Article

The limited benefits of rereading educational texts

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Abstract

Though rereading is a study method commonly used by students, theoretical disagreement exists regarding whether rereading a text significantly enhances the representation and retention of the text’s contents. In four experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of rereading relative to a single reading in a context paralleling that faced by students in the classroom. Participants read educational texts (textbook chapters or a Scientific American article) under intentional learning instructions. Learning and memory were tested with educationally relevant summative assessments (multiple choice, short-answer questions, and text summaries). With only several exceptions, rereading did not significantly increase performance on the assessments. We also found that reading comprehension ability did not alter this pattern. It appears that when using ecologically valid materials such as a textbook chapter, immediate rereading may have little or no benefit for improving performance on educationally relevant summative assessments.

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... Understanding how reader characteristics interact with text properties has been a major area of study (Follmer et al., 2018;Mayer, 1983;Yang et al., 2016). Most of the studies on repeated studying and testing used written text as learning materials (e.g., Barnett & Seefeldt, 1989;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Rawson & Kintsch, 2005). Since expository science texts often consist of textual and pictorial representations, this current study used an integrated text-diagram science article as the reading material. ...
... Dunlosky et al. (2013) synthesized several studies and identified repeated studying and testing as learning techniques that students report using most frequently when preparing for exams on their own during self-regulated study. Previous studies on repeated studying and testing have mostly focused on learning outcomes, for example, the number of items students memorize (in memory research; e.g., for a review: Rowland, 2014) or how much students comprehend the texts (in reading research; e.g., Barnett & Seefeldt, 1989;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Rawson & Kintsch, 2005), but not on learning processes. Memory is facilitated by the inclusion of practice tests over previously studied information. ...
... Their results, counter to Barnett and Seefeldt's, showed that repeated studying produced notable accuracy improvements only for less-skilled readers but not for skilled readers. Callender and McDaniel (2009) further indicated no moderating role of reading skills on the relationship between repeated studying and comprehension. ...
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This study investigated that whether and how the mechanisms of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategy may underlie explicit behaviors of repeated studying and testing by an eye-tracking method. Sixty-three seventh-grade students read an illustrated science article and completed a reading test. Then they were asked to reread and retest. Our data indicated that skilled readers were more capable of using multiple representations during science reading: they allocated more attention to decoding diagrams and making references between the text and diagrams than less-skilled readers in the first study-test cycle. Further, skilled readers also demonstrate stronger self-regulatory attempts across study-test cycles, given a sharper decrease on eye-tracking indicators regarding diagrams. However, both groups had similar reading patterns regarding text across cycles. Seventh graders tend to apply self-regulatory processes aimed at memorizing more textual components but not for enhancing comprehension, and it suggests that seventh-grade readers’ SRL strategy might be still developing.
... Although most experiments measure comprehension of print materials, structure building also predicts comprehension when students listen to a passage from an audio book while taking notes (Bui & McDaniel, 2015) and when texts are degraded (scrambled or missing letters; McDaniel et al., 2002, Experiment 2b). Structurebuilding scores predict long-term learning, as measured days later in laboratory experiments (Arnold et al., 2017(Arnold et al., , 2021Callender & McDaniel, 2009) or weeks later in a classroom setting (Maki & Maki, 2002). It does not matter whether structure building is measured with an extreme-groups design (Arnold et al., 2021, Experiment 1;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Martin et al., 2016) or treated continuously (Arnold et al., 2017;Arnold et al., 2021, Experiment 2;Bui & McDaniel;Lin et al., 2018); it still predicts comprehension. ...
... Structurebuilding scores predict long-term learning, as measured days later in laboratory experiments (Arnold et al., 2017(Arnold et al., , 2021Callender & McDaniel, 2009) or weeks later in a classroom setting (Maki & Maki, 2002). It does not matter whether structure building is measured with an extreme-groups design (Arnold et al., 2021, Experiment 1;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Martin et al., 2016) or treated continuously (Arnold et al., 2017;Arnold et al., 2021, Experiment 2;Bui & McDaniel;Lin et al., 2018); it still predicts comprehension. In sum, at least 12 laboratory studies (or experiments) with a variety of materials and study (or reading) procedures have examined the extent to which individual differences in structure building are associated with learning and memory. ...
... For example, readers were asked to answer the question "Hairstyles, dress, and social customs are examples of: (a) culture, (b) groupthink, (c) attractiveness, (d) social conformity" to measure whether this idea unit about culture was stored in memory. Regardless of whether the chapter was read once or twice, performance on the multiple-choice questions was positively associated with higher structure-building ability (Callender & McDaniel, 2009, Experiment 4, continuous-variable analysis). A study using an extreme-groups design provides a sense of how robust this encoding deficit is: Low-ability structure builders answered only 52% of questions correctly, whereas high-ability structure builders answered 80% of questions correctly (Callender & McDaniel, 2007). ...
Article
In this article, we highlight an underappreciated individual difference: structure building. Structure building is integral to many everyday activities and involves creating coherent mental representations of conversations, texts, pictorial stories, and other events. People vary in this ability in a way not generally captured by other better known concepts and individual difference measures. Individuals with lower structure-building ability consistently perform worse on a range of comprehension and learning measures than do individuals with higher structure-building ability, both in the laboratory and in the classroom. Problems include a range of comprehension processes, including encoding factual content, inhibiting irrelevant information, and constructing a cohesive situation model of a text or conversation. Despite these problems, recent research is encouraging in that techniques to improve the learning outcomes for low-ability structure builders have been identified. We argue that the accumulated research warrants the recognition of structure building as an important individual difference in cognitive functioning and that additional theoretical work is needed to understand the underpinnings of structure-building deficits.
... This skill is better acquired when interrelated and varied practices are applied than through the application of group practice. Any new learning requires a foundation of prior knowledge (Callender & McDaniel, 2009). In order for the student to learn numerical analysis, ...
... However, elaboration of information is the process of giving new meaning to the new material in which the student uses your own words and connects prior knowledge with new knowledge. The more one can explain how new learning relates to previous knowledge, the stronger the understanding of the new learning will be, and the easier it is to remember and use it in the future (Brown et al., 2014;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;McCabe, 2010). ...
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Linear algebra is a crucial part of mathematical training for engineering students and there are many problems in the application of this subject in engineering, physical, and even mathematical disciplines. In this scope, a study on the sustainability of learning this subject and how it can be improved is considered necessary. This article aims to delve into how linear algebra learning is effective and at examining three critical parameters: a) Comparison of summative assessment test results on specific topics with the ones produced in the previous year to assess student learning sustainability. b) Testing the topics based on the approach taken, i.e., based on other mathematical topics and real problems. c) Comparing the effectiveness of learning of problems solved in an analytical fashion and the learning of problems solved with mathematical software's help. The methodology used is based on constructionism that depends on the type of activity given in both the design phase and management phase. From the obtained results of the study, the state of learning linear algebra was measured after one year. From the mathematical retest, it turns out that learning algebra was not effective and the exam grades showed temporary learning. There is a skewed relationship, in the next test those with better grades perform worse than those with lower grades. While in the applied aspect the learning was more sustainable. The scrutiny accentuates the noteworthiness of coordinating the importance of coordinating the semiotic systems for them to produce meaningful and durable learning.
... Research in cognitive psychology proposes that if the information is to be retained, the learner must engage in some form of cognitive restructuring or elaboration of the material (Callender & Mcdaniel, 2009). One effective means of elaboration proposed is the explanation of the material to someone else, with research on peer tutoring providing evidence for this (e.g. ...
... In fact, evidence seems to show that high ability students may benefit more than low ability students (Terwel, Gilles, van den Eeden, & Hoek, 1999) with higher ability peers benefitting from having to reorganise their own knowledge to be able to explain it to their less-able peers (Gillies, 2003). This evidence is in line with the cognitive elaboration perspective (Callender & Mcdaniel, 2009). Despite these potential benefits for a diverse range of pupils, translating the potential of CL into practice can be more complicated (Sharan, 2010) and is likely to be contingent on its implementation. ...
Article
Cooperative Learning (CL) is a peer-mediated, instructional intervention with students working together to accomplish shared learning goals (Johnson & Johnson, 2000). The study aimed to build upon existing CL and Peer Acceptance (PA) research and extend this by looking more specifically at whether CL, through the promotion of positive interdependence, could have beneficial outcomes for bullying and associated factors such as empathy. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test non-equivalent groups design was used. Data was collected from three classes in two schools (intervention n=78; control n=79). Teachers delivered CL in Year 4/5 classes over an 11-week period, which included one week of social skills training. The Social Inclusion Survey (SIS) was used to measure PA (Fredrickson and Furnham, 1998). Empathy was measured using an adapted questionnaire from the Emotional Literacy Scales (Faupel, 2003) and the My Life in School Checklist was used to measure pupils’ experience of bullying (Arora & Thompson, 1987). No overall significant differences were found between the intervention and control group for PA in work and play contexts across same and different genders. Although, there were significant differences between the intervention and control group in some individual classes, this represented a decrease in overall PA. There also appeared to be a differential impact, in some contexts, in favour of pupils with initially low levels of PA. The study highlighted difficulties associated with measuring empathy and provided some justification for further research to explore the links between CL and bullying, with anecdotal staff data suggesting a decrease in bullying and formal data indicating that CL may have at least a stabilising effect on bullying. Findings varied across individual classes and schools, indicating caution needs to be taken when interpreting results. The study highlights the importance of intervention fidelity, illustrating the complexity involved in understanding implementation aspects, in evidence-informed approaches.
... Although re-reading course materials is a favored study strategy among college students (Karpicke et al., 2009), its value as a study activity is limited, when compared to other alternative study activities (Dunlosky, Rawson, March, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013). Rereading sessions, which are typically massed (grouped together close in time), tend not to produce significant improvement in memory in return for the time invested (Callender, & McDaniel, 2009). This may be because readers tend to construct their initial understanding of a text on the first reading and tend not to change this understanding when they read the text again (Callender, & McDaniel, 2009). ...
... Rereading sessions, which are typically massed (grouped together close in time), tend not to produce significant improvement in memory in return for the time invested (Callender, & McDaniel, 2009). This may be because readers tend to construct their initial understanding of a text on the first reading and tend not to change this understanding when they read the text again (Callender, & McDaniel, 2009). While rereading text is one of the preferred study strategies by learners, it is among the least productive, according to Brown, Roediger, and McDaniel (2014), 9. Explaining the purpose of a learning activity helps engage students in that activity. ...
Article
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Neuromyths are false beliefs, often associated with teaching and learning, that stem from misconceptions or misunderstandings about brain function. While belief in neuromyths has been established as prevalent among the general public and K-12 teachers, literature about neuromyth belief among higher education professionals (instructors, instructional designers, and administrators) has not been well-researched. This international study examined: (1) Awareness of neuromyths and general knowledge about the brain among higher education professionals across institutional types, course delivery modes, roles, and a variety of characteristics such as demographics, teaching experience, and level of education; (2) Awareness of evidence-based practices from the learning sciences and Mind (psychology), Brain (neuroscience), and Education (pedagogy and didactics; MBE) science among higher education professionals; (3) Predictors of awareness of neuromyths, general knowledge about the brain, and evidence-based practices among higher education professionals; and (4) Interest among instructors, instructional designers, and administrators in scientific knowledge about the brain and its influence on learning. This study includes not only answers to important research questions, but practice-oriented information that is useful for pedagogy, course design, and leadership, as well as for further research on this topic.
... Rereading texts clearly seems to be a common learning strategy widely used by students (e.g., Karpicke et al., 2009, Gagnon & Cormier, 2018. Contrary to common sense, rereading a text immediately after the first reading often provides at best marginal gains in the learning outcome compared to reading the text only once (Callender & McDaniel, 2009). ...
Thesis
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Distributed practice is a well-known learning strategy whose beneficial effects on long-term learning are well proven by various experiments. In learning from texts, the benefits of distribution might even go beyond distributed practice, i.e. distribution of repeated materials. In realistic learning scenarios as for example school or university learning, the reader might read multiple texts that not repeat but complement each other. Therefore, distribution might also be implemented between multiple texts and benefit long-term learning in analogy to distributed practice. The assumption of beneficial effects of this distributed learning can be deduced from theories about text comprehension as the landscape model of reading (van den Broek et al., 1996) in combination with theories of desirable difficulties in general (R. A. Bjork & Bjork, 1992) and distributed practice in particular (Benjamin & Tullis, 2010). This dissertation aims to investigate (1) whether distributed learning benefits learning; (2) whether the amount of domain-specific prior knowledge moderates the effects of distribution, (3) whether distributed learning affects the learner’s meta-cognitive judgments in analogy to distributed practice and (4) whether distributed practice is beneficial for seventh graders in learning from single text. In Experiment 1, seventh graders read two complementary texts either massed or distributed by a lag of one week between the texts. Learning outcomes were measured immediately after reading the second text and one week later. Judgements of learning were assessed immediately after each text. Experiment 2 replicated the paradigm of Experiment 1 while shortening the lag between the texts in the distributed condition to 15 min. In both experiments, an interaction effect between learning condition (distributed vs. massed) and retention interval (immediate vs. delayed) was found. In the distributed condition, the participants showed no decrease in performance between the two tests, whereas participants in the massed condition did. However, no beneficial effects were found in the delayed test for the distributed condition but even detrimental effects for the distributed condition in the immediate test. In Experiment 1, participants in the distributed condition perceived learning as less difficult but predicted lower success than the participants in the massed condition. Experiment 3 replicated the paradigm of Experiment 1 with university students in the laboratory. In the preregistered Experiment 4, an additional retention interval of two weeks was realized. In both experiments, the same interaction between learning condition and retention interval was found. In Experiment 3, the participants in the distributed condition again showed no decrease in performance between the two tests, whereas participants in the massed condition did. However, even at the longer retention interval in Experiment 4, no beneficial effects were found for the distributed condition. Domain-specific prior knowledge was positively associated with test performance in both experiments. In Experiment 4, the participants with low prior knowledge seemed to be impaired by distributed learning, whereas no difference was found for participants with medium or high prior knowledge. In the preregistered Experiment 5, seventh graders read a single text twice. The rereading took place either massed or distributed with one week. Immediately after rereading, judgements of learning were assessed. Learning outcomes were assessed four min after second reading or one week later. Participants in the distributed condition predicted lower learning success than participants in the massed condition. An interaction effect between learning condition and retention interval was found, but no advantage for the distributed condition. Participants with low domain-specific prior knowledge showed lower performance in short-answer questions in the distributed condition than in the massed condition. Overall, the results seem less encouraging regarding the effectiveness of distribution on learning from single and multiple texts. However, the experiments reported here can be perceived as first step in the realistic investigation of distribution in learning from texts.
... However, students are not necessarily sophisticated in how to study such material, and they may rely on repetitive review of jargon lists. An abundance of research has shown that simply reading and restudying materials is not an effective way to learn (e.g., Callender & McDaniel, 2009). Another option might be having students look up and copy jargon terms and definitions from a textbook. ...
Chapter
In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses, it is necessary to learn numerous jargon terms—that is, discipline-specific vocabulary words that are rarely used anywhere else (or are used in a very particular way by a scientific or technical discipline). Are there effective ways to help students learn jargon in the midst of learning course content? And if so, can any such methods be used in a variety of courses, by different instructors, and without extensive amounts of preparation? This chapter discusses challenges to learning jargon, the potential use of retrieval practice for learning jargon, the results of two classroom experiments that examined that possibility, and practical recommendations for instructors [chapter in press].
... Rereading notes or textbooks is one of the most popular learning techniques (Karpicke et al., 2009). Brown et al. (2014) identified the following disadvantages students encounter when rereading: (1) it is time consuming, (2) the content learned does not 'stick', especially when rereading is massed (see also Callender & McDaniel, 2009), and (3) it induces self-deception because familiarity with the text implies mastery of the content. ...
Article
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This study explored long-term changes in learning behavior of students participating in an introduction to learning how to learn. The intervention that took place during the first semester included the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) ‘Learning How to Learn’, discussions on the content of the MOOC, and hands-on practice using different learning platforms in the computer-assisted language learning (CALL) component of a Spanish 1 course. The CALL component focused on grammar, vocabulary and listening comprehension training throughout the four-semester observation period and was used in this study to verify changes in students’ learning behavior. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the changes that had already been observed during the first year, would still be noticeable in the second year and how these changes influence outcomes of students’ foreign language learning. Analyses of students’ questionnaires, observations of their study behavior when using the learning platforms, and their academic performance during the study showed that the positive changes students of the experimental group had exhibited during the first year were stable or even increased as more differences became significant compared to the first year and compared to the control group. Different from students in the control group who had not taken part in the intervention, students reported to use more learning techniques, to redo exercises with answers covered and to space repetitions instead of cramming before exams. The only exception was the decline in smartphone use while studying that had been reported in the first year. This was back to pre-intervention level in the second year. Observations of students’ use of the learning platforms confirmed answers to the questionnaires. This far more effective use of the CALL components by students of the experimental group led to better results in their academic performance. Thus, time spent on ‘Learning how to learn’ was time well spent.
... That result is in line with the general popularity of retrieval practice as a learning strategy (e.g., Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2012;Pan et al., 2020), although students tend to regard self-testing as a method of assessing one's own learning as opposed to enhancing it (Pan & Bjork, 2022). Less promisingly, a sizeable minority of college students report using digital flashcards to engage in non-retrieval-based strategies (e.g., rereading) that have dubious pedagogical value (Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Dunlosky et al., 2013). ...
Article
Over the past two decades, digital flashcards—that is, computer programmes, smartphone apps, and online services that mimic, and potentially improve upon, the capabilities of traditional paper flashcards—have grown in variety and popularity. Many digital flashcard platforms allow learners to make or use flashcards from a variety of sources and customise the way in which flashcards are used. Yet relatively little is known about why and how students actually use digital flashcards during self-regulated learning, and whether such uses are supported by research from the science of learning. To address these questions, we conducted a large survey of undergraduate students (n = 901) at a major U.S. university. The survey revealed insights into the popularity, acquisition, and usage of digital flashcards, beliefs about how digital flashcards are to be used during self-regulated learning, and differences in uses of paper versus digital flashcards, all of which have implications for the optimisation of student learning. Overall, our results suggest that college students commonly use digital flashcards in a manner that only partially reflects evidence-based learning principles, and as such, the pedagogical potential of digital flashcards remains to be fully realised.
... We often learn by studying information repeatedly, but re-reading itself has been reported to have limited benefit (Callender & McDaniel, 2009). Retrieval practice, the process of actively retrieving information from our long-term memory typically through a test, has been widely reported to have a large positive effect on memory when compared to restudying material (Karpicke & Roediger, 2008). ...
Thesis
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Complex medical care is now performed by families at home, and is no longer solely the domain of healthcare professionals working in hospitals. Parents caring for children with serious or chronic conditions perform a range of medical procedures for their children, including caring for children with feeding tubes and children who need support with breathing (children dependent on long-term ventilation). This thesis examines the challenges and risks of complex medical care for children at home, and explores how best to train and prepare parents to provide this care, drawing upon relevant psychological theory and the lived experience of families. The first section of the thesis explores the clinical issues: Chapters 3 and 4 examine the safety concerns of clinicians who support families at home through analyses of incident reporting data, and Chapters 5 and 6 explore the experiences of parents caring for children with complex medical needs through interviews and surveys. This first section reveals a clear need to improve training and support for families. The second section (Chapters 7-9) consists of a series of experiments on how findings from psychology could inform the development of training interventions for parents caring for children with gastrostomies (a type of feeding tube). There was a significant benefit of supplementary videos and images on parents’ learning, but limited benefit of retrieval practice. Schema-enhanced training had a detrimental impact on performance in a test of knowledge. In the final section (Chapters 10 and 11) I develop and evaluate a package of training and support for parents caring for children with feeding tubes which has now been implemented across Oxfordshire and the Thames Valley. The training package consists of a library of videos to support families from referral for a gastrostomy through to the first few years caring for their child at home. Survey data from families and clinicians confirm the value of the library of videos for educating and empowering families.
... This illusion is one reason that certain less effective study habits are so persistent. For example, even though numerous studies have demonstrated that massed rereading (i.e., reading material over and over again in rapid succession) is not effective for long-term learning (e.g., Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Roediger & Karpicke, 2006), rereading is an extremely common study technique among college students (Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2012;Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009;Kornell & Bjork, 2007). One reason may be that when reading a text for the second time immediately after reading it for the first time, the content and organization feels very familiar, so readers may feel overconfident in their knowledge of that text. ...
Chapter
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In ethics courses, students need to begin or continue their transformation from smart, motivated people to ethical, self-reflective professionals. This chapter focuses on some principles and strategies to achieve that goal, including backward design, developing an effective course atmosphere, the nature of teaching and learning ethics, and skill development. Rather than thinking first about classroom activities, reading assignments, and topics, instructors who use backward design start with consideration of the goals they wish their students to achieve, then move on to how they will assess whether students meet those goals. Only then can they design specific, effective activities and assignments for a course. We explore several other principles and assumptions relevant to the teaching of ethics. We do this by presenting an instructor’s observations and reflections on his graduate ethics course, followed by three graduate students’ views of (a) the course and (b) how the instructor attempted to actualize these principles.
... In a cooperative classroom, group members reflect, debate, listen, ask, explain : : : promoting information processing strategies that influence academic performance (Slavin, 2014). Discussing and confronting ideas promotes active learning-cognitive restructuring and the development of higher quality strategies (Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Schunk, 2012)-and students who provide more elaborate explanations to others improve their academic performance as well as that of others (Webb, 2008;Webb et al., 2009). In the same line, learning to ask and answer questions in cooperative learning contexts has been positively associated with performance (O'Donnell, 2000;Sporer et al., 2009). ...
Article
Purpose: The aim was to assess how two contextual variables, number of students per class and in-class global cooperation, affect students’ academic performance in physical education. Method: Multilevel analysis was performed given the data’s hierarchical nature (L1 = 1,185 participants and L2 = 64 classrooms), including regression analysis to assess how the contextual variables at the classroom level affected students’ grades. Results: Results showed that the differences observed between classrooms in students’ academic performance can be attributed largely to the perceived in-class global cooperation and not to the number of students per class. Group processing, promotive interaction, and individual accountability were the strongest predictors because these cooperative learning essential elements showed significant differences between classrooms. Discussion/Conclusion: Academic performance in physical education is not only determined by personal factors but also by contextual factors like perceived in-class cooperation. Group processing, promotive interaction, and individual accountability can be considered the most relevant critical features. Cooperative learning contexts are not easy to build, and depending on how successfully they are constructed, the outcomes can be very different.
... Rehearsal does not involve deep cognitive elaborative and organizational processes engendered by strategies such as summarizing, paraphrasing, and inferencing. However, repeatedly retrieving and expressing ideas matters for academic achievement, especially if it involves some effort and monitoring for accuracy (Abel & Roediger, 2018;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Karpicke et al., 2009Karpicke et al., , 2014Karpicke & Roediger, 2008;Smith et al., 2013;H. L. Swanson et al., 2010;Wigent, 2013). ...
Article
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Purpose This clinical focus article describes an intervention to improve comprehension, retention, and expression of the ideas and language of expository texts. Sketch and Speak intervention links written, graphic, and oral learning strategies through a triadic process of noting an idea simply with written or pictographic notes, then saying it fully, and saying it again. This simple routine engages transformational and retrieval cognitive processes involved in active learning and information retention. We consider the evidence base from the psychological and educational literature and report research evidence with younger students with language-related learning disabilities. We explain how to use Sketch and Speak with students in the secondary grades and suggest how to coach students toward independent, self-regulated use. Conclusions Students in the secondary grades benefit from learning strategies that help them gain control over the ideas and language of informational texts. Sketch and Speak may be a helpful addition to the speech-language pathologist's repertoire for older students with language and learning difficulties.
... With regard to students' own strategies, what matter the most for achievement of knowledge and skills/competences are efforts to enrich one's knowledge on one's own and to organize well one's time, but also simply reading, watching lectures and taking and revisiting notes. Even though the latter one i.e., -repetitive reading‖ is not considered to be the best learning method (Callender & McDaniel, 2009), the interviewed students still recognize it as an important learning strategy. Furthermore, curiosity and own activities that can satisfy it (such as -tearing to pieces‖ a complex theory/concept in order to comprehend it) are also seen as an important strategy. ...
Article
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The article presents the outcomes of the research project supported by Linköping University, Sweden. The research project constitutes a part of an umbrella project called Pedagogiska Utvecklingsmedel för E-lärande 2019 (Pedagogical Development Tools for E-learning 2019). The research project focuses on the International Master's Program “Gender Studies - Intersectionality and Change” offered at the Unit of Gender Studies, Department of Thematic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden. The main aims of the research project are to determine which teaching content, teaching methods, learning activities, teacher’s role, and students’ own strategies matter for learning i.e., for acquiring knowledge and skills/competences in an international blended, face-to-face and online, Master’s Program, and to present students’ experiences with face-to-face and online education in the Program. The project is based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews with the 2nd year students and alumni who have participated in the Program. The interviews were conducted online in November and December 2019. The article presents which content, teaching methods, learning activities, teacher’s role, and students’ own strategies matter for the acquirement of knowledge and skills by the students in blended education. It describes how Campus and online phases of the Program matter for students’ learning. Next to that, it indicates the challenges related to online study, but also educational methods that may help to overcome them.
... With regard to students' own strategies, what matter the most for achievement of knowledge and skills/competences are efforts to enrich one's knowledge on one's own and to organize well one's time, but also simply reading, watching lectures and taking and revisiting notes. Even though the latter one i.e., -repetitive reading‖ is not considered to be the best learning method (Callender & McDaniel, 2009), the interviewed students still recognize it as an important learning strategy. Furthermore, curiosity and own activities that can satisfy it (such as -tearing to pieces‖ a complex theory/concept in order to comprehend it) are also seen as an important strategy. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents the outcomes of the research project supported by Linköping University, Sweden. The research project constitutes a part of an umbrella project called Pedagogiska Utvecklingsmedel för E-lärande 2019 (Pedagogical Development Tools for E-learning 2019). The research project focuses on the International Master's Program “Gender Studies - Intersectionality and Change” offered at the Unit of Gender Studies, Department of Thematic Studies, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden. The main aims of the research project are to determine which teaching content, teaching methods, learning activities, teacher’s role, and students’ own strategies matter for learning i.e., for acquiring knowledge and skills/competences in an international blended, face-to-face and online, Master’s Program, and to present students’ experiences with face-to-face and online education in the Program. The project is based on qualitative, semi-structured interviews with the 2nd year students and alumni who have participated in the Program. The interviews were conducted online in November and December 2019. The article presents which content, teaching methods, learning activities, teacher’s role, and students’ own strategies matter for the acquirement of knowledge and skills by the students in blended education. It describes how Campus and online phases of the Program matter for students’ learning. Next to that, it indicates the challenges related to online study, but also educational methods that may help to overcome them.
... This likely independence of learners' achievement motives is crucial for investigating the potential moderating function of achievement motives regarding the benefits of quizzing. Second, note-taking is of higher educational utility than restudy (Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Dunlosky et al., 2013;Kornell, Rabelo, & Klein, 2012;Rummer, Schweppe, Gerst, & Wagner, 2017) and thus offers a stronger competition to quizzing, which enhances the meaningfulness of potential beneficial quizzing effects. ...
Article
It is well established that quizzing fosters learning. However, some gaps in the literature relating to the fit of quizzing to learner characteristics and learner perceptions during quizzing still need to be addressed. The present study focuses on two of these aspects: achievement motives and perceptions of cognitive load. First, quizzing entails that learners’ performance is judged against some standard of excellence. This might make it appealing and effective for learners with high hope of success and low fear of failure in particular. Second, it is an open question whether providing quiz questions that are adapted to learners’ perceived level of cognitive load during quizzing would be beneficial. To address these questions, we randomly assigned learners to either non-adaptive quizzing, adaptive quizzing, or note-taking. We found that quizzing benefits concerning learning outcomes were moderated by hope of success. Furthermore, the adaptation via cognitive load ratings substantially increased the quizzing effect.
... In both studies, we used the reading portion of the MMCB (Gernsbacher & Verner, 1988) to measure structure-building ability (following Arnold et al., 2016;Arnold et al., 2017;Bui & McDaniel, 2015;Callender & McDaniel, 2007;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Martin et al., 2016). The MMCB contains 4 narratives (ranging from 538 to 957 words) with 12 corresponding multiple-choice questions that ask about key details in the story. ...
Article
Knowing when and how to most effectively use writing as a learning tool requires understanding the cognitive processes driving learning. Writing is a generative activity that often requires students to elaborate upon and organise information. Here we examine what happens when a standard short writing task is (or is not) combined with a known mnemonic, retrieval practice. In two studies, we compared learning from writing short open-book versus closed-book essays. Despite closed-book essays being shorter and taking less time, students learned just as much as from writing longer and more time intensive open-book essays. These results differ from students’ own perceptions that they learned more from writing open-book essays. Analyses of the essays themselves suggested a trade-off in cognitive processes; closed-book essays required the retrieval of information but resulted in lower quality essays as judged by naïve readers. Implications for educational practice and possible roles for individual differences are discussed.
... Students tend to study by rereading (Karpicke et al., 2009), and most students are poor at judging their mastery of the material (Dunlosky and Lipko, 2007). Furthermore, an extensive meta-analysis on practice testing by Adesope et al. (2017) found that practice tests are more beneficial for learning than all other comparison conditions (e.g., Roediger and Karpicke, 2006;Callender and McDaniel, 2009), especially when the practice and final test formats are identical. This is true regardless of whether the students are supplied with corrective feedback (information on the correctness of their answers) afterwards. ...
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In this study we explore the use of recommender systems as a means of providing automated and personalized feedback to students following summative assessment. The intended feedback is a personalized set of test questions ( items ) for each student that they could benefit from practicing with. Recommended items can be beneficial for students as they can support their learning process by targeting specific gaps in their knowledge, especially when there is little time to get feedback from instructors. The items are recommended using several commonly used recommender system algorithms, and are based on the students' scores in a summative assessment. The results show that in the context of the Dutch secondary education final examinations, item recommendations can be made to students with an acceptable level of model performance. Furthermore, it does not take a computationally complex model to do so: a simple baseline model which takes into account global, student-specific, and item-specific averages obtained similar performance to more complex models. Overall, we conclude that recommender systems are a promising tool for helping students in their learning process by combining multiple data sources and new methodologies, without putting additional strain on their instructors.
... Together these findings indicate that time-on-task did not matter much for performance on the final transfer test that Butler and we have used. This is in keeping with other studies where increased time-on-task was not related to retention performance (e.g., Amlund, Kardash, & Kulhavy, 1986;Callender & McDaniel, 2009). Hence, we think that the timeon-task differences between conditions did not confound the final test results. ...
... Prior studies have shown that the retention of to-be-learned materials is greater when individuals study and then recall these materials than when they just study the materials multiple times (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). This phenomenon has been termed the "testing-effect" and has been replicated with diverse materials, such as words (Bouwmeester & Verkoeijen, 2011;Carpenter, 2009), texts (Callender & McDaniel, 2009), and pictorial stimuli (Carpenter & Pashler, 2007;Jacoby, Wahlheim, & Coane, 2010;Weinstein, McDermott, & Szpunar, 2011). More recently, several studies have demonstrated that such an effect can be applied to actual classroom contexts (Carpenter, Pashler, & Cepeda, 2009;Cranney, Ahn, McKinnon, Morris, & Watts, 2009;Jaeger, Eisenkraemer, & Stein, 2015;Lipowski, Pyc, Dunlosky, & Rawson, 2014;Roediger & Marsh, 2005; for a review see Moreira, Pinto, Starling, & Jaeger, 2019), and for individuals with diverse cognitive skills (Moreira, Pinto, Justi, & Jaeger, 2019;Minear, Coane, Boland, Cooney, & Albat, 2018) Because in most testing-effect experiments questions are placed after the study materials (i.e., postquestions), it remains unclear to what extent questions placed before the study materials (i.e., prequestions) benefit learning. ...
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Prior research revealed that answering questions after study benefits learning in children, but it is unclear whether answering questions before study (i.e., prequestions) produces similar effects. Here, we report two experiments investigating this issue in 4th and 5th grade children. In both experiments, target-words from an encyclopedic text were either prequestioned, postquestioned, or reread. To assess memory retention, cued recall and multiple choice tests were administered after a 7-day interval, when children also rated their confidence on their responses. Both prequestions and postquestions resulted in overall greater memory retention than rereading, although postquestions resulted in greater cued recall performance than prequestions, a finding that was mirrored by the confidence data (i.e., postquestion > prequestion > reread). Thus, although both prequestions and postquestions were more beneficial for memory retention than rereading, postquestions seem to have promoted more recollection-based retrieval than prequestions, a finding we discuss from a dual-process model perspective.
... There have been many reports in the literature supporting the use of self-quizzing and knowledge cards to improve student outcomes [31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] . "When students study on their own, "active recall"recitation, for instance, or flashcards and other self-quizzing -is the most effective way to inscribe something in long-term memory" 35 . ...
... [29][30][31] In contrast, highlighting and rereading are study strategies that do not significantly improve learning, but over half of students reported using these strategies frequently. 38,43 Critically, this study examined students' regular use of effective study strategies as a function of whether the student illicitly used/uses prescription stimulants. Specifically, we predicted that students who spaced their studying would be less likely to misuse. ...
Article
Objective The current study examined the regular use of study strategies between college students who misused prescription stimulants (N = 36) and college students who did not misuse prescription stimulants (N = 298) in an undergraduate sample. Participants: 334 college students at a large, Midwestern university. Methods: Using logistic regression, we examined whether students who misused prescription stimulants did so to compensate for poor study strategies and/or a lack of study strategies overall. We hypothesized that regularly spacing studying, using more study strategies, and using more effective study strategies would predict lower odds of prescription stimulant misuse among students. In contrast, we hypothesized that using more ineffective study strategies would predict higher odds of prescription stimulant misuse. Results: Results indicated that a greater number of total study strategies and effective study strategies, and higher importance of school predicted higher odds of prescription stimulant misuse. Conclusions: Thus, students may not be misusing prescription stimulants as a substitute for effective studying but, rather, to augment effective study habits.
... Although repeated reading may improve fluency and student estimates of their understanding (Karpicke, 2009) and potentially performance on immediate recall tasks (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006), rereading does not prepare students for testing scenarios in which they are given limited cues and are required to recall information from memory . Callender and McDaniel (2009) found that rereading did not significantly improve student performance in summative assessments and provided little benefit for the retention of information. Repeated reading tends to inflate students' perceptions of learning and leads to less accurate judgments of learning than retrieval practice (Agarwal, Karpicke, Kang, Roediger, & McDermott, 2008). ...
Article
We investigated the effect of retrieval practice (i.e., the use of testing to enhance learning) by middle school students on science learning in an authentic educational setting. For initial study, all students (n = 39) read a science text and made study notes about the text, a regular study activity in their course. For restudy (two days later), students either copied their notes or did retrieval practice. For the final test (an additional two days later), all students did a recall task from memory. Students in the retrieval practice condition showed better retention of information than students in the copy condition. These results add to a growing body of research on the use of retrieval practice as an effective learning tool for retention within authentic school settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... 223). What is common across definitions is a commitment to introduce content to students in ways that allow for practice, experimentation, and application (Bertsch et al., 2007;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Ramirez-Loaiza et al., 2017). Active learning is more student-centered than direct faculty instruction, and facilitates collaboration and critical assessment of course content (Finelli et al., 2018;Park & Choi, 2014). ...
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This active learning exercise is designed to deconstruct the impact of social determinants through the assumption of randomly selected personas. As an active learning exercise, it provides opportunities for discussion, problem solving, writing, and synthesis, while incorporating multiple learning style preferences. Part 1 involves assessing the individual social determinants at work. Part 2 involves exploring ways said determinants can enhance community health through collaboration. Assumption of personas unlike one’s own facilitates an open discussion of social position and ranges of factors influential to health without potentially evoking a sense of defensiveness associated with personal privilege (or the lack thereof).
... This illusion is one reason that certain less effective study habits are so persistent. For example, even though numerous studies have demonstrated that massed rereading (i.e., reading material over and over again in rapid succession) is not effective for long-term learning (e.g., Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Roediger & Karpicke, 2006), rereading is an extremely common study technique among college students (Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2012;Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009;Kornell & Bjork, 2007). One reason may be that when reading a text for the second time immediately after reading it for the first time, the content and organization feels very familiar, so readers may feel overconfident in their knowledge of that text. ...
Chapter
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College students are both experienced and inexperienced when it comes to learning: They have done a lot of it, but they also make frequent errors when it comes to accurately assessing their own learning or making good decisions about how to study. Although ultimately students must learn for themselves, there are steps both instructors and students can take to improve students' skills in monitoring their own learning and selecting effective learning strategies. In this chapter, I will give a brief overview of metacognitive processes, address common metacognitive errors that learners make, and suggest strategies for students and instructors to improve learner self-regulation.
... Spaced (or distributed) learning is thought to optimally counteract forgetting and improve the consolidation of newly learned information . In contrast, it seems that reading a text once again right after the first reading even provides negligible gains in retention relative to reading the text only once (Callender & McDaniel, 2009). ...
Thesis
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L’apprentissage scolaire implique généralement une phase d’étude des cours suivie d'une phase d’évaluation pour mesurer l'efficacité de la première. Dans cette conception, la phase de test sert à quantifier la réussite de l’apprentissage mais n’est pas envisagée comme outil d’apprentissage. Pourtant, de nombreuses études ont montré l’importance des tests comme processus actif pour consolider des connaissances à long terme. Une autre pratique peu utilisée est la distribution d’un même apprentissage dans le temps. Alors que le bachotage favorise la mémorisation à court terme, l’espacement des révisions favorise la consolidation sur le long terme. A l’heure actuelle, ces méthodes sont méconnues des enseignants et des élèves alors que les bénéfices de l’entrainement par récupération en mémoire et de l’espacement ont été répliqués de manière robuste avec des populations et contenus variés. La start-up Didask a créé la plate-forme d’enseignement numérique du même nom en incorporant les résultats de ces recherches menées sur l’apprentissage. En collaboration avec Didask, ma thèse s’est articulée autour de la problématique suivante : quel est l’agencement optimal des phases de récupération en mémoire par rapport à la présentation des contenus d’un cours ? Le premier chapitre est une introduction générale pour contextualiser cette recherche. Le second chapitre compile les résultats de trois méta-analyses portant sur l’effet de l’apprentissage avec tests répétés et espacés dans le temps. La première méta-analyse a montré un bénéfice significatif de l’apprentissage avec tests espacés dans le temps sur la rétention en mémoire par rapport à l’apprentissage avec tests massés dans le temps (g = 0.74). La seconde méta-analyse suggère en revanche un bénéfice non significatif de l’apprentissage avec tests espacés par rapport à l’apprentissage avec relectures espacées dans le temps (g=0.46). La dernière méta-analyse n’a pas démontré de différence entre un planning expansif d’apprentissage avec tests espacés (accroissement progressif de l’intervalle de temps entre les sessions d’apprentissage) et un planning uniforme (maintien du même intervalle entre les sessions, g = 0.032). L’ensemble de ces résultats confirme le net avantage de l’apprentissage avec tests espacés dans le temps, mais le planning d’espacement optimal n’est pas nécessairement expansif. Les chapitres 3, 4, et 5 présentent trois expérimentations menées sur Didask. L’objectif était de mesurer les bénéfices de différents emplacements et planning de tests d’apprentissage sur la rétention en mémoire une semaine à un mois après la session d’apprentissage. Les résultats de l’Expérience 1 ont démontré qu’il est préférable de faire des tests d’apprentissage après la lecture du cours pour une meilleure mémorisation plutôt qu’avant. De plus, l’avantage de faire des tests après la lecture du cours était observé sur les informations non testées lors de l’apprentissage. Les résultats de l’Expérience 2 indiquent que le degré de granularité des contenus importe lors de l’apprentissage par relectures successives : un découpage fin permet une meilleure mémorisation qu’un découpage plus grossier. Par contre, l’importance de la granularité disparait dans la condition avec des tests d’apprentissage. Enfin, l’Expérience 3 a répliqué l’effet de récupération en mémoire mais pas l’effet d’espacement. Contrairement aux hypothèses de départ, l’effet de la combinaison des deux stratégies d’apprentissage n’était pas significatif. Néanmoins, l’apprentissage avec tests espacés permettait en moyenne une meilleure mémorisation que l’apprentissage avec tests massés, avec relectures espacées, et avec relectures massées dans le temps. Les résultats de cette thèse apportent une meilleure compréhension sur la manière d’utiliser l’apprentissage par les tests. Ils suggèrent également de nouvelles pistes de recherche sur l’optimisation des apprentissages pour promouvoir la consolidation de nouvelles connaissances.
... Despite this ample body of literature, Brown, Roediger, and McDaniel caution that "a great deal of what we think we know about how to learn is taken on faith and based on intuition but does not hold up under empirical research" (21, 2014). For example, repeatedly reading or studying a textbook or class notes is a common study technique, but research shows little to no improvement in ability to answer questions based on the reading regardless of re-reading once or twice and regardless of the ability level of the readers (Callender and McDaniel, 2009 as cited in Brown et al., 2014). 1 Such re-reading of notes or text creates an "illusion of mastery" because the words associated with the concepts become familiar without the concepts actually being understood. Moreover, Goldman and Pellegrino (2015) argue that most educational systems are still founded on "outmoded perspectives on how people learn" (34) and that empirical research on learning and instruction, rather than intuition, should dictate the way we teach. ...
Article
Principles of economics students often struggle to move beyond memorization of key terms and simple application of concepts to higher order thinking, such as evaluation and concept transfer. This higher order thinking is necessary for students to answer fundamental questions in economics. The primary advantage of the blend and flip format is that students can achieve low levels of learning, memorization of terms, and mastery of simple applications of concepts on their own before meeting for a face-to-face class. Previous research confirms that students in flipped-blended classes show larger gains in learning than students in moderately-blended classes. However, the gains we find are modest compared to those reported in related research in the math and science disciplines, which use research-based teaching practices, proven in the cognitive science literature. We determine the effects of using research-based instructional strategies on student learning in principles of microeconomics courses. Specifically, after controlling for a number of key background variables, we test whether students in flipped-blended classes who learn with research-based strategies in face-to-face classes are capable of applying knowledge and skills better than their counterparts in flipped-blended classes who are assigned practice problems similar to those on exams during face-to-face classes. Our findings indicate that students exposed to RBIS show significantly greater learning gains than students in the control group, and that these gains are most prevalent in the later part of the semester.
... When students prepare for their exams, they typically restudy the learning material by rereading or rehearsing (Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009). However, the acquisition of knowledge referring to coherent, complex learning material benefits little from this type of superficial restudying (Callender & McDaniel, 2009), and long-term retention might even be impaired by this strategy (for an overview, see Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013). Longterm retention of curriculum-related material is a central aim in education because prior knowledge facilitates the further acquisition of knowledge and allows knowledge to be applied in a variety of contexts outside formal learning environments, such as when working as a professional. ...
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We compared the long‐term effects of generating questions by learners with answering questions (i.e., testing), and restudying in the context of a university lecture. In contrast to previous studies, students were not prepared for the learning strategies, learning content was experimentally controlled, and effects on factual and transfer knowledge were examined. Students’ overall recall performance after one week profited from generating questions and testing but not from restudying. Analyzing the effects on both knowledge types separately, traditional analyses revealed that only factual knowledge appeared to benefit from testing. However, additional Bayesian analyses suggested that generating questions and testing similarly benefit factual and transfer knowledge compared to restudying. The generation of questions thus seems to be another powerful learning strategy, yielding similar effects as testing on long‐term retention of coherent learning content in educational contexts, and these effects emerge for factual and transfer knowledge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Because all students had to finish reading before the items could be distributed, students were told they could reread the passage as many times as they wanted while they waited for others. Although some have found improved comprehension for students who reread text for instructional purposes (see reviews by Lee & Yoon, 2017;Therrien, 2004), others have found rereading a passage for an assessment does not significantly affect performance on comprehension tasks (Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Weinstein, McDermott, & Roediger, 2010). The proctors were instructed to monitor the progress of the students and distribute the items when everyone was done reading the passage. ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of imposing task- or process-oriented reading behaviors on reading comprehension assessment performance. Students in grades 5–8 (N = 275) were randomly assigned to hear multiple-choice items read aloud before or after reading a test pas-sage and when they were and were not allowed access to the passage while answering items. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) found a one-factor model with all test items loading on the comprehension latent variable fit better than treating literal, inferential, and evaluative items as three separate variables. Subsequently, a structural equation model explored whether testing condition or other covariates (state assessment score and student demographics) explained variance in reading comprehension assessment performance. In grades 5–6, significant positive effects were found for students who kept the text while answering items, regardless of whether or not they previewed the items. In grades 7–8, no significant differences were found for the four testing conditions.
... The activity of studying has predominately been considered in educational research from an individual perspective, focusing on internal cognitive processes and/or study strategies (e.g. Dunlosky et al., 2013;Callender & McDaniel, 2009;Yue et al., 2015). This study was motivated by the fact that some undergraduate students form study groups of their own accord (McCabe & Lummis, 2018;Tang, 1993) and the activities that take place in such groups are not adequately understood in terms of how they may support or hinder learning. ...
Poster
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College is a critical time when changes in students' attitudes, knowledge, personality characteristics, and self-concepts are affected by their face-to-face and online interactions with educators, peers, and the campus climate (Astin, 1997). The growing use of big data and analytics in higher education has fostered research that supports human judgement in the analysis of information about learning and the application of interventions that can aid students in their development and improve retention rates (Siemens & Baker, 2012). This information is often displayed in the form of learning analytics dashboards (LADs), which are individual displays with multiple visualizations of indicators about learners, their learning activities, and/or features of the learning context both at the individual and group levels (Schwendimann et al., 2017). The information presented in LADs is intended to support students' learning competencies that include metacognitive, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional self-regulation (Jivet et al., 2018). We investigated the impact of a student-facing LAD on students' self-concepts and viewing preferences to address the following questions: What are students' viewing preferences (i.e., for individual vs. comparative performance feedback)? How does viewing performance information affect the development of students' metacognitive skills and self-concepts? And, what are students' perceptions about the usability of LADs? In an end-of-term survey, 111 students at a large research university responded to 10 Likert scale and three open-ended questions. Overall, the students reported understanding the information that was presented to them through the LAD and that it was useful, although some students expressed concerns about its accuracy and wanted more detailed information. Students also reported that they preferred to view comparisons to other students over just viewing their own performance information, and that LAD use increased positive affect about performance. Students also reported that dashboard use affected how much they believed they understood the course material, the time and effort they were willing to put into the course, and that it lessened their anxiety. We concluded that course-specific or program-specific related outcomes may require different LAD design and evaluation approaches, and the nonuse of the LAD may be linked to self-confidence, forgetfulness, and a lack of innovative dashboard features. Our study was limited by the analysis of survey data (without trace data), and the sample size. This research contributes to the literature on student-facing learning analytics dashboards (LADs) by investigating students' reasons for interacting with dashboards, their viewing preferences, and how their interactions affect their performance and tying these insights to educational concepts that were a part of the LAD design. Further research is needed to determine whether presenting students with the option to turn on the dashboard for any or all of their courses over the course of the semester is important,
... The creation of the mental image requires memorizing data, as well as connecting new and preexisting knowledge. It is recommended to re-read the text several times in order to create a correct mental image (Callender & McDaniel, 2009). This strategy requires significant mental engagement, which is why it should be avoided when a student is fatigued. ...
Article
This paper introduces the smart classroom learning model based on the concept of ambient intelligence. By analyzing a smart classroom, the ambient intelligence system detects a student and determines their level of fatigue based on the data about their previous daily academic activities. This information is then used to assign the student the appropriate learning strategy. The paper describes relevant factors for developing the model. The model was tested on a sample of 80 students. By analyzing the information available through ambient intelligence, it was possible to utilize the smart classroom to provide students with the adequate learning strategy in accordance with the criteria compatible with the expected leaning outcomes. The research results have shown positive effects of the application of the ambient intelligence-based smart classroom model on learning results.
... Active construction of knowledge is notably more difficult than passively receiving information; yet, it is this added difficulty that leads to deeper learning, helping the learner consolidate ideas and connect to other knowledge already stored in long-term memory (Brown et al., 2014). Notably, research shows that the common study strategy of rereading a text has little benefit for later retention of information (Callender and McDaniel, 2009), but struggling with a problem prior to being shown how to solve it results in better retention (Brown et al., 2014). Science students who receive instruction in problem solving followed by practice time exhibit poor knowledge transfer compared to students who attempt to solve problems before receiving instruction (Schwartz et al., 2011). ...
Article
Simulations have changed chemistry education by allowing students to visualize the motion and interaction of particles underlying important chemical processes. With kinetics, such visualizations can illustrate how particles interact to yield successful reactions and how changes in concentration and temperature impact the number and success of individual collisions. This study examined how a simulation exploring particle collisions, or screencast employing the same simulation, used as an out-of-class introduction helped develop students’ conceptual understanding of kinetics. Students either manipulated the simulation themselves using guided instructions or watched a screencast in which an expert used the same simulation to complete an assignment. An iterative design approach and analysis of pretest and follow up questions suggests that students in both groups at two different institutions were able to achieve a common base level of success. Instructors can then build upon this common experience when instructing students on collision theory and kinetics. Eye-tracking studies indicate that the simulation and screencast groups engage with the curricular materials in different ways, which combined with student self-report data suggests that the screencast and simulation provide different levels of cognitive demand. This increased time on task suggests that the screencast may hold student interest longer than the simulation alone.
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Discipline‐based educational researchers and institutions that provide guidance on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics instruction have long documented the impact of active learning strategies on student learning and achievement, the lack of incorporation of active learning into undergraduate instruction, and the languishing rates of progression through and completion of undergraduate degree programs. Most research on improving active learning has been found to focus on instructors and the ways they have promoted active learning in their course design. Our aim was to consider the ways that textbook publishers and the online learning platforms they have produced have provided resources to promote active learning. This content analysis has documented the degree to which the digital platform companions to four highly subscribed introductory biology textbooks have provided resources that promote (1) highlighting of informational texts, (2) self‐testing, and (3) generative strategies for learning, including self‐explanation, summarization, and elaboration. Digital platforms largely supported highlighting and self‐testing, but the features of these tools could have been improved to promote more productive engagement in the learning strategies and to provide more explicit instruction about and scaffolding of the practices. Resources that promoted additional generative strategies were more limited. Implications relevant to developers and instructors who wish to leverage digital resources to promote active learning are included and are grounded via empirical support of design and implementation choices.
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Cognitive psychology research has emphasized that the strategies that are effective and efficient for fostering long-term retention (e.g., interleaved study, retrieval practice) are often not recognized as effective by students and are infrequently used. In the present studies, we use a mixed-methods approach and challenge the rhetoric that students are entirely unaware of effective learning strategies. We show that whether being asked to describe strategies used by poor-, average-, and high-performing students (Study 1) or being asked to judge vignettes of students using different strategies (Study 2), participants are generally readily able to identify effective strategies: they were able to recognize the efficacy of explanation, pretesting, interpolated retrieval practice, and even some interleaving. Despite their knowledge of these effective strategies, they were still unlikely to report using these strategies themselves. In Studies 2 and 3, we also explore the reasons why students might not use the strategies that they know are effective. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve learners’ strategy use might focus less on teaching them about what is effective and more on increasing self-efficacy, reducing the perceived costs, and establishing better habits.
Article
Evidence suggests that active engagement with material as it is being taught improves learning. In-class multiple choice questions are a common way to introduce active learning. Low-stakes writing is another. The author of this article provides evidence that using a content-based low-stakes writing prompt with immediate group feedback during the lecture improves test performance relative to a multiple choice question covering the same content. Students with low CGPAs performed better on the midterm with the intervention, while higher-CGPA students performed better on writing assignments. Adding a traditional unfocused one-minute exit ticket to a class already using in-class problem-solving had a small but negative effect on student learning. This suggests that content-focused low-stakes writing with immediate feedback complements problem-solving in an active classroom.
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This study compared the use of the study strategies rereading, highlighting , and note-taking on the levels of comprehension, retention, and learning from L2 texts. Nineteen intermediate students of English (L2) participated in the study. In phase 1, they studied three expository texts in English, each with the support of a different strategy. After reading, they answered an immediate recall and true/false statements. Phase 2 took place a week after and comprised delayed recalls and a critical writing task. Prior to data collection, participants received instruction on study strategies to ensure they knew about the strategies to be worked with. Results of immediate recalls pointed to rereading as an effective strategy to comprehension; highlighting was related to higher true or false scores. Regarding retention, good performance in the delayed recalls was associated with the highlighting and note-taking conditions. Thus, the effects of rereading did not endure delayed tests, providing evidence for the ineffectiveness of this strategy for retention compared to highlighting and note-taking. Results from the critical writing task demonstrated that the task fostered elaborative inferen-cing, although the number of explicit text references was small. A link between highlighting and learning is hypothesized. Resumo: Esse estudo comparou o uso das estratégias de estudo reler, realçar texto e fazer anotações nos níveis de compreensão, retenção e aprendizagem de textos em L2. Dezenove estudantes de inglês (L2) participaram do estudo. Na fase 1, eles estudaram três textos expositivos em inglês, cada um com o apoio de uma estratégia diferente. Após a leitura, responderam uma tarefa de recordação imediata (free recall) e questões de verdadeiro/falso. A fase 2 ocorreu uma semana depois e consistiu na tarefa de recordação tardia (delayed recall) e uma tarefa de escrita crítica. Antes da coleta de dados, os participantes receberam instrução em estratégias de estudo para assegurar que conheciam as estratégias a serem utilizadas. Os resultados das tarefas de recordação imediata apontaram para a releitura como uma estratégia eficiente para a compreensão; realçar texto esteve relacionado a escores altos nas questões de verdadeiro/falso. Com relação à retenção, bom desempenho na recordação tardia esteve associado às condições de realçar texto e fazer anotações. Sendo assim, os efeitos da releitura não se mantiveram nos testes tardios, evidenciando a ineficácia dessa estratégia para retenção comparada a realçar texto e fazer anotações. Os resultados da tarefa de escrita crítica demonstraram que essa tarefa promoveu a geração de inferên-cias elaborativas, apesar do baixo número de referências explícitas aos textos. Hipotetiza-se uma ligação entre a estratégia de realçar texto e aprendizagem. Palavras-chave: Estratégias de estudo. Compreensão. Retenção. Aprendiza-gem. Leitura em L2. SEÇÃO: TEMÁTICA LIVRE Comparing the effectiveness of study strategies on comprehension, retention, and learning from L2 English texts Comparando a eficiência de estratégias de estudo na compreensão, retenção e aprendizagem a partir de textos em Inglês (L2) Comparando la eficiencia de las estrategias de estudio sobre la retención, comprensión y aprendizaje partir de textos en Inglés (L2) Resumen: Este estudio comparó el uso de las estra-tegias de estudio releer, resaltar texto y tomar notas en los niveles de comprensión, retención y aprendizaje de textos en L2. Participaran del estudio diecinueve estudiantes de inglés (L2). En la fase 1, estudiaron tres textos expositivos en inglés, utilizando una estrategia diferente para cada texto. Después de leer, hicieron una tarea de recuerdo inmediato (free recall) y cuestiones de verdadero/falso. La fase 2 ocurrió una semana después y comprendió una tarea de recuerdo tardío (delayed recall) y una tarea de escritura crítica. Antes de la recopilación de datos, los participantes recibieron instrucción en estrategias de estudio para asegurarse que conocían las estrategias a ser empleadas. Los resultados de los recuerdos inmediatos indicaron a la relectura como una estrategia eficiente para la com-prensión; resaltar texto se relacionó con puntuación más alta en las cuestiones de verdadero/falso. En cuanto a la retención, mejor desempeño en el recuerdo tardío se asoció a las condiciones de resaltar texto y tomar notas. Es decir, el efecto de la relectura no perduró por los testes tardíos, lo que demuestra la ineficacia de esta estrategia para retención en comparación a resaltar texto y tomar notas. Los resultados de la tarea de escritura crítica indicaron que esta tarea favoreció la generación de inferencias elaborativas, aunque el número de referencias explicitas a los textos fue bajo. Se plantea la hipótesis de una conexión entre la estrategia de resaltar texto y aprendizaje. Palabras clave: Estrategias de estudio. Comprensión. Retención. Aprendizaje. Lectura en L2.
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Repeated readings is a recognized method for improving students′ memory for text. In this paper, we investigated the variables that influence the effectiveness of repeated readings. Across four experiments, college students read narrative or expository texts and answered comprehension questions about the texts. The time interval between the repetitions (massed or spaced repetitions), the language of repetitions (same or different) as well as the type of activity between the two repetitions (interfering or noninterfering passages) were manipulated. These variables affected performance only on text-based questions that asked for details rather than on questions that asked for main ideas and inferences. A spaced repeated reading led to better performance than a massed repeated reading. However, a bilingual presentation could overcome the disadvantages of a massed repetition.
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Sixty graduate students instructed to read a 669-word expository passage one, two, or three times completed both free and cued recall measures on three test occasions. Effects of repeated reading of to-be-learned material on recall and retention, as well as persistence of errors over time, were examined. Both quantitative and qualitative differences in recall were found as a function of the number of times text was read. Subjects who read the passage twice prior to first recall remembered significantly more text information than subjects reading the passage one or three times. Subjects who read the passage three times exhibited disproportionate recall of details versus main ideas. Persistence of initial encoding errors was remarkably stable for all groups despite the fact that all subjects reread the passage after the first recall. As expected, errors on the first cued recall were more likely to be repeated on a delayed recall, once they had been repeated on an immediate retest. /// [French] Soixante étudiants gradués à qui on avait demandé de lire un passage narratif de 669 mots une fois, deux fois ou trois fois ont complété des mesures de rappel libre et dirigé selon trois possibilités de test. On a examiné les effets de lecture répétée du matériel à apprendre sur le rappel et le maintien aussi bien que la persistence des erreurs au cours du temps. On a trouvé des différences quantitative et qualitative en rappel comme fonction du nombre de fois que le texte était lu. Les sujets qui avaient lu le passage deux fois avant le premier rappel se sont souvenus de beaucoup plus d'information de texte que les sujets qui avaient lu le passage une ou trois fois. Les sujets qui avaient lu le passage trois fois ont montré un rappel disproportionné d'idées principales par rapport aux détails. La persistance d'erreurs de codification initiales était remarquablement stable pour tous les groupes en dépit du fait que tous les sujets ont relu le passage aprés le premier rappel. Comme prévu, les erreurs du premier rappel dirigé étaient plus susceptibles d'être répétées en rappel différé, une fois qu'elles avaient été répétées sur un test réadministré immédiatement. /// [Spanish] Se aplicaron tres tests de recuerdo libre y asociado a 60 estudiantes de post-grado despues de que estos leyeron un pasaje expositorio de 669 palabras una, dos, o tres veces. Los resultados fueron examinados para observar los efectos que la tarea de lectura repetida de un material por aprenderse tuvo sobre el recuerdo y la retención, así como sobre la persistencia de errores en el tiempo. Se encontraron diferencias cuantitativas y cualitativas en la capacidad de recuerdo de los sujetos como una función del número de veces que el texto fue leído. Los sujetos que leyeron el pasaje dos veces previo a la primera prueba recordaron significativamente más información sobre el texto que aquellos sujetos que leyeron el pasaje una o tres veces. Los sujetos que leyeron el pasaje tres veces mostraron un recuerdo desproporcionado de detalles comparado con su recuerdo de ideas principales. La persistencia de errores de codificación incurridos al principio fue marcadamente estable para todos los grupos sin importar el hecho de que todos los sujetos releyeron el pasaje después de la primera prueba. Como se esperaba, los errores en la primera prueba de recuerdo asociado aparecieron con mayor probabilidad en la tarea de recuerdo retardado, una vez que se habían repetido en un re-test inmediato. /// [German] Sechzig hochschulstudenten, die gebeten wurden, ein-, zwei-, oder dreimal einen 669 Wörter langen Sachtext zu lesen, erfüllten sowohl die freie wie auch direkte Abrufmessungen in drei durchgeführten Tests. Untersucht wurde die Wirkung wiederholten Lesens von zu lernendem Material auf sowohl Abrufungs- und Erinnerungskapazität als auch Fehlerkonsistenz über einen Zeitraum. Sowohl quantitative wie qualitative Unterschiede in der Abrufung erwiesen sich als Funktionen der Anzahl der Lesungen. Testpersonen, die den Text zweimal von der ersten Gedächtnisprüfung lasen, erinnerten sich an bedeutend mehr Informationen aus dem Text als Testpersonen, die den Text einmal oder dreimal lasen. Testpersonen, die den Text dreimal gelesen hatten, wiesen unverhältnismäßig gute Erinnerung von Einzelheiten gegenüber der Hauptgedanken auf. Die Hartnäckigkeit der beim ersten Lesen gemachten Fehler war erstaunlich gleichbleibend für alle Gruppen, trotz der Tatsache, daß alle Testpersonen den Text nach der ersten Gedächtnisprobe nochmal lasen. Wie zu erwarten, wurden Fehler, die bei der ersten direktiven Gedächtnisprüfung gemacht wurden, mit großer Wahrscheinlichkeit bei späterer Erinnerung wiederholt, nachdem sie sich einmal bei sofortiger nochmaliger Testdurchführung wiederholt hatten.
Article
Seventy-two college students were instructed that they would be reading a text either once or twice. Then, half of each instruction group were allowed to read the text once, and half were required to read the text twice. All subjects were then tested for factual retention and for transfer. The instruction that a text could be read twice facilitated recall, even if the text was only read once. Reduced anxiety appears to be the simplest explanation for this. Reading a text twice increased factual retention, but on the transfer test, an interaction with ability was found. Only high ability students showed improvement with a second reading on the transfer test. Results are interpreted in terms of Mayer's processing strategies in that good readers benefit both qualitatively and quantitatively from repetition. Poor readers benefit only quantitatively from the opportunity to reread.
Article
The mnemonic effects of increased text difficulty were examined for skilled and less skilled college readers for fairy tales and expository texts. One difficulty manipulation was designed to encourage relational processing of the ideas in the text and the other was designed to encourage more controlled processing of individual text elements (words). Replicating past studies, skilled readers, as indexed either by Nelson-Denny tests or Gernsbacher (1990) structure-building tests, showed no disruption in recall by either difficulty manipulation; indeed their recall was enhanced for certain combinations of difficulty manipulation and text type. Less skilled Nelson-Denny readers but not less skilled structure builders showed consistent declines in recall after they performed the difficult task that challenged word processing. In contrast, the difficult task that promoted encoding of relational information improved recall for both types of less skilled readers. This complex pattern is inconsistent with two straightforward views of how difficulty might affect text memory for less able readers. The results instead suggest that selective deficiency and processing enhancement are both important in text difficulty effects.
Article
It has recently been proposed that in addition to verbatim and propositional text representations, a reader also forms a cognitive representation of the situations addressed by the text. This theoretical position was supported in three experiments which examined encoding processes, the cognitive products, and retrieval processes of the verbatim, propositional, and situational processing components: The degree of propositional and situational processing was successfully manipulated by varying the subjects' study goals. As a consequence of these differential encoding processes, subjects who studied for text summarization remembered more propositional information while subjects with a knowledge acquisition goal remembered more situational information. It was found that the situational encoding and retrieval processes proceeded faster than the respective propositional processes. In a sentence recognition task, subjects more strongly relied upon situational than propositional information, demonstrating the importance of situational representations in text comprehension.
Article
We examined the extent to which comprehenders read expository texts strategically after a prior reading and test. Sentence reading times and the memory for expository texts were examined across two readings. In Experiment 1, sentence reading times were facilitated during rereading to the extent that the information had been encoded from the initial reading. The memory data revealed that participants incorporated new information into their text representations. In particular, rereading improved the memory for causally important information. In Experiment 2, the pattern of results generalized to both good and poor readers except that the correlation between recall and importance was greater for the better readers. The results suggest that all participants reread strategically to some extent, but the better readers were able to use the incoming information to update their situation model.
Article
Drawing upon study strategy, metacognition, and attribution research literatures, the present study explored task, person, and strategy variables as determinants of strategy use. College students read and were tested over an expository passage and then were asked to report the strategies they used and their perceptions of themselves and of the strategies. The college students in the present study reported using a large number of strategies, more than eight per student on average. Reported use of skimming, anticipating the test, and selective rereading strategies predicted students’ performance on a short‐answer test. Reported use of each of these strategies was significantly predicted by one or more of the following factors: general knowledge of the strategy, specific strategy attributes, perceived learner attributes, match between strategy and learner attributes, and strategy efficacy.
Article
Two experiments, theoretically motivated by the construction‐integration model of comprehension (W. Kintsch, 1988), investigated effects of prior knowledge on learning from high‐ and low‐coherence history texts. In Experiment 1, participants’ comprehension was examined through free recall, multiple‐choice questions, and a keyword sorting task. An advantage was found for the high‐coherence text on recall and multiple‐choice questions. However, high‐knowledge readers performed better on the sorting task after reading the low‐coherence text. In Experiment 2, participants’ comprehension was examined through open‐ended questions and the sorting task both immediately and after a 1‐week delay. Little effect of delay was found, and the previous sorting task results failed to replicate. As predicted, high‐knowledge readers performed better on the open‐ended questions after reading the low‐coherence text. Reading times from both experiments indicated that the low‐coherence text requires more inference processes. These inferences are more likely to be successful and useful for high‐knowledge readers.
Article
Schemas for a subject domain can make reading new information about that domain easier. It was hypothesized that when students read about familiar topics, they use a reinstatement-and-integration strategy in which the familiar knowledge they encounter is retrieved from long-term memory, along with some information about the original context in which those facts were learned. Two experiments that focused on the integration of knowledge from different sources were conducted to investigate whether readers use such a strategy when reading expository text about recently learned topics. The proposed strategy is consistent with much of the observed data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In two experiments, we examined the "spacing" effect in students' memory for paragraphs and brief lectures. In the first experiment, students who read massed verbatim repetitions of paragraphs recalled less of the content than did students who read verbatim repetitions spaced across time. In addition, students who read paraphrased versions of the paragraphs in massed repetitions recalled as much as did students who read the paragraphs in the spaced conditions. For Experiment 2, we used a brief lecture as the to-be-learned material and replicated the results of Experiment 1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In Exp I, 72 undergraduates filled in missing letters in a text or reordered sentences in a scrambled text. Relative to a control condition in which Ss read the passage for comprehension, only the letter-deletion task led to enhanced recall. The data were inconsistent with a difficulty framework. A model focusing on the type of information encoded from different processing manipulations is proposed. Within this perspective the letter-deletion task and the sentence-ordering task lead to the encoding of proposition-specific and relational information, respectively. Further, the nature of the materials, as well as the nature of the processing tasks, determined the type of information that is encoded. These findings were supported in Exp II (40 Ss), and it is argued that in an adequate theory of prose memory the influence of both relational and proposition-specific information must be considered. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
88 female college students who did not have strong backgrounds in natural science listened to a short passage about radar or Ohm's law either 1, 2, or 3 times. Overall amount recalled increased with number of presentations, but there was a pattern in which recall of conceptual principles and related information increased sharply with repetition, whereas recall of formal equations and concrete analogies did not. In addition, problem-solving performance increased with number of repetitions, but verbatim recognition declined. Advance organizers presented before a single presentation tended to produce recall and problem-solving performance most similar to that obtained with repeated presentations. Results suggest that Ss tend to use qualitatively different reading strategies on the 1st presentation of science prose than on the 3rd presentation. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
traces the development of research . . . in using transfer measures as a way to explore memorial representations / investigated how prior reading of a message influenced the subsequent reading of that message / in other words, what remained in memory following a reading encounter that facilitated the rereading of that message / the procedure opens a window for exploring the ways in which practice or experiences can influence the development of reading skill (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the roles of basic reading processes and prior knowledge in the reprocessing of expository text. According to their performance in a decoding and a working memory task, 48 college students were divided into groups of above-average and average readers and either rewrote notes, or reread notes, or reread a text. The 3 strategies were equally effective in improving comprehension for text-explicit and text-implicit information, and reading ability and prior knowledge were more predictive of comprehension than was the type of reprocessing activity. Text reprocessing might help average readers to compensate for their lower performance in answering text-implicit questions, whereas above-average readers seem to combine more text information with their knowledge base. Working memory played the major role for comprehending text-implicit information, whereas knowledge was relatively more important for explicit and script-implicit information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors contrasted massed repeated reading with distributed repeated reading. In Experiment 1, massed repeated reading led to better passage recall than distributed repeated reading. In Experiment 2, massed repeated reading of a paraphrased version of an essay led to greater recall than massed repeated reading of a verbatim version of an essay. Although distributed repeated reading again led to greater recall than massed repeated reading, the distributed repeated reading of paraphrased version of an essay did not lead to greater levels of recall than the distributed repeated reading of a verbatim version of an essay. Results of Experiment 3 confirmed those of Experiment 2 and indicated that readers commit significantly less inspection time to a 2nd reading in a massed repeated reading situation than to a 2nd reading in distributed repeated reading situation. The results are discussed from the perspective of a deactivation hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Measured the effects of repeated presentation and recall trials upon learning a 160-word prose passage and found that the contents of weekly attempts at written reproduction were closely related to previous recall attempts. The contents of a given recall attempt, even when incorrect, were more likely to recur in succeeding recall trials than were nonrecalled items, despite the opportunities for self-correction provided by repeated presentations of the correct material, which produced relatively small improvements in recall accuracy. The high stability of initial meaningful retention indicates that some emphasis upon avoidance of early errors is justified. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The effectiveness of two types of adjunct questions, standard embedded questions and "why" questions (elaborative interrogation), was investigated for readers differing in structure-building ability (Gernsbacher, 1990). Participants read a textbook chapter either with or without the adjunct questions. Learning was assessed with typical classroom testing methods (multiple choice, short answer). Also, relatedness ratings were used to assess the coherence of learners' representations. High structure builders generally outperformed low structure builders. However, embedded questions but not elaborative interrogation improved the low structure builders' test performances on information targeted by and related to the adjunct questions. Neither study method improved test performance for the high comprehenders. Embedded questions also stimulated more coherent representations. Results indicate that embedded questions are an effective study method for low comprehenders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 3 experiments with 147 undergraduate Ss to test predictions related to the effect of repetition, levels, categorization, and processing strategy on retention. Ss listened to a taped lecture on the topic of exposure meters for 35-mm cameras and were tested after 1, 2, or 3 presentations. Combined results indicate the influence of a repetition effect, in which the amount of correctly recalled information increased with repetition; no repetition effect was observed, however, when Ss were given an advance organizer prior to the 1st presentation. Also observed was a levels effect, in which structurally important information was remembered better than unimportant information, an effect that increased with repetition. In addition, a category effect was demonstrated, whereby functionally important information was remembered better than unimportant information, with increased effect following repetition. Primacy and recency were observed to be strong predictors of recall on the 1st presentation, while structural importance was a strong predictor of recall on the 3rd presentation, suggesting that repetition produces both a quantitative increase in amount learned and qualitative change in the reader's processing strategy. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Applied a self-report approach to 2 examinations of different types of study strategies in an upper-division college course. The 1st examination was a closed-book multiple-choice tests of 60 items. 46 students returned questionnaires. The 2nd examination was an open-book, open-note multiple-choice test of 30 items. For a closed-book examination, study strategies that could promote deep processing correlated positively with scores but were not likely to be used by the students. For an open-book, open-note examination, strategies that might have led to confusion regarding the locations of material in the textbook and lecture notes correlated negatively with scores, although they were not likely to be used by the 58 students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
155 COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WERE EXPOSED TO 1 OF 2 EXPERIMENTAL PASSAGES EITHER 0, 1, 2, OR 4 TIMES. AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE REQUIRED NUMBER OF SELF-PACED INSPECTIONS, LEARNING (TEXTUAL CONSTRAINT) WAS MEASURED BY THE COMPLETION METHOD (CLOZE PROCEDURE). REPEATED EXPOSURE WAS ACCOMPANIED BY DECLINES IN BOTH PRACTICE TEST AND COMPLETION TEST INSPECTION TIMES. PROPORTION OF CORRECT FILL-IN RESPONSES WAS FOUND TO BE AN INCREASING, NEGATIVELY ACCELERATED FUNCTION OF THE NUMBER OF PRACTICE EXPOSURES. THE DATA WERE CONSISTENT WITH THE VIEW THAT REPEATED, MASSED EXPOSURES RESULTED IN PROGRESSIVE MODIFICATION OR EXTINCTION OF INSPECTION (MATHEMAGENIC) BEHAVIOR. 2 ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESES WERE REJECTED. THE COMPLETION PROCEDURE APPEARS TO BE A SIMPLE, QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING WHAT IS LEARNED FROM WRITTEN DISCOURSE. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
TWO experiments were conducted in which first-year students were asked to read a passage of prose under different conditions, chosen to represent realistic study strategies. In the first experiment 86 students were allocated to three main conditions of reading, copying and summarising. The summarising activity, contrary to expectations, did not lead to greater recall than reading alone. The results of the second experiment, in which some of the 96 students read the material and others listened to it, indicated that the requirement to undertake recording activities has a negative effect upon learning only in circumstances whereby such a requirement imposes constraints upon learners' strategies.
Article
This study examines the correspondence between (1) teachers' student learning outcome goals, and (2) teachers' assessment practices. Ten high school biology teachers were interviewed individually about their teaching philosophies and practices. Teachers' student learning goals were categorized, and their test and practice items were rated on level of processing (whether the item required basic knowledge, integration, or application) and item format (recognition or recall). Overall, teachers wanted their students to develop a general interest in and understanding of biology as well as its real-world applications. They also wanted their students to develop higher order study skills by interpreting information, managing their time and effort, and thinking critically. However, their assessment practices did not support these goals. On average, over half of the items (52% of test items, 53% of practice items) required only basic knowledge, while almost none required application (5% of test items, 4% of practice items). Nearly two thirds (65%) of test items were recognition items. Interview findings suggest that teachers were not aware of the contradiction between their instructional goals and assessment practices. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
Kay (1955) presented a text passage to participants on a weekly basis and found that most errors and omissions in recall persisted despite repeated re-presentation of the text. Experiment 1 replicated and extended Kay s original research, demonstrating that after a first recall attempt there was very little evidence of further learning, whether measured in terms of further acquisition or error correction, over three more presentations of the text passages. Varying the schedule of presentations and tests had little effect, although performance was better when intermediate trials included both presentation and test than when only presentations or tests occurred. Experiment 2 explored whether this ‘failure of further learning’ effect could be overcome by (a) warning participants against basing their recall on their previous recall efforts and specifically directing them to base their recall upon the passages, (b) making each presentation more distinctive, or (c) drawing participants’ attention to areas that would benefit from further learning by requiring them to tally their omissions and errors. The effect persisted in all cases. The findings have serious implications for the learning of text material.
Article
Processing strategies or text adjuncts that are mnemonically effective with some types of text produce no benefits with other text types. A framework for understanding these seemingly inconsistent mnemonic effects across different types of text is presented. The framework suggests that two types of conceptual elaboration are important for free recall: individual-item processing and relational processing. The mnemonic effectiveness of text adjuncts or other manipulations to increase elaboration of a text will depend on: (1) the type of conceptual elaboration induced by the particular text adjunct or study strategy; (2) the type of elaboration invited by the text itself; and (3) the overlap between the processing induced by the text adjunct or study strategy and the processing invited by the text itself. Significant enhancement in recall is anticipated only to the extent that the text adjunct or study strategy encourages processing that is complementary to the processing invited by the material itself. The viability of this framework is demonstrated in a review of the pertinent literature on the mnemonic effects of encoding difficulty. Then, research stimulated by the framework that uses educationally relevant study and text adjuncts (embedded questions, outlining, adjunct pictures) is reviewed. Predictions generated by the framework are consistently upheld.
Article
A consistent recent finding in the memory literature is that processing activities have different effects across different types of texts. The present research attempted to substantiate and explore a material appropriate processing framework (McDaniel, Einstein, Dunay, & Cobb, 1986) for understanding these effects. The central features of this framework are: (a) high recall occurs when subjects encode both relational and individual-item information and (b) different types of materials and processing activities encourage encoding of different types of information. Consequently, a processing activity should be effective to the extent that it encourages processing of the type of information that is not sufficiently invited by the stimulus material. Past tests of this framework were limited to one instance of a relational task and one instance of an individual-item task. The first experiment demonstrated that the framework applies to other tasks—ones that bear little surface relationship to previously used tasks. The second experiment showed that the mnemonic benefits of material appropriate processing activities persist over a one-week delay and indicated that relational processing may be especially beneficial for long-term retention. The third experiment examined the relation between degree of difficulty of a material appropriate task and memory. The results indicated that increases in difficulty beyond some moderate level have no, and possibly even negative, effects on memory. Taken together, the results support and clarify a material appropriate processing perspective.
Article
Past studies exploring the mnemonic benefits of encoding difficulty have produced inconsistent results. To explain these disparate results, we propose a framework that focuses on the type of processing that is induced by different difficulty manipulations, the nature of the learning material, and the importance of encoding both relational and individual-item information. Specifically, it is argued that a given difficulty manipulation will improve recall if it encourages processing of the type of information (i.e., relational or individual item) that is not encoded obligatorily from the material. Predictions from this framework were tested in two experiments in which different difficulty manipulations were performed on two different types of text. For descriptive texts, a difficulty manipulation that encouraged relational processing produced the highest recall. For fairy tales, recall was higher when subjects performed a difficult task that promoted the encoding of individual-item information. These results are explained in terms of the framework described above. Existing theoretical positions are also considered in light of the obtained pattern of effects.
Article
This research represents an attempt to unify two separate approaches to the study of text comprehension and recall. The first of these approaches, exemplified by the work of Trabasso and his colleagues (Trabasso & Sperry, 1985, Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 595–611; Trabasso & van den Broek, 1985, Journal of Memory and Language, 24, 612–630) views comprehension as a problem-solving task in which the reader must discover a series of causal links that connect a text's opening to its final outcome. The second approach, typified by Kintsch and van Dijk (1978, Psychological Review, 85, 363–394; van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983, Strategies in discourse comprehension, Academic Press, New York) emphasizes the importance of short-term memory as a bottleneck in the comprehension process. We combine these two approaches by assuming that the most likely causal antecedent to the next sentence is always held in short-term memory. This allows a reader to discover the causal structure of a text within the constraints of a limited-capacity short-term memory. We show that three variables derived from this hypothesis (time in short-term memory, causal connections allowed, and referential connections allowed) account for 31% of the variance in the free recall of propositions from eight simple narrative texts.