Article

Selective looking: Attending to visually specified events* 1

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Abstract

Subjects looked at two optically superimposed video sccreens, on which two different kinds of things were happening. In the principal condition, they were required to follow the action in one episode (by pressing keys when significant events occurred) and ignore the other. They could do this without difficulty, although both were present in the same fully overlapped visual field. Odd events in the unattended episode were rarely noticed. It was very difficult to monitor both episodes at once. Performance was no better when the two episodes were presented to different eyes (dichoptic condition) than when both were given binocularly. It is argued that selective attention does not involve special mechanisms to reject unwanted information, but is a direct consequence of skilled perceiving.

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... This confined sensory processing is known as selective attention (Treisman 1969;Wolfe et al. 1989). A pioneer study on selective attention introduces a selective-looking paradigm (Neisser and Becklen 1975), where subjects were shown 2 disparate episodes in spatial overlap or 1 episode in each eye (i.e. dichoptic display). ...
... For this goal, we developed a "dichoptic-backwardmovie" adaptation paradigm enlightened by the selectivelooking paradigm (Neisser and Becklen 1975). During adaptation, movie images played normally were presented to one eye, while movie images of the same episode but played backwards were presented to the other eye (Fig. 1a). ...
... After the practice stage, subjects were asked to complete a screen test in which they watched the flickering dichoptic movie; meanwhile, they performed the blob detection task. The aim was to screen subjects for their abilities to allocate eye-specific attention (Neisser and Becklen 1975). Only those who showed better blob detection performances in the attended eyes were eligible to start the EEG formal experiment. ...
Article
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It is well known how selective attention biases information processing in real time, but few work investigates the aftereffects of prolonged attention, let alone the underlying neural mechanisms. To examine perceptual aftereffect after prolonged attention to a monocular pathway, movie images played normally were presented to normal adult's one eye (attended eye), while movie images of the same episode but played backwards were presented to the opposite eye (unattended eye). One hour of watching this dichoptic movie caused a shift of perceptual ocular dominance towards the unattended eye. Interestingly, the aftereffect positively correlated with the advantage of neural activity for the attended-eye over unattended-eye signals at the frontal electrodes measured with steady-state visual evoked potentials. Moreover, the aftereffect disappeared when interocular competition was minimized during adaptation. These results suggest that top-down eye-specific attention can induce ocular dominance plasticity through binocular rivalry mechanisms. The present study opens the route to explain at least part of short-term ocular dominance plasticity with the ocular-opponency-neuron model, which may be an interesting complement to the homeostatic compensation theory.
... A major critic addressed to this hypothesis is that it relies on a dubious distinction between cognitive process and cognitive states Ericson and Simon, 1980;Reyes, 2015. In effect, Nisbett andWilson, 1977 describe cognitive process essentially as the "cause" (Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Miller, 1962) that guide a behavior or that link external event with participants actions. However, causality is largely criticized as being a theoretical intractable construct. ...
... The spiral rotated around its center while the face alternatively opened and closed its mouth. Such superposition of half transparent animated streams has been shown to reduce the stability of the percept containing the two streams and thus facilitates the voluntary switch from one item to the other (Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Clark, 2017;Ransom, Fazelpour, and Mole, 2017). In addition, the two animated streams had to evoke distinguishable brain responses in order for our BCI to decode the attentional focus of the participant. ...
... apparition of a salient stimulus) can capture attention through ascending highly precise prediction errors (PE) (Hohwy, 2013). Yet, even in absence of environmental or internal distinction between different stimuli, participants still claim to be able to voluntarily focus on one (Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Ransom, Fazelpour, and Mole, 2017) or switch to other features of their environment (Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Furstenberg et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
When we make a free choice, we feel conscious and in control of our decision processes. However, over the past decades, studies on introspection demonstrated that our self-knowledge faculties are crippled by illusory content. In the first part, we suggest that introspection can be framed as a hierarchically organized inference process and we proposed an innovative methodological approach to challenge this hypothesis. We used a free decision paradigm in which no high order nor low motor level processing were solicited. Further, we track in real time internal decision variables through a Brain Computer Interface (BCI), and probe both implicitly and explicitly participants' decision awareness. The present thesis investigates two main questions. First, what are the conditions for people to be aware of their impending decisions? Second, does people's introspections access genuine mental activity or are they pure retrospective illusions? Our results suggest that despite the general impression of a rich internal life, people are only partially aware of their impending decisions. If they can consciously track their upcoming decisions, they have no conscious access to those decisions’ content. Yet, when recalling their recent choices, people can access internal representation of the chosen alternative. However, our results suggest that introspection has no privileged access to internal decision variables but rather stem from an integrative process involving both endogenous and exogenous cues. Introspective illusions thus reflect an imbalanced integration process, where weak and noisy internal variables are dominated by deceptive feedback. Overall, the present thesis provides new insights and methodological tools for the study of decision awareness emergence. Our results converge toward the idea that self-knowledge of decision is a hierarchically organized Bayesian inference process involving multiple cues.
... Early studies on divided attention videotaped subjects watching a basketball game while superimposed a hand-slapping game. 168 Subjects could successfully monitor one activity at a time while ignoring the other, but they had great difficulty trying to monitor both at once. Following these 3 " results, the researchers hypothesized that the subjects would likely show an improvement in both task performance after practice. ...
... Following these 3 " results, the researchers hypothesized that the subjects would likely show an improvement in both task performance after practice. 168 Other seminal studies have used multi-tasking paradigms asking participants to read short stories while typing a dictated text. 169 The researchers compared and contrasted the latency and accuracy of performance in each of the three conditions (i.e., both tasks separately and both together). ...
Thesis
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In our everyday lives, efficiency and ease crucially depend on our ability to focus on what we are doing at any given time. From a neuropsychological point of view, it means that we are constantly "on‐task", and that our brain always engages resources that are both necessarily and sufficient for the task at hand: at the neural level, this is characterized by a fine balance between activations and inhibitions to ensure that only perceptual, cognitive and motor processes relevant for the task are active, at the exclusion of any other. Yet, practically, such ideal patterns almost never occur because we are almost constantly distracted, most obviously by events in the environment around us, but also by spontaneous thoughts and fruitless attempts to perform several tasks at the same time. This thesis tries to reveal the deep reasons why distraction has such a profound, detrimental effect on attention and performance. Why is it so hard to stay on task in a noisy environment? Why does performance drop when we try to perform two difficult attention‐demanding tasks at the same time? Those questions have already been debated for years, and modelled in many ways, but no study so far had conducted the investigation at the deepest level of the fine neural dynamics that supports our ability to focus. We used the most precise recordings of a living human brain ‐ intracranial EEG recordings with millisecond and milimetric resolution ‐ to examine in two experiments how external distractions and multi‐tasking interfere with the optimal dynamics of a demanding, continuous attention task, and we addressed those questions in naturalistic settings, in the context of a direct social interaction to ensure our conclusions extend to real‐life situations. We found that the tight balance between excitation and inhibition is disrupted in key regions supporting attention and executive control for short periods of time, at the subsecond level, but sufficiently to knock the network off‐balance and impair performance. Altogether, our results provide explanations for many of the failures of attention of our modern lives and pave the way for new techniques to avoid them
... The phenomenon now known as inattentional blindness was first demonstrated by Neisser and Becklen (1975), who showed participants three transparent overlapping videos. Two videos depicted people passing basketballs between each other and one depicted a woman with an umbrella walking across the screen. ...
... These findings align with early work done by Becklen and Cervone (1983), who presented participants with the stimuli created by Neisser and Becklen (1975). However, unlike Neisser and Becklen, they used different versions of the video that ended at various points-at the end, when the woman with the umbrella was in full view, or directly following the woman's exit. ...
Article
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Eyewitnesses are often susceptible to recollection failures and memory distortions. These failures and distortions are influenced by several factors. The present review will discuss two such important factors, attention failures and stress. We argue that acute stress, often experienced by eyewitnesses and victims of crimes, directly influences attentional processes, which likely has downstream consequences for memory. Attentional failures may result in individuals missing something unusual or important in a complex visual field. Amongst eyewitnesses, this can lead to individuals missing details, even unusual or important central details, regarding the crime. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated attentional failures in eyewitness scenarios, and none have investigated the relationship between stress, attention, and witness memory. This review will discuss the impact of attentional failures, mainly those resulting from inattentional blindness, in applied contexts in order to bridge to eyewitness scenarios. In addition, we will integrate the applied literature on attentional failures with literature that examines the influences of arousal and stress on attention. We will conclude by presenting how future research may tease apart the independent contributions of arousal and stress on attentional failures and successes and how this research may inform understanding of eyewitness reliability.
... Als Imperativ kommt kaum mehr als "see" in Literaturverweisen vor, das aufgrund seines konventionalisierten Charakters kein starkes Mittel ist. Fragen werden fast ausschließlich rhetorisch eingesetzt, um spä- Anders ist das übrigens bei dem frühesten Text (Neisser & Becklen, 1975). Ob dieser auch zu seiner Zeit eine Ausnahme war oder ob sich Texte über die Zeit verändert haben, muss hier offengelassen werden. ...
... Interessanterweise wird die Unsicherheit nicht zum Gegenstand des Diskurses gemacht, sondern lediglich markiert. Eine Ausnahme ist nur der älteste Text, in dem sprachlich sehr klar gemacht wird, in welcher Hinsicht Behauptungen getroffen werden können und in welcher nicht(Neisser & Becklen, 1975). ...
Chapter
This paper outlines a psychology didactics position that starts from the assumption that objects of research are constructed linguistically in communication within science. It aims to sensitize future psychology teachers to the way this construction happens in current research and the question what this means for science and its function in a democratic polity. Genre analysis is applied to a current and potentially significant research topic for psychology teaching. Der Beitrag skizziert eine psychologiedidaktische Position, die davon ausgeht, dass For-schungsgegenstände in der Kommunikation von Wissenschaften sprachlich konstruiert werden, und zukünftige Psychologielehrkräfte für die Art und Weise, wie diese Konstruk-tion in aktueller Forschung geschieht und was dies für Wissenschaft und ihre Funktion in einem demokratischen Gemeinwesen bedeutet, sensibilisieren möchte. Die Kommunikati-onsanalyse wird anhand eines aktuellen und für Psychologieunterricht potentiell bedeut-samen Forschungsthemas illustriert.
... In most cases, inattentional blindness is demonstrated by showing that people can miss surprisingly salient real-world objects within otherwise simple scenes, such as an additional person leisurely walking through, or even a gorilla [21,26]. Other work has also found inattentional blindness where people fail to notice (or fail to have their performance be influenced by) salient shapes or groupings that are created by the layout of (ignored) objects [12,17,29,32,35,36], which is similar to the kinds of patterns that visualizations are meant to reveal. ...
... Now a staple of the research literature on attention and perception, inattentional blindness was greeted with some astonishment even from seasoned experts in the field when it began to be widely reported in the 1990s [15,26]. Earlier versions of the phenomenon, referred to as "selective looking", date back to the 1970s; [4,20,21].) In a classic set of studies, people reported whether the horizontal or vertical portion of a cross was longer on each trial and failed to notice even highly conspicuous -but unexpected -items that appeared in one of the cross's quadrants on a critical trial [15]. The astonishment over such findings stemmed not only from the fact that they seemed to run counter to lay intuition that seeing is a function merely of the eyes, but also from the fact that much evidence until then had suggested that some salient features should be noticed without the need for attention [28]. ...
Preprint
Graphs effectively communicate data because they capitalize on the visual system's ability to rapidly extract patterns. Yet, this pattern extraction does not occur in a single glance. Instead, research on visual attention suggests that the visual system iteratively applies a sequence of filtering operations on an image, extracting patterns from subsets of visual information over time, while selectively inhibiting other information at each of these moments. To demonstrate that this powerful series of filtering operations also occurs during the perception of visualized data, we designed a task where participants made judgments from one class of marks on a scatterplot, presumably incentivizing them to relatively ignore other classes of marks. Participants consistently missed a conspicuous dinosaur in the ignored collection of marks (93% for a 1s presentation, and 61% for 2.5s), but not in a control condition where the incentive to ignore that collection was removed (25% for a 1s presentation, and 11% for 2.5s), revealing that data visualizations are not "seen" in a single glance, and instead require an active process of exploration.
... People cannot believe they would likely fail to detect a well-visible change in the environment while looking at it, just because they are concentrating on something else. This phenomenon, called inattentional blindness (IB), has been known for decades (Mack & Rock, 1998;Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Simons & Chabris, 1999). The phenomenon takes place in everyday circumstances, for example, during driving. ...
... IB was first documented in an experiment by Neisser and Becklen (1975), who showed that half of the participants failed to perceive unexpected events in a video while paying attention to another video on the same screen. The study showed that gaze and attention are two separate entities, as participants were unable to perceive new stimuli despite looking at them directly. ...
Article
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Previous research on inattentional blindness (IB) has focused almost entirely on the visual modality. This study extends the paradigm by pairing visual with auditory stimuli. New visual and auditory stimuli were created to investigate the phenomenon of inattention in visual, auditory, and paired modality. The goal of the study was to assess to what extent the pairing of visual and auditory modality fosters the detection of change. Participants watched a video sequence and counted predetermined words in a spoken text. IB and inattentional deafness occurred in about 40% of participants when attention was engaged by this difficult (auditory) counting task. Most importantly, participants detected the changes considerably more often (88%) when the change occurred in both modalities rather than just one. One possible reason for the drastic reduction of IB or deafness in a multimodal context is that discrepancy between expected and encountered course of events proportionally increases across sensory modalities.
... • Δε μπορούμε να κατανοούμε τα τεκμήρια της εμπειρίας ( Rensink et al., 1997;Simons, 1997;2000;Simons & Chabris, 1999) και της επιλεκτικής προσοχής/παρατήρησης (Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Neisser, 1979;Becklen & Cervone, 1983) φαίνεται να αποτελούν χαρακτηριστικά παραδείγματα αυτού του ειδικού τύπου γνωσιακής φόρτισης που αναφέρεται στην εξοικείωση, στην εκπαίδευση, και στην εξάσκηση για την απόκτηση ή και βελτίωση συγκεκριμένων δεξιοτήτων. Έτσι, οι εκπαιδευμένοι παρατηρητές και, εν γένει, οι άνθρωποι που είναι πιο εξοικειωμένοι στο να ενεργούν σε συγκεκριμένες καταστάσεις και συγκείμενα (contexts) τείνουν να είναι πιο αποτελεσματικοί και αποδοτικοί στον εντοπισμό απροσδόκητων μεταβολών σε μια οπτική σκηνή (Chabris & Simons, 2010 Αν θεωρήσουμε ότι ισχύει τουλάχιστον η ασθενής εκδοχή της ΓΔΑ, κατά την οποία το περιεχόμενο της οπτικής αντίληψης εξαρτάται από πρακτική μη-προτασιακή γνώση (Pagondiotis, 2015), τότε 'υπάρχει χώρος' για να παρεισφρήσουν οι δεξιότητες στην αντίληψη (Fridland, 2015;Pagondiotis, 2015). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Visual perception constitutes a fundamental way of obtaining information with empirical content towards understanding the world and acting within it. Related to visual perception, observation is an important way of validating scientific knowledge. However, observation, and especially in a scientific context, is not limited only to perceptual observation. In the context of scientific observation practice, transformed and sophisticated elements - products of indirect, mediated perception, i.e. data - are used. The usage of such elements, which are distinct from the raw elements of direct perception, seems, prima facie, to circumvent important epistemological problems (e.g., cognitive penetrability, theory-ladenness, theoretic underdetermination, etc.). However, as it turns out, even in such ‘mechanized’ approaches, the factor of subjective perception cannot (and also should not) be eliminated. This Master’s thesis promotes a way of addressing such problems and an approach to scientific observation that largely rely on expert visual perception. Experts present both theoretical and practical knowledge related to the specific domain under study (i.e., domain related knowledge). This practical knowledge is characterized by the fact that it is not declarative but procedural, and therefore tends not to be reduced to knowledge-that, i.e. to the explicit inclusion of the relevant facts. In order to respond and act in an intelligent and skillful way, it appears necessary to possess a know-how/knowing-how in which a tacit dimension is involved and with which the presence and mainly the manifestation of skills is interwoven. The expert possesses a kind of tacit knowledge that manifests itself in conducting skillful behaviors. Findings from cognitive science and psychology show that expert observation patterns - as they arise from eye tracking techniques - are significantly different from those of non-experts. Therefore, expert observation involves observational skills emerging from systematic and deliberate practice, on the basis of which the visual perception and attention is directed and/or guided. It is precisely this directed attention that leads to a relatively homogeneous way in which experts observe the visual scenes related to their field of specialization – in comparison to the non-experts’ way of observing. The cultivated and acquired observation habits lead scientists-observers to immediately and readily perceive the objects and phenomena under investigation (e.g., recognition of anatomical irregularities in X-rays, recognition of cloud types in the sky) as well as solving problems or making decisions in an effective way (e.g., diagnosis of diseases, weather forecasting, etc.). However, the perceptual immediacy and readiness (“all-at-once-ness”) of scientific observation tends to involve in principle psychological type of evidence – that is aesthetic valuations. Besides, scientific observation cannot take place on the basis of individual observations and isolated observer scientists. Instead, scientific activity is a collective process that is conducted in the context of thought collectives inspired by discrete thought styles that function in a manner which makes the attention particularly selective and, therefore, promote an almost instinctive ability to immediately perceive definite forms and objects (Gestaltsehen). Ultimately, these thought styles – which come to result in seeing styles - although they are derivative of social interactions and historical contingency, are understood by the scientists of the various collectives as having a timeless and immutable substance. In this sense, scientific observation is a function of the scientific style of each discipline and creates a relatively stabilized world of entities and phenomena to which all members of collectives who have assimilated this style of thought have access. However, the price for this ‘guaranteed’ access to the same, ‘bound’ elements of empirical reality is the unconscious loss of the capability to perceive other, potentially observable, elements.
... Voluntary attention may be directed to certain features of a scene so efficiently that other, fully visible, salient and sometimes relevant features go unnoticed (e.g. Neisser & Becklen, 1975). As a matter of fact, humans have a striking tendency not to perceive events they did not expect to happen, or which are irrelevant for their ongoing goals and intentions. ...
Article
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In everyday life, mentalizing is nested in a rich context of cognitive faculties and background information that potentially contribute to its success. Yet, we know little about these modulating effects. Here we propose that humans develop a naïve psychological model of attention (featured as a goal-dependent, intentional relation to the environment) and use this to fine-tune their mentalizing attempts, presuming that the way people represent their environment is influenced by the cognitive priorities (attention) their current intentions create. The attention model provides an opportunity to tailor mental state inferences to the temporary features of the agent whose mind is in the focus of mentalizing. The ability to trace attention is an exceptionally powerful aid for mindreading. Knowledge about the partner's attention provides background information, however being grounded in his current intentions, attention has direct relevance to the ongoing interaction. Furthermore, due to its causal connection to intentions, the output of the attention model remains valid for a prolonged but predictable amount of time: till the evoking intention is in place. The naïve attention model theory is offered as a novel theory on social attention that both incorporates existing evidence and identifies new directions in research .
... Then, while completing this basic task, a woman with an umbrella would walk right across the middle of the game so that the researchers could see whether the distracted participants would notice. Guess what: Many participants failed this test (Neisser, 1976(Neisser, , 1979Neisser & Becklen, 1975)! And even more incredibly, researchers then tried this out with a person in a gorilla suit, only to achieve the similar findings (Simons & Chabris, 1999). ...
... Humans are limited in their ability to perform two things at once as the performance of simultaneous tasks results in task interference (Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Pashler, 1992;Simons and Chabris, 1999;Herath, 2001;Simons, 2010). Attention is a central bottleneck (Pashler, 1994). ...
Article
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Attentional limits make it difficult to comprehend concurrent speech streams. However, multiple musical streams are processed comparatively easily. Coherence may be a key difference between music and stimuli like speech, which does not rely on the integration of multiple streams for comprehension. The musical organization between melodies in a composition may provide a cognitive scaffold to overcome attentional limitations when perceiving multiple lines of music concurrently. We investigated how listeners attend to multi–voiced music, examining biological indices associated with processing structured versus unstructured music. We predicted that musical structure provides coherence across distinct musical lines, allowing listeners to attend to simultaneous melodies, and that a lack of organization causes simultaneous melodies to be heard as separate streams. Musician participants attended to melodies in a Coherent music condition featuring flute duets and a Jumbled condition where those duets were manipulated to eliminate coherence between the parts. Auditory–evoked cortical potentials were collected to a tone probe. Analysis focused on the N100 response which is primarily generated within the auditory cortex and is larger for attended versus ignored stimuli. Results suggest that participants did not attend to one line over the other when listening to Coherent music, instead perceptually integrating the streams. Yet, for the Jumbled music, effects indicate that participants attended to one line while ignoring the other, abandoning their integration. Our findings lend support for the theory that musical organization aids attention when perceiving multi–voiced music.
... Inattentional blindness is a phenomenon that the observer's attention is shifted to other places, so even when looking at them, the observer fails to detect certain evident stimuli, which happens frequently and sometimes threatens people's safety (Neisser, 1979;Neisser & Becklen, 1975). The AR technology application is often accompanied by inattentional blindness. ...
Article
Augmented reality head-up display (AR HUD) is a new technology in assisted driving, which can add extra information to the driving environment in real-time to help the driver better perceive road situation. AR HUD can enhance driving safety but may also encourage inattentional blindness. Hence, this study aims to examine whether AR HUD-induces inattentional blindness and determine whether workload intensifies their relationship. In experiment 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to three groups and watched three types of augmented reality (AR)-augmented driving videos, respectively. They were instructed to respond to any critical events, but only their responses to road-crossing pedestrians were recorded. Results show that AR HUD reduces inattentional blindness when pedestrians are augmented but encourages inattentional blindness when pedestrians are not augmented. In experiment 2, 20 participants viewed AR-augmented driving videos of high and low workloads. Pedestrians were not augmented in all videos. Result reveals that a high workload induces more inattentional blindness than low workload. The finding confirms that AR HUD induces inattentional blindness, and a high workload will intensify this relationship. The future design of the AR HUD assisted-driving system should consider the risk of inattentional blindness and come up with corresponding countermeasures.
... Attention can be imagined as a condition of specific tension or of readiness of the observer's cognitive structures to identify and recognize a particular object or phenomenon. Researchers distinguish different degrees of attention, stating that attention can be focused on a small number of stimuli only, in the process of so-called intense attention, or there may also be so-called distracted attention that focuses on a large number of stimuli (Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Spelke, Hirst, & Neisser, 1976). Intense attention is accompanied by sharpened awareness of the content falling within the so-called the field of attention, while extensive attention means a weakening of the awareness of what is in its field. ...
Conference Paper
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The article presents a concept of a theoretical approach to threat monitoring in the environment of a modern organization. The dominance of non-deterministic situations, including the increasing complexity, diversity and dynamics of events and phenomena are all characteristic for this environment. This places increased demands on security systems, including threat monitoring systems. The result of the work is presenting the concept that includes an integrated signal perceiving model, organizational system model, a model for the qualitative evolution of the organizational system, and a spiral model for organizational systems development. The research methods applied include analysis and criticism of literature, analysis and logical construction as well as heuristic approaches: the "new insight" and analogical transfer method. The deductive and enumerative induction method were also applied in tandem.
... Regarding the first hypothesis, note that many studies with healthy subjects on attention claim that 'the brain cannot process all incoming information, therefore we need selection by means of attention'the so-called early selection idea of attention (Broadbent, 1958;Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Yantis & Johnston, 1990). However, this claim may be erroneous, since the brain can, and in fact does, process massive incoming information in parallel. ...
Article
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In common sense experience based on introspection, consciousness is singular. There is only one ‘me’ and that is the one that is conscious. This means that ‘singularity’ is a defining aspect of ‘consciousness’. However, the three main theories of consciousness, Integrated Information, Global Workspace and Recurrent Processing theory, are generally not very clear on this issue. These theories have traditionally relied heavily on neuropsychological observations and have interpreted various disorders, such as anosognosia, neglect and split‐brain as impairments in conscious awareness without any reference to ‘the singularity’. In this review, we will re‐examine the theoretical implications of these impairments in conscious awareness and propose a new way how to conceptualize consciousness of singularity. We will argue that the subjective feeling of singularity can coexist with several disunified conscious experiences. Singularity awareness may only come into existence due to environmental response constraints. That is, perceptual, language, memory, attentional and motor processes may largely proceed unintegrated in parallel, whereas a sense of unity only arises when organisms need to respond coherently constrained by the affordances of the environment. Next, we examine from this perspective psychiatric disorders and psycho‐active drugs. Finally, we present a first attempt to test this hypothesis with a resting state imaging experiment in a split‐brain patient. The results suggest that there is substantial coherence of activation across the two hemispheres. These data show that a complete lesioning of the corpus callosum does not, in general, alter the resting state networks of the brain. Thus, we propose that we have separate systems in the brain that generate distributed conscious. The sense of singularity, the experience of a ‘Me‐ness’, emerges in the interaction between the world and response‐planning systems, and this leads to coherent activation in the different functional networks across the cortex.
... Importantly, one may argue that the mere exposure of stimuli in a balanced manner (i.e., controlling for the exposure duration and location of stimuli) does not truly assure that all items were perceived, or encoded, to an equal depth level. Indeed, the fact that one is observing a stimulus does not necessitate that the latter is effectively encoded for detection or for subsequent memory (e.g., Drew et al., 2013;Neisser & Becklen, 1975). We thus use the term "perception" in its most basic form, as the mere visual exposure to stimuli, while acknowledging the fact that active perception and/or stimulus encoding may involve additional processes that are beyond 'seeing' per-se. ...
Article
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The mixed-category advantage in visual working memory refers to improved memory for an image in a display containing two different categories relative to a display containing only one category (Cohen et al., 2014). Jiang, Remington, et al. (2016) found that this advantage characterizes mainly faces and suggested that face-only displays suffer from enhanced interference due to the unique configural nature of faces. Faces, however, possess social and emotional significance that may bias attention toward them in mixed-category displays at the expense of their counterpart category. Consequently, the counterpart category may suffer from little/no advantage, or even an inversed effect. Using a change-detection task, we showed that a category that demonstrated a mixed-category disadvantage when paired with faces, demonstrated a mixed-category advantage when paired with other non-facial categories. Furthermore, manipulating the likelihood of testing a specific category (i.e., changing its task-relevance) in mixed-category trials, altered its advantaged/disadvantaged status, suggesting that the effect may be mediated by attention. Finally, to control for perceptual exposure factors, a sequential presentation experimental version was conducted. Whereas faces showed a typical mixed-category advantage, this pattern was again modulated (yielding an advantage for a non-facial category) when inserting a task-relevance manipulation. Taken together, our findings support a central resource allocation account, according to which the asymmetric mixed-category effect likely stems from an attentional bias to one of the two categories. This attentional bias is not necessarily spatial in its nature, and it presumably affects processing stages subsequent to the initial perceptual encoding phase in working memory.
... Employing trial and error to figure out which of these pretexts are most effective for getting papers published, we eventually learn to ignore the causal stain in the carpet. It becomes like the gorilla in plain sight (Drew, Vo, & Wolfe, 2013;Neisser & Becklen, 1975). It is something everyone sees, but no one notices. ...
Article
Objective: Although causal inference is often straightforward in experimental contexts, few research questions in suicide are amenable to experimental manipulation and randomized control. Instead, suicide prevention specialists must rely on observational data and statistical control of confounding variables to make effective causal inferences. We provide a brief summary of recent covariate practice and a tutorial on casual inference tools for covariate selection in suicide research. Method: We provide an introduction to modern causal inference tools, suggestions for statistical control selection, and demonstrations using simulated data. Results: Statistical controls are often mistakenly selected due to their significant correlation with other study variables, their consistency with previous research, or no explicit reason at all. We clarify what it means to control for a variable and when controlling for the wrong covariates systematically distorts results. We describe directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) and tools for identifying the right choice of covariates. Finally, we provide four best practices for integrating causal inference tools in future studies. Conclusion: The use of causal model tools, such as DAGs, allows researchers to carefully and thoughtfully select statistical controls and avoid presenting distorted findings; however, limitations of this approach are discussed.
... The spiral rotated around its center while the face alternatively opened and closed its mouth. Such superposition of half transparent animated streams has been shown to reduce the stability of the percept containing the two streams and thus facilitates the voluntary switch from one item to the other (Neisser and Becklen 1975;Clark 2017;Ransom et al. 2017). In addition, the two animated streams had to evoke distinguishable brain responses in order for our BCI to decode the attentional focus of the participant. ...
Article
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People can introspect on their internal state and report the reasons driving their decisions but choice blindness (CB) experiments suggest that this ability can sometimes be a retrospective illusion. Indeed, when presented with deceptive cues, people justify choices they did not make in the first place, suggesting that external cues largely contribute to introspective processes. Yet, it remains unclear what are the respective contributions of external cues and internal decision variables in forming introspective report. Here, using a brain-computer interface, we show that internal variables continue to be monitored but are less impactful than deceptive external cues during CB episodes. Moreover, we show that deceptive cues overturn the classical relationship between confidence and accuracy: introspective failures are associated with higher confidence than genuine introspective reports. We tracked back the origin of these overconfident confabulations by revealing their prominence when internal decision evidence is weak and variable. Thus, introspection is neither a direct reading of internal variables nor a mere retrospective illusion, but rather reflects the integration of internal decision evidence and external cues, with CB being a special instance where internal evidence is inconsistent.
... In this experiment, the authors demonstrated that it was impossible to focus on both conversations simultaneously. This phenomenon also occurs with visual stimuli [14]. Endogenous attention voluntarily processes task-related stimuli and features within the environment. ...
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A robust perception system is crucial for natural human–robot interaction. An essential capability of these systems is to provide a rich representation of the robot’s environment, typically using multiple sensory sources. Moreover, this information allows the robot to react to both external stimuli and user responses. The novel contribution of this paper is the development of a perception architecture, which was based on the bio-inspired concept of endogenous attention being integrated into a real social robot. In this paper, the architecture is defined at a theoretical level to provide insights into the underlying bio-inspired mechanisms and at a practical level to integrate and test the architecture within the complete architecture of a robot. We also defined mechanisms to establish the most salient stimulus for the detection or task in question. Furthermore, the attention-based architecture uses information from the robot’s decision-making system to produce user responses and robot decisions. Finally, this paper also presents the preliminary test results from the integration of this architecture into a real social robot.
... The copyright holder for this preprint this version posted August 4, 2020. . https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.03.233759 doi: bioRxiv preprint mode (Neisser & Becklen, 1975). Based on this finding, we developed a novel "backwards-movie" paradigm in which movie images played normally were presented to one eye while movie images of the same episode but played backwards were presented to the other eye (see Fig. 1a). ...
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Ocular dominance plasticity in adults has been extensively studied in the recent decade. An interocular imbalance of visual input, e.g. monocular deprivation, has been proved to markedly reshape ocular dominance. As visual attention can be eye-specific, dissimilar visual inputs from the two eyes during monocular deprivation inevitably lead attention to be more allocated to the monocular input that conveys relatively intact information. Does the imbalanced attention across the eyes also contribute to reshaping ocular dominance? Here, using a novel “backwards-movie” adaptation paradigm, we showed that prolonged attention to the input in one eye was sufficient to shift perceptual ocular dominance in favor of the unattended eye. Furthermore, the effect was stronger when eye-specific attention was directed to the dominant eye, possibly due to fewer disturbances from the other eye during the adaptation. Taken together, these findings suggest that top-down attention plays an important role in short-term ocular dominance plasticity. Statement of Relevance An important goal in neuroscience is to understand and take advantage of adaptive neural plasticity. Ocular dominance plasticity resulting from imbalanced visual input signals across the two eyes has been intensively investigated. By developing a novel “backwards-movie” paradigm in which movie images played normally were presented to one eye while movie images of the same episode but played backwards were presented to the other eye, the current study for the first time demonstrates the non-negligible contributions of selective attention in reshaping ocular dominance. These findings expand the homeostatic compensation theory of monocular deprivation by highlighting the contributions of feedback signals. Furthermore, our method could be applied in future work to explore new possibilities in treating adults with amblyopia.
... Since our attention is directed at something specific, which is of greater importance for us at a certain moment, we are downright blind to other aspects of that same situation. The underlying effect of situations like this is called inattentional blindness (first described by Neisser & Becklen, 1975; a term coined by Mack & Rock, 1998). Inattentional blindness occurs when attention is directed to a specific aspect of a visual scene, resulting in leaving us "blind" for other unattended and unexpected aspects of the same visual scene. ...
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Inattentional unawareness potentially occurs in several different sensory domains but is mainly described in visual paradigms (“inattentional blindness”; e.g., Simons & Chabris, 1999, Perception, 28, 1059–1074). Dalton and Fraenkel (2012, Cognition, 124, 367–372) were introducing “inattentional deafness” by showing that participants missed by 70% a voice repeatedly saying “I’m a Gorilla” when focusing on a primary conversation. The present study expanded this finding from the acoustic domain in a multifaceted way: First, we extended the validity perspective by using 10 acoustic samples—specifically, excerpts of popular musical pieces from different music genres. Second, we used as the secondary acoustic signal animal sounds. Those sounds originate from a completely different acoustic domain and are therefore highly distinctive from the primary sound. Participants’ task was to count different musical features. Results ( N = 37 participants) showed that the frequency of missed animal sounds was higher in participants with higher attentional focus and motivation. Additionally, attentional focus, perceptual load, and feature similarity/saliency were analyzed and did not have an influence on detecting or missing animal sounds. We could demonstrate that for 31.2% of the music plays, people did not recognize highly salient animal voices (regarding the type of acoustic source as well as the frequency spectra) when executing the primary (counting) task. This uncovered, significant effect supports the idea that inattentional deafness is even available when the unattended acoustic stimuli are highly salient.
... 'early selection' accounts (e.g. Broadbent, 1958;Neisser and Becklen, 1975) proposed that irrelevant sensory input is filtered out at a low level before it is processed, whereas 'late selection' accounts (e.g. Deutsch and Deutsch, 1963;Tipper, 1985) claimed that unattended information is processed to a much higher level before being discarded by the attentional filter. ...
Conference Paper
Many fundamental aspects of auditory processing occur even when we are not attending to the auditory environment. This has led to a popular belief that auditory signals are analysed in a largely pre-attentive manner, allowing hearing to serve as an early warning system. However, models of attention highlight that even processes that occur by default may rely on access to perceptual resources, and so can fail in situations when demand on sensory systems is particularly high. If this is the case for auditory processing, the classic paradigms employed in auditory attention research are not sufficient to distinguish between a process that is truly automatic (i.e., will occur regardless of any competing demands on sensory processing) and one that occurs passively (i.e., without explicit intent) but is dependent on resource-availability. An approach that addresses explicitly whether an aspect of auditory analysis is contingent on access to capacity-limited resources is to control the resources available to the process; this can be achieved by actively engaging attention in a different task that depletes perceptual capacity to a greater or lesser extent. If the critical auditory process is affected by manipulating the perceptual demands of the attended task this suggests that it is subject to the availability of processing resources; in contrast a process that is automatic should not be affected by the level of load in the attended task. This approach has been firmly established within vision, but has been used relatively little to explore auditory processing. In the experiments presented in this thesis, I use MEG, pupillometry and behavioural dual-task designs to explore how auditory processing is impacted by visual perceptual load. The MEG data presented illustrate that both the overall amplitude of auditory responses, and the computational capacity of the auditory system are affected by the degree of perceptual load in a concurrent visual task. These effects are mirrored by the pupillometry data in which pupil dilation is found to reflect both the degree of load in the attended visual task (with larger pupil dilation to the high compared to the low load visual load task), and the sensory processing of irrelevant auditory signals (with reduced dilation to sounds under high versus low visual load). The data highlight that previous assumptions that auditory processing can occur automatically may be too simplistic; in fact, though many aspects of auditory processing occur passively and benefit from the allocation of spare capacity, they are not strictly automatic. Moreover, the data indicate that the impact of visual load can be seen even on the early sensory cortical responses to sound, suggesting not only that cortical processing of auditory signals is dependent on the availability of resources, but also that these resources are part of a global pool shared between vision and audition.
... Classic models focussing on grouping and segmentation presume an explicit process in which certain elements of an image are grouped, whilst others are segregated from each other, by a labelling process [32,33]. Several studies have established the involvement of such explicit grouping mechanisms during specific visual tasks. ...
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Feedforward deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) are, under specific conditions, matching and even surpassing human performance in object recognition in natural scenes. This performance suggests that the analysis of a loose collection of image features could support the recognition of natural object categories, without dedicated systems to solve specific visual subtasks. Research in humans however suggests that while feedforward activity may suffice for sparse scenes with isolated objects, additional visual operations ('routines') that aid the recognition process (e.g. segmentation or grouping) are needed for more complex scenes. Linking human visual processing to performance of DCNNs with increasing depth, we here explored if, how, and when object information is differentiated from the backgrounds they appear on. To this end, we controlled the information in both objects and backgrounds, as well as the relationship between them by adding noise, manipulating background congruence and systematically occluding parts of the image. Results indicate that with an increase in network depth, there is an increase in the distinction between object- and background information. For more shallow networks, results indicated a benefit of training on segmented objects. Overall, these results indicate that, de facto, scene segmentation can be performed by a network of sufficient depth. We conclude that the human brain could perform scene segmentation in the context of object identification without an explicit mechanism, by selecting or “binding” features that belong to the object and ignoring other features, in a manner similar to a very deep convolutional neural network.
... Conversely, attention capture occurs when people become aware of the unusual or new event. For example, people may be asked to count the number of passes made by one set of basketball players (Becklen & Cervone, 1983;Neisser, 1976Neisser, , 1979Neisser & Becklen, 1975). When focused on counting passes, people often miss a variety of other events, such as a woman with an umbrella or a gorilla walking through the basketball game (Becklen & Cervone, 1983;Neisser, 1979;Simons & Chabris, 1999). ...
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People do not constantly watch for accidents and crimes. With their attention focused elsewhere, potential witnesses may fail to notice a crime and experience inattentional blindness. We investigated the impact of inattentional blindness on eyewitness awareness and memory. Participants watched a video in which a theft occurs. We manipulated the attentional focus of the participants – some watched for the crime, others simply watched the video, and some counted the number of people wearing white shirts. Participants counting white shirts and those simply watching more often experienced inattentional blindness for the crime and failed to identify the culprit than those watching for the theft. Participants, particularly those watching for the theft, often falsely identified an innocent bystander, displaying a potential unconscious transference effect. Attention plays a critical role in eyewitness awareness and memory. Eyewitness researchers should investigate situations in which people are not explicitly watching for a crime or accident. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... De nombreuses études ont alors montré que les informations dans un HUD et celles du monde réel font partie de deux groupes perceptifs différents (pour une revue, voir Crawford & Neal (2006)) qui ne peuvent donc pas être traités en parallèle. Le passage de l'un à l'autre serait ainsi associé à un coût attentionnel et à des temps de réaction plus longs (Becklen, 1983;McCann et al., 1993;Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Wickens & Long, 1994). Les éléments entrainant une ségrégation perceptive entre la symbologie des HUD et les informations du monde réel, ont été identifiés et correspondent principalement à la couleur, aux indices de mouvement et à la perspective (Foyle et al., 1991). ...
Thesis
La réalité augmentée (RA) s’intègre de plus en plus au sein du milieu professionnel, notamment dans le domaine de la formation industrielle. Afin d’assurer la sécurité et la santé des opérateurs, il est central d’évaluer les risques sanitaires potentiellement liés à une utilisation régulière et prolongée de la RA. Le but de cette thèse est d’évaluer les potentiels effets physiologiques et cognitifs de la RA. Nous avons réalisé deux études évaluant les effets de la RA sur la vision binoculaire. Ces études montrent que l’utilisation de la RA ne présente pas de risque de fatigue visuelle ou d’inconfort visuel, pour des utilisateurs présentant ou non des troubles de la vision binoculaire préexistants. Nous avons également réalisé deux études sur l’attention visuelle en RA. Ces dernières suggèrent quel es mécanismes attentionnels sont influencés par le traitement simultané d’informations virtuelles et réelles. Ainsi, lors de l’utilisation de la RA, le fait dépasser entre des informations virtuelles et réelles peut dégrader les performances visuelles et la capacité à détecter des évènements extérieurs inattendus peut être altérée. Enfin nous avons également évalué l’intégration effective de la RA directement en milieu industriel, afin d’évaluer les effets de la présentation d’instructions en RA sur l’efficacité des performances d’assemblage et sur la charge mentale. L’utilisation de la RA ne présenterait pas nécessairement de bénéfice en termes d’efficacité sur les performances (temps et erreurs d’assemblage) et peut engendrer une augmentation de la charge mentale lorsque le poste d’assemblage est simple, mais engendrerait une charge équivalente à celle d’un ordinateur quand le poste est complexe. Dans le cadre d’une utilisation industrielle, la RA devrait donc être utilisée avec une certaine précaution. Toute intégration de la RA devrait donc être associée à un protocole d’évaluation afin de quantifier les potentiels impacts sur les performances et de s’assurer que la solution RA proposée apporte plus de bénéfices que la solution déjà existante.
... As skills are frequently or habitually practiced, they become automatized (or proceduralized): When a skill is originally acquired, it typically requires exerting top-down control to get started. However, practicing a skill means that control about what to do next in a sequence of overt motor responses or covert processing steps is delegated more and more to the stimuli that are used in the course of a skill's pattern matching process (Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Anderson and Lebiere, 1998;Anderson et al., 2004). Thus, with practice, stimuli used in pattern matching take over the role of initiating a procedure. ...
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How does the language we speak affect our perception? Here, we argue for linguistic relativity and present an explanation through “language-induced automatized stimulus-driven attention” (LASA): Our respective mother tongue automatically influences our attention and, hence, perception, and in this sense determines what we see. As LASA is highly practiced throughout life, it is difficult to suppress, and even shows in language-independent non-linguistic tasks. We argue that attention is involved in language-dependent processing and point out that automatic or stimulus-driven forms of attention, albeit initially learned as serving a linguistic skill, account for linguistic relativity as they are automatized and generalize to non-linguistic tasks. In support of this possibility, we review evidence for such automatized stimulus-driven attention in language-independent non-linguistic tasks. We conclude that linguistic relativity is possible and in fact a reality, although it might not be as powerful as assumed by some of its strongest proponents.
... Change blindness refers to the phenomenon in which participants fail to notice large and sudden changes that happen right before their eyes in correspondence with a visual interruption (e.g. flicker, mask, eye-movement, Rensink, 2000;Rensink et al., 1997;Ward, 2018) while in inattentional blindness tasks, people fail to notice a salient event/change while their attention is occupied (typically with another task, Neisser & Becklen, 1975;Simons & Chabris, 1999) In our SR tasks, participants freely visually explore a room full of objects by moving their head and eyes and are subsequently requested to localise any changes they noticed, and evaluate the confidence in their decisions. Critically, object changes are implemented using a gaze-contingent method (obviating the need for masking and/or mud-splash as in typical 2D settings, see Simons & Levin, 1997) such that participants are never directly exposed to any transition. ...
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Extended Reality (XR), encompassing various forms of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), has become a powerful experimental tool in consciousness research due to its capability to create holistic and immersive experiences of oneself and surrounding environments through simulation. One hallmark of a successful XR experience is when it elicits a strong sense of presence, which can be thought of as a subjective sense of reality of the self and the world. Although XR research has shed light on many factors that may influence presence (or its absence) in XR environments, there remains much to be discovered about the detailed and diverse phenomenology of presence, and the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie it. In this chapter, we analyse the concept of presence and relate it to the way in which humans may generate and maintain a stable sense of reality during both natural perception and virtual experiences. We start by reviewing the concept of presence as developed in XR research, covering both factors that may influence presence and potential ways of measuring presence. We then discuss the phenomenological characteristics of presence in human consciousness, drawing on clinical examples where presence is disturbed. Next, we describe two experiments using XR that investigated the effects of sensorimotor contingency and affordances on a specific form of presence related to the sense of objects as really existing in the world, referred to as ‘objecthood’. We then go beyond perceptual presence to discuss the concept of 'conviction about reality', which corresponds to people's beliefs about the reality status of their perceptual experiences. We finish by exploring how the novel XR method of ‘Substitutional Reality’ can allow experimental investigation of these topics, opening new experimental directions for studying presence beyond the ‘as-if’ experience of fully simulated environments.
... When we focus on a particular auditory object, whether voluntarily or involuntarily, other competing sounds are relegated to the perceptual background (Duncan, 2006;Shinn-Cunningham, 2008). Typically, although listeners may be aware of the presence of unattended objects in a scene, they cannot easily recall the contents or features of objects that are not in the attentional foreground (Goldstein and Fink, 1981;Neisser and Becklen, 1975;Rock and Gutman, 1981). On the other hand, even features of an attended object that are unimportant for a task are likely to be perceptible. ...
Article
Salient interruptions draw attention involuntarily. Here, we explored whether this effect depends on the spatial and temporal relationships between a target stream and interrupter. In a series of online experiments, listeners focused spatial attention on a target stream of spoken syllables in the presence of an otherwise identical distractor stream from the opposite hemifield. On some random trials, an interrupter (a cat “MEOW”) occurred. Experiment 1 established that the interrupter, which occurred randomly in 25% of the trials in the hemifield opposite the target, degraded target recall. Moreover, a majority of participants exhibited this degradation for the first target syllable, which finished before the interrupter began. Experiment 2 showed that the effect of an interrupter was similar whether it occurred in the opposite or the same hemifield as the target. Experiment 3 found that the interrupter degraded performance slightly if it occurred before the target stream began but had no effect if it began after the target stream ended. Experiment 4 showed decreased interruption effects when the interruption frequency increased (50% of the trials). These results demonstrate that a salient interrupter disrupts recall of a target stream, regardless of its direction, especially if it occurs during a target stream.
Chapter
This chapter presents a study of the perceptual processes that condition the parallel processing of visual data, and thus could become a design tool to manage the transfer of information. This allows the designers to analyze and consciously plan this process, taking into the account the perceptual mechanisms involved. The chapter combines knowledge from the fields of cognitive science, geometrical optics, graphic design, and, last but not least, it utilizes the author's experience in architecture gained from the study of transparency perception.
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Se presentan resultados de un proyecto de intervención para el programa de radio Ventana al Sonido (GU, 2020) que se transmite los domingos a las 11:00 de la mañana por Radio UAA (94.5 FM), el cual, desde 2014, ha sido implementado como estrategia de aprendizaje situado en las asignaturas de Cultura y Apreciación Musicales de la Licenciatura en Música de la Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes. En el contexto de un trabajo de titulación de maestría, una estudiante de la generación 2018-2020 diseñó un taller de producción radiofónica desde casa para atender el compromiso de programación anual asumido por la institución, el cual se vio afectado repentinamente por el confinamiento derivado de la pandemia COVID-19. Se presentan resultados de la intervención y reflexiones que se interpretan como indicios de cambio social que podrían impactar significativamente el currículo de la educación musical de nivel superior en los próximos años.
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Feature-based attention allocates resources to particular stimulus features and reduces processing and retention of unattended features. We performed four experiments using self-paced video games to investigate whether sustained attentional selection of features could be created without a distractor task requiring continuous processing. Experiments 1 and 2 compared two versions of the game Two Dots, each containing a sequence of images. For the more immersive game post-game recognition of images was very low, but for the less immersive game it was significantly higher. Experiments 3 and 4 found that post-game image recognition was very low if the images were irrelevant to the game task but significantly higher if the images were relevant to the task. We conclude that games create sustained attentional selection away from task-irrelevant features, even if they are in full view, which leads to reduced retention. This reduced retention is due to differences in attentional set rather than a response to limited processing resources. The consistency of this attentional selection is moderated by the level of immersion in the game. We also discuss possible attentional mechanisms for the changes in recognition rates and the implications for applications such as serious games.
Chapter
Besides the visual splendor pervasive in the current generation of digital video games, especially those where players roam simulated landscapes and imaginary worlds, few efforts have looked at the resources available to embed human meaning into a game’s experience. From the art of persuasion to the mechanics of meaning-making in digital video games and table-top role playing games, this chapter investigates the changes and new opportunities available that can extend our understanding of digital rhetoric. Starting with a breakdown of the role of choice, workable models from psychology and the untapped body of knowledge from table-top role playing games are shown to allow game designers to enrich their products with a deeper human experience.
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Inclusivity of design for an aging population will be one of the most critical problems to address in the near and far future. With advancing age comes new needs, goals, and unique issues – all of which may be ameliorated through well-designed systems and technologies. But what does it mean to be “well-designed”? In this chapter, the authors discuss the background research supporting design principles that take into account age-related changes in cognition, movement, and behavior. These are then applied in a worked example of a “car of the future,” partly constructed with current technologies, but also imagining near and far future advances. They conclude with a discussion of how to employ these principles in practice, both when designing new and cutting-edge technologies from the ground-up and revising systems and technologies already in place.
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Why does time seem to fly by when we are absorbed? The case of listening to music is of particular interest, given that listening to music itself requires experiencing time. In this paper, I argue that neither the prevailing psychological model nor some initially appealing alternative explanations can account for the experience of time flying by in cases where, like listening to music, the activity we are absorbed in itself requires experiencing time. I then put forward a novel view on which the fragmentation of felt time is what best explains these cases. More specifically, I develop a view on which attentive engagement fragments felt time such that we experience the activity we are engaged in as if it is located in a temporally isolated branch or fragment of the main timeline. Time then seems to pass only in this branch, creating the sensation — upon integration — that less time has passed in the main timeline. In support of this proposal, I draw upon ideas in the empirical literature, and I suggest some underlying neuropsychological mechanisms that might serve to implement the model. I then extend the fragmentation model to cases where thinking about time makes it feel as though more of it passes. I end the paper by examining the possibility that an analogous model holds for the case of space.
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Retrospectively obvious events are frequently missed when attention is engaged in another task—a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. Although the task characteristics that predict inattentional blindness rates are relatively well understood, the observer characteristics that predict inattentional blindness rates are largely unknown. Previously, expert radiologists showed a surprising rate of inattentional blindness to a gorilla photoshopped into a CT scan during lung-cancer screening. However, inattentional blindness rates were higher for a group of naïve observers performing the same task, suggesting that perceptual expertise may provide protection against inattentional blindness. Here, we tested whether expertise in radiology predicts inattentional blindness rates for unexpected abnormalities that were clinically relevant. Fifty radiologists evaluated CT scans for lung cancer. The final case contained a large (9.1 cm) breast mass and lymphadenopathy. When their attention was focused on searching for lung nodules, 66% of radiologists did not detect breast cancer and 30% did not detect lymphadenopathy. In contrast, only 3% and 10% of radiologists (N = 30), respectively, missed these abnormalities in a follow-up study when searching for a broader range of abnormalities. Neither experience, primary task performance, nor search behavior predicted which radiologists missed the unexpected abnormalities. These findings suggest perceptual expertise does not protect against inattentional blindness, even for unexpected stimuli that are within the domain of expertise.
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Background Intraoperative computed tomography (CT) is becoming more widely utilized in spine fusion surgeries. The use of CT-based image guidance has been shown to increase the accuracy in instrumentation placement and to reduce the rate of reoperation. However, incidental findings that are obvious in retrospect are still missed in spinal fusion surgeries due to the concept of inattentional blindness and surgeons' preoccupation with the main objective of intraoperative CT (i.e. instrumentation accuracy). Case description The first case describes a 60-year-old male who underwent posterior spinal laminectomy and interbody fusions from L2-L5. Intraoperative CT confirmed appropriate placement of hardware. However, when he was transferred out to the care unit and extubated, he developed a severe headache for which the source was confirmed to be a pneumocephalus from durotomy and cerebrospinal fluid leakage on repeat CT. A retrospective review of his intraoperative CT demonstrated the intrathecal air at L5-S1 interlaminar space that was missed on evaluation during surgery. The second case describes a 68-year-old female who was treated with a successful T4 to pelvis instrumentation and fusion with vertebral column resection at T10 confirmed with imaging. Postoperatively, she developed rapidly progressive oxygen desaturation and was found to have a pneumothorax which had been present on the intraoperative imaging. Conclusion This case report of two patients with missed intraoperative findings demonstrates the importance of looking beyond instrumentation placement and evaluating the entire intraoperative CT imaging to find abnormalities that could complicate the patients' postoperative recovery and overall hospital stay.
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With rapid advances in the field of autonomous vehicles (AVs), the ways in which human–vehicle interaction (HVI) will take place inside the vehicle have attracted major interest and, as a result, intelligent interiors are being explored to improve the user experience, acceptance, and trust. This is also fueled by parallel research in areas such as perception and control of robots, safe human–robot interaction, wearable systems, and the underpinning flexible/printed electronics technologies. Some of these are being routed to AVs. Growing number of network of sensors are being integrated into the vehicles for multimodal interaction to draw correct inferences of the communicative cues from the user and to vary the interaction dynamics depending on the cognitive state of the user and contextual driving scenario. In response to this growing trend, this timely article presents a comprehensive review of the technologies that are being used or developed to perceive user’s intentions for natural and intuitive in-vehicle interaction. The challenges that are needed to be overcome to attain truly interactive AVs and their potential solutions are discussed along with various new avenues for future research.
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This study compared the effects of simulated head-up display (HUD) and dashboard-mounted digital speedometers on key perceptual driving tasks in a simulated driving environment. Subjects were 20 male and female volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 51 years. A videotape, taken from the driver's perspective, of a car traveling along a memorized route served as the test scene. While viewing the test scene subjects performed tasks related to navigation, speed monitoring, and salient cue detection. The simulated HUD speedometer produced generally superior performance on the experimental tasks; most important, it enabled subjects to respond significantly more quickly to the salient cues. Implications for the effects of HUDs on automobile safety are discussed.
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In the United States, more than 45 million patients undergo inpatient surgical procedures yearly. A study published in the Journal of Patient Safety revealed that at least 210,000 patients go to the hospital for care and suffer some type of preventable harm that contributes to their death. Elderly patients compromise the majority of these deaths. The American Hospital Association estimates approximately 100,000 such deaths are related to failure to rescue. Although controversial, these data would make potentially preventable medical errors the third leading cause of death, behind heart disease and cancer.
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This article defends a theory of diffuse attention and distinguishes it from focal attention. My view is motivated by evidence from psychology and neuroscience, which suggests that we can deploy visual selective attention in at least two ways: by focusing on a small number of items, or by diffusing attention over a group of items taken as a whole. I argue that diffuse attention is selective and can be object‐based. It enables a subject to select an object to guide behavior, albeit in a different way than focusing does.
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This short Note offers a personal reflection about disability and fieldwork. It is not about how my disability, a long-term neurological condition, has affected my fieldwork. Rather, it is a series of thoughts about how my mobility issues might impact on my future fieldwork, but not only in a negative sense. The Note primarily discusses some of the ways that, potentially, my disability – which has changed how I interact with the world around me – might actually enhance my research and help to take it in new directions. I wrote the Note primarily for myself and for other researchers with disabilities, whether visible or hidden.
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The perceptual phenomenon of “inattentional blindness” has been widely acknowledged in the scientific literature for 30 years. In addition to the laboratory-based examples, real-life examples appear in the literature. This paper provides a case study where a deputy sheriff’s patrol car collided with a fleeing motorcyclist – with unique circumstances – as recorded on in-car-camera (ICC) videos. Although the motorcyclist brought suit alleging the deputy intentionally collided with him, the deputy reported that he first noticed another deputy running after the motorcyclist prior to seeing the fleeing motorcyclist. However, the ICC video from the involved deputy’s patrol car strongly supports the motorcyclist was visible from the deputy’s perspective before the on-foot deputy appeared. The facts of this incident are compared to the widely accepted characteristics of inattentional blindness in exploring whether that perceptual phenomenon may have been at play in this case.
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Background Research suggests that unconscious activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) precedes not only certain simple motor actions but also the point at which we become aware of our intention to perform such actions. The extent to which these findings have implications for our understanding of the concepts of free will and personal responsibility has been subject of intense debate during the latest four decades. Methods This research is discussed in relation to effects of neurosurgical removal of the SMA in a narrative review. Results Removal of the SMA typically causes a transient inability to perform non-stimulus-driven, voluntary actions. This condition, known as the SMA syndrome, does not appear to be associated with a loss of sense of volition but with a profound disruption of executive function/cognitive control. Conclusions The role of the SMA may be to serve as a gateway between the corticospinal tract and systems for executive function. Such systems are typically seen as tools for conscious decisions. What is known about effects of SMA resections would thus seem to suggest a view that is compatible with concepts of personal responsibility. However, the philosophical question whether free will exists cannot be definitely resolved on the basis of these observations.
Article
Research has repeatedly demonstrated that people with experience within a particular domain have exceptional cognitive abilities for domain-specific information. Chess masters, for instance, are far better at memorizing visually presented chess positions than amateurs, and professional American football experts are highly sensitive to semantic changes in domain-related scenes. However, for non-domain-related material, experts’ performance becomes similar to novice performance. But how does this apply to music? We compared experienced musicians’ and novices’ attentional function and visual working memory using the change blindness flicker paradigm. The task was to detect minor changes between two otherwise identical music scores of differing styles: traditional (C-major, regular rhythms), contemporary (atonal, irregular rhythms), and random (nonsense music). We expected that (1) experienced musicians would detect changes faster, (2) the between-group difference would be larger for traditional than contemporary music, and (3) the groups’ performance would be more similar for random music. The experienced musicians detected changes significantly faster in both the contemporary and traditional music material, whereas the difference was nonsignificant for the random condition. The difference between groups was largest for contemporary music, despite its higher level of complexity. We discuss these results in relation to existing literature on expertise in visual information processing.
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A megismerési és affektív folyamatokat vizsgáló modern kísérleti pszichológia és humán idegtudomány kimagasló eredményei fényében a vitacikk felhívja a figyelmet több fogalmi csúsztatásra, elméleti kérdések megoldatlanságára és módszertani problémákra. A hozzászólások szerzői részben kiegészítik, részben vitatják a felvetett kérdéseket, ezekre a vitacikk szerzője válaszol.
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Inattentional blindness occurs when one fails to notice a fully visible stimulus because one's attention is on another task. Researchers have suggested that expertise at this other task should reduce rates of inattentional blindness. However, research on the topic has produced mixed findings. To gain clarity on the issue, we meta-analyzed the extant studies ( K = 14; N = 1153). On average, experts showed only a slight reduction in rates of inattentional blindness: 62% of novices experienced inattentional blindness compared to 56% of experts, weighted odds ratio = 1.33, 95% CI [0.78, 2.28]. The relevance of the stimuli to the experts’ domain of expertise showed no notable moderating effects. The low number of the included studies, and the small sample sizes of the original studies, weaken our conclusions. Nonetheless, when taken together, the available evidence provides little support for any reliable influence of expertise on rates of inattentional blindness.
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The evolution of mobile games and the subsequent evolution of designing mobile gaming experiences to support learning is captured in this chapter. The authors will address the affordances and limitations of mobile gaming as well as the learning theories and frameworks that lay the foundation for learning through mobile games. Current perceptions of mobile gaming in the classroom and the implementation of mobile games in schools are discussed. In addition, this chapter explores mobile games for social change, their prevalence, and their role in facilitating learning. The chapter also discusses differing perceptions on the issue of mobile games in and out of the classroom as well as the potential for marketability.
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The inattentional blindness phenomenon refers to situations where a visible but unexpected stimulus remains consciously unnoticed by observers. This phenomenon is classically explained as the consequence of insufficient attention, because attentional resources are already engaged elsewhere or vary between individuals. However, this attentional-resources view is broad and often imprecise regarding the variety of attentional models, the different pools of resources that can be involved in attentional tasks and the heterogeneity of the experimental paradigms. Our aim was to investigate whether a classic theoretical model of attention, namely the Load Theory, could account for a large range of empirical findings in this field by distinguishing the role of perceptual and cognitive resources in attentional selection and attentional capture by irrelevant stimuli. Since this model has been mostly built on implicit measures of distractor interference, it is unclear whether its predictions also hold when explicit and subjective awareness of an unexpected stimulus is concerned. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of inattentional blindness studies investigating the role of perceptual and/or cognitive resources. The results reveal that, in line with the perceptual account of the Load Theory, inattentional blindness significantly increases with the perceptual load of the task. However, the cognitive account of this theory is not clearly supported by the empirical findings analyzed here. Furthermore, the interaction between perceptual and cognitive load on inattentional blindness remains understudied. Theoretical implications for the Load Theory are discussed, notably regarding the difference between attentional capture and subjective awareness paradigms, and further research directions are provided.
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This research compared the abilities of good and poor readers to attend selectively in a reading situation. 26 blocks of Ss (sixth-grade boys) matched on age and IQ participated in the test phase of the experiment. Each block consisted of 4 Ss, 2 good readers and 2 poor readers. 1 good and 1 poor reader from each block were randomly assigned to selective and control reading conditions, respectively. In the control condition, the reading passages were simply double-spaced and typed in black. In the selective reading condition, the same black passages were employed, but red words were typed between the lines. The most interesting finding of the research was that, relative to control performance, good readers in the selective reading condition made more comprehension errors that were intrusions from the red lines than did poor readers. These results were interpreted as lending support to an analysis-by-synthesis model of reading for meaning.
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Used a dichotic listening paradigm with simultaneous pairs of words to determine the level of processing of an unattended message for 32 undergraduates. Unattended message words were associatively related, semantically related, or unrelated to attended message words. Ss shadowed the attended words without error. Verbal RT to attended words was examined as a function of class of simultaneous unattended words. Ss were unable to recall unattended message words, but differences in RT as a function of semantic similarity indicate that the unattended message was selectively interfering with the attended message. It is concluded that an unattended message is processed at a semantic level even when the content cannot be reported by S. An unattended message is apparently not filtered at a peripheral level.
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Previous research on selective reading indicates that upon direct questioning Ss are usually unable to recall words that appear in irrelevant lines. In 3 experiments with male 6th graders (n = 24) and college freshmen (n = 31), a procedure was developed to examine the influence of the unattended lines on memory for the words in attended lines in selective reading. In each study, q of the Ss were given a set of selective reading passages to be read aloud. In the irrelevant lines of each passage were wrong answers to the questions which followed that story. The remainder of the Ss in each experiment read control passages without irrelevant lines. Results show that although Ss in the selective reading condition could not recall the words in the irrelevant lines, their answers to the questions following each passage were influenced by that "unattended" material. (French summary)
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Shock associated and then embedded city names in material presented to the nonattended channel of 36 undergraduates in a dichotic listening situation. Shock-associated city names gave rise to a significant number of autonomic responses even though Ss were not aware of them. Nonshock-associated city names also produced significantly more responses than controls. Shadowing efficiency was not impaired at the time of responding to the nonattended channel material. Findings are discussed in relation to some contemporary theories of selective attention.
Cognitive psychology New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1%7. Neisser, U. Selective reading: A method for the study of visual attention
  • U Neisser
Neisser, U. Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1%7. Neisser, U. Selective reading: A method for the study of visual attention. Paper presented to the 19th International Congress of Psychology, London, 1969.
Selective reading: A method for the study of visual attention
  • Neisser