Article

Sweet trees, sour circumstances: The long search for sustainability in the North American maple products industry

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Maple sugar and maple syrup have long been important non-timber forest products in North America. We examined the historical and the scientific literature to determine the long-term sustainability of the industry in an economic, an ecological, and a cultural context. During the 18th and 19th centuries, maple sugar was an inexpensive substitute for cane sugar and a cash crop that fit into the work schedule of the northern farmer. Maple syrup replaced maple sugar as the mainstay of the industry at the end of the 19th century as increasingly cheaper cane sugar and other sweeteners undercut the sugar market. Active government intervention and support have made Quebec the major bulk supplier of maple syrup today. Quebec alone produces approximately 80% of the world’s supply of maple products. A series of good sap years and production in excess of demand, however, has recently reduced the price of bulk syrup and the profit of producers in Quebec. Producers in the United States have focused on the more lucrative and price stable retail syrup market.Farming practices in the late 18th and early 19th centuries tended to clear away sugar maple on the more fertile, level sites and preserve sugar maple as a source of fuel wood, sugar and syrup on the less accessible, marginal sites. The crude tapping procedures employed at the same time often killed the trees. Widespread grazing in the 20th century and more recently diameter-limit cutting of even-aged stands have hindered the regeneration of the sugarbush. An emphasis on monocultures and global warming currently threatens the sustainability of the sugarbush. On the whole, however, the maple products industry has probably increased sugar maple’s representation in the forest. From a cultural standpoint, the industry represents a positive work experience that unites families, connects one to the land, and provides a sense of continuity with the past.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Maple production gradually fell in the 20th century with the decline in timber supply and science and technology making dairying a more profitable and year-round activity (Fig. 1). Cane sugar also became increasingly affordable for citizens owing to technological innovations (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). Maple producers, historically more reluctant to adopt new technology (Kelley and Staats 1989), failed to keep pace. ...
... Vermont, Maine, and New York are now the US leaders in maple production and have been so for quite some time (Graham 2012 and references therein). Canadian production initially surpassed the United States in the early 20th century (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). The largest mapleproducing area in the world is the province of Quebec, Canada, which produced 78.6 percent of the North American maple crop in 2011 (USDA NASS 2012). ...
... These and other variables work together to determine the volume produced and the price at which a producer is able to sell his or her product. Figure 1 and our historical synopsis highlight the overall change in the US maple industry since the Civil War, and this has been attributed to many factors (Whitney andUpmeyer 2004, Graham et al. 2006). Land use changes led to historical industry shifts, with the US maple industry currently centered in the New England states of Vermont and Maine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Average annual percentage rates of change (APR) in maple syrup prices (average gallon equivalent price in the United States) in seven northeastern United States and their aggregated region were determined for the years 1916 to 2012. The price trend lines were then compared on state-by-state and region-by-state bases. Maple syrup prices across all states and the region as a whole were increasing nominally at significant average annual rates. Nominal APRs ranged from 3.42 percent for Maine to 4.13 percent for New Hampshire, with the price in the combined region increasing at a rate of 3.96 percent annually. Real prices (discussed in 2012 constant dollars) were appreciating at significant annual rates in all areas except Maine. Real APRs ranged from 0.46 percent for Maine to 1.12 percent for New Hampshire, and the regional price was increasing at 0.95 percent annually. Whereas the region's all-time high price of $40.38 was obtained nominally in 2008, the real price actually reached its highest point in 1987 ($53.89). Two other real price peaks were observed regionally: 1947 ($41.17) and 1972 ($45.31). No differences in trend line intercepts and slopes were found across the region. Obtaining price information for any one location has historically provided producers and processors a reasonable expectation of market activities occurring in the greater region.
... In rural Eastern Ontario, maple sugar/syrup production is a longstanding household livelihood practice that is becoming gradually more commercialized. Sugar bushes have a long history in North America and have demonstrated both economic and cultural sustainability (Whitney & Upmeyer 2004). If it can be safely assumed that sugar bush operations also support the environmental pillar of sustainable development, through such benefits as the maintenance of biodiversity, they may be seen as a good candidate for active promotion through rural sustainable development initiatives. ...
... Maple syrup production is a rural industry and forest use that has been seen as socially, economically, and in some ways ecologically sustainable (Whitney & Upmeyer 2004). Since it relies on a productive forest with intact and mature trees, it is a land-use that is seen as being less invasive than many other rural land-uses such as timber extraction, agriculture, and mining. ...
... As opposed to sugar maple monocultures, sugar bush operators are encouraged by government bodies and forestry organizations to retain other tree species in their woodlots to reduce the risk of harmful insect outbreaks and to provide habitat for wildlife. The use of reverse osmosis in sap processing greatly reduces the amount of time and fuel required to evaporate water from the sap (Chapeskie 2009 Whitney and Upmeyer (2004) conducted an extensive literature review on the maple syrup industry in North America to analyze its sustainability. In terms of economic sustainability, they conclude that there will likely always be a market for local retail sales of maple syrup and that most investigators believe there is room for an increase in supply of maple products. ...
Article
Full-text available
As in many parts of the world, rural and forest-dependent communities in Ontario are struggling with a variety of economic and demographic challenges. Ontario government ministries are seeking to enhance rural sustainable development while at the same time maintaining forest habitat and preventing forest biodiversity decline. Commercial maple sugar bushes, which in Eastern Ontario are typically family owned and operated, have the potential to play an important role in biodiversity conservation and habitat protection, while at the same time contributing to sustainable development. Existing research has shown the social and economic benefits of small scale maple sugar bushes, but room remains for greater study of the environmental impacts, particularly in terms of forest biodiversity. In this study, woodlot management practices on twenty-two sugar bushes in Eastern Ontario were compared against established forest biodiversity conservation guidelines, using information obtained through detailed interviews with operators. Sugar bush operators reported the presence of many important habitats on their properties. The interview results show that many standard sugar bush management practices are consistent with biodiversity conservation principles. Operators were found to be receptive to biodiversity conservation ideals, and could enhance their contribution to the provincial government’s official biodiversity strategy with additional guidance, incentives, and formal planning. The findings suggest that through sound management and planning, small scale commercial sugar bush operations generally can be made environmentally sustainable, and become important components in broader rural development strategies.
... Maple sugaring refers to the practice of processing sap from the sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum) by boiling, which concentrates the sugars in the sap creating maple syrup. This can be further processed to make granulated maple sugar; maple syrup is the most common form of maple product currently, but historically maple trees were used almost completely to produce granulated sugar (Whitney & Upmeyer, 2004). ...
... These archaeological sites are from post-contact, because the boiling arches were used to support large metal kettles that would boil the syrup (Thomas, 2005). Maple syrup was an important trade item for Native Americans during the 18 th , 19 th , and 20 th centuries (Whitney & Upmeyer, 2004). During this period sap was collected by traditional native methods, which included creating a gash on the trunk of the tree 3 inches deep and 6 to 12 inches wide with an ax or tomahawk and utilizing several methods to encourage the directional flow of the sap, including shingles placed in the gash or using multiple gashes to direct flow (Nearing & Nearing, 1950). ...
... During this period sap was collected by traditional native methods, which included creating a gash on the trunk of the tree 3 inches deep and 6 to 12 inches wide with an ax or tomahawk and utilizing several methods to encourage the directional flow of the sap, including shingles placed in the gash or using multiple gashes to direct flow (Nearing & Nearing, 1950). These practices were not healthy for the tree however, and trees tapped in this manner would often die or be left very disfigured as a result of the practice (Whitney & Upmeyer, 2004). The issue of tree death was not important at the time due to the plentiful nature of sugar maples; once a grove had been used completely one would simply move on to the next stand of trees (Nearing & Nearing, 1950). ...
Article
Why do people farm? The answers are increasingly unclear given the heightened pressure of agricultural consolidation on small family farms. When profit margins are thin or even non-existent it is necessary to look at how other factors influence this group of people – particularly the social and cultural ties within and amongst communities that inspire people to remain in a profession which is not particularly lucrative This paper explores conceptualizations of social, cultural, and natural wealth as rationales for continuing in agricultural work, by focusing on maple syrup producers in Maine. At the small and medium-scale, maple syrup production cannot provide substantial income and yet people continue to participate in a time- and labor-intensive activity with marginal returns. This thesis therefore argues that maple sugaring makes an interesting case study through which to explore the various reasons that people take part in small-scale agricultural work with minimal financial benefits. Drawing on a literature review and 10 semi-structured interviews with both multigenerational and first-generation maple syrup producers in Maine this thesis explores the reasons these producers have chosen to continue or begin maple syrup production, focusing on how the social connections, family history, cultural influence, and ecological factors have impacted their decisions surrounding this business. We argue that while monetary consideration may not be as large of a factor in these decisions, maple syrup producers point to a whole array of motivations which suggest that their returns are linked to human relationship and connections to culture and place.
... Maple production gradually fell in the 20th century with the decline in timber supply and science and technology making dairying a more profitable and year-round activity (Fig. 1). Cane sugar also became increasingly affordable for citizens owing to technological innovations (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). Maple producers, historically more reluctant to adopt new technology (Kelley and Staats 1989), failed to keep pace. ...
... Vermont, Maine, and New York are now the US leaders in maple production and have been so for quite some time (Graham 2012 and references therein). Canadian production initially surpassed the United States in the early 20th century (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). The largest mapleproducing area in the world is the province of Quebec, Canada, which produced 78.6 percent of the North American maple crop in 2011 (USDA NASS 2012). ...
... These and other variables work together to determine the volume produced and the price at which a producer is able to sell his or her product. Figure 1 and our historical synopsis highlight the overall change in the US maple industry since the Civil War, and this has been attributed to many factors (Whitney andUpmeyer 2004, Graham et al. 2006). Land use changes led to historical industry shifts, with the US maple industry currently centered in the New England states of Vermont and Maine. ...
Article
Full-text available
Average annual percentage rates of change (APR) in maple syrup prices (average gallon equivalent price in the United States) in seven northeastern United States and their aggregated region were determined for the years 1916 to 2012. The price trend lines were then compared on state-by-state and region-by-state bases. Maple syrup prices across all states and the region as a whole were increasing nominally at significant average annual rates. Nominal APRs ranged from 3.42 percent for Maine to 4.13 percent for New Hampshire, with the price in the combined region increasing at a rate of 3.96 percent annually. Real prices (discussed in 2012 constant dollars) were appreciating at significant annual rates in all areas except Maine. Real APRs ranged from 0.46 percent for Maine to 1.12 percent for New Hampshire, and the regional price was increasing at 0.95 percent annually. Whereas the region's all-time high price of $40.38 was obtained nominally in 2008, the real price actually reached its highest point in 1987 ($53.89). Two other real price peaks were observed regionally: 1947 ($41.17) and 1972 ($45.31). No differences in trend line intercepts and slopes were found across the region. Obtaining price information for any one location has historically provided producers and processors a reasonable expectation of market activities occurring in the greater region.
... A shift in the locus of the sugar maple producing industry from a cluster of states in the U.S. (New York, Vermont, Michigan and Ohio) in 1860 to the Canadian province of Quebec in 2002 is noticeable (see Figure 1 in Whitney and Upmeyer, 2004). Fifty years ago the United States, primarily New England and New York, used to account for 80 percent of the international maple syrup production, with 20 percent in Canada, but today that trend is completely reversed. ...
... Ontario has actually decreased its production from 1860 to 2002 and shifts have also occurred in the United States. For example, tapping for sap from maple trees was carried out in Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, North Carolina and Virginia in 1860 but none of these areas show tapping in 2002 (Whitney and Upmeyer, 2004). ...
... Finally, many of those who produce maple syrup, at least on a small scale, are also family forest landowners (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). As such, this segment of producers faces a spate of challenges associated with being a private forest landowner (Butler et al. 2016). ...
... In research on barriers to syrup production, Farrell and Stedman (2013) identified concerns about the impacts of tapping on the value of sugar maple sawtimber; lack of time, available labor, interest and knowledge in the sugaring process; and perceived lack of accessible maple trees. Other research has focused on understanding the social and cultural significance of maple syrup production (Hinrichs 1998;Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Maple syrup is an important non-timber forest product derived from the sap of the sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). However, maple syrup producers are facing a diversity of challenges, including: potential range shifts in the maple resource; increasing variability in the timing, duration and yield of sap flow and syrup operations; invasive species, pests and diseases; and intergenerational land and business transfer challenges. Members of Maple Syrup Producer Associations in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan were surveyed to learn about their operations, adaptation strategies, concerns, and information needs. While many respondents indicated they have undertaken or plan to undertake adaptation activities, only 11% had done so out of specific concern over changing climate conditions. Climate-motivated activities included: being prepared to tap earlier and utilizing newer technology such as vacuum tubing or reverse osmosis to enhance sap collection and processing efficiency. Respondents were generally unlikely to consider planting climate-resilient maple cultivars or tapping trees other than sugar maple. They expressed the greatest concerns over tree health and forest pests, as well as their physical ability and family member interest to continue their operations. Boil season variability and weather issues were viewed with less concern. Respondents were generally optimistic that they can adapt to future conditions, likely in large measure through the adoption of new technologies, and they expect their syrup production levels to slightly increase in the future. If future climate scenarios play out, however, additional planning and adaptation strategies may be called for, particularly as they relate to forest health and productivity issues.
... How the non-timber product use of maple sap has been utilized through time reflects the changing role economic opportunities have played in establishing the industry across its range. First developed and integrated into First Nations societies, the ability to extract maple sap and render maple sugar and syrup not only provided novel resources but also played a role in signifying the changing of seasons where family groups were brought together to extract this sweet resource (Whitney & Upmeyer 2004). With expansion of European settlements across North America, the use of sugar maple in production for granular sweetener and syrup took root in the early 19th century. ...
... With expansion of European settlements across North America, the use of sugar maple in production for granular sweetener and syrup took root in the early 19th century. This production expanded and by the mid-1800s, had expanded to encompass the entirety of the species range but the spatial extent of maple sugar production later contracted, due to economic drivers, toward the northern tier (Whitney & Upmeyer 2004). Maple syrup is now predominately a product of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is a highly valued tree in United States (US) and Canada, and its sap when collected from taps and concentrated, makes a delicious syrup. Understanding how this resource may be impacted by climate change and other threats is essential to continue management for maple syrup into the future. Here, we evaluate the current distribution of maple syrup production across twenty-three states within the US and estimate the current potential sugar maple resource based on tree inventory data. We model and project the potential habitat responses of sugar maple using a species distribution model with climate change under two future General Circulation Models (GCM) and emission scenarios and three time periods (2040, 2070, 2100). Our results show that under GFDL-A1Fi (high CO2 emissions), sugar maple habitat is projected to decline (mean ratio of future habitat to current habitat per state = 0.46, sd ± 0.33), which could lead to reduced maple syrup production per tree and nearly 5 million additional taps required to maintain current projection levels. If global emissions are reduced and follow a lower trajectory of warming (under PCM-B1), then habitat for the species may be maintained but would still require management intervention. Finally, our results point to regions, particularly along the northern tier, where both climate change impacts and currently developing sugar maple habitat may signify viable opportunities to increase maple syrup production.
... Sugar and other maple species (Acer spp.) have been tapped for the sap and valued for their wood for hundreds of years (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). However, managing to produce the highest possible yield of the sweetest sap per hectare, often necessitates that timber becomes subordinate (Lancaster et al. 1974;Sendak et al. 1982). ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are derived from natural populations of plants or fungi, or farmed in forests. Harvesters and producers often benefit from NTFPs by selling them to generate income. This article explores research on the producers, production, marketing, and sales of NTFPs in the United States, including the continuum of production from wild-harvesting to forest farming of NTFPs, and their costs and benefits. Specific examples are presented, but the concepts and generalizations are broadly applicable to many NTFPs throughout the U.S. and other parts of the world. Integrating NTFPs into forest management can enhance economic opportunities but also will increase complexity, and will entail balancing multiple and potentially conflicting objectives among a diverse community of stakeholders. We identify information gaps including the need for inventories and yield models of NTFPs, understanding the effect of silvicultural activities on NTFP survival and yield, time series and trends in collection of NTFPs by U.S. households, identification of vulnerable and marginalized communities associated with NTFP harvest, and harvesters’ motivations and drivers.
... Maple syrup production is a labor-intensive enterprise. Because most maple syrup operations in Ohio are family oriented businesses, many members of the extended family, multiple families, friends, and, in some instances, neighbors are involved (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). This fact is reflected in the typical maple producer in Ohio who was a 53-year-old male, second-generation producer. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maple syrup production contributes approximately $5 million annually to Ohio's economy and provides supplemental nontimber forest product income for forestland owners. To better understand the factors that influence this important nontimber forest industry in Ohio, including producer heritage, producer age, sap collection methods, size of maple operation, and educational programming, we conducted a detailed survey of all known Ohio maple syrup producers (761 total producers). Over 80% of producers responded to the survey (620 respondents), making our analysis one of the most extensive of a maple industry in North America. In general, most maple operations in Ohio are part-time, family-based enterprises and over 25% of Ohio's maple producers are of Amish heritage. Although we estimate that there are over 400,000 taps in the state, the typical sugarbush is relatively small—the average sugarbush is 27 ac in size and over a third of the operations have fewer than 100 taps. Chi-square analyses did reveal several significant ( 0.05) associations among producer characteristics. Although Amish producers were significantly younger and had significantly larger operations than their English or non-Amish counterparts (P 0.001), a higher proportion of English producers reported using tubing collection systems than Amish producers (P 0.031). Additionally, while larger maple operations tended to use tubing systems more frequently (P 0.001), we did not detect a significant association between sap collection method (bucket versus tubing) and producer age (P 0.169). Finally, English producers tend to be older. Older producers (53 years old), producers using tubing collection systems, and producers with more than 250 taps were significantly more likely to participate in Ohio State University (OSU) Extension educational programming (P 0.05). These results suggest significant relationships among producer demographics and the characteristics of maple operations in Ohio, and future OSU educational programming should be tailored to reflect these important relationships. ABSTRACT
... Activities associated with maple syrup production affect structural diversity, particularly by eliminating tree species other than sugar maple and by cutting saplings Whitney & Upmeyer, 2004;Lenière & �oule, 2006). Surprisingly, the low observed structural diversity of the tree stratum was not reflected in the understory assemblage of sampled syrup production stands as we found a high occurrence of seedlings and saplings of trees or vines dispersed by birds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Évaluer l'intégrité écologique des forêts représente un défi majeur pour les écologistes. Nous avons analysé la végétation de sous-bois à l'aide d'une approche qui combinait les types fonctionnels et la stratification verticale afin d'évaluer les effets des perturbations anthropiques sur l'intégrité écologique d'érablières à sucre dans le sud du Québec. L'intégrité écologique a été évaluée en comparant les assemblages d'espèces de sous-bois de ces forêts avec ceux de forêts comparables mais non aménagées. Les analyses multivariées des caractéristiques biologiques ont fait ressortir 13 groupes possédant des traits communs associés à des stratégies similaires. La réponse de ces groupes de traits spécifiques ainsi que de la structure du sous-bois ont été testées pour différentes perturbations anthropiques. L'occurence et la redondance de 9 des 13 groupes variaient en fonction des types de perturbations. Les analyses ont aussi révélé une combinaison de traits spécifiques aux forêts anciennes non aménagées, indiquant que les espèces possédant ces caractéristiques peuvent être sensibles aux perturbations anthropiques. Dans l'ensemble, les assemblages de la flore de sous-bois étaient relativement stables quelque soit la perturbation anthropique évaluée. Cependant, nos résultats laissent entrevoir certains risques de modifications au niveau de la conservation à long terme dans le cas où les perturbations se poursuivent : (i) une augmentation des espèces de milieu ouvert, incluant des espèces exotiques; (ii) une diminution des géophytes printanières; (iii) une diminution de certaines herbacées tolérantes à l'ombre; et (iv) une modification de la structure du sous-bois par le développement d'une strate dense de gaulis. Nomenclature: Gleason & Cronquist, 1991.
... Discuss the effects of mobility on people and foreign languages in relation to the continuation of Estonian culture. Another threat to cultural sustainability was the introduction of new livelihood practices in farming as a result of modernization or changing environmental conditions, such as global warming, leading to the extinction of old farming practices (Whitney and Upmeyer, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been growing interest in policy and among scholars to consider culture as an aspect of sustainable development and even as a fourth pillar. However, until recently, the understanding of culture within the framework of sustainable development has remained vague. In this study, we investigate the scientific discourse on cultural sustainability by analyzing the diverse meanings that are applied to the concept in scientific publications. The analysis shows that the scientific discourse on cultural sustainability is organized around seven storylines: heritage, vitality, economic viability, diversity, locality, eco-cultural resilience, and eco-cultural civilization. These storylines are partly interlinked and overlapping, but they differ in terms of some contextualized aspects. They are related to four political and ideological contexts, conservative, neoliberal, communitarian, and environmentalist, which provide interesting perspectives on the political ideologies and policy arenas to which cultural sustainability may refer. Some of the story lines establish the fourth pillar of sustainability, whereas others can be seen as instrumental, contributing to the achievement of social, economic, or ecological goals of sustainability. The eco-cultural civilization story line suggests culture as a necessary foundation for the transition to a truly sustainable society.
... ). However, since the traditional management practice is to cut other tree species in order to allow only Acer saccharum to grow, creating sugar maple monocultures(Lenière and Houle 2006;Whitney and Upmeyer 2004), the species can be found on sites less suitable like cold and humid lowlands. On such sites, years of management can be perceived by the presence of a canopy dominated by Acer saccharum with a regeneration of species more typical to this habitat like Acer rubrum, Fraxinus spp., Tilia americana, or Abies balsamea(Houston et al. 1990). ...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Past land use affects present-day biodiversity, in particular through the type of land use and the resulting forest fragmentation. While past land use modifies soil properties, past landscape configuration affects plant species dispersal. Both can induce changes in the composition of a plant community and lower the abundance of less competitive species. Moreover, these effects can last for centuries after the disturbance. In southwestern Quebec, Canada, plant communities have been subject to three centuries of intensifying land use, including agriculture and urbanization, which have created pressure on a reduced and fragmented forest area. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of past land use and landscape configuration on current plant diversity in remnant forest patches of the Valle-du-Richelieu County in southwestern Quebec. We first analyzed the evolution of the abundance and spatial configuration of forest patches from the 1860s to the 1990s using historical topographical maps and analysis of landscape change trajectories with Affinity Propagation algorithm. Secondly, we collected plant species data in forest plots (n=52) with different land-use histories and different connectivity to surrounding forest patches through time; effects on current plant diversity were analyzed using Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling ordination (NMDS). Results/Conclusions The landscape change trajectory analysis showed that, unlike much of the rest of eastern North America, the majority of the landscape remained relatively stable in forest or non-forest land cover type throughout the entire period from the 1860s to the 1990s. But other important trajectories included: a clearing of the forest seen in the 1910s map that was maintained through the 1990s; and a clearing of the forest only found in the 1990s map. This could be explained by a slow evolution of agriculture from a traditional and non-productive farming in the 1860s to a slight improvement in farming techniques at the beginning of the XXth century followed by a gradual increase in farms’ area generalized in Quebec’s Saint-Lawrence Lowlands starting in the 1970s. The NMDS analysis showed a clustering of study sites that have remained forested and connected to neighbouring forest patches through time vs forest patches that were in agricultural land use in the 1860s and isolated from other patches through time. The results suggest that both past land use and past landscape configuration affect current plant diversity. Current analysis is being conducted to identify which species and functional groups are indicative of these differential histories.
... There is significant concern about the sustainability of the maple syrup industry in North America (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). While the current outlook is bright, there are important variables that could have drastic impacts on US maple production. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is currently a tremendous opportunity to increase the amount of maple syrup produced in the US. This paper addresses the number of potentially tappable maple trees, the factors that affect their utilization for syrup production, and the overall future outlook for the maple industry. The latest USFS FIA data for 19 states was analyzed in order to estimate the number of potential taps while the utilization rate was based on the 2008 NASS data. The US currently only taps .4% of all potentially tappable maple trees, with the highest percentage of trees tapped in Vermont, at 2.1%. If all states were to tap the same percentage of maples that sugarmakers in Vermont do, the resulting economic impact would be over $300 million annually. During the current economic recession, there is increasing attention given to strategies aimed at growing the US maple industry. Demand is still strong, prices are at record levels, and many sugarmakers are expanding their operations while others are just getting started. Although the current outlook is bright, long-term concerns for the US maple industry include climate change, the exchange rate and production levels in Canada, invasive species such as Asian longhorn beetle, and the overall global economic outlook.
... In 2011, Canada produced $349.5 million Canadian dollars of maple products (Morin et al. 2011) and the United States $106 million US dollars of maple syrup (Keough et al. 2012). Although the geographic range of sugar maple spans southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the production of maple syrup is limited to regions with specific climatic conditions (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). Sugar maple trees only produce a heavy sap flow during spring conditions when night temperatures dip below 0°C and daytime temperatures rise to a few degrees above 0°C (Tyree 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
The conversion of sap from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) to syrup is a multi-million dollar agroforestry industry in North America. Sugar maple trees take decades to reach a size that can be tapped; therefore, maintaining vigorous trees is crucial to the industry’s sustainability. Our objectives were to identify whether syrup production altered radial growth or cambium miner activity. We extracted increment cores and measured ring widths from trees tapped for syrup production and untapped reference trees. In Pennsylvania and Ontario, radial growth in tapped trees was significantly reduced compared to reference trees. In New York, there was no significant difference in radial growth between tapped and reference trees. All sites showed a significant reduction in radial growth following commencement of tapping, compared to growth rates prior to tapping. This pattern was not identified in reference trees, which indicates that it was not an artifact of age-related growth trends. There was no significant difference between cambium miner activity in tapped and reference trees. We concluded that the reduction in sugar maple radial growth is likely due to reallocation of resources as the tree heals the damage to the stem during tapping.
... Maple sap and maple syrup are novel and essential non-timber forest products mainly in the United States and Canada and of increasing distribution worldwide. Their production is a source of income and a cultural tradition in North America (Hinrichs, 1998;Whitney & Upmeyer, 2004). The production of sap-based products represents an essential economic opportunity for maple producers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maple sap is a rich nutrient matrix collected from Acer trees to produce several food products (i.e., sap, water, extract, syrup, and sugar), of which syrup is the most famous in the food industry for its distinct taste and flavor. Maple syrup is produced from the sap of several species (Acer saccharum, Acer nigrum, and Acer rubrum) of maple. Maple syrup is chiefly produced through the concentration of sap via thermal evaporation (pan evaporation) or membrane separation. Each processing technique affects the quality and characteristics of processed maple products. The chemistry of maple products is dominated by a myriad of other phytoconstituents other than sugar, that is, phenolics, to mediate for its many health benefits. The health-promoting effects of maple products included antioxidant, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities. This review capitalizes on maple food products focusing on their chemistry, processing, and health benefits compared with other sugar sweeteners. The impact of processing on maple syrup composition and biological effects in relation to original maple sap are further presented. Practical applications Maple food products are natural sweeteners of significant importance due to their economic, nutritional, and health benefits. Apart from the predominant ingredient sucrose, the chemical composition of maple products comprises phenolics, pyrazines, vitamins, minerals, organic acids, and phytohormones. These bioactive compounds are of potential value owing to their health-promoting benefits, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antimutagenic effects. Quebecol, lariciresinol, and secoisolariciresinol are suggested as distinct markers for maple products and not common in other plant-derived syrups. Several factors, including the processing parameters and the phytochemical profile, affect maple products’ flavor and color. In addition, microbial contamination of maple sap can also affect maple product quality. Further research on the effect of processing techniques and environmental conditions on the phytochemicals profile and biological effects of maple food products should now follow. Application of other omics tools, that is, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, to understand maple syrup effects on the human body can help reveal its exact action mechanisms or points for any potential health hazards for certain ailments.
... The economy of maple syrup production alone includes 10 million trees and an estimated annual revenue of approximately $130 million (Horsley and others 2002;Farrell and Stedman 2013;USDA 2014). Sugar maple, which ranges from the northeastern and Midwestern United States northward to southeastern Canada (Horsley and others 2002), is expected to react unfavorably to projected future climate scenarios compared to many co-occurring tree species resulting in increased mortality and range reduction (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004;Prasad and others 2014), and there is recent evidence of decline in this valuable species (Bal and others 2015;Bishop and others 2015). Sugar maples are generally found in moist environments and have shallow root systems, which can limit water absorption during dry conditions and lead to increased mortality (Hinckley and others 1979;Godman and others 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sugar maple (Acer saccharum), an economically important timber and syrup species, is not expected to flourish under projected future climates. The objectives of our study were to (1) tease apart the effects of warming and soil moisture availability on transpiration rates of mature sugar maple trees with a full-factorial soil warming × water addition experiment and (2) determine the primary environmental driver(s) of sugar maple transpiration in the upper Midwestern United States. Over three growing seasons, we monitored sap flux of 33 trees in eight 100-m2 plots, two replicates each of four treatments: (1) heat (soil warmed +4°C), (2) water (1.3 × ambient growing season precipitation, (3) heat + water, and (4) control. As expected, sugar maple transpiration decreased under the heat treatments in all years and increased in water treatments in years 1 and 2, all mediated primarily by soil moisture. However, under the heat + water treatment, supplemental water compensated for the warming-induced soil evaporation only in year 1 (2011), which was the driest year. Despite clear evidence of a soil moisture-mediated treatment effect, light was the dominant driver of seasonal variation in sap flux in this sugar maple-dominated ecosystem with relatively short growing seasons. However, sap flux was reduced with decreases in soil moisture, and therefore, net C gain likely was as well. Overall, our results suggest that even though this northern temperate species is primarily limited by light, sugar maple productivity may be reduced by a warming climate on drier sites within its current range, if warming is not accompanied by a sufficient increase in precipitation.
... The contribution of urban forests, however, depends on tree species and their spatial distributions (Alonzo et al., 2014). As an example, walnut and poplar have high capacity for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration (Proietti et al., 2016), holm oak has the high potential for particle matter (PM) removal (Blanusa et al., 2015), and sugar maple is used as an ornamental tree or the best source of maple sugar (Whitney and Upmeyer, 2004). In addition, tree species identification is beneficial for forest pest management. ...
Article
Crown-level tree species classification is a challenging task due to the spectral similarity among different tree species. Shadow, underlying objects, and other materials within a crown may decrease the purity of extracted crown spectra and further reduce classification accuracy. To address this problem, an innovative pixel-weighting approach was developed for tree species classification at the crown level. The method utilized high density discrete LiDAR data for individual tree delineation and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral imagery for pure crown-scale spectra extraction. Specifically, three steps were included: 1) individual tree identification using LiDAR data, 2) pixel-weighted representative crown spectra calculation using hyperspectral imagery, with which pixel-based illuminated-leaf fractions estimated using a linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) were employed as weighted factors, and 3) representative spectra based tree species classification was performed through applying a support vector machine (SVM) approach. Analysis of results suggests that the developed pixel-weighting approach (OA = 82.12%, Kc = 0.74) performed better than treetop-based (OA = 70.86%, Kc = 0.58) and pixel-majority methods (OA = 72.26, Kc = 0.62) in terms of classification accuracy. McNemar tests indicated the differences in accuracy between pixel-weighting and treetop-based approaches as well as that between pixel-weighting and pixel-majority approaches were statistically significant.
... Maple syrup is a unique and important non-timber forest product in northeastern North America. Its production, probably originating with the indigenous population, continues to be a cultural tradition and a source of income for many family-based businesses in Canada and the United States [1,2]. Maple syrup is produced by the concentration of sap of maple trees by boiling (now often preceded by reverse osmosis), and thus annual yield depends on the volume of sap harvested and its sweetness [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The production of maple syrup is an important cultural and economic activity directly related to the climate of northeastern North America. As a result, there are signs that climate change could have negative impacts on maple syrup production in the next decades, particularly for regions located at the southern margins of the sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) range. The purpose of this survey study is to present the beliefs and opinions of maple syrup producers of Canada (N = 241) and the U.S. (N = 113) on climate change in general, its impacts on sugar maple health and maple syrup production, and potential adaptation measures. Using conditional inference classification trees, we examined how the socio-economic profile of respondents and the geographic location and size of respondents’ sugar bushes shaped the responses of survey participants. While a majority (75%) of respondents are confident that the average temperature on Earth is increasing, less than half (46%) believe that climate change will have negative impacts on maple syrup yield in the next 30 years. Political view was a significant predictor of these results, with respondents at the right right and center-right of the political spectrum being less likely to believe in climate change and less likely to anticipate negative effects of climate change on maple syrup production. In addition, 77% of the participants indicated an interest in adopting adaptation strategies if those could increase maple syrup production. This interest was greater for respondents using vacuum tubing for sap collection than other collection methods. However, for many respondents (particularly in Canada), lack of information was identified as a constraint limiting adaptation to climate change.
... cultural mainstay, and commercial activity for local economies and forest management throughout the maple range of eastern North America (Keller, 1989;Hinrichs, 1998;Whitney and Upmeyer, 2004;Murphy et al., 2012). Most sap used for syrup production is collected from natural forest stands of sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh. ...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is affecting the benefits society derives from forests. One such forest ecosystem service is maple syrup, which is primarily derived from Acer saccharum (sugar maple), currently an abundant and widespread tree species in eastern North America. Two climate sensitive components of sap affect syrup production: sugar content and sap flow. The sugar in maple sap derives from carbohydrate stores influenced by prior year growing season conditions. Sap flow is tied to freeze/thaw cycles during early spring. Predicting climate effects on syrup production thus requires integrating observations across scales and biological processes. We observed sap at 6 sugar maple stands spanning sugar maple’s latitudinal range over 2–6 years to predict the role of climate variation on sugar content and sap flow. We found that the timing of sap collection advanced by 4.3 days for every 1 °C increase in March mean temperature, sap volume peaked at a January-May mean temperature of 1 °C, and sap sugar content declined by 0.1 °Brix for every 1 °C increase in previous May-October mean temperature. Using these empirical relationships, we projected that the sap collection season midpoint will be 1 month earlier and sap sugar content will decline by 0.7 °Brix across sugar maple’s range by the year 2100 in an RCP 8.5 climate change scenario. The region of maximum sap flow is expected to shift northward by 400 km, from near the 43rd parallel to the 48th parallel by 2100. Our findings suggest climate change will have profound effects on syrup yield across most of sugar maple’s range; drastic shifts in the timing of the tapping season accompanied by flat to moderate increases in syrup yield per tap in Canada contrast with declines in syrup yield and higher frequencies of poor syrup production years across most of the U.S. range.
... Maple syrup is an iconic NWFP of northeastern North America (Hinrichs 1998;Whitney and Upmeyer 2004), produced by collecting and boiling down the sap of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Further evaporation of maple syrup produces a granular sugar. ...
Chapter
Non-wood forest Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) have often-underestimated economic potential, particularly for family forest owners. Their role and value, however, is changing in the global West and so are the business opportunities and innovation need associated with them. Focusing on industrialized countries, this chapter gives an overview of the broad range of goods and services connected with NWFPs, describing important innovation trends. In the core of the chapter, a number of case study analyses from Europe and North America illustrate the various ways NWFPs sourced through wild collection or specialized management system can be utilized by family forest forest owner . We analyze the actor network, value creation processes, and role of services for supporting such systems. While recognizing the importance of non-market value from NWFPs, our primary emphases are on business and income potential for family forestry. We conclude that the application of a service-dominant logic is helpful for understanding how new goods and services are developed by forest owners in networks of various kinds of public and private actors and within specific institutional and cultural contexts. From the analysis we also derive recommendations on how service providerand policy measures can purposefully support innovations in NWFPs in a family forestry context.
... cultural mainstay, and commercial activity for local economies and forest management throughout the maple range of eastern North America (Keller, 1989;Hinrichs, 1998;Whitney and Upmeyer, 2004;Murphy et al., 2012). Most sap used for syrup production is collected from natural forest stands of sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marsh. ...
Article
In our recent article, we use in situ ecophysiological data from individual sugar maple trees across the species’ range to identify climate conditions that maximize the volume and sugar concentration of sap. Houle and Duchesne present a critique of our research that hinges on their own analysis of industry aggregate data on syrup production, from within the latitudinal range where the industry is currently concentrated. Their approach falls short of both a proper validation of our ecological model and a rigorous comparison of two potentially complementary contributions. Notably, the aggregate dataset that Houle and Duchesne analyze includes an arbitrary mix of traditional gravity tapping and vacuum tubing extraction of sap, where the latter can maintain sap flow in the absence of freeze/thaw dynamics. In contrast, we hold the collection method constant, avoiding the confounding effects of vacuum tubing collection. Thus, their model conflates historical climate data with ongoing changes in sap extraction methods, and thereby masks relationships between climate and the volume and sugar concentration of sap. Moreover, by using regionally constrained aggregate data, Houle and Duchesne fail to capture the breadth of the species’ responses to climate, which are represented in our dataset by populations at the edges of the species range. By ignoring these and other deep methodological discrepancies between their analysis and ours, Houle and Duchesne inappropriately put forth their own study as ‘validation’ of our ecological model. Unfortunately, this approach distracts from collaborative interdisciplinary discourse that could help refine predictions about sugar maple responses to climate. In our reply below, we refute Houle and Duchesne’s unfounded ad hominem claims that our paper predicts a collapse of the maple syrup industry or is ‘alarmist’ in any way, and we clarify our contribution where they otherwise mischaracterize or misunderstand our work. We maintain that our model suggests a climate optimum for syrup production, based on range-wide data on the underlying ecophysiological responses of individual trees. We further point out where future research could address gaps in our knowledge of climate effects on tree physiology (the focus of our research) and on the syrup industry itself (which appears to be the aim of Houle and Duchesne’s analysis here). We close by inviting researchers and syrup producers to join ACER-net, our collaborative science and outreach platform for understanding sugar maple and its ecosystem services in a changing world.
... Maple syrup is an iconic forest product of north-eastern North America [47,54], produced by collecting and boiling down the sap of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). Sap collection and boiling occur when freezing nights and above freezing day-time temperatures result in transport of carbohydrate-rich fluids from the roots to the branches of sugar maple trees. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) in industrialised country economies has declined in the past, but they are generating renewed interest as business opportunities. In a forest-based bio-economy frame, NWFPs can contribute to human nutrition, renewable materials, and cultural and experiential services, as well as create job and income opportunities in rural areas. Applying a service-dominant logic (SDL) approach to analysis of NWFPs, this article aimed to understand how new goods and services are co-created through networks of public and private actors in specific institutional, social, and cultural contexts. This focus sheds light on the experiences associated with NWFP harvest and use, revealing a fulsome suite of values and economic opportunities that include but are greater than the physical goods themselves. Turning the SDL lens on in-depth case studies from Europe and North America, we show dimensions of forest products that go beyond commercial values but are, at the same time, constituent of commercial activities. SDL provides a new view on customer relations, service provision to businesses, and policy measures for innovation support for non-wood forest products.
... Some authors stress the protection of local and regional cultural identities, as well as their durability over time [39]. Others focus on the effects of globalization, and especially how migratory flows and climate change threaten the cultural identity of peoples [40,41]. Nor can reflections related to the conservation of cultural heritage, urban development, and new technologies be overlooked [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The chief objective of this research was to analyze how the industrial heritage of three European capitals-Madrid, Brussels, and Copenhagen-has been integrated into the dynamics of their urban tourism, thereby generating new resources and cultural spaces. In regards to the latter point, this study poses the working hypothesis that industrial heritage can function as a tool for cultural sustainability, which allows for deconcentration away from historic city centers subjected to significant overtourism. To verify this hypothesis, a methodology has been designed based on the selection of specific indicators and the creation of maps, taking as reference data from the Tripad-visor travel portal. The results obtained are truly encouraging, and it would be interesting to expand this study by incorporating new case studies to allow us to discern additional patterns of behavior around urban industrial tourism.
... Limited future availability, along with record high prices, of fossil fuel has incited various industrial and government agencies to search for renewable feedstocks to replace petroleum as sources of value-added chemicals. Maple sap is one of the most abundant and sucrose-rich renewable feedstocks, especially in Canada (Whitney and Upmeyer 2004). Maple sap has the consistency and clarity of water and contains between 10-30 g/L sucrose with trace amounts of glucose and fructose. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maple sap, an abundant natural product especially in Canada, is rich in sucrose and thus may represent an ideal renewable feedstock for the production of a wide variety of value-added products. In the present study, maple sap or sucrose was employed as a carbon source to Alcaligenes latus for the production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). In shake flasks, the biomass obtained from both the sap and sucrose were 4.4 +/- 0.5 and 2.9 +/- 0.3 g/L, and the PHB contents were 77.6 +/- 1.5 and 74.1 +/- 2.0%, respectively. Subsequent batch fermentation (10 L sap) resulted in the formation of 4.2 +/- 0.3 g/L biomass and a PHB content of 77.0 +/- 2.6%. The number average molecular weights of the PHB produced by A. latus from maple sap and pure sucrose media were 300 +/- 66 x 10(3) and 313 +/- 104 x 10(3) g/mol, respectively. Near-infrared, (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and (13)C-MRI spectra of the microbially produced PHB completely matched those obtained with a reference material of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid]. The polymer was found to be optically active with [alpha](25) (D) equaled to -7.87 in chloroform. The melting point (177.0 degrees C) and enthalpy of fusion (77.2 J/g) of the polymer were also in line with those reported, i.e., 177 degrees C and 81 J/g, respectively.
Article
Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum sap extraction (VSE) resulted in significantly greater mean sugar removal (1.19 ± 0.46 kg [SE]) than gravity sap extraction (GSE) (0.48 ± 0.14 kg). Residual stem NSC displayed a pattern of increased concentration with increased extraction. Twig residual NSC concentrations were highly variable, perhaps because of the highly dynamic late spring period, and no clear patterns were observed. Mean radial stem growth in the year after sap extraction was greater in untapped trees (2.93 ± 0.58 mm) than with VSE (1.99 ± 0.44 mm) or GSE (1.67 ± 0.12 mm). The results raise the possibility that sap removal shifts sugar maple NSC source-sink relationships toward storage at the expense of growth.
Article
Understanding how soil nutrients affect sap sweetness of sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is important for producing maple syrup, an economically important non-timber forest product in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. Sugar maples were sampled for sap sweetness in 21 plots distributed across five stands in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Sugar concentrations in maple sap were higher in plots with greater native soil nitrogen availability, indicated by N mineralization in laboratory incubations (p = 0.01). To test whether nutrient additions can improve sap sweetness, treatment plots were fertilized with N, P, N and P, or Ca. Addition of 30 kg N ha−1 yr−1 increased sap sweetness two years after initial treatment. Foliar P had a negative correlation with sap sweetness (p = 0.02) while trees with higher foliar N:P had sweeter sap (p < 0.001). By selecting sites with higher soil nitrogen or fertilizing N-limited sites with N, maple sugar producers may be able to collect sweeter maple sap.
Article
This paper examines the maple syrup production potential of American forests by analyzing Forest Inventory & Analysis (FIA) data provided by the US Forest Service on the resource of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees in twenty states. The analysis is based on tree species and size (diameter at breast height, or dbh), ownership category, jurisdiction, the density of maple trees in a stand, and the distance of the stand to an access road. Although there are over 2 billion sugar and red maple trees of tappable size growing in US forests, when narrowed down according to the attributes of an optimal ‘sugarbush’, there are 100 million potential taps from sugar maples alone and 286 million potential taps with sugar and red maples combined. Overall, 45 % of the tappable-size maple trees are found in stands whose density is not high enough to support commercial sap extraction whereas only 6 % are found in stands that are at least 1.6 km from an access road. The ten states with commercial maple syrup industries have a much higher percentage of their maple trees occurring in stands of optimal density and also contain a higher percentage of sugar maple than red maple trees. States that are utilizing the highest percentage of their potential sugarbushes include Vermont and Maine, whereas states that have significant room for expansion include Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania.
Article
Maple syrup production (“maple sugaring”) is an important cultural and economic activity in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States (U.S.A.). Climate change is a concern for maple producers because maple sugaring is dependent upon climate for both sap sugar content as well as for the specific patterns of freezing and thawing in springtime needed for sap flow. Meanwhile, the maple industry itself is in transition: historically, maple sugaring has been a small-scale seasonal activity, but today large producers tap thousands of trees, contributing to a widening gap in production volumes and production practices between small- and large-scale producers. Drawing on original survey data from 354 maple producers in Canada and the United States we ask how attitudes towards climate change risks and adaptation strategies differ between smaller-scale and larger-scale producers. Findings suggest that small-scale, medium-scale and large-scale maple producers have different perceptions of climate change risks, report different impacts of climate change on maple sap yields, and have different levels of willingness to use adaptation strategies ranging from tapping more trees to adopting new production technologies. In multivariate ordered logistic regression models controlling for producer age, education, and political affiliation, we consistently find the strongest correlates of attitudes towards climate change risks—and the willingness or ability of producers to adopt different adaptation strategies—are country of residence (with preferred adaptation strategies varying across Canada versus the U.S.A.) and producer scale (with larger producers adopting more adaptation strategies). We conclude that more detailed and up-to-date information on the different types of maple operations—including effects of climate change on maple sugaring and available adaptation strategies across geographies and across scales of production—is needed to help maple producers, maple producer associations, and policymakers understand how the maple industry is evolving and how best to prepare for the future.
Article
High forest structural diversity is thought to be associated with high understory plant diversity, through a positive effect on environmental complexity. However, forest management may decrease structural diversity. For instance, by reducing tree species richness and variability in tree size, management of maple-dominated (Acer saccharum Marsh.) forests for sap extraction may decrease environmental complexity and, therefore, understory plant diversity. We tested this hypothesis by studying 30 maple-dominated forest fragments representing various levels of management, in southern Québec (Canada). The mean and spatial variability of several environmental variables (light and soil resources) were assessed, along with forest structural diversity and plant diversity. Using path analyses, we determined whether the mean of environmental variables (model 1) or the spatial variability of environmental variables (model 2) was most important for understory plant diversity. Model 1 explained 58% and model 2 explained 23% of the variance in plant diversity. The observed covariance structure (based on the data) fitted the predicted covariance structure (based on the model) perfectly (minimum fit function χ2 = 5.152, d.f. = 4, P = 0.272, GFI = 0.946 for model 1; minimum fit function χ2 = 5.784, d.f. = 4, P = 0.216, GFI = 0.940 for model 2). Forest structural diversity had no significant effect on the environmental variables (irradiance and soil resources), although it had a significant and positive influence on understory plant diversity. Soil pH also had a significant and positive effect on plant diversity in model 1; however, no other variable significantly affected species diversity in this model. In model 2, none of the environmental variables had a significant effect on understory plant diversity. An increase of the species pool with an increase of soil pH most likely accounts for the positive effect of soil pH on understory plant diversity. Assuming forest structural diversity is inversely related to management intensity, our results suggest that the traditional management of maple-dominated forests for sap extraction may have deleterious effects on understory plant diversity.
Article
Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.
Article
Full-text available
The contrast between the nostalgic pictures on maple syrup packaging and sophisticated technologies actually used in the sugarbush and sugarhouse suggests disjunctures between image and practice in the contemporary North American maple syrup industry. This paper argues that although evidence of a “technological treadmill” exists within the maple syrup industry, as it does in other rural production sectors, such a trend is incomplete due to the increasing importance of consumption-based activities and concerns in the countryside. In response to the interests of tourists, second home owners and other increasingly influential non-producer groups, “traditional” maple enterprises persist, demonstrating a logic and appeal unaccounted for by treadmill theory. By addressing growing consumer concern about the appearance of the rural landscape, the health of the environment, and the quality of food, these “traditional” maple practices can provide distinct advantages for producers over technological modernization. The tension between technology use and tourism in the maple syrup industry offers insights about the role of small-scale specialty agriculture for sustainability in rural areas of advanced industrial countries undergoing social and economic change.
Article
Eiitypclla canker, caused by Eutypella parasitiez and sugar maple borer, Glycobius speciosus, affect sugar maple tliroiigliout its range. Tin's study examines the effectiveness of visual inspection for assessing timber volume loss attributable to these two agents, estimates the value ofthat loss on a property in north central Vermont, and discusses how land managers can include control ofE. parasitica and sugar maple borer in their management planning. Visual inspection alone docs not appear to be reliable for estimating volume loss. The study site had an estimated loss of3.4% of merchantable sugar maple sawtimber volume valued at $2000. This loss was not large enough to justify an intensive control program. However, a low-cost method for controlling these two agents consists of the removal of trees with Eutypella cankers and sugar maple borer scars whenever a stand is entered for silviciiltwal practices.
Article
Chelsea's population decreased by over 40% between 1840 and 1900, and the author considers whether these outmigrations were beneficial in terms of raising the marginal productivity of agriculture, or whether this was a period of economic decline coinciding with the loss of population.- Richard House
Article
U.S. hardwood dimension and flooring manufacturers (SIC 2426) were surveyed in the spring of 1995 about their 1994 operations to better understand this value-added industry in terms of demographic variables, international market position (product mix, markets served, channels used), and the importance of business relationships with domestic and international customers. More than 3/4 of the respondents were from single-site operations, and 77 percent had less than $6 million in total sales that year. Almost one-third (30%) of the study's 505 responding firms exported hardwood components. Destination of exports by region for U.S. hardwood component products were: Europe (45% of export value), Canada (20%), and Japan (15%). The two largest end-use customers of hardwood component products in domestic and international markets were wood furniture and moulding/millwork buyers. The most common hardwood component products were mouldings and millwork, cut-to-size blanks, and hardwood flooring. Respondents indicated that red oak and hard maple were the two most popular species sold to domestic markets, while red and white oak were most often demanded by international buyers. The channel most frequently used by hardwood component producers, for both domestic and international markets, was an in-house salesforce. Business relationships with domestic customers were more long term and partnership oriented than their relationships with international customers.
This atlas explores the continental-scale relations between the geographic ranges of woody plant species and climate in North America. A 25-km equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic parameters was constructed from instrumental weather records. The geographic distributions of selected tree and shrub species were digitized, and the presence or absence of each species was determined for each cell on the 25-km grid, thus providing a basis for comparing climatic data and species' distributions. The relations between climate and plant distributions are explored in graphical and tabular form. The results of this effort are primarily intended for use in biogeographic, paleoclimatic, and global-change research.
Article
Seed dispersal and seedling establishment of three dominant tree species were studied on disturbed and undisturbed sites for 3 years (1984-1986) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. In the undisturbed northern hardwood forest, year-to-year variation in seed production was smaller for a large-seeded species (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) than for species with small (Betula alleghaniensis Brit) or medium-sized seeds (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and production of seeds by the latter two species differed by several orders of magnitude between years. Recruitment of seedlings into the forest understory correlated with differences in seed input. Seed production of B alleghaniensis, F grandifolia and A saccharum in the undisturbed forest in 1984-1985 (a good seed year) was 9297, 59, and 264 seeds m-2, respectively Recruitment the following growing season was 39.8, 2.2, and 18 7 seedlings m-2, respectively. The pattern of revegetation by seedlings on a disturbance 205 m wide and 21.9 ha in area was strongly influenced by dispersal of seeds. Seed input and seedling establishment declined exponentially with distance from the disturbance edge for A saccharum, with no appreciable colonization occurring beyond 15 m from the forest edge even during a good seed year. Seeds of F grandifolia rarely were dispersed into the disturbed area, and this was reflected in very low seedling recruitment. Dispersal of B alleghaniensis seeds declined exponentially from the edge and seedling establishment was highest near the edge (47 m-2), decreasing to 10 m-2 at 25 m from the forest edge, and remaining relatively constant at 5 seedlings m-2 in central parts of the disturbance. Seedling recruitment for all three species was restricted to sites where seeds were deposited the preceding year, suggesting that few seeds of those species persisted in the seed bank more than 1 year. As a result, colonization by seedlings and subsequent species composition of the forest opening were greatly influenced by the seed crops immediately preceding and following the disturbance.
Article
Population estimates were recorded for the Fox, Sauk, Menominee, and Winnebago for the years 1630-1840, and population trends were tested in regression analyses. Following initial population declines, presumably from the impacts of European disease and warfare, each of the four tribes experienced significant population increases through the end of the study period. Despite its acknowledged negative impacts on native American life, the fur trade of the Middle West is interpreted as having mitigating effects on tribal economies, and hence on population trends. The fur trade provided the four tribes with markets for a variety of resources which were not depleted by 1840. Other explanations for population growth are the comparatively benign history of European impacts in the region before 1820, and the diversity and productivity of the tribes' natural resources.
Article
The extent to which prehistoric Indians were able to produce maple sugar has been a question since Europeans first settled in eastern North America. Therefore, experi-ments were performed to test the efficiency and productivity of prehistoric maple sugaring techniques. Results indicate that it was possible to make maple sugar as efficiently with these techniques as with those employed during the early Historic era. Consideration is also given to the uses of maple sugar and the seasonal context of production. It is argued that it was both efficient and worthwhile for prehistoric Indians to incorporate sugaring activities into their annual subsistence cycle.
Article
Sugar maple dominates the northern hardwood forest, but grows over a broader geographic area. Conditions of soil and climate largely limit its distribution, and account for its less continuous cover along fringes of the range. Sugar maple regenerates readily following a wide range of overstory treatments. Success depends upon its status as advance regeneration, particularly under strategies favorable to less shade-tolerant species. In even-aged stands, trees of upper canopy positions grow well following release by cutting. Those of lower canopy positions do not. in uneven-aged stands, both small and large trees respond well to release. Diameter-limit cutting removes the best trees, often leaving stands in poor condition for growth and health. Damage to trees by natural agents and logging commonly leads to discoloration and decay, and often to dieback. Within the range of northern hardwoods, sugar maple seems generally healthy. Exceptions include stands damaged by defoliation, logging, and similar agents.
Article
L'auteur évalue l'utilité des sources iconographiques dans l'étude des techniques traditionnelles, en comparant un ensemble de ces sources avec des documents traitant de la fabrication du sucre d'érable. Les deux types de références fournissent des données précises et détaillées, les sources iconographiques l'emportant en ce qui concerne la description des outils (style, forme) mais le cédant aux textes pour ce qui est des instructions relatives aux méthodes et techniques. L'étude a démontré que les compétences de l'artiste ou de l'auteur revêtaient une plus grande importance que le type de référence comme tel. De plus, dans l'étude des techniques traditionnelles, il est évident que le chercheur a intérêt à consulter la plus grande variété de sources possible.
Article
A method based upon the use of wood sales, recorded by notary deeds, was used to describe how the precolonial forest of the Upper St. Lawrence Region of Quebec changed during the 19th century. The notary deeds, covering the period of 1800 to 1880, are conserved in the National Archives of Quebec, in Montreal. Wood sales of the different species were compared, for each decade, as well as the fluctuations of volumes sold in relation to price. The results show a succession of species, appearing and disappearing, in the recorded wood sales. The sales began, in the early 1800s, with bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), and American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Oak sales reached their highest level in the first decade of the century, but this species was rapidly exhausted and disappeared completely from the market by the end of the 1840s. Similarly, pine was sold mostly during the 1820s. Sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech, sold for firewood during the 1820s and 1830s, were replaced gradually in the following decades by other species also used for firewood, such as black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch), hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere), ''plaine'' (a mix of Acer rubrum L. and Acer saccharinum L.), American elm (Ulmus americana L.), and ash (Fraxinus). The most valuable species were the first exploited for wood sales, and as they were depleted from the forest, they were replaced by others of less value. Throughout the 19th century, under the influence of this harvesting, the composition of the Upper St. Lawrence forest changed to become what it is today.
Article
Abundance of rhizomorphs of Armillaria was characterized in 1995-1996 in 32 plots located in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) stands in the Susquehannock State Forest (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.). All of the plots were thinned, and half of the plots were limed in 1985 when the plots were established. Frequency and abundance of Armillaria rhizomorphs in soil samples, on dead wood food bases (stumps, snags, fallen logs), and on the root collar of living sugar maples were determined in each plot. Rhizomorph vigor was evaluated by measuring their ability to colonize fresh striped maple (Acer pennsylvanicum L.) stem sections in the soil, or potato tubers in the laboratory. Isolates of Armillaria were obtained from rhizomorphs in the soil samples and species were determined by somatic incompatibility tests. Armillaria calvescens Bérubé & Dessureault was the major species present, representing about 66% of the isolates. Armillaria gemina Bérubé & Dessureault and Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr.) Kummer were also identified in the plots. Frequency of rhizomorphs in the soil, on food bases, abundance of rhizomorphs on root collars, as well as the proportion of rhizomorphs per plot that regenerated and (or) colonized fresh substrates were all correlated. However, abundance of ectotrophic rhizomorphs on the root collar was only weakly correlated with the other components of rhizomorph abundance and vigor. Frequency of the rhizomorphs as well as their ability to colonize fresh substrates were greater in plots either limed or with a high proportion of the basal area in sugar maple prior to thinning. By contrast, abundance of ectotrophic rhizomorphs on root collars was not affected by these factors.
Article
The model STASH (STAtic SHell) was used to generate current and future potential geographic ranges of ten important forest tree species within the Great Lakes region. This model uses bioclimatic variables to predict the suitable climate-space for tree species. Current climate values were derived from weather records, and two general circulation models (CGCM1 and HadCM2) predicted future climate scenarios. Shifts in potential ranges that were predicted by the two climate models were similar in direction, but different in magnitude. Important timber trees with southern limits within the Great Lakes region, including white, jack, and red pine, aspen, and yellow birch are predicted to retreat northward under both scenarios due to increasing summer temperatures. Under CGCM1, these trees are predicted to disappear from most of the region by the end of the century, whereas under HadCM2 they are predicted to contract 100 to 200 km from their southern range limits. A number of broadleaf trees (red oak, sugar maple, and beech) are expected to remain in the region and may gain potential habitat to the west. Broadleaf trees with current northern range limits within the Great Lakes region (black walnut and black cherry) are predicted to gain potential habitat to the north due to increases in growing degree-days and coldest month temperatures. Both trees are predicted to be able to grow throughout the region by the end of the century under CGCM1, and a less dramatic gain is predicted under HadCM2.
Article
Stand composition and structure utilizing stem analysis was studied in two hardwood stands in Vermont. In a mixed hardwood stand with some white pine and hemlock, a major entry of new trees in the main canopy seems associated with harvesting coincident with land exchange. More recent partial cuttings have promoted establishment of new seedlings or development of suppressed advanced-growth shade-tolerant beech, (Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.), hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana, (Mill) K. Koch), and striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum, L.). Very few sugar maple and red oak seedlings and saplings are present.In a northern hardwood stand some red spruce (Picea rubens, Sarg.), that were 240 to 306 years old, became established before any known harvest, and exhibited release following harvests of the mid-1800s. This major harvest, coupled with the differential growth between spruce and hardwoods, and seed/seedling availability, resulted in a major change in stand composition. Trees now in the main canopy of sampled stands appear to have either been released or newly established following various harvests. Harvests have been of such frequency that natural disturbances seem insignificant. Many of the competitive understory species have become abundant following harvests of the 1960s and 1980s and may have been present as advanced growth and responded to the release. Following the harvest of 1981–1982, abundant yellow birch became established on skid trails. Elsewhere in the stand, yellow birch seedlings and saplings are only in great abundance in areas that were possibly sizable gaps following earlier harvesting.The dynamics of tree entry and growth in gaps of small or large size probably occur in a similar way in many other stands of the region. Though the sampling of this study is limited, there is no suggestion of continuous tree establishment at any particular location, the new age classes seem associated with either a gap or stand replacing disturbance attributed to harvesting.