A review and assessment of the energy utilization efficiency in the Turkish industrial sector using energy and exergy analysis
Exergy has been seen a key component for a sustainable society, and in the recent years exergy analysis has been widely used in the design, simulation and performance evaluation of thermal and thermo chemical systems. A particular thermo dynamical system is the society of a country, while the energy utilization of a country can be assessed using exergy analysis to gain insights into its efficiency and potential for improvements.Energy and exergy utilization efficiencies in the Turkish industrial sector (TIS) over the period from 1990 to 2003 are reviewed and evaluated in this study. Energy and exergy analyses are performed for eight industrial modes, namely iron–steel, chemical–petrochemical, petrochemical–feedstock, cement, fertilizer, sugar, non-metal industry, other industry, while in the analysis the actual data are used. Sectoral energy and exergy analyses are conducted to study the variations of energy and exergy efficiencies for each subsector throughout the years studied, and these heating and overall energy and exergy efficiencies are compared for the eight subsectors. The chemical and petrochemical subsector, and the iron and steel subsector appear to be the most energy and exergy efficient sectors, respectively. The energy utilization efficiencies for the Turkish overall industrial sector range from 63.45% to 70.11%, while the exergy utilization efficiencies vary from 29.72% to 33.23% in the analyzed years. Exergetic improvement potential for this sector is also determined to be 681 PJ in 2003, with an average increase rate of 9.5% annually for the analyzed years. It may be concluded that the methodology used in this study is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral and subsectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in the sector studied. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies.
Available from: Nihan Karali
- "Industry sector energy issues have been the subject of numerous theoretical and empirical studies for several decades. Typical literature addressing energy issues in industry sectors includes process-specific energy efficiency across industries (Boyd and Pang 2000; Phylipsen et al. 1997; Worrell et al. 2003, 2010; Xu et al. 2010; Zhou and Ang 2008) and sectoral energy consumption and total energy requirements in various countries (Aranda-Usón et al. 2012; Priambodo and Kumar 2001; Reddy and Ray 2011; Sakamoto et al. 1999; Sathaye et al. 2010; Sinton and Levine 1994; Theriault and Sahi 1997; Utlu and Hepbasli 2007; Xu et al. 2012, 2009; Xu and Flapper 2009, 2010; Wang et al. 2007). "
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ABSTRACT: We perform a scenario analysis of three strategies for long-term energy savings and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reductions in iron and steel production in China, using a linear optimization modeling framework industry sector energy efficiency modeling (ISEEM). The modeling includes annual projections for one base scenario representing business-as-usual (BAU) and three additional scenarios representing different strategies to reduce annual energy use and CO2 emissions from 2010 to 2050. Specifically, the three scenarios for cost-optimization modeling include changing the production share (PS), predefining emission reduction (ER) target, and stipulating carbon emission pricing (CP), respectively. While the three strategies are projected to result in similar annual energy savings by approximately 15 % compared to that of the BAU scenario in year 2050, the carbon emission pricing strategy brings about the highest annual energy savings in the medium term (e.g., 2025). In addition, adopting carbon emission pricing strategy will result in the highest emission reduction from BAU with much higher costs, i.e., by 20 % in 2025 and 41 % in 2050, while adopting either PS or ER strategies will result in a moderate level of emission reduction from BAU, i.e., by approximately 4 % in 2025 and 14 % in 2050. The analysis of China’s national strategies to reduce energy use and emissions provides important implications for global mitigation strategies.
Available from: Tengfang Xu
- "Typical energy issues addressed in industry sectors focused on sectoral and processes-specific energy use           and its efficiency     across industries in different countries. Widely recognized as a major means for reducing CO 2 emissions, various tools and policy studies on improving energy efficiency have been developed http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.01.094 0306-2619/Ó 2014 Elsevier Ltd. "
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO2-emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making.
Available from: Idehai Olayemi Ohijeagbon
- "The third was introduced to the method of extended-exergy accounting. The methodology used by Utlua and Hepbasli  is the Reistad's approach with several minor differences. They applied several balance equations, such as mass balance, energy balance, and exergy balance for a general steady state, steady-flow process, to find the work and heat interactions, the rate of exergy decrease, the rate of irreversibility, and the energy and exergy efficiencies. "
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a framework of thermodynamic, energy and exergy, analyses of industrial steam boilers. Mass, energy, and exergy analysis were used to develop a methodology for evaluating thermodynamic properties, energy and exergy input and output resources in industrial steam boilers. Determined methods make available an analytic procedure for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers for appropriate applications. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtained for the entire boiler was 69.56% and 38.57% at standard reference state temperature of 25 °C for an evaporation ratio of 12. Chemical exergy of the material streams was considered to offer a more comprehensive detail on energy and exergy resource allocation and losses of the processes in a steam boiler.
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