption of storm water, noise reduction, carbon sequestration, improvement of 366 aesthetic and cultural values as well as the preservation of ecological habitats and 367 biodiversity [47,48]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Urbanization is currently a global phenomenon that has become the most important form of landscape change and is increasingly affecting biodiversity and ecosystem functions. In order to evaluate the impacts of urbanization and inform urban planning, it is important to understand the spatiotemporal patterns of land use change associated to urbanization. This paper exploits three different frameworks, namely landscape metrics, urban growth modes and fractal analysis to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization of the Swiss urban agglomerations of Zurich, Bern and Lausanne. The land use inventory provided by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office was used to assemble four temporal snapshots from 1980 to 2016 at the extent of the urban agglomerations. The time series of landscape metrics generally supports the diffusion and coalescence model of urban growth, with Zurich exhibiting most characteristics of coalescence while Bern and Lausanne seem to be at the transition between diffusion and coalescence. Nevertheless, the analysis of the urban growth modes suggest that leapfrog development occurs at all periods, which contributes to an increasing fragmentation of natural patches and maintains the fractal configuration of the landscape. The discussion reviews potential explanations for the observed landscape changes, and concludes with some planning implications.
... However, sprawl is increasingly seen as an important and growing concern that imposes a wide range of social and environmental costsespecially in the area of rising energy prices. According to Robinson et al (2005), awareness of the costs of sprawl has pushed policy makers around the world to create various regulations and incentives to reduce this phenomenon. ...
... In the years before the adoption of the Transport Efficiency Act, the federal government's spending on walking and cycling facilities was about $ 4 to $ 6 million a year. Since then, the amount of federal funding has increased significantly (more than $ 296 million in 2000) (Rodriguez & Goerman, 2004). ...
... The population within Puget Sound, Washington is projected to exceed 4.8 million people this decade (Puget Sound Regional Council 2018). In addition to overall continued population growth in the Salish Sea, population in areas outside of cities has grown, shifting population demographics in suburban and exurban areas (Robinson et al. 2005). While urban growth in cities has continued, the additional growth in outlying areas has resulted in additional habitat fragmentation and loss. ...
... Anthropogenic change through hardening of shorelines at the interface between the landscape and seascape is concentrated around urban areas throughout the Salish Sea, but even rural regions have experienced alterations to the shoreline like piers, floats, and other human impacts. The growth in urbanized areas from the city centers out toward surrounding, once rural areas, has been punctuated (Robinson et al. 2005). Fragmentation has occurred first, followed by increasing urbanization, and total habitat loss in areas proximal to major cities with high urban and suburban land use. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report synthesizes information on past, current, and emerging stressors within the Salish Sea estuarine ecosystem. The Salish Sea is a complex waterbody shared by Coast Salish Tribes and First Nations, Canada, and the United States. It is defined by multiple freshwater inputs and marine water from the Pacific Ocean that mix in two primary basins, Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia. Human impacts are multifaceted and extensive within the Salish Sea, with a regional population of almost 9 million people. Population growth has driven urbanization and development, which in turn has triggered structural changes to the landscape and seascape. Meanwhile, the growing effects of climate change are fundamentally altering physical and biological processes. The report describes the most pervasive and damaging impacts affecting the transboundary ecosystem, recognizing that some are generated locally while others are the locally realized impacts from global-scale changes in climate, oceans, land use, and biodiversity. The Salish Sea is under relentless pressure from an accelerating convergence of global and local environmental stressors and the cumulative impacts of 150 years of development and alteration of our watersheds and seascape. Some of these impacts are well understood but many remain unknown or are difficult to predict. While strong science is critical to understanding the ecosystem, the report provides a spectrum of ideas and opportunities for how governments, organizations, and individuals can work together to meet the needs of science and science-driven management that will sustain the Salish Sea estuarine ecosystem.
... Natural amenities such as waterbodies, wilderness, and outdoor recreation with urban accessibility attract retirees and family ages with the promise of rural idylls (Golding & Winkler, 2020;McGranahan, 2008). Such migration-destination regions, often located in the urban fringe, are likely to experience a transition of agricultural or forested land into developed land (Brown et al., 2008;Robinson et al., 2005;White et al., 2009), which might require new policies (e.g. zoning) to prevent land fragmentation (Clark et al., 2009;Irwin & Bockstael, 2007;Radeloff et al., 2005). ...
... Urban-to-Rural • A transition into developed land (Brown et al., 2008;Robinson et al., 2005;White et al., 2009) • Land fragmentation (Clark et al., 2009;Irwin & Bockstael, 2007;Radeloff et al., 2005) • Nature preservation in a support of newcomers (Irwin & Bockstael, 2007;Kondo et al., 2012;McCool & Kruger, 2003) Rural-to-Urban • Land abandonment (Brown et al., 2005;Munroe et al., 2013) • Absentee landowners making land management difficult (Gallemore et al., 2018) • Natural regeneration and rewilding (Law & McSweeney, 2013;Rhemtulla et al., 2007) Rural-to-Rural • Concentrated settlement in rural poverty pockets (Foulkes & Newbold, 2008) • Labor market dynamics, differentiated job opportunities by rural spatial division of labor (Glasmeier, 2018) and U.S. Census Bureau). Separating rural from small cities in micropolitan areas will allow intra-rural dynamics and land-use change trajectory to be better distinguished. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rural migration is an integral component of land systems, altering land management both at the origin and destination of migration in regions of Europe and North America. We examine population moving in and out of rural areas in Ohio, U.S.A, between 2008 and 2016 and examine spatiotemporal patterns in land cover. Among families changing residential location, one-third of all household moving events are migration from or to rural areas. A PCA ordination and cluster analysis of rural migration revealed qualitatively distinct patterns. Urban peripheries grew due to in-migration from metro suburban areas, while agricultural and forested areas reflect intra-rural and micropolitan migration. Forested communities have lost population to other rural areas, and rural poverty pockets have gained low-income families from both rural and metro urban areas. Spatial analysis of rural migration patterns and associations with land use helps develop targeted land management strategies and reveals under-represented dynamics in prior studies.
... Lin Robinson et al thought the remnant natural vegetation had a higher habitat value than the artificial one [11] . Parsons H et al., studied on the eco-service function of native plants, the value of urban remnant natural patches as the habitat of birds [12] . ...
... Intensive human activities, such as the development of land and water resources and fossil energy extraction and consumption, have led to serious environmental problems and ecological risks such as soil and water loss, photochemical smog, forest dieback, biodiversity loss, acid rain, ozone depletion, the greenhouse effect, habitat fragmentation, reduction of ecosystem services, and increase in urban ecosystem vulnerability (Dietz and Rosa 1994;Sanderson et al. 2002;Geneletti 2004;Robinson et al. 2005;Liu et al. 2010;Chen and Wan 2013;Shibata et al. 2017). It is predicted that urban development and human health will also be impacted in the foreseeable future. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a framework for evaluating anthropogenic nitrogen emissions and local vulnerability in order to assess regional ecological risk of human activity during a stable urbanization process. Taiwan, an isolated island with a unique environment, intensive agriculture, concentrated industries, and stable urbanization, was an ideal location for testing this framework. Local vulnerability is influenced by social characteristics, economic development, environmental protection, and other indicators related to these. Within the context of urbanization, therefore, and using official statistical data, human metabolism, agricultural and industrial production, and transportation were evaluated. The results indicate that the rate of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions decreased as the process of urbanization in Taiwan stabilized. While nitrogen emissions from agricultural production, household and industrial wastewater gradually decreased due to a reduction in the area of arable farmland, a reduction in the use of fertilizers and increased sewage treatment, nitrogen emissions from transportation increased due to higher energy consumption from vehicle use. Taiwan exhibited a higher degree of regional vulnerability in 1998 because motor vehicle density increased significantly, while rates of per capita green area and resource recovery remained relatively low. The study found that if Taiwan maintains its current conditions with respect to standard of living, agriculture, industry, and transportation, nitrogen emissions from human metabolism and agricultural and industrial production will not increase regional ecological risk, while nitrogen emissions from transportation will likely increase this risk. Therefore, this paper suggests that future environmental planning in Taiwan should prioritize low-emissions sustainable transportation.
... Urban sprawl not only consumes natural and productive lands by converting agricultural land into built environments, but also fragments, degrades, and isolates the remaining natural areas (Robinson et al., 2005), which triggers the loss of environmental services (Pauleit et al., 2005;Huang et al., 2011). For instance, Willaarts et al. (2012) and Nieto-Romero et al. (2014) found that the abandonment of agroecosystems worsens the provision of regulating services linked to freshwater flows, among other effects. ...
Article
Traditional Mediterranean irrigated lands, such as the Huerta of Murcia (Spain), constitute characteristic agroecosystems which provide several ecosystem services, both cultural and regulating. Nevertheless, these agroecosystems are threatened by factors linked to the low profitability of agricultural production under present market conditions and the land conversion to non-agricultural uses.In order to assess the perceptions and va- luation of the Huerta of Murcia by the local population, an economic valuation survey was carried out, using a contingent valuation method (CVM). Based on the survey, we identified the measures that were most valued with regard to the conservation of the huerta, which were: i) Limitation of the land uptake for urban uses; ii) Creation of programs to conserve ecosystem services, by means of financial support; and iii) Initiatives to promote the production of traditional agricultural products. Finally, we included these measures in a dynamic system model that, once validated, was used to explore the potential impact of such initiatives on the expected future behavior of the Huerta of Murcia.The CVM findings show the importance given to the huerta by the population of the area, beyond the use they usually make of it. The results also allowed the determination of the amount that the local people are willing to pay for the conservation of the environmental services of the Huerta of Murcia.Moreover, the simulation results for the period 2015-2030, obtained using the model, suggest that more direct measures, such as land planning, achieve better results than indirect options, such as those derived from agricultural policy and the implementation of a payment for ecosystem services, even when these latter aspects are combined. Under a scenario combining the three measures valued most highly, the loss of these irrigated lands would be reduced by around 11.5% in 2030, compared to the base trend simulation.Although the policies analyzed would improve the situation in the short and medium term, more ambitious actions would be required for full conservation of this agroecosystem in the long run.
... Challenges to conservation in habitats with low-density development are primarily intrinsic to their spatial arrangement on the landscape. General Plan designations and zoning regulations for conservation purposes in the United States have been used to decrease housing density, yet these measures have been criticized as resulting in greater environmental degradation by causing more extensive land development and increased vehicle miles travelled (Hansen et al., 2005;Merenlender, 2007;Robinson, Newell, & Marzluff, 2005). We suggest that, although the best way to prevent impacts of low-density development is to prevent it (Dale et al., 2005), efforts to curb increasing housing density in critical locations important to puma permeability can still provide conservation value. ...
Article
Landscape connectivity for wildlife populations is declining globally due to increasing development and habitat fragmentation. However, outside of full protection of undeveloped wildlife corridors, conservation planners have limited tools to identify the appropriate level of densification such that landscape permeability for wildlife is maintained. Here we sought to determine the development characteristics that contribute to movement potential in an exurban landscape for a large carnivore, the puma. We first fit a piecewise step-selection function from movement paths from 28 male pumas to identify threshold levels of development that produce barriers to movement. We then applied this threshold to projected housing densities of existing parcels under a full General Plan buildout scenario in Santa Cruz County to illustrate how parcels at risk of increasing above the puma movement threshold can be identified. Finally, we tested the relative importance of characteristics associated with parcels and the surrounding area on relative puma movement. We found that pumas exhibit avoidance of housing density that saturates at a threshold, and that puma utilization of parcels at risk of densification above this threshold is predicted by parcel area and the housing density and area of surrounding parcels. Our work suggests that maintaining permeability in developing landscapes is likely contingent on preventing densification and parcel subdivision in exurban areas. We discuss how our findings and approach can be used by conservation planners to promote landscape permeability in already partially developed landscapes.
... By the time, the majority of the human population will live in cities. Based on, some estimation, the suburban land in some urban fringe areas increased by 756% from 1974 to 1998 while, rural and wild land area has decreased by 23% over the same time period (Robinson et al., 2005). Further studies have documented that urbaziation fragments, isolates, and degrades wild habitat; simplifies and homogenizes species composition; disrupts hydrological systems; and modifies energy flow and nutrient cycling, (Alberti, 2005). ...
... The geostatistical method of characterization of different kinds of sprawl presented here is applicable to other areas of study so that comparisons can be made between samples from different territories. The study of location factors increases the possibilities for the classifi- cation of sprawl mentioned in different papers from around the world, complementing techniques such as the analysis of satellite images using GIS (for example in the United States, the paper by Robinson, Newell & Marzluff, 2005). The results obtained are applicable to territorial planning and management; for example, to adjust the provision of public services such as refuse collection or the improvement of sani- tation systems. ...
Article
Sprawl, a model of scattered urbanization that has extended throughout the world in recent decades, is no longer associated exclusively with metropolitan centres and in many cases is now developing in rural areas far away from the big cities. This has happened frequently in Mediterranean areas popular with tourists and/or with high demand for second homes. In spite of this, most research on this subject still tends to focus on metropolitan sprawl, reaching conclusions that may be useful for the planning and management of these areas. However, less attention has been paid to sprawl in rural areas. In this article, we approach this question by comparing different examples of sprawl in Southern Spain: one case situated in the vicinity of an urban agglomeration and two in rural areas under pressure from the tourism sector. We propose firstly, a model comparing the three cases and secondly, evolutionary models for each case, which via the study of different variables allow us to assess how the specific characteristics of sprawl in each place have evolved over time. The results, obtained using multinomial logistic regressions based on spatial and chronological data, show important differences between the territorial patterns of metropolitan sprawl and those in tourist areas with different degrees of consolidation. They also point to a continuous increase in sprawl in both kinds of area in recent decades, and signs that sprawl was reaching saturation point during the Spanish property bubble (1998-2007).
... These are: residential and commercial location choices, land use patterns, commuting demands, and building stocks and types. These factors can be viewed as part of socio-ecological or coupled human and nature systems (Keesstra et al., 2018;Pan et al., 2019Pan et al., , 2018aUrbaniec et al., 2018;Yu et al., 2019), and can be effectively addressed by urban planning and growth management policies (Anthony, 2004;Robinson et al., 2005). We provide a more comprehensive and systematic understanding of the relationship between these factors and urban GHG emissions by constructing comparative socioecological models for Chicago and Stockholm. ...
Article
Full-text available
We present a comparative socio-ecological modeling approach to identify possible improvement opportunities for Climate Action Plans (CAPs), focusing on two cities, Chicago and Stockholm. The aim is to provide a tool for capturing and addressing deep-rooted behavioral and institutional preferences that may aggravate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in cities. Socio-economic activities, land use change, and future urban forms are considered and forecast to the year 2040 on 30m × 30m spatial grids. GHG emissions associated with these urban development aspects are calculated and compared between the cities. Innovative policy instruments for growth control and zoning (GCZ) are simulated and tested through the socio-ecological model, to determine their effectiveness when added to other interventions included in the CAPs. Our findings show that behavioral/institutional preference for sprawl, its low-density form, and resultant carbon sink losses are main factors driving current and future residential and transportation GHG emissions in Chicago. GCZ policies are shown to counteract and mitigate around 20% of these factors in the form of future GHG emissions.
... Although growth management policies such as land use zoning and the adoption of urban growth boundaries have significant impacts on urban form and density, uncoordinated implementations might result in shifting the urban development to other neighboring communities, therefore increasing urban sprawl at the scale of the metropolitan area as a whole [33]. For example, in a long-term study of the Seattle region, Robinson et al. [34] found that, while growth management efforts lead to an increased housing density within the existing city limits, they inadvertently encouraged sprawl outside the designated growth boundaries. On the other hand, the implementation of comprehensive land use plans also confront notable difficulties. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban sprawl is nowadays a pervasive topic that is subject of a contentious debate among planners and researchers, who still fail to reach consensual solutions. This paper reviews controversies of the sprawl debate and argues that they owe to a failure of the employed methods to appraise its complexity, especially the notion that urban form emerges from multiple overlapping interactions between households, firms and governmental bodies. To address such issues, this review focuses on recent approaches to study urban spatial dynamics from the perspective of the complexity sciences. Firstly, spatial metrics from landscape ecology provide means of quantifying urban sprawl in terms of increasing fragmentation and diversity of land use patches. Secondly, cellular automata and agent-based models suggest that the prevalence of urban sprawl and fragmentation at the urban fringe emerge from negative spatial interaction between residential agents, which seem accentuated as the agent’s preferences become more heterogeneous. Then, the review turns to practical applications that employ such models to spatially inform urban planning and assess future scenarios. A concluding discussion summarizes potential contributions to the debate on urban sprawl as well as some epistemological implications.
... Changes in landscape patterns are more likely observed through changes in land use (Dadashpoor & Nateghi, 2017;Dadashpoor et al., 2019aDadashpoor et al., , 2019b. Ecological perspectives of these areas are threatened by inhabitants who use the peri-urban area for many of their purposes (Robinson, Newell, & Marzluff, 2005). They affect the function of these spatial territories by eliminating agricultural land, destroying soil, deforestation, reducing water, pollution and increasing solid and liquid waste (Aguilar, 2008;Douglas, 2006;Paül & McKenzie, 2013;Pribadi & Pauleit, 2015;Zasada, 2011). ...
Article
An increase in the size of the urban population of the world and the extensive urbanization in the peripheral areas of metropolises is one of the emerging phenomena of the twentieth century, and for several years has become the implicit theme of urban and regional studies. Since the beginning of the 20th century, many attempts have been made to conceptualize these emerging phenomena, which in some cases, the multiplicity of these concepts, have led to confusion in the definition and understanding of the phenomenon. The present paper uses a meta-study strategy to study 19 concepts related to the spatial territories of the peripheral areas of metropolises, according to the parameters of spatial structure, functional structure, and semantic structure, and we, respectively , categorized them in three types: a) A contiguous peri-urban/intermediate peri-urban/rural peri-urban; b) An independent, productive, regular, sustainable peri-urban/dependent, destructive, disturbed, unstable peri-urban, c) An objective and subjective peri-urban. Obviously, this research, with an emphasis on the distinctive characteristics of the three typologies, can be an important step towards a more comprehensive understanding of these spatial territories.
... Since 1998 we have been studying bird populations and communities in the Seattle metropolitan area along a gradient of human density and settlement. This region has experienced dramatic urban growth, especially during the last 30 years (Hansen et al. 2005, Robinson et al. 2005, and remnant forests exist in a variety of sizes and settings, from small urban parks or undeveloped parcels to large blocks of contiguous forests (Donnelly andMarzluff 2004a, 2006). Songbird diversity peaks in landscapes with 50%-60% forest cover, because such areas gain more human commensal (synanthropic) and early successional species than the native forest species they lose (Marzluff 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nest predation may influence habitat selection by birds at multiple spatial scales. We blended population and community ecology to investigate this possibility for 15 species of forest songbirds and their diurnal nest predators (corvids and sciurids) in 28 1 km2 sites near Seattle, Washington, from 1998 to 2004. We determined whether songbirds were positively or negatively associated with nest predators at three spatial scales, and whether their co-occurrence affected reproductive success. At the largest ‘neighborhood’ scale (1 km2 areas that included suburban and exurban development and second-growth forest remnants), nest predators and their prey were positively or negatively correlated according to general species-specific habitat associations. At the intermediate ‘forest patch’ scale (among remnant forested areas 0.5 to 70 ha), associations between predators and prey were generally weak. At the smallest ‘within patch’ scale (multiple 50 m radius survey plots within each forest patch), some songbird species avoided areas with greater predator use, particularly by Steller's Jays (Cyanocitta stelleri). Failed nests and territories tended to be in locations of higher predator occurrence (especially of corvids) than successful ones, but at the largest 1 km2 neighborhood scale relative abundance of nest predators was not correlated with the fate of nesting attempts or annual reproductive success. Reproductive success was generally high, with 52% of all nests and 49% of all territories fledging at least one young (for all species and years combined). Nest predation influenced some species' use of resources, but was not a strong influence on overall reproductive success or community structure.
... A client network of remote detecting based maps of urban change developed in the 1990s-2000s, in any case. Trains, for example, climatology [15], hydrology [16], nature [17], and general well-being [18] have grasped satellite information to comprehend the effects of urban extension on ecological frameworks, just as human well-being and prosperity. Also, there is a developing collection of work taking a gander at urbanization and its belongings from a provincial to worldwide viewpoint [19,20] which expects medium to coarse goals expansive territory maps of the urban degree and urban change [21,22]. ...
Chapter
The development of urbanization and improvement of intelligent urban areas need better procedures for planning of urban zones. In urban communities with old structures, residents invest an excess of energy doing dreary and futile exercises like holding up in lines, heading out long separations to purchase products or get benefits, and being stuck in roads turned parking lots. There are different issues consider as air contamination, ecological issues, old structures, nonstandard urban foundations, and media transmission frameworks. To adapt to present circumstances, a city needs savvy frameworks and parts including a keen economy, shrewd transportation, brilliant condition, brilliant natives, shrewd way of life, and organization. To plan such frameworks and parts in a savvy city, there ought to be an instrument which can process the put away information and give the resultant data to the administration and clients. In such manner, information mining and Web insight are compelling devices which have a noteworthy job in structuring a shrewd city and preparing huge information. At that point keen parts, the foundations of a smart city, and the job of information mining in building up an urban city are examined subsequent to displaying ideas and definitions.
... Alberti (2008) conceives of urban ecosystems as complex coupled human-natural systems where people are the dominant modifiers of ecosystems, thus producing hybrid social-ecological landscape patterns and processes. Some urban ecology research focuses on the impacts of habitat fragmentation does to suburban and urban housing development patterns for avian species productivity (Marzluff et al., 2007); other research focuses on the integration of scientific analyses into growth management strategies (Robinson et al., 2005). There is an emerging emphasis in urban ecology research on the unintended social outcomes resulting from environmental planning efforts in urban places, with particular attention paid to economically vulnerable people (Dooling, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This panoramic view shows how are focused today the relationships between Nature and the City by research scholars and practitioners in North America. In the American context of an “endless city”, it develops four key ideas for a better approach to urban ecosystems: urban ecology, sustainability, new regionalism and landscape urbanism. Urban ecology has emerged as an interdisciplinary approach for understanding the “drivers, patterns, processes, and outcomes” associated with urban and urbanizing landscapes. With the leadership of several American cities, as New York City, Chicago, Seattle and Portland, urban greening efforts based on principles of sustainability are developed. The new perspectives on regionalism are evident in different efforts associated with the megaregion/megapolitan concept: a new geographic unit of analysis and a new scale for planning. This new regionalism represents a movement led by architects and planners involving geographers, demographers, and policy makers. Finally, landscape urbanism is a more design-based approach. Instead of viewing nature in the city, we have begun to understand the ecology of cities: the urban systems are ecosystems. As a result, “nature cannot be used as exterior decoration, but rather as integral to the health and resiliency of human settlement”.
... We found significant differences between thresholds of use by cougars in Washington's western and eastern ecoregions that may be explained by differences in vegetative densities and design and patterns of human development. Specifically, the greater threshold seen in the Westside study area may stem from the dense vegetation ensuing from a wet, maritime climate (Franklin andDyrness 1973, Western Region Climate Center 2013) and residential development patterns that preserved landscape connectivity in residential environments by clustering homes at suburban and urban densities (Robinson et al. 2005, Reed et al. 2014. The dense vegetation provides security and stalking cover for cougars, which may allow them to move undetected in closer proximity to human development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Human populations continue to increase and transform Earth's ecosystems. For large carnivores, human development reduces habitat abundance, alters predator–prey dynamics, and increases the risk of mortality, which may threaten the viability of many populations. To investigate how the cougar (Puma concolor) responds to a gradient of human development in four areas in Washington, USA, we used utilization distributions, county tax parcel data, Weibull modeling analysis, and multiple comparison techniques. Cougars used wildland areas the majority of the time (79% ± 2%, n = 112 cougars), with use decreasing as housing densities increased. When present in human-developed areas in eastern Washington, 99% of the habitat that cougars used had housing densities ≤76.5 residences/km2, which was <846.0 residences/km2 observed in western Washington (P < 0.01). Cougars used areas in western Washington with greater housing density likely because of the clustered nature of housing developments, the connectivity with greenbelts and forested corridors, and security cover of dense maritime vegetation. Our findings suggest a consistent, albeit nuanced response by cougars to human development that may be used by wildlife managers, landscape planners, and environmental educators to guide and enhance their efforts to minimize the impacts of human development on cougars and reduce the potential for conflicts with people. Our model may also provide guidance for thresholds of human development for other adaptable large carnivores.
... Furthermore, it is estimated that by 2050, 55% of the world's population will be urban [24]. The growth of urban populations causes cities, and their suburbs, to spread, expand, and replace agricultural and natural lands [25,26]. Urbanization brings land-use change, altering the relationship between human societies and environmental resources [6,27,28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use/land-cover analysis using Geographic Information System (GIS) application can describe and quantify the transformation of the landscape, evaluating the effectiveness of municipal planning in driving urban expansion. This approach was applied in the municipality of Spongano (Salento, South Italy) in order to evaluate the spatial heterogeneity and the transformations of the land use/land cover from 1988 to 2016. This approach was also used to examine the spread of Xylella fastidiosa, which is a plant pathogen of global importance that is reshaping the Salento landscape. The land-use maps are based on the CORINE Land Cover project classification, while the topological consistency was verified through field surveys. A change detection analysis was carried out using the land-use maps of 1988 and 2016. The most extensive land-use class is olive groves (34-36%), followed by non-irrigated arable lands and shrub and/or herbaceous vegetation associations. The main transition of land involved non-irrigated arable lands, which lost 76 ha and 23 ha to shrub and olive areas, respectively. Meanwhile, the artificial surfaces class doubled its extension, which involved mainly the transition from shrub and heterogeneous agricultural areas. However, the olive groves class is threatened by the dramatic phytosanitary condition of the area, indicating a compromised agroecosystem, which is causing a de facto transition into unproductive areas. The results highlight the inconsistency between what was planned by the urban plan in the past and how the landscape of Spongano has been changed over time. This evidence suggests that it is necessary to develop a plan based on learning by doing, in order to shape and adapt the processes of territorial transformation to the unpredictability of the ecologic, social, and economic systems, as well as ensure that these processes are always focused on environmental issues.
... The resulting decrease in value at the boundary is contested but property owners within the UGB benefit from capital accumulation. Portland (Nelson and Moore, 1993) and Seattle (Robinson et al., 2005) adopted UGB policies for a higher density of urban land use and to preserve peri-urban landscapes of high agricultural and ecological value. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The article presented in this chapter focuses on the urgency of creating sustainable communities around the world. It stretches the discourse on the need for renewed practical instruments for achieving balanced development in all countries of the world. It argues that there is a universal norm that is based on human rights, dignity and equality; and which demands equitable territorial development that caters for rural areas. It provides a theoretical background for understanding why land management is a science, an art and a practice. It also presents an orientation of the concepts of territorial justice and equivalent living conditions. Using the example of Germany (particularly the state of Bavaria), the article shows why territorial justice and equivalent living conditions is a critical matter for regional and local governance. The German constitutional goal of equivalent living conditions and the Bavarian Concept of territorial justice enjoys a tremendous political, technical and societal attention and vital discussion in the light of increasing spatial and social disparities and the often-controversial debate of rural actors, economists and politicians on appropriate political and governmental actions. The article discusses the experience of Bavaria and Germany and lays critical foundational issues to consider to implement territorial justice and equivalent living conditions in other countries.
... New development can also be actively promoted by the state, through development zones or public projects, which are stressed as important drivers in China (60,147,152,166) The effects of urban containment policies are controversial. Some find no significant effect on the total urban area (121,122), some show that urban containment policies can cause leapfrog development outside of the green belt/urban limit, especially if densities outside of the boundary are limited (129,158). Wassmer (162,164) finds that local growth management programs can be effective, and that the longer a policy of urban containment is in place, the less the city sprawls. The evaluation of the effect of such regulations is complex because municipalities developing urban containment policies are often the ones with strong urban sprawl in the first place. ...
Thesis
L’artificialisation des sols est la transformation d’espaces auparavant naturels, agricoles ou forestiers (NAF) pour un autre usage (habitat, activités, transports, loisirs). Elle est alimentée par l’étalement urbain et constitue une pression écologique majeure. Réduisant le stock d’espaces NAF disponible dans le futur, elle contribue à la perte de biodiversité en détruisant et en fragmentant les habitats naturels. En France métropolitaine, on estime que 10% du territoire est déjà artificialisé et que ce chiffre augmente d’un point à chaque décennie environ.Le gouvernement français a récemment formulé un objectif ambitieux de « zéro artificialisation nette ». Pourtant les politiques de lutte contre l’étalement urbain déjà mises en place n’ont, jusqu'à maintenant, pas réussi à le limiter significativement. Afin d'en comprendre les raisons, cette thèse cherche à analyser les processus de décision qui conduisent à l’artificialisation des sols et leurs déterminants socio-économiques et institutionnels, en prenant pour exemple le développement des zones d’activités économiques dans deux cas d’étude en France et en Allemagne. Nous développons l’hypothèse que l’action publique joue un rôle majeur dans les processus décisionnels, et porte en partie la responsabilité de l’artificialisation.La première partie de la thèse discute le concept d’artificialisation et rend compte des débats portant sur la définition du phénomène. Nous analysons les données existantes sur l’évolution de l’artificialisation en France et en Allemagne afin de documenter solidement l’état de notre objet de recherche.La seconde partie aborde notre problématique en se basant sur des travaux existants. Nous avons réalisé une revue systématique des articles scientifiques traitant des déterminants de l’artificialisation, qui synthétise les relations de cause à effet abordées dans la littérature. Si certains déterminants font consensus, d’autres sont mal connus ; en parculier, le rôle des politiques publiques est souvent mentionné et pressenti comme important mais plus rarement analysé en détail. Cela nous conduit à proposer une combinaison d’outils théoriques à mobiliser pour mieux prendre en compte le rôle de l’action publique dans l’économie de l’aménagement et les processus d’artificialisation.Enfin, la troisième partie est centrée sur l’analyse fine des processus d’artificialisation dans les intercommunalités de Roissy et Carnelle (France) et l’agglomération de Leipzig (Allemagne) en se concentrant sur les zones d’activités économiques (ZAE). Nous avons choisi de nous focaliser sur cette catégorie d’usage particulière afin de pouvoir étudier dans le détail les systèmes d’acteurs et les logiques économiques à l’œuvre, qui diffèrent selon les « filières » d’artificialisation. Les zones d’activités économiques représentent un cinquième des nouvelles surfaces artificialisées, avec une croissance particulièrement rapide et des formes urbaines particulièrement consommatrices d’espace.Nos études de cas montrent l’omniprésence de l’action publique à presque toutes les étapes de la chaîne de valeur des zones d’activités. Nous analysons les processus de décision, les compromis et les interactions entre acteurs publics et privés qui aboutissent à une forte consommation d’espace par les ZAE, et en quoi le cadre institutionnel influence ces décisions. Malgré les différences entre la France et l’Allemagne, les déterminants de l’artificialisation et les freins rencontrés pour la limiter sont très similaires. En conclusion de cette thèse, nous identifions trois freins majeurs liés au cadre institutionnel : les différentiels de coûts entre l’artificialisation et le renouvellement urbain, la compétition entre collectivités, et l’efficacité procédurale de la régulation.
... On the direct impact of the extension of the city and the soil predation produced by its dispersion, we can see the works of Hasse and Lathrop (2003), Robinson et al. (2005), Skog and Stennes (2016), Abu Hatab et al. (2019), and Vicenzotti and Qvistrom (2018) that show how dispersion invades landscapes and damages natural environments with great aggressiveness. Slemp et al. (2012) paid attention to the damage to the traditional rural culture that, as they pointed out, is exterminated in environments around the dispersed city. ...
Article
Urban sprawl is a phenomenon that is generally growing across all continents. As a result, modern city structures need larger areas for similar populations. Few studies have evaluated the effects of sprawl on an important aspect in terms of sustainable development: energy consumption. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether urban sprawl has a significant effect on electricity consumption in Spanish municipalities. The increase in sprawl in Spanish cities is heterogeneous, and the growth of household income during recent decades has allowed households to move to scattered residential areas. This situation makes this country especially interesting as a case study to evaluate the impacts of urban sprawl. In this paper, by disaggregating the electricity consumption of households at the local level using entropy, we measure the effect of sprawl to evaluate whether there is an effect on household energy consumption. The joint consideration of disaggregated data and spatial heterogeneity allows us to assess the effect that sprawl has for certain urban configurations on electricity consumption, which points to the need for policies that involve national, regional and local land use policies.
... Dicha localidad es un balneario 75 cercano a las ciudades de Valparaíso y Santiago (capital de Chile), lo que ha fomentado 76 el desarrollo urbano, industrial y turístico (Rivera & Cordero 2004). Esta rápida 77 transformación del paisaje natural también ha fragmentado y degradado las coberturas 78 de vegetación nativa, aislando áreas naturales remanentes (Robinson et al. 2005 reproductiva se iniciaría tardíamente en el verano y se extendería por todo el otoño, 407 apareciendo así los primeros ejemplares juveniles en mitad del verano (Fulk 1975, 408 Muñoz-Pedreros 1992). 409 410 ...
Article
Full-text available
La costa de Chile central ha experimentado una rápida urbanización del territorio, generando amenazas para la fauna en un área considerada un hotspot de biodiversidad. Para analizar la contribución en la conservación de fauna de la vegetación periurbana de la localidad de Quintay, evaluamos la fauna de vertebrados (anfibios, reptiles, aves y mamíferos) en relictos de bosques higrófilos (n=2), matorral esclerófilo (n=3) y plantación forestal (n=3). La vegetación nativa (bosques higrófilos y matorral esclerófilo) presentó un mayor número de especies de fauna endémica y amenazada, junto con una mayor riqueza y abundancia de pequeños mamíferos. Las plantaciones forestales presentaron una mayor riqueza y abundancia de especies de aves de bosque. Con base en nuestros resultados, se proponen recomendaciones para conservar la fauna nativa, que forma parte del patrimonio natural de la localidad de Quintay, en el contexto de la expansión urbana que fomenta su nuevo Plan Regulador.
... These results verify the findings of recent studies that have criticized the top-down, uncoordinated, and fragmented nature of the aforementioned regional policies and mega-projects [30,55,58,[61][62][63][64]75]. The coexistence of different urbanization patterns corresponds to the findings of the other studies [20][21][22][23][24] that focused on the land use land cover change of urban agglomerations, and providing policy frameworks for sustainable land use development. The coexistence of persistence and dynamic change in the Marmara Region's rural areas essentially coincide with Salata's findings on Milan's urban region [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the urban growth dynamics of urban regions. The study area was the Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated and ecologically diverse areas in Turkey. Using CORINE land cover data for 2006, 2012, and 2018, the study utilized multiple correspondence analyses and cluster analyses, to analyze land cover changes. The resulting maps, visualized in GIS, revealed the rapid urban transformation of the regional structure, formerly comprised of four distinct areas, into a more complex structure, in which densification and sprawl occur simultaneously. Our findings demonstrated a dissonance between the spatial dynamics of the Marmara Region during the study period, and the capacity and scope of the simultaneously initiated regional policies and mega-projects. This uncoordinated approach has endangered the region's sustainable development. The paper, therefore, discusses the importance of land use planning and transboundary collaboration for sustainable regional development. Beyond the local case, the results contribute to critical theories in regional planning by linking theory and practice.
... Not all counties in the state, for one thing, had to adopt GMA provisions, suggesting the state's "spatial selectivity" around growth (Jones, 1997). Euclidean zoning patterns based on the maligned development and design codes originally established the 1930s barely budged in many communities, even in the Seattle region, where growth pressures offered major opportunities for a considerable remaking of such codes (Robinson, Newell, & Marzluff, 2005). Efforts to open up long-range planning discussions to more active participation and citizen inclusion after the tumultuous 1960s abutted and grated with the remarkable durability of comprehensive planning rationalities and, even deeper and older than that, ideological demands, thinly veiled or outwardly racist, that local planning's main 'job' was to defend single family homes from the presumed threats to property devaluation associated with mixed-class housing or non-residential uses. ...
Article
Full-text available
While New Urbanism is now subject to a range of theorizations from different perspectives and disciplinary approaches, it is rarely framed as part of a society’s overall political development. This article explores New Urbanism through recently ‘cosmopolitanized’ and ‘urbanized’ theories of American Political Development (APD). For many years, APD scholars like Skowronek and Orren have emphasized the conceptual importance of ‘intercurrence,’ which refers to the simultaneous operation of multiple political orders in specific places and thus to the tensions and abrasions between these orders as explanations for change. Urban scholars have engaged with these ideas for some time, particularly in studies of urban politics and policy regimes, but APD’s influence on urban planning theory and practice remains underdeveloped. This article takes up this lacuna, applying select APD ideas, notably intercurrence, to understand how multi-scalar governments develop space though New Urbanist theories of place-making, with special attention paid to race. Examples from metropolitan Seattle are used to illustrate (if not fully elaborate) the article’s overall arguments and themes.
... Currently, about 55 percent of the world's population lives in urban areas, with projection indicating a growth of up to 68 percent by 2050 [1]. The growth of urban populations causes cities and their suburbs to spread, expand and replace agricultural and natural lands [2,3]. Urbanization brings land-use change, altering the relationship between human societies and environmental resources [4][5][6]. ...
... Not unlike many big game program objectives, TN's objective for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; hereafter "deer") populations across the state is to balance the biological and social carrying capacities (Kelly et al. 2019). Human population growth is increasing in TN, as elsewhere, resulting in urban sprawl and a reduction in habitat for wildlife (Robinson et al. 2005). Concurrent with habitat loss is an expectation by sportsmen to maintain a harvestable population (biological carrying capacity) of deer while minimizing loss of plant diversity, crop damage, and deer-vehicle collisions (social carrying capacity). ...
Article
Full-text available
Landscape and harvest indices are frequently used to represent white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density. However, the relationship between deer density and specific landscape indices is unclear. Harvest is another metric often used to estimate deer density. Our objective was to model the relationship among deer density, landscape metrics, and harvest density of deer in TN, USA. We estimated deer density across 11 regions in 2011 using distance sampling techniques. We developed 18 a priori models to assess relationships among deer density, harvest density, and landscape metrics. Estimates of deer density ranged from 1.85 to 19.99 deer/km2. Deer density was best predicted by harvest density and harvest density + percent woody area. However, harvest density was the only important variable in predicting deer density (Σωi = 0.700). Results of this study emphasize the significance of harvest density in deer management. While the importance of harvest as a management tool for deer is likely to increase as landscapes are fragmented and urbanized, specific management guidelines should be based upon deer densities and landscape metrics when they are important.
... For the second point mentioned, the immediate environmental impact of the extension of a city and the soil predation produced by its dispersion, the works [40][41][42][43][44][45][46], show how dispersion aggressively invades landscapes and damages natural environments. In Slemp and others [44], attention is paid to the damage to the traditional rural culture that, as they point out in their work, is literally exterminated in wide environments around the dispersed city. ...
Article
Full-text available
The urban sprawl phenomenon has attracted the attention of social researchers since the mid-20th century. It seemed that all relevant aspects had been extensively studied and that it would be difficult to produce new studies with significant contributions. However, in the last decade, we have witnessed a revival of the literature on urban sprawl for three main reasons: (i) the existence of new methodologies to measure the phenomenon based on digital cartography and geo-referenced information, (ii) new hypotheses about the relevance of the formation of metropolitan areas not institutionally integrated into urban sprawl in many places and, mainly, (iii) the role of urban density in the environmental sustainability of cities. The recent literature on this third aspect has grown the most and around which it seems that new and interesting lines of future research will develop. The objective of this work is to present a synthetic review of the most recent literature on urban sprawl as of the end of the second decade of the XXI century. This review can serve to recapitulate the growing consensus that is being formed on the lower environmental sustainability of low-density cities and diffuse limits.
... A further problem is that different types of buildings as well as different building densities have different ecological effects. For the US, among others, Robinson et al. (2005) documented 25 years of land cover change in Seattle, Washington, and found single-family housing expansion to be the primary cause for sharp decreases in core forest areas, which, in turn, increased fragmentation. Kim and Zhou (2012) found that single-family housing contributes to a more fragmented landscape in Morgantown, West Virginia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Urban sprawl typically consists of low-density urban development dominated by single-family housing and automobile-oriented land use patterns. Sprawl impacts landscape structure and composition, especially along the urban periphery. However, few studies have simultaneously examined sprawl at the building level and by building type (e.g. single family, multi-family) and its relationship to forest landscapes within an urbanizing region. Objectives: (1) To map and quantify 30-years of sprawl and assess its impacts on forest landscapes in southeast Michigan, a seven-county region centered on the City of Detroit (2) to investigate how different building types, densities, and distances affect forest structure. Methods: We used the Random Forests algorithm to analyze high resolution remote-sensing imagery and computed three landscape metrics of forest fragmentation and cohesion, incorporating data on built types and densities. Finally, we investigated the relationship between single-family housing sprawl and forest landscape functionality. Results: The built-up expansion was correlated with an increase in overall tree canopy in the region. However, multilevel analysis revealed these same forest landscapes became less cohesive and more fragmented over time as a result of urban sprawl. Additional correlation tests revealed an increase in patch density and decrease in effective mesh size (meff) and patch cohesion in areas proximate to low-density single-family housing. Conclusions: The analysis documents how urban sprawl negatively impacts forested landscapes. Single-family housing in particular had a detrimental impact on the functionality of adjacent forested landscapes. High thematic resolution enables policy-makers and planners to identify specific policies and interventions to increase landscape functionality.
... Cities have consolidated a robust toolkit of spatial development policies that allow them to shape the physical environment, including land-use planning and zoning, master plans, and growth boundaries. Although unintended consequences of these measures have been documented in cases such as Seattle, Bogotá, and other cities where growth boundaries have incentivized low-density housing sprawl beyond city boundaries, these cases highlight the need for coupled regional planning actions with regional authorities [103][104][105]. Cities have dual and contradictory capacities that need to be recognized and further studied, such as the ability to be environmentally destructive and a sustainability solution at the same time [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been increasing evidence of the emergence of systemic strains that threaten international cooperative efforts on global issues, especially climate change, biodiversity loss and security. Non-state actors have responded by declaring their commitment to work together alongside nations as climate agreements struggle to deliver the necessary global reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, conservation goals are not met, and security issues diversify. A principal constituent of the world’s non-state actors are cities. With many cities now home to more than 10 million individuals and several cities of more than 20 million, the urban world has come to dominate the global economy as well as the resource needs and environmental burdens imposed upon the planet by our species. Urban economies are responsible for more than half of global greenhouse gas emissions and substantially affect the world’s biodiversity by driving the extraction of resources and the degradation of global natural capital. Cities have become concentrators of diverse risk that complicate and broaden global security priorities. Cities are also crucibles of innovation in technology, business and governance and strong alliances between the world’s cities have formed to address the challenges of climate change, biodiversity and more. This paper asserts the unique potential for cities to assume a greater role in global priorities, including climate change, biodiversity loss and a realignment of security priorities. The transformative changes required in these three domains calls for a renewal of the city as a semi-autonomous neo-state, an ecological city-state.
... The built-up environment, which includes residential, retail and industrial areas, as well as transport infrastructure, has increased, whereas ecologically valuable areas, which include agricultural land, forest and open countryside, have decreased. Conflicts over land use and the negative effects of urban sprawl, such as high expenses for providing public infrastructure and the loss of fertile soils, have accompanied this process especially in metropolitan regions (Oueslati et al., 2015;Robinson et al., 2005;Salet et al., 2003bSalet et al., , 2003a. In many highly developed countries, spatial planning instruments are tasked with curbing sprawl and coordinating conflicts over the use of land. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many countries use spatial planning instruments to coordinate interests in land use and influence land-use change. In Switzerland, the cantonal structure plan (kantonale Richtplan) serves as the main spatial planning instrument at the cantonal level. Coordinating land-use interests and influencing land-use change requires ‘regional governance capacities’. This paper presents an analytical concept of regional governance capacities in spatial planning using the policy arrangement approach and drawing from the spatial planning implementation and evaluation literature. The canton of Zurich, with its embedded cases on the regional and local levels, serves as the case study for testing the analytical concept. Empirical evidence from qualitative interviews, observations and document analyses reveals a coexistence of various regional governance capacities within the canton of Zurich. Whereas regional governance capacities regarding the promotion of inner development in urban areas emerge as high, the results unveil mixed regional governance capacities when it comes to coordinating transport and land-use planning. To make judgements about regional governance capacities in spatial planning, it is essential to observe various spatial challenges, spatial scales and local examples.
... The rapid expansion of artificial surfaces in metropolitan regions has caused versatile conflicts between nature and society and has created challenges for sustainability [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. Urban fringe areas are especially under the pressure of "urban sprawl", as substantial areas of agricultural land along city boundaries have been converted into urbanized surfaces [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. Land cover changes in suburban locations are driven by very complex socioeconomic factors and often result in environmental damage, landscape degradation, land fragmentation, and the shrinkage of wildlife habitat and undermine peri-urban agricultural capacity and ecological balance [16,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The loss of farmland to urban use in peri-urban areas is a global phenomenon. Urban sprawl generates a decline in the availability of productive agricultural land around cities, causing versatile conflicts between nature and society and threatening the sustainability of urban agglomerations. This study aimed to uncover the spatial pattern of long-term (80 years) land cover changes in the functional urban area of Budapest, with special attention to the conversion of agricultural land. The paper is based on a unique methodology utilizing various data sources such as military-surveyed topographic maps from the 1950s, the CLC 90 from 1990, and the Urban Atlas from 2012. In addition, the multilayer perceptron (MLP) method was used to model land cover changes through 2040. The research findings showed that land conversion and the shrinkage of productive agricultural land around Budapest significantly intensified after the collapse of communism. The conversion of arable land to artificial surfaces increased, and by now, the traditional metropolitan food supply area around Budapest has nearly disappeared. The extent of forests and grasslands increased in the postsocialist period due to national afforestation programs and the demand of new suburbanites for recreational space. Urban sprawl and the conversion of agricultural land should be an essential issue during the upcoming E.U. Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms.
... 1: e-589 (enero-junio 2020) la isla promueve procesos de urbanización y un aumento en la demanda e importación de recursos. Esto incrementa la probabilidad de ingreso y establecimiento de especies exóticas, así como una reducción en la cobertura vegetal y la conectividad entre los fragmentos remanentes de vegetación nativa (Robinson et al. 2005, Hansen et al. 2005. Se ha reportado que especies de plantas herbáceas asociadas a estadios de sucesión temprana se ven favorecidas por perturbaciones que generan la formación de claros en la selva (Linhart et al. 1987); por ejemplo, algunas de las especies herbáceas que C. forficatus utilizó las observamos a los costados de los caminos (e.g., Scutellaria gaumeri y Hamelia patens). ...
Article
Full-text available
Knowing the richness and identity of floral resources used by a pollinator delineates its degree of trophic specialization and its vulnerability to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This understanding is fundamental in the case of endemic species with a highly restricted geographical distribution. The Cozumel Emerald (Chlorostilbon forficatus), restricted to the island, is one of the 14 endemic species of hummingbirds in Mexico. This species has been poorly studied and many aspects of its biology are still unknown. In this study we: (1) described the diet of C. forficatus, (2) assessed if its diet includes exotic plant species, and (3) assessed whether its foraging behavior (i. e., to feed on native or exotic species) is associated with areas of human influence on Cozumel Island (human settlements and roads). We recorded the plant-hummingbird interaction in 14 transects surveyed in the tropical forests and mangroves of the island. Additionally, we included photographic records obtained from the Naturalista platform where C. forficatus was recorded feeding on flowers. Finally, we estimated the Euclidian distance between the site where the foraging events were recorded and the closest area of human influence. Our study shows that the Cozumel Emerald is a generalist floral visitor. Its diet is composed of the nectar of at least 19 plant species, seven of which are exotic to the island. Distance to the areas of human influence is significantly associated with the foraging behavior of C. forficatus. In or near human settlements and roads there is a higher probability that C. forficatus feeds on an exotic species. We propose to carry out studies to assess the role of exotic plant species in the diet of C. forficatus because their establishment and spread might have unexpected ecological effects on the insular ecosystem.
... Each time households do not choose to live within cities, catering to individuals' choices leads to urban sprawl and difficulties in proposing efficient public transport in less-dense areas and accentuates greenhouse-gas emissions (GHG) from individual motorized transport (Le Boennec and Sari, 2015;Bulteau, 2016). More generally, the additional land consumption required by urban sprawl reduces agricultural and open land, has a negative impact on biodiversity, and renders territories more vulnerable to natural hazards, and especially the risk of urban overheating due to artificial ground surfaces (Kaplan and Austin, 2004;Robinson et al., 2005). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
What does the ideal housing type look like? A 2015 online survey of individuals living in the Loire-Atlantique Département in France provided 1,134 interviews, which we analyze using a mixed-effect probit model. We look at the probability of living in the ideal housing type related to 28 variables of dwelling and respondent characteristics, density perception, district perception, type of municipality, and proximity to education, healthcare and food facilities. The issue is important because certain housing types yield greater land consumption and longer trips. Local governments support infill developments with higher built-up density levels to conserve land and support walking, cycling, and transit. We find that the probability of living in the ideal housing type has no relationship to density perception. What mattered is a positive district perception and proximity to healthcare. Well-designed infill development with higher built-up density levels can succeed, associating a higher probability of living in the ideal housing type with suitable urban forms given the physical constraints of territories, in a sustainable development framework.
... Urbanization with its significant impact on the surrounding environment has shown a rapid pace throughout the world in the last few decades. With the development of urban areas, land-cover patterns are changed from forestry and agriculture to industrial and commercial uses (Ji et al. 2006), and the notable change in species composition of vegetation can be seen by monitoring land-cover change over time (Robinson et al. 2005;Hepinstall-Cymerman et al. 2013). Urban growth is an important factor for regional economics (Foley et al. 2005;Yuan et al. 2005) since it is closely linked to industrialization, modernization and the sociological process of rationalization (Paddison 2000). ...
Article
In this research, the SLEUTH urban growth model is calibrated and validated for the first time to post Soviet Union cities. The aim of the study is to monitor, assess, simulate and compare the spatiotemporal urban growth dynamics and spatial patterns of the two largest cities Almaty and Astana using free remote sensing data. The urban expansion metrics and SLEUTH model are used to assess the urban growth dynamics. Though the capital has been moved to Astana from Almaty in 1998, Almaty is still developing faster than Astana. The urban growth simulation results from SLEUTH show Astana will surpass the urban growth of Almaty to emerge as the largest city in Kazakhstan by 2030. Astana may experience more leapfrog and ribbon developments. In Almaty, the urban growth may likely to take place in north and northwest parts.
Article
Cities are the planet's newest ecosystem and thus provide the opportunity to study community formation directly following major permanent environmental change. The human social and built components of environments can vary widely in different cities, yet it is largely unknown how features of cities covary with the traits of colonizing species despite humans being the ultimate cause of environments and disturbances in cities. We constructed a dataset from open‐source data comprised of 13,502 breeding season observations of 213 passerine species observed in 551 Census‐defined urban areas across the United States. We found that as a city became more compact with less sprawl it tended to support more migratory species and species with lower body mass, shorter lifespans, and larger clutches. We also found that species had lower body mass in cities with higher median income, and higher body mass in highly populated cities. Our results highlight the complexity of human‐dominated urban ecosystems, where human socioeconomic actions and everyday activities intermix leading to structurally heterogeneous environments that support the colonization of some species over others.
Chapter
Smart growth is about attacking sprawl, particularly as this involves the (re)ordering of residential development. Yet countering sprawl takes on complex institutional, strategic, and policy forms. While many Federal policies continue to promote low-density forms of development, state-progressives support smart growth policies because they believe that enhanced compactness will improve environmental performance. Whether it does or not, how so, in what ways, and for whom, are nonetheless unresolved, contested questions. This chapter focuses empirically on policy efforts since the early 1990s to counter sprawl using regionally coordinated urban growth boundaries. In order to make the themes more cosmopolitan and comparative, the discussion refers to this overall strategy, institutionalized legally by the Growth Management Act of 1990/1991, as “smart containment.” Particular attention is paid to tensions between the recent, inter-scalar policy pursuit of sustainability through smart containment and older, obdurate problems of segregation, picking up synoptic themes touched upon and developed in earlier chapters.
Thesis
Full-text available
The study of sustainable urban form has received a major attention around the world. It has triggered a growing concern on how cities are planned and designed. Although the concept of sustainability is well known, the appropriate measurements for sustainability context are still being debated by scholars. The rapid urbanization rate experienced in Iran in the second half of the 20th century has mostly manifested itself in the emergence of large cities without any specific elements of Iranian culture. The old cities are slowly losing their identity due to modern development. This thesis assessed the level of sustainability of the physical urban form of Sanandaj City Iran, using five (5) factors, compactness, accessibility, diversity, identity and environment. The city, located in the western part of Iran, has a population of about 400,000. Chi-square test, Binomial method and Analytic Hierarchy Process techniques were used to test variations that exist among four neighbourhoods (Chaharbagh, Adab, Baharam, Taghtaghan) of the city based on these five (5) measurement values. The chi-square and binomial tests result showed that respondents from the middle city neighbourhood were satisfied with the physical characteristics of their neighbourhood while those from inner, outer and pocket neighbourhoods were unsatisfied. In a similar situation, the Analytic Hierarchy Process showed that the level of sustainability of urban form in the middle city neighbourhood was higher when compared to the other three neighbourhoods. Findings of this research indicate that in order to achieve sustainable urban form, policies for developing urban pattern should be changed and attentive approach is required to guide development in the urban areas to achieve efficiency and sustainability. The results of this study also provide insights into the issues that policy-makers and practitioners should consider in designing and developing programs and efforts dealing with the problems of physical urban form especially for Iranian cities.
Article
Annexation is the most common form of municipal boundary adjustment in Canada, yet a systematic analysis of annexations is missing from the academic literature. This begs two key questions: Why do Canadian municipalities annex land? What are the land use outcomes of annexation? This qualitative and quantitative case study of Alberta, a Canadian prairie province, reveals that trends in annexation activity, motivations, and land use outcomes are broadly informative, but every instance of annexation is a story of local ambitions and outcomes. Through a series of examples, we illustrate a growth-driven, inherently political and economic process of annexation that is sometimes complex, and one in which the outcomes of annexation may not always match the motivations for it. We find that multiple motivations (that may be intertwined) prompt municipal annexations; furthermore, development in the annexed area occurred at the expense of the non-annexed parts of annexing municipalities, particularly in small towns and villages. This leads us to believe that annexation is perhaps a contributing factor to urban sprawl and land fragmentation. The study calls into question the efficacy of annexation as a policy tool for municipal boundary adjustment or as a substitute for conducting regional planning.
Book
Full-text available
Urban village was introduced as an urban design and planning tool in the UK, and the US as a result of environmental and sustainability awareness in 1980s and 1990s to achieve sustainability in urban areas. Its promising ideal soon gained worldwide acceptance. The proponents claim that it is the best response to the chaotic situation of today’s city, and that its application would lead to a sustainable environment. This book will take a critical position and question the legitimacy of the concept as a new discourse on several grounds. In spite of having confusion, lack of exclusive and inclusive knowledge base, diverse interpretations, involved paradoxes, and the implementation problem, urban village concept has the potential to be applied as a flexible urban design and planning tool in the urban and peri-urban areas, where the transforming context and the overwhelming growth pressures better fit the essential characteristics of the urban village.
Thesis
The world around us is in a state of evolutionary frenzy. A century of rapid urbanization is transforming the planet and the way we live and interact. It has been estimated that by 2050, 66 % (UN, 2014) of the world population with be living in the urban settlement, therefore altering the complex relationship between the planet and us. Year on year rapid migration to urban centres have started to pressurize them, and the adverse effects are becoming noticeable in the contemporary urban form. The current development process has pushed our cities toward being an unruly mess. As a result, they have grown to be socially, economically and environmentally unsustainable. As a solution to this conundrum, many researchers now commonly advocate the concept of urban sustainable form. There exist a widely supported notion that urban form is comprised of a handful of morphological elements that are interlinked and give a city its respective form. The relationship among these elements decides on the degree of the self-sufficiency in case of any urban settlement. Therefore, this paper attempts to explore two such elements namely ‘density’ and ‘accessibility’ and their relationship in enhancing the sustainability of an urban settlement. In 2010, approximately 15.2 million people lived in Chile’s urban areas, representing about 89% of the population (OECD, 2013). As a result, the urban settlements began scorching with rapid urbanization. In the absence of adequate planning interventions, the majority of megacities have already crossed their respective threshold while the intermediate cities have joined a similar road to becoming untenable. In that regard, this study is focused on exploring the current nature of development in an intermediate city of Temuco in line with the earlier mentioned elements of ‘density’ and ‘accessibility’. The paper concentrates on exploring and analyzing the two aforementioned elements for two neighbourhoods in Temuco and the relationship that exists between them. After a thorough analysis, the study attempts to decipher, how these two elements are contributing toward the current state quo of each neighbourhood? How these urban quarters are helping in understanding the large picture associated with the struggle of an intermediate city in Chile? Lastly, the paper attempts to find answers to these questions and lastly recommends the possible solutions.
Book
Full-text available
While technology is developing at a fast pace, urban planners and cities are still behind in finding effective ways to use technology to address citizen’s needs. Multiple aspects of sustainable urbanism are brought together in this book along with advanced technologies and their connections to urban planning and management. It integrates urban studies, smart cities, AI, IoT, remote sensing and GIS. Highlights also land use planning, spatial planning, and ecosystem-based information to improve economic opportunities. Urban planners and engineers will understand the use of AI in disaster management and the use of GIS in finding suitable landfill sites for sustainable waste management.
Chapter
This book explores urban sustainability across Greater Seattle through a series of regulatory, discursive, and investment strategies and emerging forms of territorial governance associated with the smart growth regional planning doctrine. The smart growth movement has been and largely remains into the 2010s, “the most prominent planning approach for sustainable land use and urban development” (J Am Plann Assoc 78:87–103, 2012, p. 90) in many parts of the USA. This chapter outlines the focus, purposes, and main arguments of the book. The discussion establishes the rising importance of forging sustainability through reshaping metropolitan space. It then argues that actually existing smart growth is spatially variegated across metropolitan space—i.e., unevenly taken up and differentially embedded in the urban fabric—because of what Karen Orren and Steven Skowronek (Political order, New York, 1996) call “intercurrence,” a key theoretical concept in the book that refers to the coexistence of multiple political orders. The chapter justifies the case study focus on Greater Seattle and concludes with a brief summary of the themes and arguments of the remaining chapters.
Article
Full-text available
Human alteration of Earth is substantial and growing. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action; the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution; more atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by humanity than by all natural terrestrial sources combined; more than half of all accessible surface fresh water is put to use by humanity; and about one-quarter of the bird species on Earth have been driven to extinction. By these and other standards, it is clear that we live on a human-dominated planet.
Article
Full-text available
Urban sprawl, fuelled by powerful market forces, is unlikely to be controlled by macro-scale regional plans or by comprehensive reforms of the local government map. This paper emphasises two mechanisms that determine the 'rules of the game' of local development and public regulation of urban sprawl: local government finance and the transfer of land from rural to urban local authorities. Sharing local taxes paid by new non-residential property is discussed, in the Israeli context, as a means to reduce overdevelopment of industrial areas in the metropolitan fringes as well as pressures on open space. Complementary regulative measures, where rural local government is separated from urban local government, are based on improved co-ordination between land-use planning and decisions on municipal boundary changes.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the role of land readjustment (LR) projects in suburban planning and land development in a case-study area in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. LR projects have been the most important planning tool in Japan, yet the results of their use to develop over 30 per cent of Japanese urban areas have been little examined. The paper challenges the conventional wisdom that LR projects are an effective means of preventing urban sprawl. Through interviews with local planners and participants in projects, and a detailed GIS mapping of land-use change and infrastructure development in the case-study area, the research presents an in-depth study of the use of LR for suburban land development, and a close look at the patterns of urbanisation on the fringe of Japan's most dynamic metropolitan region. It appears that while LR projects do clearly prevent sprawl within the project areas themselves, they tend to exacerbate problems of sprawl at the scale of the city and region.
Article
Full-text available
As Earth's human population continues to increase and urbanize, it is likely to increasingly affect biodiversity. Avian ecologists have been studying these effects for over a century. Here, we review these studies to: 1) characterize the type of research approaches that have been used, 2) suggest strengths and weaknesses of these approaches, 3) offer a standardized nomenclature for the degree of settlement that will be used throughout this volume, and 4) suggest how our approach can be strengthened to better inform public policy. The majority of urban bird studies were conducted since 1980. The typical study is a one- or two-year correlational investigation of breeding bird relative abundance in the forests of the United States or northern Europe. Experimental studies are rare despite the frequent and replicated land transformations conducted by developers. Studies of birds in tropical, urban settings are especially rare. This is problematic because human populations are expected to rapidly grow and urbanize in such regions and biodiversity there is rich. Recognizing trade-offs among study duration, spatial extent, and mechanistic understanding, we suggest that researchers use short-term, correlational studies of the entire gradient of urbanization to inform long-term, mechanistic studies of bird populations. We define five points along the gradient of urbanization for consistent use throughout this volume (wildland, exurban or rural, suburban, and urban; Table 1.1). These are useful for categorizing study areas at the landscape scale (>1km2). Briefly, wildlands are unsettled lands that may occasionally include dwellings. Rural and exurban 1
Article
Full-text available
Our central paradigm for urban ecology is that cities are emergent phenomena of local-scale, dynamic interactions among socioeconomic and biophysical forces. These complex interactions give rise to a distinctive ecology and to distinctive ecological forcing functions. Separately, both the natural and the social sciences have adopted complex system theory to study emergent phenomena, but attempts to integrate the natural and social sciences to understand human-dominated systems remain reductionist—these disciplines generally study humans and ecological processes as separate phenomena. Here we argue that if the natural and social sciences remain within their separate domains, they cannot explain how human-dominated ecosystems emerge from interactions between humans and ecological processes. We propose an integrated framework to test formal hypotheses about how human-dominated ecosystems evolve from those interactions.
Article
Full-text available
If you wish to converse with me, define your terms. —attributed to Voltaire, The Home Book of Quotations: Classical and Modern, Fourth edition (B. Stevenson, ed.), p. 428, Dodd, Mead and Co., New York, NY, 1944Though there is a growing appreciation of the importance of research on urban ecosystems, the question of what constitutes an urban ecosystem remains. Although a human-dominated ecosystem is sometimes considered to be an accurate description of an urban ecosystem, describing an ecosystem as human-dominated does not adequately take into account the history of development, sphere of influence, and potential impacts required in order to understand the true nature of an urban ecosystem. While recognizing that no single definition of urban is possible or even necessary, we explore the importance of attaching an interdisciplinary, quantitative, and considered description of an urban ecosystem such that projects and findings are easier to compare, repeat, and build upon. Natural science research about urban ecosystems, particularly in the field of ecology, often includes only a tacit assumption about what urban means. Following the lead of a more developed social science literature on urban issues, we make suggestions towards a consistent, quantitative description of urban that would take into account the dynamic and heterogeneous physical and social characteristics of an urban ecosystem. We provide case studies that illustrate how social and natural scientists might collaborate in research where a more clearly understood definition of urban would be desirable.
Article
Full-text available
Suburban forest fragments often experience heavy recreational and waste disposal use, with considerable damage to the vegetation. To suggest strategies for conservation of the forest flora, spatial distributions of human impact were described in 40 fragmentary stands in northern New Castle County, Delaware. The distribution of human impact showed a significant bias to the forest edge, with 95% of localized damage occurring in the first 82 m. Forms of impact related to lawn maintenance fell significantly closer to the edge than impacts related to recreation and showed the strongest edge orientation. Edge distances of campsites, vandalized trees, and firewood gathering were negatively correlated with distance to the nearest graded road, indicating the importance of road access. Several forms of impact were also clustered near footpaths, although distance to paths was independent of edge distance in all cases. In terms of penetration of the forest and severity of damage, human impact greatly exceeds natural edge effects reported for this community. These findings suggest that damage may be minimized by limiting road access and avoiding the creation of small forest fragments.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity is essential for successful and efficient forest conservation. Four factors may cause loss of biodiversity in forest fragments: the effect of non-random sampling of the original forest, reduced forest size, isolation and edge effects. A review of 58 papers on effects of forest fragmentation reveals that general conclusions from fragmentation research are biased due to a focus on birds, on size-effects rather than isolation, and on species presence rather than population sizes. Perhaps the most important finding is that current knowledge on fragmentation effects is based mainly on studies in small fragments (<10 ha>. These are dominated by edge effects, can not contain viable populations for many species and are rarely the focus of conservation programmes. Studies of small fragments can not be extrapolated to larger sized, protected areas, and do not necessarily support the case for needing extremely large, protected areas. Conservation of medium-sized, strategically-located areas may be a more efficient option for biodiversity conservation, given financial, social and logistic limitations. More research is needed on forest fragments that are representative of the sizes of real-world protected areas (i.e. >10000—100000 ha) and should focus on the biological and human-induced processes which determine species persistence.
Article
Full-text available
The trends are world wide: people and goods are increasingly mobile, compact cities develop into urban networks, industrialising agriculture is becoming footloose, rural life becomes urban life in a green setting. Social segregation, traffic nuisance, urban sprawl and other unwanted impacts of these trends challenge urban and regional planners. The search for planning answers to these issues is further complicated by the need for sustainable development at a global scale. What is the role of ecology in the context of the discussions on the future of town and country? The traditional, and still dominant, approach is based on the polarity of urban and rural worlds. In this perspective, ecology focuses on the ‘nature’ of protected areas and biodiversity. The papers in this special issue explore the prospects of a wider perspective in which natural processes are seen as basic to both, rural and urban development. This article is digging up the fundamental ‘discourses’ underlying the two approaches to ecology and nature. Firstly, the ‘object-oriented’ and ‘process-oriented’ discourses are analysed. Secondly, the prospects of a process-oriented discourse are illustrated with plans for the Dutch Randstad and the German Ruhr area. Then, some new concepts are introduced that may strengthen the institutional conditions for the process-oriented approach. Discourses, concepts, plans and projects all circle around the central question in this article about the role of ecology in planning the edge of the city.
Article
In order to understand the effect of urban development on the functioning of forest ecosystems, during the past decade we have been studying red oak stands located on similar soil along an urban-rural gradient running from New York City ro rural Litchfield County, Connecticut. This paper summarizes the results of this work. Field measurements, controlled laboratory experiments, and reciprocal transplants documented soil pollution, soil hydrophobicity, litter decomposition rates, total soil carbon, potential nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, fungal biomass, and earthworm populations in forests along the 140 × 20 km study transect. The results revealed a complex urban-rural environmental gradient. The urban forests exhibit unique ecosystem structure and function in relation to the suburban and rural forest stands these are likely linked to stresses of the urban environment such as air pollution, which has also resulted in elevated levels of heavy metals in the soil, the positive effects of the heat island phenomenon, and the presence of earthworms. The data suggest a working model to guide mechanistic work on the ecology of forests along urban-to-rural gradients, and for comparison of different metropolitan areas.
Article
Cities are home to more people than ever before. In 1900, only 160 million people, one tenth of the world's population, were city dwellers. By soon after 2000, in contrast, half the world (3.2 billion people) will live in urban areas-a 20-fold increase in numbers. In this urbanizing world, cities hold the key to achieving a sustainable balance between the Earth's resource base and its human energy. Industrialization in developing countries has led to urban health problems on an unprecedented scale. China, for instance, has reported 3 million deaths from urban air pollution over two years. Cities around the world affect not just the health of their people but the health of the planet. Urban areas take up just 2 percent of the world's surface but consume the bulk of vital resources. In this paper, author Molly O'Meara shows that changes in six areas-water, waste, food, energy, transportation, and land use-are needed to make cities and the vast areas they affect better for both people and the planet. Cities can align their consumption with realistic needs, produce more of their own food and energy, and put much more of their waste to use. Citizens and local leaders from Curitiba, Brazil, to Chattanooga, Tennessee, are already showing the way as they overcome financial and political obstacles to put these ideas into action.
Article
This article presents the results of a comparative study of Canadian and American metropolitan planning and management systems in some of the largest urban regions in both countries: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and Edmonton in Canada; and Chicago, Boston, San Francisco Bay Area, Houston, and Minneapolis-St. Paul in the U.S. While our study confirms the view that Canadian metropolitan areas generally have more highly developed regional governance systems than their American counterparts, we also detected a growing unwillingness of more senior levels of government (province or state) to grant the additional authority needed for the regional institutions to keep pace with rapidly expanding development. Consequently, the development patterns and governance of metropolitan areas in the two countries seem to be converging. The article closes with a discussion of the implications of our findings for metropolitan governance systems in other industrialized nations.
Chapter
Human populations are increasing and becoming predominantly urban. Resulting land cover changes reduce, perforate, isolate, and degrade bird habitat on local and global scales. I review: 1) urbanization of the Earth, and 2) published studies of bird responses to human settlement, and then: 3) suggest how and why birds respond to settlement. In a slight majority of studies, bird density increased, but richness and evenness decreased in response to urbanization. The most consistent effects of increasing settlement were increases in non-native species of birds, increases in birds able to nest on buildings (esp. swifts and swallows), increases in nest predation, and decreases in interior- and ground-nesting species. Effects of urbanization on hawks, owls, and cavity nesters were less consistent, in part being dependent on the surrounding habitat. The factors favoring species in urbanizing areas appear simpler than those reducing species. Increased availability of food was primary among factors benefiting species; predator reduction, reduced human persecution, and habitat enhancement were less important. Decreased habitat availability, reduced patch size, increased edge, increased non-native vegetation, decreased vegetative complexity, and increased nest predation were commonly associated with bird declines in response to human settlement. Urban planners and policy makers can profoundly affect how and where cities grow. Avian ecologists can help inform these important decisions by: 1) quantifying how the pattern of settlement affects birds and 2) understanding how bird populations and resulting communities change along entire gradients of urbanization.
Book
A serious but often overlooked impact of the random, unplanned growth commonly known as sprawl is its effect on economic and racial polarization. Sprawl-fueled growth pushes people further apart geographically, politically, economically, and socially. Atlanta, Georgia, one of the fastest-growing areas in the country, offers a striking example of sprawl-induced stratification."Sprawl City" uses a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze and critique the emerging crisis resulting from urban sprawl in the ten-county Atlanta metropolitan region. Local experts including sociologists, lawyers, urban planners, economists, educators, and health care professionals consider sprawl-related concerns as core environmental justice and civil rights issues.Contributors focus on institutional constraints that are embedded in urban sprawl, considering how government housing, education, and transportation policies have aided and in some cases subsidized separate but unequal economic development and segregated neighborhoods. They offer analysis of the causes and consequences of urban sprawl, and outline policy recommendations and an action agenda for coping with sprawl-related problems, both in Atlanta and around the country
Article
The spatial distribution and locational characteristics of land development have changed dramatically in Chinese cities since the land reform of 1987 which allowed the paid transfer of land-use rights—i.e. land leasing. This has led to the rapid transformation of the urban spatial structure of Chinese cities. There is an urgent need to study the general trend of such changes and their policy implications. However, due to the lack of data, such investigations lag far behind the rapid land development in Chinese cities. This paper attempts to examine the new spatial pattern of land development in Chinese cities and its determinants by studying land development in Guangzhou before (1979-87) and after (1987-92) the land reform by analysing data obtained from aerial photographs with the aid of GIS techniques. The determinants of land development are analysed using a logistic regression model. It is found that there has been significant acceleration of urban redevelopment and urban sprawl in Guangzhou since the adoption of the new land-leasing system in 1987. The changing spatial distributions and determinants of land development suggest the emergence of new locational behaviours of land development in Chinese cities in the transition from a centrally planned economy to a socialist market economy.
Article
This article reviews the literature on characteristics, causes, and costs of alternative development patterns. In doing so it debunks arguments by Gordon and Richardson in favor of Los Angeles-style sprawl. Sprawl is not suburbanization generally, but rather forms of suburban development that lack accessibility and open space. Sprawl is not a natural response to market forces, but a product of subsidies and other market imperfections. The costs of sprawl are borne by all of us, not just those creating it, and include inflated public spending, loss of resource lands, and a waning sense of community. The only realistic cure for sprawl is active planning of the sort practiced almost everywhere except the United States (and beginning to appear here out of necessity).
Article
This article showed that we are not the first to be disturbed by the terminological confusion over the term 'suburb' as it applies to dissimilar realities of different countries. Fishman also made a compelling case that in fact Americans usurped the term to identify entities that are substantially different from those to which the term originally applied. The term was conceived in England and up until the late 1940s its original sense applied in America as well. In the words of Kenneth T. Jackson, 'whereas [suburban] once implied a relationship with the city, the term today is more likely to represent a distinction from the city'. Praising Jackson for his indeed remarkable account of the evolution of American suburbs, Fishman criticises him for not fully appreciating the implications of this latter statement on postwar American life and even proposed the term 'metroland' as supposedly more fitting to the new American context. Yet while the argument struck a familiar chord with us-in Russia prigorodnyi (suburban) also emphasises a relationship with a city more than a distinction from it-it has also become clear that terms have their own life, never mind commonsensical and/or admittedly scientific attempts to influence their meaning. With this in mind we are still in a quandary as to which term to use, a less-than-respectable confession for a scholarly article. But whatever term might be most accurate, this introduction will outline our preliminary understanding of the differences between cities' environs in Russia and in the West, particularly in the USA, and the new phenomena that those fringes have been facing in the 1990s in conjunction with market reforms. The following six inter-related aspects help to highlight the distinctive features of urban margins in Russia, which, we believe, set them apart from those in the West.
Article
This research project, carried out in the framework of the INTAS/VEGETATION Programmes at the Faculty of Geography, Moscow State University, aims to assess and to map land use and land cover of Russia using a combination of remote sensing, traditional maps and in-field survey of different spatial and temporal resolutions as geographical indicators of environmental status and dynamics. Coarse -, medium - and high-resolution imagery (NOAA-AVHRR, RESURS-01-3/MSU-SK, RESURS-F/MK-4) have been processed, interpreted and analysed for the compilation of reference maps in a Geographical Information Systems database, which contains multiple information layers, including remote-sensing data, cartographic ancillary data layers, and statistics. A feasibility study was undertaken to elaborate methodology for scale-dependent landscape applications and the study of land-cover dynamics in the changing land-use system in Russia.
Article
Thank you for downloading this free pdf copy of Worldwatch Paper 147. If you enjoyed this Paper, please consider becoming a subscriber to the State of the World Library. As a Library subscriber, you will receive our award-winning annual, State of the World 1999, plus all five Worldwatch Papers as they are released during the year. Your paid Library subscription will support Worldwatch's cutting-edge research on a sustainable future for our planet. And your subscription will support our use of the Internet to increase the distribution of more of our publications for free in developing countries.
Article
This paper focuses on several aspects of land use change in Russia during the 1990s with a particular focus on the environs of Moscow. These aspects include modes of farming, recreation, ownership of land, and concentric zones of outwardly declining land use intensity that resemble Von Thunen’s economic landscape. These zones are given special attention. In contrast to other land use aspects, the analysis of which indeed reveals a fair amount of change bringing the environs of Russian cities one step closer to their Western counterparts, concentric agricultural land use patterns with outwardly declining productivity suggest continuity rather than change.
Article
A key goal of conservation biology is to prevent the spread of exotic species. Previous work on exotic invasion has two limitations. (1) the lack of a spatially explicit approach and 2) a primary focus on the net effect of invasion by examining invasive species already present in the community. We address these limitations by focusing on the arrival of a potential invader into a community and use a spatially explicit approach to quantify the flow of seeds from the surrounding landscape into the interior of a forest. We hypothesize that the structure of forest-edge vegetation influences how the edge mediates seed flux. To test our hypothesis, we experimentally altered vegetation structure within 20 m of the edge to create two edge treatments: thinned and intact. We quantified the flux of seeds moving into the forest interior across the two treatments. We used seed traps randomly arrayed on transects from 5 to 50 m into the forest. More seeds crossed the thinned treatment than crossed the intact treatment to reach the forest interior. In addition, seeds that crossed the thinned treatment dispersed farther into the forest than those that crossed the intact treatment. These results were consistent throughout the period of maximum autumn dispersal, including periods before and after leaf drop. Our results show that the structure of vegetation on the edge interacts with the flux of wind-dispersed seed across the edge. We demonstrated that an edge with intact vegetation can function as a physical barrier to seed dispersal. Therefore, the structure of vegetation on edges can influence the function of edges as barriers to seed flux into the forest interior.
Article
The Netherlands is densely populated and highly urbanised. Growth management and spatial planning have a long-standing tradition. This article reveals driving forces and new trends in planning. The intricacies of the planning system are interpreted in an institutional and political framework. Decision making by consensus is the dominant planning style in The Netherlands.Notwithstanding, a strict adherence to the compact cities policy and a restrictive building policy for open areas, the western southern and central parts of the country are developing into an urban field. Fear for suburban sprawl and fragmentation of land is a stimulus for the development of new concepts for efficient land use. Multiple land use is an eye-opener for Dutch planners at the start of the new era.
Article
Human alteration of Earth is substantial and growing. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action; the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution; more atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by humanity than by all natural terrestrial sources combined; more than half of all accessible surface fresh water is put to use by humanity; and about one-quarter of the bird species on Earth have been driven to extinction. By these and other standards, it is clear that we live on a human-dominated planet.
Article
In this thoroughly revised edition of Managing Growth in America's Communities, readers will learn the principles that guide intelligent planning for communities of any size, grasp the major issues in successfully managing growth, and discover what has actually worked in practice (and where and why). This clearly written book details how American communities have grappled with the challenges of planning for growth and the ways in which they are adapting new ideas about urban design, green building, and conservation. It describes the policies and programs they have implemented, and includes examples from towns and cities throughout the U.S. “Growth management” is essential today, as communities seek to control the location, impact, character and timing of development in order to balance environmental and economic needs and concerns. Managing Growth in America's Communities addresses all of the key considerations: Establishing public roles in community development; Determining locations and character of future development; Protecting environmental and natural resources; Managing infrastructure development; Preserving community character and quality; Achieving economic and social goals; Respecting property rights concerns. The author, who is one of the nation’s leading authorities on managing community growth, provides examples from dozens of communities across the country, as well as state and regional approaches. Brief profiles present overviews of specific problems addressed, techniques utilized, results achieved, and contact information for further research. Informative sidebars offer additional perspectives from experts in growth management, including Robert Lang, Arthur C. Nelson, Erik Meyers, and others. This new edition has been completely updated by the author. In particular, he considers issues of population growth, eminent domain, and the importance of design, especially “green” design. He also reports on the latest ideas in sustainable development, “smart growth,” neighborhood design, transit-oriented development, and green infrastructure planning. Like its predecessor, the second edition of Managing Growth in America's Communities is essential reading for anyone who is interested in how communities can grow intelligently.
Ecology and socioeconomics in the New West: a case study from greater yellowstone
  • A J Hansen
  • R Rasker
  • B Maxwell
  • J J Rotella
  • A Wright
  • U Langner
  • W Cohen
  • R Lawrence
  • J Johnson
Hansen, A.J., Rasker, R., Maxwell, B., Rotella, J.J., Wright, A., Langner, U., Cohen, W., Lawrence, R., Johnson, J., 2002. Ecology and socioeconomics in the New West: a case study from greater yellowstone. BioScience 52, 151–168
Counter-urbanisation and sustainable urban forms Cities in competition: productive and sustainable cities for the 21st century
  • M Breheny
Breheny, M., 1995. Counter-urbanisation and sustainable urban forms, 1995. In: Brotchie, J., Batty, M., Blakely, E. et al. (Eds.), Cities in competition: productive and sustainable cities for the 21st century. Melbourne, Longman, Australia.
  • L Robinson
L. Robinson et al. / Landscape and Urban Planning 71 (2005) 51–72
King County Spatial Data Catalog: Zoning. King County GIS Center
  • King County
King County, 2002. King County Spatial Data Catalog: Zoning. King County GIS Center, King County, Washington.
King County Office of Regional Policy and Planning)
KCORPP (King County Office of Regional Policy and Planning), 2001. King County Comprehensive Plan 2000. Adopted 12
Institute of Advanced Studies Urban Ecosystem Analysis: Identifying Tools and Methods
  • Unu Ias
UNU/IAS (United Nations University/Institute of Advanced Studies, 2003. Urban Ecosystem Analysis: Identifying Tools and Methods. Jingumae, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo.
ERDAS Macro Language Reference Manual. ERDAS IMAGINE V8.6
ERDAS, 2002. ERDAS Macro Language Reference Manual. ERDAS IMAGINE V8.6. Inc. Atlanta, Georgia.
Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications
  • J A Rochelle
  • L A Lehmann
  • J Wisniewski
Rochelle, J.A., Lehmann, L.A., Wisniewski, J. (Eds.), 1999. Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Patch analyst and patch analyst (grid) function reference Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research
  • R S Rempel
  • A Carr
  • P Elkie
Rempel, R.S., Carr, A., Elkie, P., 1999. Patch analyst and patch analyst (grid) function reference. (http://www.lakeheadu. ca/∼rrempel/patch/). Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
King County Office of Regional Policy and Planning) King County County-wide Planning Policies
KCORPP (King County Office of Regional Policy and Planning), 2002. King County County-wide Planning Policies. Updated November 2002. King County, Washington.
King County Comprehensive Plan. King County Department of Development and Environmental Services
  • King County
King County, 1994. King County Comprehensive Plan. King County Department of Development and Environmental Services, King County, Washington.
Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States
  • Wildlife Us Fish
  • Service
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000. Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States 1986 to 1997. Washington, DC.
Cities in competition: productive and sustainable cities for the 21st century
  • M Breheny
Once there were greenfields: how urban sprawl is undermining America’s environment, economy, and social fabric. Natural Resources Defense Council
  • F K Benfield
  • M D Raimi
  • D D T Chen
Ecology and socioeconomics in the New West: a case study from greater yellowstone
  • Hansen