Article

Effects of art therapy with prison inmates: A follow-up study

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Abstract

A pilot study conducted to measure the effects of art therapy with prison inmates (Gussak, 2004) demonstrated marked improvement in mood. The results of this study encouraged a quantitative follow-up study the following year. This study used the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II) as pre and post-test assessments to assess the effects that art therapy had on an adult male prison population, specifically on decreasing depression and improving socialization skills. A control group pre-test/post-test design was implemented for this study. An experimental group members attended group art therapy for eight weeks, one session per week. They also completed the assessments prior to, and at the end of the sessions. A control group did not receive the services but still completed the pre and post-test assessments during the same amount of time. The changes in BDI-II scores and the scores of all 14 categories of the FEATS from pretest to posttest (i.e., post-test score – pre-test score) were calculated and the differences were analyzed using independent-sample t tests to find differences between the experimental and control groups. The BDI-II results supported the assumption that art therapy was effective in reducing depression in the adult male inmates. The results from the FEATS, however, did not yield supportive data. Thus, although the art therapy was effective with the experimental population, the quantitative results were mixed. This article concludes with a case vignette that supports the notion that art therapy was effective, and an explanation on why the FEATS may not have been as effective a measurement tool in this particular study.

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... Based on previous theories that indicated that art therapy enabled participants to increase their sense of control, problem-solving, and socialization skills (Gussak, 1997;Gussak & Cohen-Liebman, 2001), recent art therapy studies indicated positive change in behavior and depression for those inmates who participated (Author, 2004(Author, , 2006(Author, , 2007. The most recent study revealed significant change in depression and locus of control in both male and female inmates who participated in art therapy (Gussak, 2009). ...
... This schedule assisted problem-solving and socialization skills. Please refer to previous studies (Author, 2004(Author, , 2006(Author, , 2007Gussak, 2009) for examples of some of these directives. ...
... These advantages were developed while working with men's prison populations, and still seem supportable through data generated through previous studies (Author, 2004(Author, , 2006(Author, , 2007Gussak, 2009). However, not all of these points explain the effectiveness of art therapy with female inmates. ...
Article
Ongoing studies have revealed the positive effects of art therapy with prison inmates. The most recent publication presented the effectiveness of art therapy with male and female prisoners [Author. (in press). The effects of art therapy on male and female inmates: Advancing the research base. The Arts in Psychotherapy]; specifically, the results demonstrated significant, positive change with both the male and female prison population in mood and locus of control. However, one interesting trend that seemed to emerge as the study progressed was an apparent difference in the effectiveness and response to the art therapy between the male and female inmate populations. Along with qualitative evaluation, additional statistical calculations were applied to determine if the numbers indicated any significant difference between the men and women in changes of depression and locus of control for those that received art therapy services. The results indicated a trend towards significance in a greater improvement in mood and internal locus of control in female inmates than the male inmates did. This article concludes with a brief discussion on possible reasons for these differences, and with a reevaluation of past theoretical concepts of the advantages of art therapy with prison inmates, contending that not all of these advantages apply to the female inmate population.
... It offers prisoners a non-destructive, therapeutic release for their feelings of distress associated with the deprivation of prison life as well as states of mental health extending beyond the incarceration experience (Day and Onorato, 1989;Hall, 1997;Williams, 2003). Quasiexperimental studies (pilot and follow-up) conducted by Gussak (2006 and2007) to quantify the effects of art therapy on prisoners found that art therapy groups signifi cantly reduced depressive symptoms and improved mood. Further, feelings that one may be uncomfortable expressing outward or are hard to put into words can be externalized through visual images (Day and Onorato, 1989;Cronin, 1994;Gussak and Ploumis-Devick, 2004;Merriam, 1998;Teasdale, 1995). ...
... Also, it seems that art programs can improve the daily operations of the prison and promote a safer environment for both prisoners and staff. While the literature offers plenty of reasons to believe in the potential of prison art programs, their effectiveness has rarely been tested in empirical research (Gussak, 2006 and2007;Gussak and Ploumis-Devick, 2004). Gussak (2006 and2007), Mullen (1999), Merriam (1998), and Hawk, Bohna Jr., Riddell, and Stark (1993) are among the few published studies that evaluate art programs (each reporting favorable outcomes). ...
... While the literature offers plenty of reasons to believe in the potential of prison art programs, their effectiveness has rarely been tested in empirical research (Gussak, 2006 and2007;Gussak and Ploumis-Devick, 2004). Gussak (2006 and2007), Mullen (1999), Merriam (1998), and Hawk, Bohna Jr., Riddell, and Stark (1993) are among the few published studies that evaluate art programs (each reporting favorable outcomes). Clearly, much more research needs to be done to judge art's effectiveness as a tool for prisoner rehabilitation and institutional management. ...
Article
An analysis of the contemporary literature on prison art programs reveals that art can be a valuable tool in corrections, despite a decline in support of such programs. Scholars with diverse backgrounds in research, teaching, art, therapy, and administra- tion report that artistic activities have several benefi ts for prisoner rehabilitation and institutional management. These benefi ts fi t into four general categories: therapeu- tic, educational, prison quality-of-life management, and societal (community involve- ment). Photographs of drawings made on the interior of a county jail are included to illustrate the creative potential that exists behind bars. Art programs may be widely useful because artistic activities respond to prisoners' basic human need for creative self-development, autonomy, and expression. While research testing the effectiveness of prison art programs is needed, it appears that artistic activities have the potential to improve prisoners' involvement in rehabilitation programs.
... Advancing the research base Abstract Since the summer of 2003, several studies were conducted to quantify the benefits of art therapy with prison inmates. These studies demonstrated a marked improvement in mood, behavior and problem-solving (Gussak, 2004(Gussak, , 2006(Gussak, , 2007. The results of this study encouraged an ongoing quantitative study to ascertain improvement in depression, locus of control and behavior in both a men and women's prison population. ...
... The results indicated that over 4 weeks, two sessions a week, the inmates who participated in the pilot study demonstrated significant improvement in mood, attitude, and interactions with peers and staff. These results warranted an experimental follow-up study (Gussak, 2006). ...
... Previously, the BDI-II has been used successfully to evaluate depression in prisoners (Boothby & Durham, 1999) and was used as an effective measurement of change in the previous study (Gussak, 2005(Gussak, , 2006. ...
Article
Since the summer of 2003, several studies have been conducted to quantify the benefits of art therapy with prison inmates. These studies demonstrated a marked improvement in mood, behavior, and problem-solving [Gussak, D. (2007). The effectiveness of art therapy in reducing depression in prison populations. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 5(4), 444–460; Gussak, D. (2006). The effects of art therapy with prison inmates: A follow-up study. Arts in Psychotherapy, 33, 188–198; Gussak, D. (2004). A pilot research study on the efficacy of art therapy with prison inmates. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 31(4), 245–259]. The results of this study encouraged an ongoing quantitative study to ascertain improvement in depression, locus of control, and behavior in both a men and women's prison population. The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS), the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II), and the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale (ANS) were administered as pre- and post-test assessments. A control group pre-test/post-test design was implemented for this study. Although the results from the FEATS did not yield supportive data, the results of the BDI-II and ANS supported the assumption that art therapy was effective in reducing depression and improving locus of control in the adult male and female inmates. Despite the results of the FEATS, it was concluded that art therapy was effective. This article concludes with a brief discussion of how the research has been instrumental in developing a statewide Florida Arts in Corrections program.
... It houses roughly 1500 civilly and forensically committed patients with a variety of mental illnesses, cognitive and physical capabilities, and penal code commitments. In recent years, there have been several studies that support the expressive art therapies for offenders with severe and persistent mental illness (Gussak, 2006Gussak, , 2007 Smeijsters & Cleven, 2006). Formal evaluation of the history of forensic psychiatry, state hospitals, research in the field of art therapy techniques in rehabilitation, and clay art therapy studios shows promise for improving treatment for mentally ill offenders living in locked psychiatric hospitals. ...
... Forensic psychiatric facilities are responsible for the mental health treatment and well being of their patients; therefore, clinicians continue to explore ways to improve the quality of life of mentally ill patients within locked facilities (Nieuwenhuizen, Schene & Koeter, 2002). Art therapy has been shown to be effective with this population and the publication and presentation of the transformative findings will add to the growing body of research literature from expressive arts therapists and rehabilitation therapists (Liebmann, 1994; Gussak, 2006; Smeijsters & Clevens, 2006; NCCMH, 2010). Deepening the pool of research is commonly stated to be a primary goal of clinical expressive art therapists and continued research is a common plea amongst published clinicians (Gussak, 2007). ...
... Despite the many restrictions on clinicians, offenders, and the sites responsible for providing treatment, art therapy research with the mentally ill offender population has been published in peer-reviewed journals (Gussak, 2004Gussak, , 2006Gussak, , 2007). As the research base grows, art therapists may be able to integrate new findings into their work, and administrators may incorporate more expressive arts therapists into treatment facilities, and mental health professional. ...
Research
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This is a pilot project exploring the Collaborative Ceramic Art Therapy Ceramic Studio Group that I ran as a Rehabilitation Therapist (Art-Safety) at the Department of State Hospitals-- Patton.
... Within the extant literature, a number of therapies are reviewed including experiential therapy (Gunst, 2012), solution-focused therapy (Lindforss & Magnusson, 1997), motivational interviewing (Forsberg, Ernst, & Fabring, 2011), systemic and multisystemic therapy (Klietz, Borduin, & Schaeffer, 2010;Letourneau, Henggeler, Borduin, Schewe, McCart et al., 2009;Shelton, 2010). Nevertheless, the term talking therapies neglects the contribution that creative therapies have in prisons (see Daveson, Mus, Edwards, & Mus, 2001;Gussak, 2004Gussak, , 2006Harkins, Pritchard, Haskayne, Watson, & Beech, 2011;Miliken, 2002;Wylie, 2007). ...
... "impoverished" (Fenner & Gussak, 2006;Mills & Kendall, 2010;Fletcher, 2014). ...
Thesis
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This study explored professionals’ perceptions of providing psychological therapy in prison settings. Eight professionals affiliated with counselling as well as counselling psychology, clinical psychology, and forensic psychology were interviewed using a semi-structured interview method. Prisons have been termed “social institutions” (Crewe, 2009; Garland, 1990; Sykes, 2007), and this study examined the delivery of therapy within this social realm. A social constructionist paradigm was used to understand how social and discursive practices shaped participants’ accounts (Adler, 1997; Giddens, 1987; Burr, 1995, Gergen, 1985, 1999). Social constructionism allowed for critical engagement that challenged taken-for-granted practices (Adler, 1997; Berger & Luckman, 1966; Burr, 1995; Gergen, 1985, 1999). Participants’ accounts were analysed using a social constructionist informed thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012). Four superordinate themes were constructed including: “Performing Therapy,” “Humanising the Client,” “Frames Inside Frames,” and “A Challenging but Rewarding Experience.” This inquiry found that psychological therapy was entwined with the socio-political ideals governing the prison landscape, which resulted in several tensions between penal-ways-of-knowing and therapeutic-ways-of-knowing. The tensions and conflicts present in this study have significant implications for establishing and maintaining ethical practices in prison, particularly surrounding discursive power. The findings indicated that stigmatising practices not only mean practitioners work with the "spoiled identity" (Goffman, 1963) of a 'prisoner,' but they must also ensure that stigma and discrimination are not imported into therapy. Working as a practitioner in custodial environments is complex and challenging (Farrant, 2012; Harvey, 2011a, 2011b; Tite, 2013). Therefore, this investigation has highlighted the vital necessity to understand the professional development needs of prison-therapists and the needs for establishing collaborative ways of working in a prison milieu.
... The fifth category deals exclusively with David Gussak's extensive research on art therapy with prison inmates (Gussak, 2004(Gussak, , 2006(Gussak, , 2009a) (see Table 5). In this area three effectiveness studies have been conducted since 2004 (two articles were written on the same study; see Table 5). ...
Article
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In the year 2000, an important art therapy literature review addressed an essential question—does art therapy work? It discussed 17 articles dealing with the issue of the effectiveness of art therapy. Two decades later, this research field has extended its scope and is flourishing. Several current reviews of research work have described the broad range of methods implemented today, which includes qualitative and quantitative studies; other reviews have focused on art therapy with specific populations, or by age group. The aim of this systematic literature review is to contribute to the ongoing discussion in the field by exploring the latest studies dealing with the effectiveness of art therapy with a broad scope of adult clients. We conducted a comprehensive search in four databases and review of every quantitative article that has addressed outcome measures in the art therapy field from 2000 to 2017. This paper presents the latest 27 studies in the field that examine the effectiveness of art therapy with adult clients and divides them into seven clinical categories: cancer patients, clients coping with a variety of medical conditions, mental health clients, clients coping with trauma, prison inmates, the elderly, and clients who have not been diagnosed with specific issues but face ongoing daily challenges. It underscores the potential effects of art therapy on these seven clinical populations, and recommends the necessary expansions for future research in the field, to enable art therapy research to take further strides forward.
... lor 2004), and issues of grief and loss (Ferszt, Hayes, DeFedele and Horn 2004). Further, artistic activities can be used to identify those who are potentially self-harmful (Cheney 1997; Day and Onorato 1989). Art therapy helps participants cope with the stress of prison life (Hall 1997; Merriam 1998; Riches 1994a; Schoonover 1986; Teasdale, 1995). Gussak (2006 Gussak ( & 2007 showed that art therapy groups can significantly reduce prisoners' depressive symptoms and improve their mood. Learning and creating art can improve prisoners' self confidence (Williams, 2003), self-worth (Grace 1993; Karban and West 1994), and self-esteem (Clements 2004; Merriam 1998; Riches 1994a; Schoonover 1986). Par ...
Article
Art can be a valuable tool in corrections. Very little has been written about the use of artistic activities specifically in jail, but a good amount of literature does support arts programs in prison The arts have several benefits for prisoner rehabilitation (therapy and education), prison quality of life management, and for society in general. It seems that the uses of art in corrections also apply to the more temporary holding environment of jail. Included in this essay are photographs of drawings made on the interior of a county jail. While these drawings are technically "graffiti," they could suggest an opportunity to productively direct the energies of incarcerated people. The drawings suggest that those who produced them seek creative autonomy and outlets for expression. Perhaps people in trouble with the law would become more seriously involved in rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing recidivism if more opportunities for creative expression were provided.
... Participants completed the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) as a measure depressive symptoms. This measure has been used successfully as a screening tool for depression and to assess treatment response in incarcerated populations (e.g., Boothby & Durham, 1999;Gussak, 2006Gussak, , 2009aGussak, , 2009b. Scores on the BDI-II range from 0 to 63, where scores from 0 to 13 represent minimal depression, scores from 14 to 19 represent mild depression, scores from 20 to 28 represent moderate depression, and scores at or above 29 are indicative of severe depression. ...
Article
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Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.
... Drawing has been demonstrated as an effective way to assess and intervene with various populations. Gussak (2004Gussak ( , 2006Gussak ( , 2007Gussak ( , 2009 conducted interesting attempts with prison inmates. He reported that drawing and art therapy were particularly beneficial for this population given their exhibited inherent mistrust for verbal disclosure and their rigid defenses, which developed for basic survival. ...
... Regarding internal locus of control, seeGussak (2009);Cox and Gelsthorpe (2012). Regarding levels of depression, see The Unit for the Arts and Offenders (1999);Gussak (2006Gussak ( , 2007Gussak ( , 2009. Regarding levels of anger, seeReiss et al. (1998); Blacker, Watson and Beech (2008); Breiner et al. (2011). ...
Article
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Revealing a substantial amount of evidence hitherto missed by pertinent literature reviews, this article sets out to offer a critical appraisal of the empirical research literature on the contributions arts-based programmes may make to the process of desistance from crime. The article begins by focusing on evaluations of arts-based programmes run by practitioners inside prisons, and their effects in terms of three sets of developments that are thought to advance desistance: psychological and attitudinal changes; increased learning capacity and motivations; and social skills building. Our appraisal then proceeds to address the effects of arts-based prison programmes after participants' release into the community; a theme that has received very limited research attention to date, and even less attention in extant literature reviews. In the next section of the article, we briefly discuss our own evaluation of an arts-based programme that is aimed at prolonging and enhancing desistance through providing former prisoners with opportunities to continue engaging with the arts after release. We conclude with a few short remarks as to the lessons that can be drawn from this article for the design of arts-based programmes in the field of criminal justice.
... The commonly held belief that alternative therapies are alternative due to a perception that there is no empirical support that such treatment is effective is simply not true. Between 2003 and 2009, a number of studies were conducted, including one published in this journal, which demonstrated art therapy was indeed a beneficial approach in depression, locus of control, socialization, and problem solving (Gussak, 2004(Gussak, , 2006(Gussak, , 2007(Gussak, , 2009. ...
... Although the outputs are trivial to identify and impacts are likely to be hard or impossible to measure, information about outcomes can be collected through interviews, questionnaires, focus groups and other social research methods, generating a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. This seems to be recognised practice in areas, such as music therapy (e.g., Heaney, 1992) and the use of the arts in pedagogy (Kontos and Naglie, 2007) or rehabilitation (Gussak, 2006;Johnson, 2008;Vacca, 2004), where there is a clear and measureable goal. In the UK REF, however, all submitted groups of researchers were expected to submit self-contained impact case studies that described how their research translated into non-academic impacts, as explained in more detail in the next section. ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to make an explicit case for the use of data with contextual information as evidence in arts and humanities research evaluations rather than systematic metrics. Design/methodology/approach – A survey of the strengths and limitations of citation-based indicators is combined with evidence about existing uses of wider impact data in the arts and humanities, with particular reference to the 2014 UK Research Excellence Framework. Findings – Data are already used as impact evidence in the arts and humanities but this practice should become more widespread. Practical implications – Arts and humanities researchers should be encouraged to think creatively about the kinds of data that they may be able to generate in support of the value of their research and should not rely upon standardised metrics. Originality/value – This paper combines practices emerging in the arts and humanities with research evaluation from a scientometric perspective to generate new recommendations.
... Clinicians have employed creative tasks during occupational therapies (Leckey, 2011), and mental health rehabilitation (Van Lith, Schofield, & Fenner, 2013). Creative activities were shown to alleviate depressive symptoms amongst cancer patients (Bar-Sela, Atid, Danos, Gabay, & Epelbaum, 2007), mental health patients (Caddy, Crawford, & Page, 2012), and prison inmates (Gussak, 2006). In an experimental setting, unstructured writing or drawing improved the mood of participants who previously viewed a disturbing video (De Petrillo & Winner, 2005;Drake, Coleman, & Winner, 2011). ...
Article
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Previous studies have linked positive emotions with creativity, but it remains unknown why creative activities may enhance positive emotions. We tested how creative tasks influence autonomous self-expression and task absorption, and whether this in turn increases positive emotions. Data from 478 participants were divided into four language samples (English, German, Italian, and Polish) and analyzed in a series of multigroup structural equation models. The indirect effects were replicated in all samples. Creative tasks enhanced positive emotions through an increase in autonomy. However, participants who solved creative tasks also reported lower task absorption, and this has hindered their experience of positive emotions. In total, a small increase of positive emotions was recorded for creative tasks in comparison to non-creative ones. We suggest that creative activities may support autonomous functioning and enhance positive emotions, given that participants will stay sufficiently focused on the task.
... What is the evidence? Ten studies provided evidence that arts projects may be able to improve individual psychological factors (Bensimon and Gilboa, 2010;Cohen, 2009Cohen, , 2012Cox and Gelsthorpe, 2008;Gussak, 2004Gussak, , 2006Gussak, , 2009aGussak, , 2009bHarkins et al, 2011;Moller, 2011). These studies found that participation in arts projects was associated with reductions in depression and an increased sense of purpose. ...
... Art-oriented methods used as part of curriculum in working with correctional populations (i.e. inmates incarcerated, parolees, probationers) intend to challenge the minds of youth and adults in terms of rehabilitation (Altschuler & Brash, 2004;Baltodano, Platt, & Roberts, 2005;Cronin, 1994;Day & Onorato, 1989;Ferszt, Hayes, DeFedele, & Horn, 2004;Gussak, 2004Gussak, , 2006Gussak, , 2008Gussak, , 2009Hogan, Bullock, & Fritsch, 2010;Johnson, 2008;Liebmann, 1994;McCourt, 1994;Merriam, 1998;O'Connell, 2012;Persons, 2009;Riches, 1994). Positive outcomes have been noted in justice-involved individuals participating in art projects and therapy. ...
Article
Artivism is a movement inclusive of art and activism that has flourished through the United States for decades. Multiple forms of artivism are responsible for initiating dialog amongst demographically distinct groups of people. The present study focuses on two community mural projects completed by justice related youth and adults in Florida and Washington states. Data analyzed entailed field observation notes, semi-structured interviews, and questionnaires from mural participants to address how artivism impacted their learning of social justice materials. The aim of this analysis was to identify the methodology of artivism, and how it was used to foster a deeper educational experience for youth and young adults. This research demonstrated how artivism has the ability to represent the multi-faceted nature of complex social issues not easily discussed in open dialog. Ultimately, this study revealed how the process of artivism transformed insight into scholastic knowledge when applied directly in criminal justice settings.
... This implied that painting, but not the viewing of artwork, had an effect on psychological resilience in adulthood [19]. A review [11] summarized these results, indicating that a brief period of painting significantly reduced anxiety [20,21], distress [22], and depression [23] and also increased mental alertness and sociability [24]. ...
Article
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Painting is a well-known method for alleviating stress, but it is uncertain whether family caregivers can use an electronic painting platform at home for this purpose. Aim: The aim in this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of having family caregivers of persons with dementia (FCPWD) draw electronic paintings using a mobile app, and to assess the preliminary effect of the intervention on their well-being. Methods: This was a two-phase feasibility and acceptability study, with qualitative interviews conducted in Phase 1 and qualitative interviews and a quantitative survey conducted in Phase 2. Caregiving burden, depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and social support were measured before and after the intervention. Participants were asked to draw electronic paintings at any time they liked, and to share the paintings with friends or relatives if they wished. Result: The recruitment rate in Phase 2 was 87.5% (28 out of 32), with 78.6% participants (22 out 28) completing all activities in 8 weeks. The FCPWD regarded the e-painting app as an appropriate channel for expressing their emotions. They found the layout of the app to be easy to use and were satisfied with it. A total of 116 pictures were produced. Log-in frequency was significantly correlated with the sharing of paintings with friends or relatives (r = 0.72, p < 0.001). Conclusion: FCPWD considered the e-painting mobile app to be a feasible and acceptable technology-based psychosocial platform. A further investigation with a larger sample in a full-scale randomized controlled trial is warranted.
... This idea has also been specifically related to people exploring their anger and aggression through art therapy (Smeijsters and Cleven 2006). In work in prisons in the US, art therapy was observed to engender positive responses and encourage inmates to express themselves through artwork in an environment where there was an inherent distrust of verbal disclosure (Gussak 2004(Gussak , 2006. Also evident in art psychotherapy work is the importance of having opportunities for sharing and looking at artwork together with a therapist and in a group. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the impact of maternal neglect on children, discussing the social and economic context of female violence.
... Explained and experimented by Day and Onorato (1997), Hall (1997) and Williams, (2003) art therapy was a non-destructive and therapeutic tool that enabled those who served their time in detention center to release their emotional distress which was associated with the deprivation of prison life as well as states of mental health extending beyond the incarceration experience. Art therapy through visual images and music (audio video) also an effective tool in helping especially female prisoners expressing feelings that was uncomfortable to let out or hard to put into words ( Gussak, 2006( Gussak, & 2007. Thus, art therapy had been found to reduce depressive symptoms and improved mood (Day et al., 1989;Cronin, 1994;Gussak and Ploumis-Devick, 2004;Merriam, 1998;Teasdale, 1995). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine the use of music video as intervention tool in reducing depression among the Malay female juvenile detainees in rehabilitation center in one of the northern state of Malaysia. This is an experimental study which uses BDI II with a cronbach alpha of 0.86 in assessing the depression level with a dimension of physical, behaviour, education and life perception, self-perception and, family and society. The findings of this study concluded that music video (relaxation therapy) can be of an effective tool in reducing depression with a condition that the therapy itself must not exceed two times within four weeks in a row. Physical, behaviour and, education and life are the most significantly associated with the use of music video intervention (relaxation therapy).
... The theater of the oppressed is a known tool used for mental health support (Boal 1974). Painting, poetry, and music have been used as tools for mental recovery of recidivists and criminals in prisons (Gussak 2006;Johnson 2008). Painters are known to have been painting what they do not have in their lives, and even more broadly-neuroscience has documented that music can improve the happiness of an average healthy person within minutes (Redgrave 1878;Koen 2008;De Botton and Armstrong 2013). ...
Article
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This paper aims to clarify the role of culture as a public good that serves to preserve mental health. It tests the evolutionary hypothesis that cultural consumption triggers a microeconomic mechanism for the self-defense of mental health from uncertainty. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a natural experiment of cultural consumption under increased uncertainty. Using primary data from a pilot survey conducted online during the pandemic and applying Probit and Heckman selection models, the study analyzes levels of happiness and propensity to help others. The results suggest that past consumption of culture is associated with higher happiness levels during crises. Moreover, spontaneous cultural practices (such as group singing) during times of uncertainty are associated with an increase in the pro-social propensity to help others. These findings highlight culture as a tool for promoting mental health at the micro level and social capital resilience at the aggregate level.
... Literature demonstrates that it is particularly effective in addressing various mental illnesses, and the inmates' abilities to regulate control, promote anger management and mitigate neurological struggles due to brain injury, substance abuse and intellectual challenges (Breiner et al., 2012;Gussak, 2015Gussak, , 2019. Several empirical studies revealed that art therapy was especially effective in increasing mood and locus of control in addition to facilitating problem-solving, socialization and identity formation (Gussak, 2004(Gussak, , 2006(Gussak, , 2007(Gussak, , 2019. ...
Article
Education is regarded as an avenue for success while the under-educated are disproportionately more likely to be incarcerated and remain within the correctional system. Current prison reforms have focused on increasing access to educational programming. However, these programs are not designed to address the lack of control, poor self-regulation, low emotional intelligence, inadequate social skills, or lack of internal motivation that hinder progress. Art therapy has been found effective in mitigating these impediments. Recognizing this, a partnership arose between a state Department of Corrections and a State University’s graduate art therapy program out of which emerged an Art Therapy in Prisons Program, funded through the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Two art therapists provided services to youthful male and female offenders in four institutions to assuage these obstacles. This article explores the genesis and development of this program, and the flexible adjustments required to address the impending COVID-19. We conclude how those who participated did indeed demonstrate improvement.
... This is not to say that prison art lacks therapeutic value. Carceral scholarship has rather rigorously studied the therapeutic and rehabilitative potential of prison art therapy programs (Barak and Stebbins 2017;Brewster 2014;Ferszt et al. 2004;Gussak 2006Gussak , 2007Martin et al. 2014;Takkal et al. 2018;van Lith et al. 2013). Prison arts programs, which are largely initiated and delivered by volunteers and community agencies, have also been found to increase self-confidence and self-esteem, develop literacy, and lead to greater engagement in educational programming (Nugent and Loucks 2011). ...
Article
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This paper draws from the art produced in the Cell Count archive, a quarterly bulletin that the Prisoners’ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Support Action Network distributes to persons incarcerated in Canadian prisons. The authors use necropolitical theory to undertake a content analysis of prisoner art to gain insights into how carceral life affects the incarcerated. Specifically, prisoners convey prisons as death-worlds. The mass incarceration practices, which are a mechanism of settler colonialism and white supremacy, strip populations down to bare life. First, prisoners depict their carceral experience as a kind of slow, protracted process of dying. Second, they describe themselves using imagery of the dead. Third, they explore notions of escape or release through an angelic or spiritual afterlife.
... Prisoners also gain a sense of confidence and respect for themselves too. Art therapy reduces depression in prisons (Gussak 2006(Gussak , 2007. Similar results have been drawn from literature therapy (Cocking and Astill 2004;Daveson and Edwards 2001) and music therapy (Baker and Homan 2007). ...
... 2. Art therapy holds that creative expression in art enhances one's status in prison, earns respect and friendship from others (Kornfeld, 1997), and provides a way to "rehumanize" those who may become "dehumanized" under rigid and disciplinary circumstances (Fox, 1997). The research demonstrated that, for some in correctional institutions, creating art fosters frustration tolerance, alleviates depression, and increases problem solving and socialization skills (Gussak, 2006). In particular, the nonverbal aspects can be reviewed as advantages of art therapy, which especially help those who are unwilling or unable to talk about personal issues. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to begin applying the principles of the psychology of forgiveness to people who are without homes and people who are in prisons. A review of the literature shows trauma for both groups. When the trauma is caused by unjust treatment by others, then excessive anger can result, compromising one’s psychological and physical health. We review the interventions which have been offered for those without homes and the imprisoned to examine which existing programs address such anger. Forgiveness Therapy, although untried in these two settings, may be one beneficial approach for substantially reducing unhealthy anger. Forgiveness interventions have shown a cause-and-effect relationship between learning to forgive and overcoming psychological compromise such as strong resentment and clinical levels of anxiety and depression. The literature review here suggests that Forgiveness Therapy for those without homes and the imprisoned may be a new and important consideration for ameliorating anger and aiding in a changed life-pattern.
... In the last years, the art therapist Gussak undertook several studies on the positive impact of art therapy on well-being, depression, behaviour, and locus of control of prisoners (e.g. Gussak 2004Gussak , 2006Gussak , 2007Gussak , 2009. His method also included follow-up studies and reflections regarding the results and the practice. ...
Article
Studies state that prisoners adapt to an environment usually depicted as painful, fearful and aggressive by wearing emotional "masks" of "hyper-masculinity", which hide their vulnerabilities and the true self. These masks may also generate behaviours, thoughts or a self-perception that are dysfunctional for the post-prison adjustment. "The Talking Mask" is a new useful art-therapy tool that has been created recently by the author of this paper. It uses pictures to improve the self-awareness of inmates and help to shape a post-prison identity. The goal of the technique is to help prisoners to watch within themselves without masks, while the aim of this paper is to introduce the technique and to show its working principles with a single case.
Chapter
Depression can be the major symptom of a mental illness or a partial component of a person's emotional life. It can be the presenting complaint for those seeking treatment where other underlying issues may be at the core. This chapter provides an evaluation of the literature about depression and offers an understanding of how depression is reflected in the art of those suffering from this disease. It summarizes how art therapy may be effective in addressing it. A case study of "Robert" provides a narrative on how art therapy was used to address the needs of one client who suffered from depression. A truly compassionate therapeutic alliance, a belief on the part of the patient in the healing potential of art making, and allowance for enough time for the patients to process the art properly, represent some necessary elements that increase the odds of being able to help.
Article
El consumo de sustancias estupefacientes tiene repercusiones físicas, cognitivas y emocionales de diversa índole en los consumidores privados de libertad. En este contexto la arteterapia puede jugar un papel terapéutico muy valioso. El objetivo principal de esta investigación se centra en determinar si existe relación entre el resultado plástico y las características individuales y sociales del interno (adicción y delito) con el fin de poder establecer perfiles arteterapéuticos. Se ha implementado una metodología basada en un estudio analítico. La muestra ha estado constituida por 23 internos y 269 dibujos realizados dentro de un programa de arteterapia. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran la existencia de tendencias plásticas, reacciones, recursos y herramientas que se repiten en diferentes usuarios con características similares y que pueden ayudar elaborar estrategias para grupos de trabajo homogéneos en un programa de arteterapia.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of a phototherapeutic technique called "Talking Pictures" within the forensic setting. This approach involves the use of a set of photographs to facilitate clients' disclosure, self-growth and promote the development of positive self-narratives. The use of art therapies and the construction of adaptive identity narratives have been proven to support desistance and increase resocialization in the prison population. Design/methodology/approach: A 42-year-old Italian male offender was met for six therapy sessions and invited to talk about his past, present and future through the use of photographs. Session transcripts were analysed using the software for linguistic analysis T-LAB. Findings: Results show a progression in the language used during the sessions: in the beginning the client uses a denotative language with many concrete nouns and no emotional words, in subsequent sessions his speech begins to assume more symbolic connotations and emotional words are used to describe past traumas as well as to find new meanings to present events. Moreover, the fixity of the client's self-image is contrasted with the emergence of new sides to his personality encompassing agency and self-worth. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on a single case, therefore results cannot be generalised to the prison population; moreover, the absence of any follow-up and standardized measurements of the client's progression should be addressed by future research by both involving larger samples and including follow-up and quantitative measures of the study results. Practical implications: The paper provides details on an innovative technique that might be used to explore the offenders' goods and values and to develop truly redemptive rehabilitation programmes. Originality/value: This paper adds to the scant literature on phototherapy in prisons and connects it with a reflection on desistance indicating that phototherapeutic interventions might be used to promote positive self-narratives, thus increasing desistance.
Chapter
Highlighting the 2011 Koestler Award ‘Art by Offenders’ Exhibition, Turner demonstrates how prisoners may interact with the world outside of prison, despite their incarceration. Drawing on a range of prisoner artwork, Turner argues that prisoners producing art and ‘outsiders’ interacting with it has a number of important purposes. In the sale of artwork, prisoners contribute to a system of production and economic exchange. Furthermore, as well as generating their own income, the celebration of these pieces through specific awards helps in the self-production of creative individuals legitimised in the arts community and wider society. Finally, Turner draws on literatures of ‘touch’ and hapticality to consider how production and consumption of this artwork may enhance prisoners’ ability to ‘touch’ the world outside of prison.
Article
The Person Picking an Apple from a Tree (PPAT) is an art therapy assessment task that is scored using the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) to identify a client's mental health symptoms and progress in art therapy. Normative data are needed to empirically validate assumptions about the PPAT. This report summarizes a normative study of the PPAT from a sample of 100 non-client participants. Analysis of the data confirmed the scores for all of the 14 FEATS scales as hypothesized with the exception of the Developmental Level scale. The study also found differences in the PPAT with respect to participants’ mood, gender, race, and artistic experience.
Article
This study describes and evaluates specialty groups added to the traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention and successful completion (graduation) rates for drug court participants. These enhanced treatment groups added an average of 90 minutes of specialty group therapy to traditional services offered to 139 drug court participants between January 2004 and March 2005. Data were gathered from various sources, including the drug court management information system (MIS) and probation records, as well as pre- and post-test surveys for each specialty group offered. The results suggest three specialty counseling groups (alcohol recovery, mask of addiction, and journaling) were related to positive outcomes in drug court. Limitations of this study include the small sample sizes in some of the specialty groups, as well as the typical enrollment/onset of group therapy that generally occurs as clients successfully progress toward graduation. This research further suggests an examination of these variables in alternate settings to determine the extent to which these strong but preliminary results are generalizable.
Article
A growing body of scholarship suggests that art-making provides symptom relief as well as short-term mood benefits. However, more research is needed to explore how artistic activities may lead to mood improvements within the course of sessions conducted in clinical contexts. To this end, we examined short-term outcomes of participation in an art group offered within a brief partial hospital program in which intensive day treatment is delivered. In a preliminary study (Study 1) conducted on Amazon MTurk (N = 193), we validated the use of a brief 7-item self-assessment scale to capture potential outcomes of art-making identified based on a review of the literature: positive/negative mood, general self-efficacy, creative self-efficacy, activation, mindfulness, and social connectedness. In our main study (Study 2), 175 patients in a partial hospital program completed the brief instrument validated in Study 1 at the beginning and end of a 50-minute unstructured art group. All psychological outcomes improved over the course of the group. Changes in general self-efficacy and mindfulness were associated with improvements in mood over and above changes in other outcomes. Results are limited by the naturalistic, uncontrolled, design of the group, which was not led by art therapists. These findings suggest that further studies examining patients’ experiences during art-making in clinical settings may provide useful insights into how this activity enhances mood.
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In response to a review by Reynolds, Nabors, and Quinlan (2000) of the art therapy literature prior to 1999, this review article identifies studies from 1999–2007 that measured outcomes of art therapy effectiveness with all ages of clinical and nonclinical populations. Although numerous studies blend art therapy with other modalities, this review is limited to studies that isolate art therapy as the specific intervention. The results of this review suggest that there is a small body of quantifiable data to support the claim that art therapy is effective in treating a variety of symptoms, age groups, and disorders.
Preprint
Art therapy assumes that art work is related to differential constructs of the artist. Empirically, this hypothesis has not been proven yet because quantitative methods are rare. The Rating Instrument for two-dimensional Pictorial Work (RizbA) is designed to address this issue. The construct − pictorial expression − is theoretically defined by seven content areas (representation, color, shape, space, motion, composition, expression), which combined create the overall construct. Test development is based on art historical and art therapeutic theories and supported empirically. Two online studies are conducted using a sample of nine pictures, which are rated by experts (n1 = 12, n2 = 8). In the first study, based on psychometric characteristics, an item pool of 113 items is examined and a preliminary test version is developed. The second study examines quality criteria of the preliminary version. For both studies, factor analyses are computed.
Article
In 2008, the newly developed Inmate Mural Arts Program (IMAP) conceived, developed, and completed its inaugural project—a 22ft×47ft mural painted on the front of a chapel on the grounds of a prison in rural Florida. This mural, entitled “Transformation through Unity,” was completed in collaboration between faculty and students of the Florida State University Graduate Art Therapy Program and a group of prison inmates. This project, complicated in scope and execution, was a students’ masters’ art therapy graduation project. The IMAP project took approximately 8 months to develop and complete. The process required formal and informal negotiations at all levels to succeed. This project overview will present a brief background and history of the project, review the negotiations that occurred prior to, during, and after its execution, and will present the completed mural. It will conclude with a brief overview of anticipated future projects. The negotiations ultimately produced a product that demonstrated the value and benefits of art for this population. The end piece has resulted in far-reaching implications and results, and has become the first of a series of successful projects for the new Inmate Mural Arts Program.
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Suicide is a leading cause of death in jails. This article discusses the use of road drawings as part of a clinical interview by an art therapist to evaluate an inmate's risk for selfharm. Following an overview of suicide in correctional settings, the rationale and procedure for administering road drawings are explained. Examples produced by inmates who were placed on suicide watch illustrate how road drawings can access personal history, mental and emotional states, and behavioral patterns that may put a person at risk for suicide. The road also may function as a therapeutic metaphor for an inmate's capacity for change and restoration.
Article
By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application in research practice; and a discussion of concerns nonmedical, post-positivist art therapy researchers need to consider in the IRB approval process. Aspects of ethical human subjects research of particular importance to art therapy researchers, such as working with vulnerable populations of research subjects and the use of art in research reports, are discussed. Recommendations to help further art therapy research through IRB oversight are offered.
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Arts-related activities in prison: contexts, functions and examples of application During the last twenty years one can observe the intensification of research on the influence of art on prisoners. The results of studies conducted show, that artistic activities in penitentiaries have therapeutic, educational and recreational value. Artistic activity can also improve prisoners chances of successfully adapting to their social environment. In the first part of the paper specific problems associated with prison isolation, including prisoners adaptation strategies, have been described. Then selected examples of prison art programs, their meaning and functions are characterized. The aim of third part of the article is to present „Labyrinth of Freedom” project conducted in 2012 in Nowy Wiśnicz prison. The project described creates an opportunity to use means of expression offered by art, and so develop the inmates consciousness. Key words: art, prison, correction, therapy, freedom.
Article
Taken from publications on art therapy from 1989 to 2019, bibliometric characteristics were analysed based on datasets located in the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) and Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Terms relating to “art therapy”, “art therapies”, “art* therapy”, “art* therapies” were used as keywords to search journal articles as of May 24th, 2020. A total of 935 articles, representing 2,650 authors across 363 journals were scanned. The USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Canada, South Korea, Netherlands, and Italy were eight of the top 14 countries in this field. The top 10 most influential countries and journals were identified by the number of publications, Total Local Citation Score (TLCS), and Total Citations / Total Publications (TC/TP). The top three journals are Arts in Psychotherapy, American Journal of Art Therapy, and Frontiers in Psychology. Three emerging core themes determined from highly-cited articles and keyword co-occurrence are art therapy with cancer patients, art therapy with prison inmates, and art therapy for mental disorders. The “effects of art therapy on trauma” is likely a potential trend of art therapy. The topics on “parental mentalization” (or “mother-child relationship”) and “art-making experiences” (“art-materials”) in the process of art therapy are promising.
Article
Art therapy in groups with incarcerated individuals may be effective when participants are defensive and possess limited education. The authors provide procedures, techniques, and case examples from the New Beginnings program for working with women in a detention facility.
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This document provides an overview of art therapy programs implemented in prisons in the world, assessing its effects in rehabilitation programs for prison population. Report also offers art therapy program developed during the years 2006 to 2009, in the prison Huelva II. Objectives, methodology and results of the quantitative and qualitative assessment of their influence on levels of anxiety and depression are presented, and the effect obtained in prison recidivism and the sociocultural training.
Chapter
Art therapy can overcome many limitations so as to provide an avenue for therapeutic change within the prison milieu. This chapter examines how and why art therapy can be effective in a correctional system, and demonstrates how an art therapist can use the inmates' creativity and libidinal drives to provide services while still maintaining safety and security. It begins with a review of some of the challenges that a therapist might face in working in these environments. Next, an overview of the history of the arts in prisons is provided, with a summation of how and why the arts are prevalent. Then, the chapter presents brief summary of the benefits of art therapy along with a synopsis of some recent studies that support. Art directives with female inmates can focus more on strengthening self-identity and mood, while for males, socialization and anger management can be the focus.
Thesis
Stress has been identified by the World Health Organization as a plague of the 21st century around the world and specifically in Mexico. Organizations and researchers continue to seek effective interventions. One potential intervention is animal-assisted activity. As businesses in Mexico have become increasingly dog-friendly, an important question is, can dogs bring employees benefits in organizational settings by reducing stress and improving mood? This study examined the impact of a therapy dog intervention with teambuilding activities as a method for lowering employee stress levels and improving employee moods in Mexican organizations. A quasi-experimental study with a mixed methods design (3x2) was performed: three groups (control, social gathering, and therapy dog) as the between independent variable per two time frames as the within dependent variables (before intervention and after intervention). Results showed that the group that interacted with the dogs reported the lowest levels of stress, anxiety, anger, and sadness. Furthermore, the participants who interacted with the dogs felt happier. This study provides empirical evidence that dogs can be used in Mexican organizations as a simple model of intervention to decrease stress and increase well-being. Generalizing the use of therapy dogs to a work context with teambuilding activities is a viable and effective intervention. What if organizations that stay open 24/7 adopt a dog? Organizations will benefit from human-animal interaction while helping with a social problem by giving an abandoned animal a new home. Keywords: Stress, therapy dogs, Mexico, Canada, mood, anxiety, anger, sadness, happiness, human-animal interaction, animal-assisted activity, dog-friendly
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Aktywność twórcza towarzyszy ludziom od zarania dziejów i jest przejawem instynktu życia (Lam, 1974). Dowody na to znajdujemy we wszystkich obszarach ludzkiego funkcjonowania: w rozwoju sztuki wizualnej, muzyki, literatury, architektury, języka, nauki i techniki (Popek, 2010). Zjawisko twórczości wiąże się ze zmianą, przekształcaniem, ulepszaniem. Obejmuje wiele działań począwszy od twórczości profesjonalnej zwanej też elitarną aż po twórczość w życiu codziennym. Twórczość "dnia codziennego", o charakterze egalitarnym, związana jest z kreatywnością. Kreatywność, rozumiana jako rodzaj postawy twórczej może przejawiać się w różnych obszarach codziennego funkcjonowania człowieka, takich jak praca zawodowa, odpoczynek czy gotowanie (Nęcka, 2001). Kreatywność jest podstawą tworzenia czegoś materialnego lub nie, czyli kreacji. Współcześnie kreatywność jest traktowana, jako pewna cecha czy zdolność przynależna każdemu człowiekowi w określonym stopniu. W ostatnich dziesięcioleciach kreatywność zyskała na popularności i stała się dobrem powszechnie pożądanym. Wynika to z dążenia do rozwoju cywilizacyjnego, ale również z coraz bardziej ugruntowanego przekonania, że aktywność twórcza, związana z kreatywnością może pełnić funkcje adaptacyjne dla człowieka. Korzystne, adaptacyjne właściwości charakteryzują bowiem nie tylko aktywność twórczą, której rezultaty stanowią dzieła o przełomowym charakterze, ale również taką której rezultaty są nowe i wartościowe wyłącznie dla samego autora. W związku z tym zjawisko tworzenia stało się przedmiotem wielu obserwacji i analiz, dokonywanych w rozmaitych perspektyw. Mają one na celu zrozumienie natury aktywności twórczej i określenie czynników mających wpływ na jej występowanie (Csikszetnmihalyi, 2000; Nęcka, 2001). Celom poznawczym towarzyszą też względy praktyczne, to znaczy możliwość zastosowania wiedzy o naturze twórczości do stymulacji kreatywnych zachowań. Pobudzanie i realizacja twórczego potencjału ludzi może odbywać się w formie działań opartych na kreacji. Do tradycyjnych form kształtowania postawy twórczej należą wszelkie przedsięwzięcia artystyczne. Bardzo popularnymi działaniami, nakierowanymi na rozwijanie kreatywności są także warsztaty i treningi twórczości (np. Nęcka, Orzechowski, Słabosz, Szymura, 2005). Kreacja została również włączona w działania o charakterze edukacyjnym i terapeutycznym. Ich celem jest kształtowanie twórczego podejścia do codziennych wyzwań, jak również budowanie umiejętności kreatywnego rozwiązywania problemów życiowych. Działaniami, które bazują na kreacji w bardzo dużym stopniu są arteterapia czyli psychoterapia przez sztukę oraz warsztaty edukacji twórczej. Kreacja, rozumiana jest w tym przypadku, jako aktywność twórcza o charakterze nieprofesjonalnym i wykorzystywana jest w celach terapeutycznych i edukacyjnych. Stanowi rdzeń obydwu tych typów działań i pełni funkcje wykraczające poza estetyczny aspekt tworzenia – umożliwia terapię, edukację i rozwój (Case, Dalley, 2006). Skoro twórczość jest jedną z najlepszych metod rozwiązywania problemów i kierowania rozwojem, to warto poznawać jej istotę z różnych perspektyw (Popek, 2010). Inspiracją do niniejszych rozważań było przekonanie, że systematyzacja wiedzy na temat obecnego stanu wiedzy w zakresie arteterapii oraz edukacji twórczej jest może być bardzo użyteczna (por. Sztuka, 2003). W pierwszej części niniejszej książki dokonano analizy zjawiska kreacji plastycznej z perspektywy możliwości stosowania jej w psychoterapii i edukacji. Następnie (w rozdziałach 2 i 3) przedstawiono charakterystykę działań arteterapeutycznych i warsztatowych z zakresu edukacji twórczej, które w największym stopniu z wszystkich działań o charakterze psychoterapeutycznym oraz edukacyjnym bazują na kreacji. Poza pogłębioną charakterystyką tych dziedzin, w rozdziale 4 przedstawiono ich porównanie pod względem kilku najważniejszych aspektów. Przedmiotem tej części książki jest refleksja nad rzeczywistymi oraz rzekomymi podobieństwami, jak również opis różnic, które decydują o odrębności tych dwóch dziedzin. Rozdział 5 dotyczy kluczowego zagadnienia, jakim jest sposób wyjaśniania działania arteterapii i warsztatów twórczego rozwoju. Terapeutyczny, edukacyjny i rozwojowy wymiar kreacji jest wyjaśniany przez różne koncepcje psychologiczne, pedagogiczne i kulturowe. W tej części dokonano opisu i analizy podstawowych procesów psychicznych biorących udział w kreacji, z perspektywy ich terapeutycznego, edukacyjnego i rozwojowego potencjału oraz ich roli w osiąganiu celów psychoeterapeutycznych i edukacyjno-rozwojowych. Kreacja wiąże się z fizycznym działaniem, które z kolei jest zintegrowane z psychologiczną sferą funkcjonowania człowieka. Jest ona zatem zjawiskiem aktywnie angażującym ciało i umysł w kontekście społecznym. Procesy psychiczne uruchamiane w toku kreacji są warunkiem przebiegu procesu twórczego. Jednocześnie mogą one pełnić rolę w proces rozwoju procesu terapeutycznego lub edukacyjnego, stanowiącego kontekst kreacji. Wskazuje się na korzystny charakter procesów psychicznych zachodzących podczas kreacji (np. rozwój procesów myślenia), który ma charakter samoistny. Z drugiej natomiast strony, uruchamiane procesy mogą wspomagać następnie osiąganie wybranych celów terapeutycznych lub edukacyjnych, takich jak na przykład umiejętność dostrzegania wielu perspektyw. W literaturze można odnaleźć rozważania na temat poszczególnych procesów psychicznych będących podstawą procesu twórczego, również w świetle działań terapeutycznych i edukacyjnych. Nie powstało jednak do tej pory żadne opracowanie opisujące jednocześnie procesy poznawcze, emocjonalno-motywacyjne i behawioralne, które mogą mieć wpływ na terapeutyczne i edukacyjne walory kreacji plastycznej. Pomimo uwzględniania wymienionych wątków, problematyka poruszana w niniejszej pracy nie wyczerpuje zagadnień na temat arteterapii i warsztatów edukacji twórczej. Może natomiast być traktowana jako źródło inspiracji, zachęta do pogłębionych rozważań oraz impuls do refleksyjnych działań praktycznych, w zakresie obydwu dziedzin.
Chapter
The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) is a rating system designed to measure global variables in a specific drawing. This chapter provides an overview of the FEATS and its key principles, and describes some recent projects. The FEATS has 14 equal-appearing interval scales for rating a "Person Picking an Apple from a Tree" (PPAT). The scales measure global variables, some of which can be applied to other drawings, and several that are specific to the PPAT. Other variables can be measured on nominal scales such as colors used for particular elements, clothing of the person, and action of the person. The key principles of FEATS: numbers can be applied to drawings with considerable precision; art tracks psychological states; and information is obtained from structure. The chapter also discusses some recent developments in FEATS research.
Article
The term “neurosis” was introduced in 1769 by Scottish physician William Cullen to refer to presumed nervous disorders in the absence of discernible neurologic defects. It gained wide currency during the first half of the twentieth century largely through the influence of Freud. Today, “neurosis” is no longer used as a technical term primarily because it is too broad for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Nevertheless, it is still used widely as a generic term for a wide range of disorders of primarily psychological origin. Carl Jung (1965) observed that frequently “people become neurotic when they content themselves with inadequate or wrong answers to the questions of life” (p. 140). This observation provides a good preliminary definition of neurosis. However, an important qualification is needed: Even more fundamental than contentment with inadequate or wrong answers are misdirected strivings for solutions. With this qualification in mind, we can ask: What kind of life questions lead to neurosis? And in what ways are neurotic answers inadequate or wrong? This chapter addresses these questions. Briefly stated, the kinds of life questions that occasion neuroses are those which (a) lead to emotional responses and (b) call for creative solutions. Neurosis results when an emotionally creative response miscarries. Reflections On Three Early Work. Elsewhere (e.g., Averill, 1999; 2005; Averill & Nunley, 1992; Nunley & Averill, 1996) we have provided empirical support for emotional creativity, including laboratory research and clinical examples of emotional creativity gone awry. Here we take a different tack.
Article
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This systematic literature review is a companion to our review of the effectiveness of art therapy with adult clients (Regev & Cohen-Yatziv, 2018) and aims to contribute towards the ongoing discussion in the field of art therapy on the effectiveness of art therapy in a wide range of child-aged clients. For this purpose, four major electronic databases were searched for quantitative articles relating to outcome measures in the field of art therapy with children from 2000 to 2017. A total of 13 articles responding to the inclusion criteria were identified and divided into three levels of evidence (Case-Smith, 2013). The results are organised into five clinical categories: trauma, special education and disabilities, non-specific difficulties, medical conditions and juvenile offenders. The potential benefits of art therapy in these five clinical populations is discussed and suggest that art therapy can be effective with children of the described categories. The limitations of this review and the current state of affairs are presented, alongside recommendations for future research to promote art therapy effectiveness research. Plain-language summary This article brings together all the research studies conducted so far on how helpful art therapy is for children. We use electronic databases to look at all the research published from 2000 to 2017. We found 13 articles which were relevant and classified under the following 5 headings: • (1) Art therapy with children dealing with traumatic events in their past. Four studies examining effectiveness have been conducted since 2002. These studies strengthen the claim that art therapy may help alleviate post-traumatic symptoms in children. • (2) Art therapy with children with special educational needs and disabilities. Four studies on effectiveness have been conducted since 2001. Most of the studies in this category suggest that art therapy has a positive effect on children with special educational needs and disabilities. • (3) Art therapy with children with no specific diagnosed difficulty. Three studies on effectiveness have been conducted since 2000. All three articles support the claim that art therapy may help children who are not diagnosed with specific difficulties but are faced with a variety of challenges in life. • (4) Art therapy with children dealing with medical conditions. Only one study fell into this category and addressed children coping with persistent asthma. This article lends some weight to the claim that art therapy may help children dealing with medical conditions, and specifically persistent asthma. • (5) Art therapy with juvenile offenders. Only one study fell into this category. This article supports the claim that art therapy may help juvenile offenders. In comparison to our recent review of research on how well art therapy works with adult clients (Regev & Cohen-Yatziv, 2018), we found far few studies in relation to children. Thus, we recommend further research on how well art therapy works with children.
Chapter
Sexual offenders’ behaviour is addressed and challenged within many criminal justice systems through the use of cognitive-behavioural treatment programmes. These interventions are primarily group-based, manualized programmes, aimed at encouraging offenders to understand the triggers for their behaviour and act to change it. These programmes sometimes require a reasonably high level of cognitive function and verbal sophistication of the participants. If we accept that offenders’ levels of educational attainment and emotional intelligence are lower than the general population, then might these programmes be demanding much of a population who find it difficult to engage in processes that require these skills in order to achieve? Enrichment activities, a term that covers projects including creative, artistic and spiritual elements, and focusing on these rather than educational or vocational outcomes, can be acknowledged as having a role in a strengths-based approach to rehabilitation. Notably, they may fit within the notions of the good lives model (GLM) (see e.g., Ward and Brown, 2004) as well as helping to explore journeys towards desist-ance from crime (Giordano et al., 2002; Maruna, 2001, 2007; McNeill, 2006; McNeill et al., 2012). However, for criminal justice researchers, policymakers and practitioners alike, there are problems when trying to evidence the positive changes that arts practitioners witness participants experiencing, and the whether these have a lasting impact on reducing reoffending (Bilby et al., 2013; Burrows et al., 2013a, 2013b; Sparks and Anderson, 2014). This chapter will consider the role that enrichment activities might play when trying to address the rehabilitative needs of sexual offenders.
Chapter
While it is clear that prison populations require mental health attention, there are some fundamental difficulties with providing care to those that cannot or should not admit to weaknesses and vulnerabilities or may even lie for their own benefits and gains. However, research has revealed that art therapy may be an effective approach for addressing mental health issues in correctional settings. This chapter presents the difficulties of providing mental health care to inmates, a short overview of tarts in American prison, and recent theories on the advantages of art therapy in prison. It will also provide recent empirical research that has determined that indeed art therapy is effective in addressing issues pervasive with the prison population, particularly depression, locus of control and problem-solving skills. Such results have naturally led to various art- programs as introduced at the end of this chapter.
Article
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The study links the prior drug-use history with adjustment to prison life for a group of 72 medium-security inmates in a Southwestern prison. An overarching concept in our analysis is prisonization, especially as adoption of the inmate code affects staff rejection. Inmates with histories of drug use, particularly major illicit drug groups such as cocaine and opiates, may be viewed as "life's losers," a condition that seems associated with deeper penetration into the prison subculture and higher levels of institutional maladjustment.
Chapter
The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) is a rating system designed to measure global variables in a specific drawing. This chapter provides an overview of the FEATS and its key principles, and describes some recent projects. The FEATS has 14 equal-appearing interval scales for rating a "Person Picking an Apple from a Tree" (PPAT). The scales measure global variables, some of which can be applied to other drawings, and several that are specific to the PPAT. Other variables can be measured on nominal scales such as colors used for particular elements, clothing of the person, and action of the person. The key principles of FEATS: numbers can be applied to drawings with considerable precision; art tracks psychological states; and information is obtained from structure. The chapter also discusses some recent developments in FEATS research.
Article
As part of the admission process to the North Carolina state prison system, 1,494 prisoners completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean BDI score for this population was 12.57 (SD=8.51), which corresponds to the “mild depression” range on the instrument. While overall BDI scores for prisoners were elevated relative to general population norms for the test, female inmates, younger prisoners, close custody inmates, and those serving their first period of incarceration produced even higher BDI scores. Thus, reports of generalized feelings of depression are common among prisoners. Results suggest that a score of 20 might serve as an appropriate cutting score to determine the need for further assessment and mental health intervention in this population. Factor analysis of the inmates' responses yielded four distinct, interpretable factors labeled (a) cognitive symptoms, (b) vegetative symptoms, (c) emotional symptoms, and (d) feelings of punishment. These factors may suggest different components of the response to incarceration.
Studied the nature and extent of substance abuse among 109 male mentally ill offenders. 96 Ss received at least 1 psychiatric diagnosis. Symptoms of alcohol/drug abuse or dependence were reported by 92% of the Ss with antisocial personality disorder and by 82% of the Ss with depression. All Ss diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, dysthymia, or mania were also diagnosed with drug/alcohol abuse or dependence. Ss were compared with 1,409 consecutive admissions to a corrections center. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The short form of the Depression Inventory was administered to a variety of patient samples totalling 431 students. The correlation between test scores and clinicians' ratings ranged from .55 for a hospitalized depressed sample to .67 for students in a general medical outpatient practice. The correlation between test scores on the two forms ranged from .89 to .97. When speed of administration is an important factor, the short form can serve as a satisfactory substitute for the long form of the inventory and is especially suited for screening medical outpatients for the presence of depression.
Article
Although prison inmates are reported to exhibit elevated rates of depressive disorders, little is known about anti-depressant prescribing patterns in correctional institutions. The study population consisted of 5305 Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) inmates who were diagnosed with one of three depressive disorders: major depression, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder (excluding those with manic episodes only). Information on medical conditions, sociodemographic factors, and pharmacotherapy was obtained from an institution-wide medical information system. In 1998, 78.2% of all inmates diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated with antidepressant medication. Of these, 47.3% were treated exclusively with tricyclic anti-depressants (TCA); 30.9% were treated with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI); and 21.8% were not treated with any form of anti-depressant medication. Prescribing patterns varied substantially according to a number of sociodemographic factors under study. Because the present study relied on retrospective, clinical data, the investigators had limited ability to assess: specific symptomatology for each diagnosed depressive condition under study; socio-economic status, pre-incarceration access to health care; and the overall reliability and validity of the data. The proportion of prison inmates with depressive disorders who receive appropriate medication management is substantially higher than that reported among similarly diagnosed nonincarcerated samples. It will be important, however, for future investigators to examine the sources of sociodemographic variation in treatment patterns found in the present study.
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Gussak, D. (1997). Breaking through barriers: Art therapy in prisons. In D. Gussak & E. Virshup (Eds.), Drawing time: Art therapy in prisons and other correctional settings (pp. 1-11). Chicago, IL: Magnolia Street Publishers.
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