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Task aversiveness and procrastination: A multi-dimensional approach to task aversiveness across stages of personal projects

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Abstract

The purpose of this research was to explore notions of task aversiveness across stages of personal projects. 95 female and 66 male undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology class completed Personal Projects Analysis (PPA; Little, 1983 [Personal projects: a rationale and method for investigation. Environment and Behaviour, 15, 273–309]). Based on theories of action proposed by and [Gollwitzer, P. M. (1990). The volitional benefits from planning. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh, The psychology of action: linking cognition and motivation to behaviour (pp. 287–312). New York: Guilford Press], respondents’ projects were sorted into four broad stages: inception, planning, action and termination. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that boredom, frustration and resentment emerge as PPA dimensions associated with task aversiveness at each stage of project development. Personal meaning, autonomy, structure, stress and negative emotions were also found to be related to task aversiveness, but these aspects of aversiveness varied across the stages of project development. As hypothesized, each principal component identified with task aversiveness was found to be positively related with procrastination. These findings are discussed in terms of previous research in the area of procrastination and Kuhl's theory of action [Kuhl, J. (1987). Action control: the maintenance of motivational states. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl, Motivation, intention and volition (pp. 279–291). New York: Springer-Verlag.; Kuhl, J. (1994). A theory of action and state orientations. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman, Volition and personality: action versus state orientation (pp. 9–46). Toronto: Hogrefe & Huber].

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... Therefore, we follow Barron and Hulleman's (2015) suggestion and consider students' appraisal of task-specific effort costs (the term effort is used throughout the following) as a third determinant of their behavioral intentions. Another determinant that has been shown to increase the risk that an intention will not be realized in time is the individual's perceived aversion toward engaging in a task (e.g., Lay, 1992;Milgram et al., 1995;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). While task aversiveness is a multifaceted construct (for a detailed analysis, see Blunt and Pychyl, 2000), most findings suggest that tasks perceived as aversive seem to be less personally meaningful and generally affectively unpleasant (Lay, 1992;Milgram et al., 1995;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). ...
... Another determinant that has been shown to increase the risk that an intention will not be realized in time is the individual's perceived aversion toward engaging in a task (e.g., Lay, 1992;Milgram et al., 1995;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). While task aversiveness is a multifaceted construct (for a detailed analysis, see Blunt and Pychyl, 2000), most findings suggest that tasks perceived as aversive seem to be less personally meaningful and generally affectively unpleasant (Lay, 1992;Milgram et al., 1995;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). Therefore, it seems highly likely that perceptions of task aversiveness will affect one's commitment to engage in goal-directed action (see also Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). ...
... Another determinant that has been shown to increase the risk that an intention will not be realized in time is the individual's perceived aversion toward engaging in a task (e.g., Lay, 1992;Milgram et al., 1995;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). While task aversiveness is a multifaceted construct (for a detailed analysis, see Blunt and Pychyl, 2000), most findings suggest that tasks perceived as aversive seem to be less personally meaningful and generally affectively unpleasant (Lay, 1992;Milgram et al., 1995;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). Therefore, it seems highly likely that perceptions of task aversiveness will affect one's commitment to engage in goal-directed action (see also Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). ...
Article
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Academic procrastination involves the delayed implementation of actions required to fulfill study-related tasks. These behavioral delays are thought to result from momentary failures in self-regulation (i.e., within-person processes). Most previous studies focused on the role of trait-based individual differences in students’ procrastination tendencies. Little is known about the within-person processes involved in the occurrence of procrastination behavior in real-life academic situations. The present study applied an event-based experience sampling approach to investigate whether the onset of task-specific delay behavior can be attributed to unfavorable changes in students’ momentary appraisals of tasks (value, aversiveness, effort, expectations of success), which may indicate failures in self-regulation arise between critical phases of goal-directed action. University students (N = 75) used an electronic diary over eight days to indicate their next days’ intentions to work on academic tasks and their task-specific appraisals (n = 582 academic tasks planned). For each task, a second query requested the next day determined whether students’ task-related appraisals changed and whether they implemented their intention on time or delayed working on the respective task (n = 501 completed task-specific measurements). Students’ general procrastination tendency was assessed at baseline using two established self-report questionnaires. Stepwise two-level logistic regression analyses revealed that within-person changes in task-related appraisals that reflected a devaluation of the study-related tasks increased the risk for an actual delay. The risk to delay decreased when students maintained a positive attitude toward the task. Students’ general procrastination tendency did not predict individual differences in their task-specific delay behavior. We discuss these findings in light of the growing effort to understand the within-person processes that contribute to induce procrastination behavior under real-life academic conditions and illustrate how this knowledge can benefit the design of tasks and instructions that support students’ self-regulation to their best. THIS ARTICLE IS PART OF THE RESEARCH TOPIC: New Perspectives on Procrastination, Volume II
... There are a lot of factors that influence ones tendency to procrastinate. Multiple studies identify personal factors, teacher factors, and task characteristics as causes of procrastination (Blunt and Pychyl, 2000;Choi and Moran, 2009;Shraw et al, 2007). ...
... Individual factors can be lack of motivation, laziness, self-control, organizational skills, or even perfectionism and fear of failure (Pychyl et al., 2000). Motivation is an important factor in causing procrastination. ...
... More studies have noted that procrastination may be linked to anxiety and fear of failure (Ferrari, 2000;Onwuegbuzie 2004). Not only is it affected by lack of self-confidence, but it is also linked with disorganization and poor timemanagement skills (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000). Schraw et al. (2007) also found that organizational skills are a contributor to procrastination when a student does not have these skills, they are more likely to postpone the tasks. ...
Preprint
IMPLICIT THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS CONCERNING ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION (Cristen, 2019) Implicit theories about academic procrastination (Cristen, 2019). Cristen took an open ended survey concerning student ideas about procrastination. According to the students ‘not being in the mood’ is the main reason to postpone study tasks. This can be explained as a motivational problem. Task difficulty and time to complete a task, course clarity (course design) are other important factors that contribute to procrastination. The more difficult, the longer an assignment and the harder to understand, the more likely students are to procrastinate. Procrastination has effect on their mental state, resulting in stress. They mention feelings like guilt, tiredness, or anxiety rather the having a negative effect on the quality of work
... Procrastination can thus negatively affect students' academic achievement (Gareau, Chamandy, Kljajic, & Gaudreau, 2019;Jiang, Rosenzweig, & Gaspard, 2018;Kim & Seo, 2015;Morris & Fritz, 2015;Yang et al., 2020). Procrastination, in turn, can be significantly influenced by students' expectancies and task values; that is: the more competent students feel and the more interesting or useful they perceive the tasks to be, the less likely they are to postpone the tasks (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Wu & Fan, 2017). In contrast, the more costs students perceive and the less they value the tasks, the more likely they are to voluntarily delay the tasks despite the expectancy to be worse off for the delay (Wolters, 2003). ...
... The four positive value beliefs (i.e., intrinsic value, attainment value, utility for daily life, utility for career) are negatively related to test anxiety (Ahmed et al., 2010;Bonaccio & Reeve, 2010;Chou, 2018;Drysdale & McBeath, 2018;Pintrich et al., 1993;Roick & Ringeisen, 2017;Üner et al., 2020;Varasteh et al., 2016) and procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Wu & Fan, 2017), while cost and test anxiety are positively related to procrastination (Barutçu Yıldırım et al., 2020;Krispenz et al., 2019;Steel, 2007;Van Eerde, 2003;Wolters, 2003). ...
Article
The present study with 353 students aimed to examine the validity of a questionnaire called the Value Beliefs Questionnaire for University Students (VBQU) measuring five value beliefs among university students, namely: intrinsic value, attainment value, cost, utility for daily life, and utility for career. Furthermore, this study strived to explore the situated expectancy-value theory by linking those five value beliefs to multiple individual characteristics of university students (i.e., academic self-concept, procrastination, test anxiety, academic achievement). Results of CFA provided strong support for a 5-factor structure and a hierarchical structure of four major value factors (i.e., intrinsic, attainment, cost, utility) and two utility factors. Significant intercorrelations among the five value beliefs and correlations of the five value beliefs with the other individual characteristics of university students also established validity evidence of the VBQU. In line with (S)EVT, academic self-concept and intrinsic value significantly interacted with each other in predicting academic achievement.
... Research and treatment of work-related problems has primarily focused on procrastination (11,12), i.e., the act of postponing or delaying tasks until the last minute or past the deadline. Procrastination is consistently related to the aversiveness of tasks and duties, i.e., less pleasant tasks are the ones most frequently associated with procrastination (13). However, procrastination represents just one type of workrelated problems among others. ...
... According to some authors, clinical experience and research evidence show that problems related to procrastination cannot simply be addressed by advice on better time management or by putting together to-do-lists (13,40). Thus, more deeply rooted dysfunctional aspects have to be targeted in those suffering from more severe work-related problems (25,40). ...
Article
Full-text available
Work-related mental problems can be defined as behaviors, emotions and cognitions that impede the successful completion of a task in a given time frame, i. e., the difficulty or inability to achieve important work-related goals. They are highly prevalent but have been neglected in psychology in general and as a target of psychotherapy in particular. Although work-related problems do not represent a mental disorder per se, they are associated with severe distress and high psychosocial costs. In this article, the prevalence of work-related problems, associated burden, diagnostic assessment and treatment are reviewed. So far, research has primarily focused on procrastination, i.e., the act of postponing or delaying tasks until the last minute or past the deadline. However, procrastination represents just one type of work-related problems among several others. Further forms of work-related problems are presented (e.g., perfectionism, or work-related problems in the context of specific personality types). The relation of work-related problems to specific mental disorders is discussed. Psychosocial interventions are the treatment of choice for work-related mental problems. However, response rates for the treatment of procrastination are limited, which calls for further research into which treatments work for whom. No evidence-based treatments are currently available for other types of work-related problems, with the exception of perfectionism, a personality trait that is also linked to problems in the field of work. Thus, there is a need to further improve the treatment of work-related problems including procrastination. For other types of work-related problems, effective treatments need to be developed and validated. They may be based on existing manualized treatments and extended by specific aspects or modules focusing on work-related problems.
... 3 Task avoidance, task requirements, and the degree of reasonableness of work resources are all associated with employee procrastination behavior. 4,5 Meanwhile, responsibility as a personal trait is considered to be an important factor in understanding employee procrastination. For example, employees with a low sense of responsibility typically engage in procrastination. ...
... For example, employees with a low sense of responsibility typically engage in procrastination. 5,6 The aforementioned presentation suggests that responsibility can be an effective inhibition of employee procrastination. 7 The occurrence of responsible behavior, however, is associated with the emotional state of the individual. ...
Article
Purpose: Prior work suggests that responsibility is negatively associated with employee procrastination behavior. Based on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we suggest this view is oversimplified and propose that procrastination can be induced when employees have congruent job and family responsibilities via the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion. Methods: This is a quantitative study of the configurational approach. Survey data were collected from 323 employees at two stages in southern Chinese internet enterprises in September 2020. A randomized cluster sample was used and an anonymous self-assessment questionnaire was distributed to all selected respondents (employees). Samples involved different departments, and the procrastination phenomenon is more significant among them. SPSS20.2 and MPLUS 8.3 software and Response Surface Analysis Strategy were used to test the hypotheses. Results: The data analysis results indicated that: a) employee procrastination behavior is higher when employees' job responsibility and family responsibility are congruent than the incongruent configurations. b) Procrastination is lower when job-family dyads are congruent at high levels of responsibility compared the low levels. c) Procrastination decreases as employees' job and family responsibilities become more discrepant (ie, incongruent); employees with low job-high family responsibilities procrastinate more than those with high job-low family responsibilities. d) Additionally, employee-experienced emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship in four configurations between job-family responsibilities congruence and procrastination behavior. Conclusion: Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, we proposed a model clarifying how varying combinations of job and family responsibilities affect employee procrastination behavior. The results showed that there are significant differences in the impact of different job-family responsibility combinations on employee procrastination behavior. Employee procrastination behavior is higher when employees' job-family responsibility are congruent than the incongruent configurations. Additionally, employee-experienced emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship in four configurations between job-family responsibilities congruence and procrastination behavior.
... In practice, decisional procrastination is a failure to make a decision in a certain time range [32] and, in light of this dysfunctional tendency, individuals intentionally choose to accomplish other tasks perceived as less stressful for them; they undervalue the time needed to complete the task, believing that they will meet the deadline [33]. According to some researchers, two methods can be used to study the tendency to postpone, to avoid the start of, to engage in, and to complete a very difficult task: the first considers procrastination as a behavioral pattern strictly linked to the characteristics of a certain situation [8,34], while the second contemplates it as a stable trait of personality [2,35,36]. The most famous measures applied to assess procrastination are represented by the General Procrastination Scale [37], the Adult Inventory of Procrastination [38], the Decisional Procrastination Scale [39], the Tuckman Procrastination Scale [40], and the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students [41]. ...
... Procrastination is associated with different personality traits and variables, such as task aversiveness [7,8]; difficulties with time management and postponing gratification [9][10][11]; neuroticism [12][13][14][15]; high levels of anxiety and fear related to failure [16,17]; low resilience, inadequate coping strategies, and external locus of control [18]; low self-efficacy and reduced self-esteem [2,19]; low academic achievement [20]; high levels of self-consciousness, self-criticism, and perfectionism [3,11,21,22]; and difficulties in self-regulation [23,24]. Regarding the relation to academic achievement, some scholars have studied the negative style, mainly utilized by individuals who tend to procrastinate a decision; and (e)the spontaneous style, typically chosen by individuals who are guided by a sense of immediacy and by a tendency to complete the decision-making process as quickly as possible. ...
Article
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In this paper decision-making styles, locus of control, and average grades in exams are examined as correlates of procrastination in a sample of 185 university students (mainly female students) recruited from mandatory courses for degrees in psychology and pedagogy at the University of Catania (Italy). Method: We used the Decisional Procrastination Scale (Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995), consisting of five Likert-type items useful for analyzing the procrastination; the Decision-Making Styles (Di Nuovo & Magnano, 2013), chosen for measuring the doubtfulness, delay, proxy, and no problem styles with 15 Likert-type items; the Locus of Control of Behavior Scale (Craig, Franklin, & Andrews, 1984) used to evaluate internal and external loci of control. The data were gathered through an online anonymous questionnaire and were analyzed using the multiple linear regression model to assess how styles of decision-making, locus of control, and average grades in exams affect the decision to procrastinate in university students. The main findings of this study indicate that doubtfulness and delay decision-making styles correlate with high decisional procrastination together with low average grades at university exams. Locus of control is excluded by the proposed model. Conclusions: These findings suggest pursuing a deeper investigation of the various types of procrastination and the measures used for analyzing the academic achievement in university students.
... It is well documented that negative emotions are potentially powerful drivers of procrastinatory behavior, as delay may be instrumental in mood repair and avoidance of aversive events (e.g., Blunt and Pychyl, 2000;Wohl et al., 2010;Pollack and Herres, 2020). The emotions of shame, guilt, or regret address negative feelings related to past events and are of particular interest in the present context. ...
... Although the directional relationship between these constructs is not determined, LoE may both act as an antecedent factor in procrastination and as a consequence. For example, low energy increases the likelihood that work becomes aversive, and as task aversiveness is a strong predictor of procrastination (e.g., Blunt and Pychyl, 2000;Grunschel et al., 2013;Laybourn et al., 2019), procrastination may result. However, working with difficult tasks (e.g., academic tasks) may itself be more energy-demanding compared to working with simpler tasks, speaking for a reversal of the causal chain. ...
Article
Full-text available
Standard definitions of procrastination underscore the irrational nature of this habit, a critical criterion being that the procrastinating individual delays despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. However, an examination of more than 175 items in 18 procrastination scales reveals that they do not address such a forward-looking criterion. Consequently, scales run the risk of not separating maladaptive and irrational delays from other forms of delay. We propose that forward-looking considerations may not be the best way of operationalizing the irrationality involved in procrastination and argue that scales should instead focus on past negative consequences of unnecessary delay. We suggest a new scale to measure such procrastination-related negative consequences and demonstrate that this scale, used separately or combined with established procrastination scales, performs better in predicting negative states and correlates to procrastination than established scales. The new scale seems to be helpful in separating trivial forms of unnecessary delay from maladaptive forms and hence represents a potentially valuable tool in research and clinical/applied efforts.
... Aus einer differentialpsychologischen Perspektive zeigen sich beispielsweise starke negative Zusammenhänge mit Gewissenhaftigkeit und moderate positive Zusammenhänge mit Neurotizismus (Steel, 2007;van Eerde, 2003). Als mögliche kontextuelle Bedingungsvariablen von Prokrastination wurden auch Merkmale von Aufgaben (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000) und instruktionale Merkmale von Lehrveranstaltungen (Ackerman & Gross, 2005) untersucht. In den letzten Jahren wird akademische Prokrastination zunehmend als Resultat einer defizitären Selbstregulation (Pychyl & Flett, 2012;Steel, 2007) oder eines defizitären selbstregulierten Lernens (Wolters, 2003a) betrachtet. ...
... Allgemein existiert eine Vielzahl von Theorien zur Beschreibung von Motivation (Urhahne, 2008). Erwartungs-Wert-Theorien sind besonders gut zur Erklärung der Entstehung aktueller Lern-und Leistungsmotivation geeignet (Dresel & Lämmle, 2017 Blunt & Pychyl, 2000). Für die Forschungsaktivitäten im Projekt ProkRASt erschienen neben einer gemeinsamen Analyse von Erwartung und Wert die differenzierte Betrachtung der einzelnen Wertkomponenten sowie der bislang vernachlässigten Kostenkomponente lohnenswert (Flake et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Im Rahmen des BMBF-Verbundprojektes „Prokrastination als Risikofaktor für den Abbruch des Studiums“ (ProkRASt) wurden potentielle Ursachen von Studienabbruchintentionen, die im individuellen Studienprozess zu verorten sind, sowie Wechselwirkungen zwischen ihnen umfassend untersucht. Konkret analysierten die Projektpartner*innen, inwiefern personale und kontextuelle Variablen sowie Aspekte der Motivations- und Handlungsregulation Prokrastination bedingen und Prokrastination wiederum – vermittelt über Wohlbefinden, Motivation und Leistung – einen Risikofaktor für ausbleibenden Studienerfolg und Studienabbruch darstellt. Dabei wurden die theoretischen Annahmen in insgesamt acht quer- und längsschnittlichen Studien empirisch überprüft. Zentrale Ergebnisse des Projekts sind zum einen sechs für den deutschsprachigen Hochschulkontext entwickelte reliable und valide Messinstrumente. Zum anderen wurden zahlreiche Forschungsbefunde ermittelt, die Annahmen zur Bedeutung und zum Zusammenspiel der im Projekt untersuchten Bedingungsfaktoren und zur Entwicklung von Studienabbruchintentionen stützen. Die umfangreichen und differenzierten Ergebnisse offenbaren zentrale Ansatzpunkte für die Gestaltung von Hochschulbildung sowie von Beratung, Prävention und Intervention zur Förderung von Studienerfolg und zur Reduktion von Studienabbruch.
... Students avoid working on assignments which make them feel uncomfortable. They delay less when assignments are perceived as interesting and include clear instructions (Akerman & Gross, 2005), and more often delay assignments perceived as dreary, frustrating and vague (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Nordby, Klingsieck & Svartdal, 2017). Studies have found a strong correlation between being deterred by an assignment and procrastinating in the face of it (Wilson & Neguyen, 2012). ...
Article
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This qualitative study examines academic procrastination among Israeli Master of Education students writing their theses. The majority of the the participants (80% of the 145) reported behaving differently on this task than on other assignments. One of the primary factors influencing procrastination derives from the complexity of the assignment. Considering the research literature describes tight relationships between academic procrastination and academic achievement, one surprising finding concerns the fact that respondents saw no relationship between their procrastination and their final grade. A gap was found between students' self-perception and their actual performance. Approximately 75% of the students perceive themselves as academic procrastinators, but in actuality nearly half of them completed the assignment on time. The starting date was found to be significant. Students who immediately began work upon receiving the assignment strongly tended to submit it on time. Students who did not begin early completed the project later than the scheduled date, if at all. Practitioner Notes Practitioner Notes 1. There are challenges to responding to student procrastination 2. Procrastination has a direct effect on student achievement 3. There is a gap between students' self-perception and their actual performance. 4. The complexity of the assignment has an effect on procrastination
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
Chapter
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Todo o conteúdo deste livro está licenciado sob uma Licença de Atribuição Creative Commons. Atribuição-Não-Comercial-NãoDerivativos 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). O conteúdo dos artigos e seus dados em sua forma, correção e confiabilidade são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores, inclusive não representam necessariamente a posição oficial da Atena Editora. Permitido o download da obra e o compartilhamento desde que sejam atribuídos créditos aos autores, mas sem a possibilidade de alterá-la de nenhuma forma ou utilizá-la para fins comerciais. Todos os manuscritos foram previamente submetidos à avaliação cega pelos pares, membros do Conselho Editorial desta Editora, tendo sido aprovados para a publicação com base em critérios de neutralidade e imparcialidade acadêmica. A Atena Editora é comprometida em garantir a integridade editorial em todas as etapas do processo de publicação, evitando plágio, dados ou resultados fraudulentos e impedindo que interesses financeiros comprometam os padrões éticos da publicação. Situações suspeitas de má conduta científica serão investigadas sob o mais alto padrão de rigor acadêmico e ético.
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Todo o conteúdo deste livro está licenciado sob uma Licença de Atribuição Creative Commons. Atribuição-Não-Comercial-NãoDerivativos 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). O conteúdo dos artigos e seus dados em sua forma, correção e confiabilidade são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores, inclusive não representam necessariamente a posição oficial da Atena Editora. Permitido o download da obra e o compartilhamento desde que sejam atribuídos créditos aos autores, mas sem a possibilidade de alterá-la de nenhuma forma ou utilizá-la para fins comerciais. Todos os manuscritos foram previamente submetidos à avaliação cega pelos pares, membros do Conselho Editorial desta Editora, tendo sido aprovados para a publicação com base em critérios de neutralidade e imparcialidade acadêmica. A Atena Editora é comprometida em garantir a integridade editorial em todas as etapas do processo de publicação, evitando plágio, dados ou resultados fraudulentos e impedindo que interesses financeiros comprometam os padrões éticos da publicação. Situações suspeitas de má conduta científica serão investigadas sob o mais alto padrão de rigor acadêmico e ético.
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Todo o conteúdo deste livro está licenciado sob uma Licença de Atribuição Creative Commons. Atribuição-Não-Comercial-NãoDerivativos 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). O conteúdo dos artigos e seus dados em sua forma, correção e confiabilidade são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores, inclusive não representam necessariamente a posição oficial da Atena Editora. Permitido o download da obra e o compartilhamento desde que sejam atribuídos créditos aos autores, mas sem a possibilidade de alterá-la de nenhuma forma ou utilizá-la para fins comerciais. Todos os manuscritos foram previamente submetidos à avaliação cega pelos pares, membros do Conselho Editorial desta Editora, tendo sido aprovados para a publicação com base em critérios de neutralidade e imparcialidade acadêmica. A Atena Editora é comprometida em garantir a integridade editorial em todas as etapas do processo de publicação, evitando plágio, dados ou resultados fraudulentos e impedindo que interesses financeiros comprometam os padrões éticos da publicação. Situações suspeitas de má conduta científica serão investigadas sob o mais alto padrão de rigor acadêmico e ético.
... A recent temporal decision model of procrastination suggests that procrastination comes from a trade-off between procrastination motivation and execution motivation . Specifically, procrastination motivation results from anticipated negative task-engagement (negative engagement) (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000), while the execution motivation results from anticipated positive task-outcome (positive outcome) (Steel & K€ onig, 2006;Strunk, Cho, Steele, & Bridges, 2013). Once the utility of anticipated negative engagement outweighs the utility of anticipated positive outcome that this task can yield, people will tend to procrastinate this task. ...
Article
Theories on procrastination have proposed that the trade-off between the episodic future thinking (EFT) of positive outcome and negative engagement determines whether to procrastinate. Yet, the neural substrates underlying EFT affects procrastination remain poorly understood. Thus, we adopt a free construction method to obtain individuals' EFT thoughts toward procrastination tasks, and coded these thoughts based on the 2 (emotional valence: positive VS. negative) × 2 (imaginary direction: outcome VS. engagement) model of EFT (2 × 2 model). Next, a regression analysis was utilized to test the relationship between each dimension in the 2×2 model and execution willingness. To explore the neuroanatomical structures underlying EFT, the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted to find out brain regions responsible for EFT. In addition, the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis was also utilized to examine the neural pathways underlying EFT affects procrastination. Behavioral results showed combine the anticipated positive outcome with anticipated negative engagement can best predict execution willingness. The VBM analysis revealed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was positively correlated with anticipated positive outcome, while the right hippocampus was positively correlated with anticipated negative engagement. The RSFC results indicated that DLPFC functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG) and left precuneus were positively associated with anticipated positive outcome, whereas the hippocampus connectivity with the left insula was positively associated with anticipated negative engagement. Structural equation model results suggest that EFT affects procrastination through the cognitive control pathway (DLPFC-IFG, DLPFC-precuneus) and emotional processing pathway (hippocampus-insula). Collectively, these findings suggest that task procrastination can be predicted by the interaction of the top-down cognitive control pathway and bottom-up emotional processing pathway.
... Within traditional procrastination research, procrastination is often regarded as a character trait or behavioral disposition that remains stable across time and contexts (e.g., Schouwenburg and Lay, 1995;Lay, 1997;van Eerde, 2000). However, a growing body of literature is coming to the front that points to the dynamic nature of procrastination, suggesting that changes in procrastination behavior over time may occur due to contextual and task-related factors (Senécal et al., 1997;Blunt and Pychyl, 2000;Wolters, 2003;Moon and Illingworth, 2005;Steel, 2007;Wäschle et al., 2014;Chen and Han, 2017;Nordby et al., 2017;Steel et al., 2018). The already mentioned study of Ziegler and Opdenakker (2018) is in line with this view. ...
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Motivation plays an important role in students’ school behavior, and research has established that students’ learning environment experiences such as teachers’ behavior toward them contribute to their motivation and behavior at school. Self-determination theory (SDT) offers an interesting frame of reference in the study of the relationship between students’ learning experiences at school and their school behavior. Considering three basic psychological needs (the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness), the SDT points to the importance of nutriments and support in the social environment in order to allow growth in motivation, engagement, and (psychological) well-functioning. In addition, thwarting these needs is supposed to contribute to maladaptive functioning. Teachers can play an important role in the fulfillment of students’ basic psychological needs by delivering support (autonomy support, structure, and involvement); however, controlling instructional behavior, chaos in the classroom, and teacher rejection and neglect are supposed to be a treat to the fulfillment of students’ basic psychological needs. In the current innovative longitudinal study, teachers’ need-supportive behavior as well as teachers’ thwarting of these needs are considered and their relationship with students’ academic engagement (adaptive functioning) and procrastination behavior (maladaptive functioning) is studied. In addition, attention is paid to differential effects of teachers’ behavior with regard to boys and girls. Participants were 566 students belonging to 20 mathematics/English grade 1 secondary education classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses revealed evidence for the importance of both teachers’ need-supportive and need-thwarting behaviors in relation to students’ academic engagement and procrastination behavior. In addition, the findings revealed that teachers’ need-supportive behavior is more important for students’ academic engagement (adaptive functioning), while teachers’ need-thwarting behavior has larger effects on students’ procrastination behavior (maladaptive functioning). Furthermore, evidence was found that boys often seemed to be more sensitive to their teachers’ behavior than girls. The findings highlight the importance of both teachers’ need-supportive and need-thwarting behaviors in daily classrooms and contribute to deepen our insight into and understanding of factors leading to adaptive and maladaptive functioning of boys and girls in relation to learning tasks at school.
... As shown in previous studies, conscientious and persistent people more often pursue long-term goals, so they do not put momentary pleasure over their plans and ambitions, which could be hindered by reduced functioning during the day as a result of fatigue (Tedesqui and Young, 2018). Industrious people should also find it easier to overcome their aversion to a given task; this is considered one of the most important predictors of procrastination (Blunt and Pychyl, 2000) and is also associated with low conscientiousness (Watson, 2001). Given that sleep itself is generally not perceived as something unpleasant, aversion is supposed to involve interrupting pleasant activities (Kroese et al., 2014) or performing routine tasks that people usually do before bedtime, e.g., walking the dog or flossing teeth (Nauts et al., 2018). ...
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Getting good and sufficiently long sleep at night is important for health, effective functioning, and well-being. However, insufficient or delayed sleep are important and growing social problems that can lead to fatigue, poor performance, deterioration of well-being, circadian rhythm disturbances, and health problems. One of the significant determinants of sleep deprivation is bedtime procrastination, which is understood as the individual tendency to postpone going to bed in the absence of any external circumstances that force one to do so. Nowadays, this phenomenon is widespread in various social groups, especially among students. Despite the high prevalence of bedtime procrastination, its relationship with personality characteristics has not yet been thoroughly studied. The presented research aimed to identify the possible impact of the basic dispositional personality traits and trait-like personality characteristics on bedtime procrastination and daytime fatigue resulting from a deficiency of sleep at night. The responses from 399 university students who voluntarily took part in an internet survey were analyzed. The severity of bedtime procrastination was assessed using the Bedtime Procrastination Scale. Five basic dispositional personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness/intellect) and their components (aspects) were measured using the International Personality Item Pool-Big Five Aspects Scale. Self-esteem and general self-efficacy were assessed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Perceived locus of control was measured using the Delta Questionnaire. The direct and indirect relationships between personality variables and daytime fatigue were investigated using linear regression models with bedtime procrastination as a mediator variable. Industriousness and orderliness, both of which are aspects of conscientiousness, were found to be indirectly associated with daytime fatigue as a consequence of their impact on bedtime procrastination. Volatility and withdrawal, both of which are aspects of neuroticism, were found to be directly related to daytime fatigue without the intermediary impact of bedtime procrastination. Self-esteem was shown to be associated with experiencing daytime fatigue, both directly and indirectly through bedtime procrastination. General self-efficacy and external locus of control were Frontiers in Neuroscience | www.frontiersin.org 1 September 2021 | Volume 15 | Article 727440 Herzog-Krzywoszanska et al. Personality, Bedtime Procrastination, and Fatigue associated with daytime fatigue only directly, without the intermediary role of bedtime procrastination. The results of our research indicate that personality factors may not only play an important role in shaping sleep-related health behaviors, but they also affect well-being during the day.
... Such engagement seems to be absent in procrastinators, making them vulnerable to impairment of self-control in aversive situations. Indeed, negative emotions related to tasks were shown to lead to procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000), ...
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Procrastination is a self-regulation failure in which people irrationally delay intended actions which leads to lower performance, satisfaction from achievements, and quality of life. Trait procrastination is estimated to affect 15% to 20% of the total population, and previous studies have shown procrastination to be related to impulsivity, emotion dysregulation, and executive dysfunctions, making it a good nonclinical example of a self-regulation disorder. Our previous fMRI results revealed impaired error processing (lower error-related activity of the anterior cingulate cortex) and lack of ability to intensify executive-control during the punishment context (no increase in activity in prefrontal regions) in procrastinators. This led us to the question of whether procrastination is related to impaired learning on errors and punishments. Low (LP) and high (HP) procrastinating students took part in a modified monetary probabilistic reversal learning task with separated reward and punishment conditions. Half of the participants started with reward and half with the punishment condition. Several learning models and model-free measures were applied to the collected behavioral data. Results suggest lower flexibility in the learning task in HP subjects, which can further decrease during the punishment condition. Moreover, HP subjects who began with the punishment condition tended to be less flexible throughout the rest of the task. These results suggest that impaired learning from errors and punishments may prevent highly procrastinating subjects from correcting their behaviors and add to the persistence of procrastination. We also conclude that impaired learning on errors and punishments might be a more general mechanism underpinning other self-regulation disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... The thought that firms might force consumers to accept changes in updated products will become more irritating, as consumers perceive a lack of autonomy in adoption. Such lack of autonomy in tasks to be performed has been shown to increase procrastination (Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). Therefore, we expect that consumers will procrastinate adoption because they need to cope with stronger annoyance. ...
Article
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Users of digital products (such as mobile apps or software) are frequently offered new versions in the form of updates. While updates can deliver benefits, they may also interfere with the ongoing use of digital products. We investigate why digital product users might delay implementing adoption intentions (which we term adoption procrastination) of updates. Three experimental studies show that while users may intend to adopt new versions, they deliberately delay adopting them under certain conditions. Specifically, we identify how perceived changes in the new version can trigger annoyance, leading to adoption procrastination. We further identify anticipated inaction regret as a counteracting mechanism, which reduces adoption procrastination. Our research makes theoretical and empirical contributions to consumer innovation adoption literature. First, we introduce the novel concept of adoption procrastination, expanding previously examined adoption-related decisions. Second, we propose and empirically test cognitive and affective mechanisms determining digital product users’ adoption procrastination.
... Sin embargo, no existe claridad en cuanto a una definición operacional del término aversión a la tarea. Por ejemplo, para Blunt (1998), las tareas son aversivas cuando existen altas expectativas de ejecución, cuando no hay incentivos durante el proceso de realización o cuando son ambiguas. ...
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El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto del requerimiento de respuesta sobre la procrastinación en participantes humanos. Se realizaron cuatro experimentos (y dos sub-experimentos) en los que participaron estudiantes universitarios (entre 18 y 20 años de edad; 70% mujeres y 30% hombres) que recibieron a cambio puntos extra en una asignatura escolar. El escenario experimental consistió en un escritorio sobre el que se dispuso una laptop con el software para la tarea experimental junto con distractores (excepto en el Experimento 1, en el cual los distractores se dispusieron en una mesa diferente). La tarea experimental consistió en una serie de ejercicios (100 durante fases con requerimiento de respuesta bajo y 200 durante fases con requerimiento de respuesta alto) en los cuales los participantes debían comparar por inspección visual la cantidad de puntos verdes y de puntos azules desplegados en el monitor e indicar presionando un botón (colocado en el mismo monitor) si la cantidad de puntos verdes era mayor o menor que la cantidad de puntos azules. Los distractores empleados fueron cinco revistas de cultura popular, un televisor con su respectivo control remoto, alimentos y acceso a internet con el cual se podían consultar redes sociales, revisar videos u otros contenidos de interés. Los participantes fueron expuestos a tres fases: dos con requerimiento de respuesta bajo y una con requerimiento de respuesta alto (se aplicó control por contrabalanceo). Los eventos fueron registrados con una videocámara y se contabilizó como procrastinación el tiempo invertido en los distractores hasta concluir con la tarea experimental. Los resultados de los cuatro experimentos fueron similares: aunque no se observaron efectos sistemáticos del requerimiento de respuesta alto, unos cuantos participantes (entre dos y cuatro de cada experimento) procrastinaron de manera consistente durante la mayoría de las fases. Además se observó que hubo otros participantes que no procrastinaron nunca. En cuanto al porcentaje de aciertos en la tarea, no varió según los dos perfiles de desempeño mencionados. Se discute que la procrastinación podría ajustarse a lo que en Teoría Interconductual se conoce como estilo interactivo y se sugiere que el fenómeno podría ser evaluado para determinar si se incluye o no en la taxonomía de Ribes (1990).
... In contrast to people with a sleep disorder, bedtime procrastinators get insufficient sleep not because they are physically unable to sleep, but because they stay up late despite their best intentions (Nauts & Kroese, 2018). Procrastination usually implies putting off tasks considered aversive, that is, activities that people find boring, difficult, or unpleasant (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000). However, it seems unlikely that aversion plays the same role in relation to sleep, which for most people is a pleasant experience (Gershuny, 2013). ...
Article
A recent line of research concerns bedtime procrastination, its effects on sleep quality and duration, and the associated repercussions for health and wellbeing. The Bedtime Procrastination Scale is a brief, self-report instrument developed by Kroese et al. with the aim of evaluating this behavior and exploring its association with insufficient sleep, and hence with health. The aim was to develop and validate a Spanish version of the Bedtime Procrastination Scale (BPS-Sp) and to examine the relationship between bedtime procrastination and both general procrastination and self-control. The original BPS was translated from English into Spanish in accordance with international guidelines on the cross-cultural adaptation of measurement instruments. The sample for the validation study comprised 177 nursing students who completed a questionnaire requesting demographic data and which included the following instruments: the newly developed BPS-Sp, the Tuckman Procrastination Scale, and the Brief Self-Control Scale. Statistical analysis involved tests of normality (Kolmogorov-Smirnov), reliability (Cronbach’s alpha, test-retest), construct validity, and confirmatory factor analysis. Scores on the BPS-Sp showed excellent internal consistency (α = .83) and temporal stability (test-retest r = .84), as well as significant correlations with general procrastination (r = .26; p < .01) and self-control (r = −.17; p < .05). Confirmatory factor analysis showed an adequate fit for the single-factor solution proposed by Kroese et al. The results suggest that the BPS-Sp is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing bedtime procrastination in the Spanish-speaking population. https://journals.sagepub.com/eprint/7A2T7W49WKWA7PJZQZJ2/full
... Th e behavioral approach to procrastination connects disorders of the self-regulatory system with an impulsive need for immediate reinforcements as the most important predictor of procrastination (Tice, & Bratslavsky, 2000;Tappolet, 2010;Sirois, 2004). Lack of motivation (Steel, & König, 2006;Steel, & Weinhardt, 2018), as well as treating tasks as aversive (Blunt, & Pychyl, 2000;Evans, Baer, & Segerstrom, 2009), are also considered to be important behavioral predictors of procrastination. At the same time, Steel (2007) argues that gender, nationality and a place of residence are signifi cant factors associated with procrastination. ...
... This experiential avoidance, or an unwillingness to encounter unpleasant experiences, such as anxiety, is a key component of psychological inflexibility (Sutcliff et al., 2019). Tasks that are considered to be difficult and challenging and do not provide instant rewards tend to be delayed and avoided (Blunt and Pychyl, 2000;Sirois and Pychyl, 2013;Steel, 2007). Escaping from stressful and aversive situations might relieve stress and are thus rewarding. ...
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Procrastination is consistently viewed as problematic to academic success and students’ general well-being. There are prevailing questions regarding the underlying and maintaining mechanisms of procrastination which are yet to be learnt. The aim of the present study was to combine different ways to explain procrastination and explore how students’ time and effort management skills, psychological flexibility and academic self-efficacy are connected to procrastination as they have been commonly addressed separately in previous studies. The data were collected from 135 students who participated in a voluntary time management and well-being course in autumn 2019. The results showed that students’ ability to organize their time and effort has the strongest association with procrastination out of the variables included in the study. Psychological flexibility also has a strong individual role in explaining procrastination along with time and effort management skills. Surprisingly, academic self-efficacy did not have a direct association with procrastination. Interestingly, our findings further suggest that time and effort management and psychological flexibility are closely related and appear to go hand in hand and, thus, both need to be considered when the aim is to reduce procrastination. The implications of the findings are further discussed.
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
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The one-dimensional procrastination theory is dominant and impacts clinical practice. However, structural validity studies provide evidence that this model should be refuted. This study proposes the Bi-factor Hierarchical Model of Procrastination as an alternative to the dominant model. The object of this work is to present the Model rationale, as well as the Procrastination Mechanisms Questionnaire, created to empirically test the Model. This paper also presents initial evidence of the validity of the Model, by means of the analysis of content validity, in which eleven raters rated the Questionnaire items in terms of their targeted dimensions. The rating proved to be reliable and consistent with the original rating by the authors in the vast majority of items. Diverging ratings were analyzed and some items were modified. In summary, the initial evidence is favorable. Lastly, future studies that investigate the internal structure of the Questionnaire and its association with related constructs and clinical outcomes are essential to obtain more solid evidence of the validity of the Model.
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
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... The motivation for building this A.I. comes from years of personal observations of fellow students and coworkers who regularly struggle with time management and goal planning. Inability (due to lacking the required skills), or avoidance of these planning activities have proven to have negative results on academic performance (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000). ...
Article
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Many students do not set goals or plan their time weekly (due to lack of ability, perceived difficulty, and other reasons) resulting in procrastination, stress, and lower academic performance. This paper presents the design methodology and considerations for a human assistive AI agent that helps students review and plan for study goals, reducing a large abstract problem into a set of simpler review tasks. J.A.R.E.T. (Just A Recommender Engine for Time) uses key principles from Self-Regulated Learning and Cognitive Load Theory in an interactive system that guides students through focused goal review and planning tasks, then uses a constraint satisfaction AI agent to assemble a proposed calendar schedule designed to help achieve the student’s goals. The AI agent uses hard and soft constraints with a value function designed and searches for a best fit that follows constraints while trying to also fit student preferences. Results show that the design is able to reliably build recommended solutions when constraints and preferences are reasonable and not overly restrictive.
... When individuals are confident in their ability to enact appropriate actions to obtain desired outcomes, they are more likely to persist, enjoy, and succeed in a task (Bandura, 1982). Past research found that perceived choice reduces the perceived task aversiveness and stress of performing effortful tasks (Blunt and Pychyl, 2000). When people find the task less aversive, they may have stronger confidence to manage it. ...
Article
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Past research suggested that when individuals feel that it is their free choice to perform a task, they are more likely to succeed. However, little has been known about the effect of perceived choice of self-control and the psychological processes underlying the benefits of this perception in everyday contexts. To fill this gap, a 7-day experience sampling study (115 college students and 1,725 reported episodes of self-control) was conducted to test whether confidence in sustaining the current self-control activity (expectancy) and perceived value of current self-control (value) could mediate the link between perceived choice and success in the current self-control activity. The results of multilevel analysis suggested that the perceived choice can boost self-control success by increasing expectancy and value of self-control. These findings add mechanistic understanding of the effect of perceived choice on self-control success.
... In contrast, team members who view perceived time pressure negatively find themselves experiencing process losses due to their inability to manage interdependent tasks (Chong et al., 2011;Driskell et al., 1999). This inability may stem from a lack of knowledge or ability about how to manage tasks under time pressure (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Hunter & Thatcher, 2007). Team leadership, with its high-level view of the team, its tasks and task environment, and its objectives, has a prominent role in enabling teams to function under such circumstances (Morgeson, DeRue, & Karam, 2010;Morgeson & DeRue, 2006). ...
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
... Procrastination is associated with poor levels of academic self-efficacy and self-esteem, high levels of examination and social anxiety, stress, and sickness, and goal avoidance behavior [12]. Procrastination has also been linked to low grades [13], high boredom [14], greater ineffectiveness, poorer use of problem-solving skills, and poor class performance [15]. ...
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Academic procrastination among university students is a common problem. The authors examined the prevalence, reasons, areas, and effects of academic procrastination in selected higher education institutions in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. We also examined whether academic procrastination varied with respect to the institutional category and gender of the student. 323 students sampled from three universities, using a stratified sampling technique, completed the questionnaire. In a concurrent mixed-methods study, both qualitative and quantitative data are integrated starting from data collection through conclusion. The results indicate that nearly 80 percent of the students are procrastinators to varying degrees, of which half always procrastinate due to poor time management skills, lack of planning for academic activities, laziness, and stress. The results also showed that procrastination happens irrespective of gender and institutional realities and results in not only academic failure but also affects student affective and emotional behavior. Finally, it is suggested that students are expected to improve their time management practices to minimize negative effects of the delay. It is also suggested that universities shall include such activities in their student support systems as counseling and training on specific areas that students procrastinate most.
... The assumption of the Model that emotional distress is a cause of procrastination finds support in the argument of Sirois (2014) and Tice, Bratslavsky and Baumeister (2001) that procrastination could be caused by the experience of feeling emotionally distressed, as a strategy to restore positive mood. The literature indicates that task aversiveness is a relevant predictor of procrastination (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000;Ferrari, Johnson, & McCown, 1995;Pychyl & Sirois, 2016), which is corroborated by Steel's (2007) meta-analysis, when it identifies a moderate association between procrastinating and being averse to specific tasks (r=0.40) and averse to generic everyday tasks (r=0.40). In addition, there are arguments that allow interpreting task aversiveness as the cause of procrastination. ...
... These behaviors seem to be more frequent in people working from home 8 , and they are associated with worse perceived performance, lower job satisfaction, and higher levels of work-related exhaustion and/or Burnout Syndrome [19][20][21][22] . Procrastination is related to an aversion to less pleasurable tasks and duties 23 . It represents a growing and expressive work-related problem with a prevalence of around 20% in workers before the pandemic 17,24 . ...
Article
Objective: To investigate burnout and procrastination in a sample of Brazilian workers during the COVID-19 pandemic according to their current work mode. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from an online survey conducted in 2020: 435 workers were included. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Irrational Procrastination Scale were used to access burnout and procrastination respectively. Results: There was no difference between workers working from home (WFH) and at face-to-face work regarding burnout symptoms. However, the WFH group had higher levels of procrastination. Clinically significant levels of burnout were associated with being female, increased childcare load and living with children under 12 years old. Conclusions: WFH may have more advantages than disadvantages in ideal conditions. However, work-life imbalances seem to be a key aspect regarding distress among workers WFH, especially in women with small children.
... Similarly, Whitney also took advantage of online tools in order to avoid doing tedious calculations necessary for a project. Sometimes steps like this are enough to deter people from ever even beginning a project, even those that are passionate about what they have started [8]. Hence, using computers to avoid tedious work can be important to helping quilters achieve fnished quilts, or return to abandoned projects. ...
... Working on aversive tasks refers to a situation when individuals try to accomplish tasks they perceive as unpleasant (Blunt & Pychyl, 2000). For instance, searching for spelling mistakes in a long text may be perceived as relatively unrewarding but still requires sustained attention. ...
Article
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When conceptualizing work performance as requiring self-control, scholars often employ a resource-depletion perspective. However, this perspective neglects the role of self-control motivation and self-regulation strategies. In this diary study, we examine self-control motivation (viz. motivation to control impulses) and depletion at the beginning of work and at midday as predictors of afternoon task performance. Additionally, we investigate morning aversive tasks as an antecedent of increased depletion and decreased self-control motivation. Further, we examine the role of self-regulation strategies (organizing, meaning-related strategies, self-reward) for maintaining and improving performance when depleted or low in self-control motivation. Data from a 2-week diary study with 3 daily measurements (N = 135 employees; n = 991 days) was analyzed. Multilevel path modeling showed that self-control motivation at the beginning of work and depletion at midday predicted afternoon task performance. We found that self-reward in the afternoon counteracts the negative relationship between depletion and task performance. Further, we found an indirect effect from morning aversive tasks on task performance via depletion at noon buffered by afternoon self-reward. Organizing and meaning in the afternoon were positively related to afternoon task performance. Findings suggest that self-control motivation is important for task performance, in addition to low depletion. Moreover, results highlight that self-regulation strategies are beneficial for task performance.
Article
Procrastination has been recognized as the quintessence of self-regulatory failure. Self-leadership strategies operate within the broader theoretical context of self-regulation and represent a complementary set of strategies designed to improve the self-regulation process. This study is the first to investigate the association between self-leadership with academic procrastination in a sample of 533 Chinese college students. We included the three primary self-leadership strategies in multiple regression models as well as various demographic variables, self-efficacy, trait anxiety, neuroticism, and conscientiousness. All the three primary self-leadership strategies of behavior-focused strategies, natural reward strategies, and constructive thought pattern strategies significantly predicted the students' academic procrastination, in addition to increased neuroticism and lower conscientiousness. Further, the multivariate regression showed that the self-leadership sub-strategies of self-reward, self-goal setting, self-talk, task-based natural rewards, and task-relation-based observation significantly predicted the students' academic procrastination. The findings of this study suggest that practicing relative self-leadership strategies may reduce students' procrastination.
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The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of group counseling program aimed at reducing academic procrastination based on reality therapy for secondary school students on academic procrastination. In this study, this concept which is important for each level of the education system, was examined specifically for high school students and it was aimed to reduce procrastination behaviors by raising awareness about procrastination behaviors. Participants determined in the experimental and control group in the study were selected among 218 students studying at the Anatolian High School in Şahinbey District of Gaziantep in 2020-2021 academic year. Personal Information Form and Academic Procrastination Scale were applied to 218 students at 9th, 10th and 11th grades. Then, the students who wanted to participate in the study voluntarily were determined. Along with verbal consent, written consent was obtained from the participants by using the “Individual Interview Informed Consent Form” and “Parent Consent Form”. Then, among the students who scored one standard deviation above the average score obtained from their answers to the academic procrastination scale, they were assigned to two groups, one experimental group an one control group, by drawing lots. It was ensured that there were 10 participants in each group. 8 weeks after the end of the 8 week group counseling program, a follow-up test was conducted to determine the permanence. In this study, Academic Procrastination Scale Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was found as .86. According to the results of this study, it was seen that the psychoeducation program developed based on Reality Therapy had an effect on reducing the academic procrastination of high school students in the experimental group. The academic procrastination posttest score averages of the experimantal group participants participating in the group counseling program are significantly lower than the pretest mean scores. Keywords: Academic procrastination, reality therapy, high school students, group guidance
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Academic procrastination as a predictor of study success (Mulder, 2018) To limit study delay and dropout rates, the Saxion procrastination research group is developing a screening instrument that can identify students at an early stage on risk and success factors for study success. Building on the results Van de Bilt (2016) and Koopmans (2017) is also recommended to combine the 12 items originating from the SBS/PASS that are (negatively) related to study success, with items that assess active procrastination.
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Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Although screening facilitates prevention and early detection and is one of the most effective approaches to reducing cancer mortality, participation is low—particularly among underserved populations. In a large, preregistered field experiment (n = 7711), we tested whether deadlines—both with and without monetary incentives tied to them—increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We found that all screening invitations with an imposed deadline increased completion, ranging from 2.5% to 7.3% relative to control (ps < .004). Most importantly, individuals who received a short deadline with no incentive were as likely to complete screening (9.7%) as those whose invitation included a deadline coupled with either a small (9.1%) or large declining financial incentive (12.0%; ps = .57 and .04, respectively). These results suggest that merely imposing deadlines—especially short ones—can significantly increase CRC screening completion, and may also have implications for other forms of cancer screening.
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Procrastination refers to voluntarily delaying an important task despite the fact that this decision will take a heavy toll on daily life. Previous researches have shown that boredom proneness is a robust predictor of procrastination and the default mode network (DMN) could be the neural substrate for the connection between the two variables mentioned above. However, how boredom proneness links to procrastination at the neural level remains unclear. To address this question, we adopted the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods to identify the neural basis of the relation between boredom proneness and procrastination. Behavioral results indicated that boredom proneness was significantly positively correlated with procrastination. VBM results revealed that boredom proneness was negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the precuneus/cuneus. Furthermore, the RSFC analyses showed that the functional connectivity between precuneus/cuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was positively correlated with boredom proneness. More importantly, a mediation analysis found that boredom proneness played a fully mediating role in improving the relationship between precuneus/cuneus-PCC functional connectivity and procrastination. These findings suggest that the brain functional connectivity engages in attention control may account for the association between boredom proneness and procrastination, and highlight the important role of sustaining concentration on mitigating procrastination.
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Procrastination is a widespread phenomenon that has been extensively studied but about which a clear and integrated picture is still lacking, as reflected in the multiplicity and diversity of its definitions, causes and consequences. In addition, its examination in everyday life has been somewhat overlooked. The aim of this paper is to further the understanding of procrastination, first by providing an overview of its various definitions, causes, and consequences. Using a qualitative approach, we then provide an in-depth descriptive account of procrastination episodes retrospectively reported by six participants from the general population in diverse situations of their daily life, focusing in particular on the definitions, causes, and consequences of procrastination behaviours. Finally, this descriptive account of procrastination is discussed in terms of a dimensional, multifactorial, and integrative approach.
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H ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα φαίνεται ότι επηρεάζεται και από μη γνωστικούς παράγοντες, όπως οι συναισθηματικές ικανότητες και τα κίνητρα μάθησης. Σκοπός της μελέτης ήταν η διερεύνηση της σχέσης ανάμεσα στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα, στη συναισθηματική νοημοσύνη και στην ακαδημαϊκή κινητοποίηση. Οι συμμετέχοντες ήταν 108 προπτυχιακοί φοιτητές του τμήματος Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης του Πανεπιστημίου Δυτικής Μακεδονίας. Συμπλήρωσαν ερωτηματολόγιο με τις κλίμακες Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students, Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale και Academic Motivation Scale. Τα αποτελέσματα ανέδειξαν αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα σε όλες τις ικανότητες συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και επιπλέον αρνητική σχέση ανάμεσα στην αυτόνομη κινητοποίηση και στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα. Ειδικότερα, η κατανόηση των συναισθημάτων του εαυτού, η χρήση των συναισθημάτων για ενίσχυση της επίδοσης και η εσωτερική ρύθμιση προβλέπουν χαμηλότερα επίπεδα ακαδημαϊκής αναβλητικότητας. Τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας υποστηρίζουν τις ευεργετικές επιδράσεις της συναισθηματικής νοημοσύνης και της αυτόνομης κινητοποίησης στην ακαδημαϊκή αναβλητικότητα και θα μπορούσαν να συμβάλουν στον τρόπο με τον οποίο τα πανεπιστημιακά τμήματα οργανώνουν το πρόγραμμα σπουδών τους αλλά και στην ανάδειξη του αντικειμένου σπουδών από τους ίδιους τους πανεπιστημιακούς δασκάλους, ώστε να ενισχυθούν οι ακαδημαϊκές επιδόσεις των φοιτητών.
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Procrastination remains an omnipresent phenomenon impeding especially students' academic performance and well-being. Preliminary findings suggest that procrastination emerges due to dysfunctional emotion regulation efforts to regulate aversive emotions. This study's objective was to clarify whether the enhancement of general adaptive emotion regulation skills reduces subsequent procrastination. For the purpose of this study, data from a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) with (N = 148) university students, comprising an active intervention (IG) and a passive wait-list control (WLC) group, was collected. Participants of the intervention group were provided with an online emotion regulation training over a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that the enhancement of general emotion regulation skills significantly reduced subsequent procrastination behavior within the IG as compared to the untreated WLC. Moreover, subsequent mediation analyses revealed that the reduction of procrastination was significantly mediated by the increase in general ER skills. The present results suggest that trainings which enhance general ER skills are an appropriate measure to reduce procrastination behavior among university students. The practical value of ER training interventions, particularly for student populations, is discussed.
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The relationship between different emotions with situational (e.g., academic) and dispositional (chronic) procrastination was examined extensively in the literature since the early days of procrastination research. A review of empirical studies over the past 40 years might shed light on the role of emotions in procrastination in different contexts with different populations. The current paper reviewed 83 studies (from 1977 to 2021) exploring the relationship between 9 different emotions and situational and dispositional procrastination. The emotions examined, listed in the order of the extent of focus of scholarly research are: anxiety, fear, shame, guilt, regret, boredom, frustration, anger, and revenge. Findings highlight the important role of emotions as motives, antecedents, correlates, or consequences of situational and dispositional procrastination. Based on the findings, a lack of a comprehensive theory summarizing dispositional and situational procrastination is pointed out and avenues for future research are outlined and recommended.
Article
Procrastination is thought to be affected by trait-based and by situational, or task-specific determinants. Situational and task-specific influences on students' procrastination behavior have rarely been studied. Most research has examined trait-based individual differences in students' general procrastination tendencies. This study used an adaptive experience sampling approach to assess students' (N = 88) task-related perceptions of ambiguity and their situation-specific procrastination behavior during exam preparation six times a day for seven days (n = 3581 measurements). Results revealed that 30% of all intended study sessions were procrastinated. The risk that study sessions were procrastinated increased with students' task-related ambiguity perceptions. Individuals' average risk of procrastinating study sessions was further predicted by their procrastination tendency and conscientiousness assessed at baseline. The findings suggest interventions that promote students’ ability to self-regulate but also modify tasks and instructions. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Deficit in the management of time continues to be an important difficulty students are faced with. The present work aimed to test the hypothesis that self-regulation is the major predictor of academic performance and that this effect can be mediated both by the student’s emotional regulation and his propensity for procrastination. Participants were 450 university students who were administered MPP and AIP. The procedures involved the administration of instruments and the collection of average exam grades as a measure of academic performance. The effect of a specific component of self-regulation on academic performance, namely action orientation, was significant, while procrastination showed a limiting effect on the performative quality of the student. The model confirmed the mediation role of emotional balance on the effect that action orientation exerts on procrastination, and the mediation of procrastination in the relationship between action orientation and Academic Performance. Results of the study suggest focusing on student support and on prevention of procrastinating behavior through programs that enhance first of all student’s proactive attitude, planning skills, self-monitoring and effective/efficient time management, and secondly, emotional awareness and regulation of emotional response in situations of stress and performance anxiety.
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Academic procrastination is understood as the postponement of academic tasks despite the possibility of negative consequences, with an estimated 46% of undergraduate students and 60% of graduate students regularly engaging in this behavior. The purpose of the present study was to contrast procrastination behavior on specific academic tasks (writing term papers, studying for exams, keeping up with weekly readings) between undergraduate (n = 354) and graduate students (n = 816), as well as examine the perceived reasons for this procrastination behavior. MANOVA results showed that undergraduate students reported greater perceived prevalence of procrastination than graduate students with respect to studying. Principal component analyses further revealed different components for undergraduate and graduate students, including fear of failure and task aversiveness for undergraduate students, and fear of failure and lack of assertiveness for graduate students.
Thesis
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Bei akademischer Prokrastination handelt es sich um einen freiwilligen Handlungsaufschub einer geplanten studienbezogenen Tätigkeit, trotz Antizipation negativer Konsequenzen (Steel & Klingsieck, 2016). Theoretisch kann Prokrastination als Resultat einer misslingenden Motivationsregulation konzeptualisiert werden (Wolters, 2003) und steht in engem Zusammenhang mit Gewissenhaftigkeit (negativ) und Neurotizismus (positiv; Steel, 2007). Wenngleich bereits relativ viel zu den Determinanten von Prokrastination bekannt ist, ist bislang unklar, wie Prokrastination im Studium zustande kommt: Inwiefern ist Motivationsregulation für akademische Prokrastination bedeutsam – prokrastinieren Studierende, weil sie eine zu geringe Nutzung von Strategien zur Motivationsregulation aufweisen oder weil die Passung der Strategien zu der motivationalen Problemsituation nicht gegeben ist? Stellt Motivationsregulation einen erklärenden Mechanismus der Zusammenhänge zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit bzw. Neurotizismus und akademischer Prokrastination dar? Neben diesen individuellen Faktoren ist eine Berücksichtigung der Lernsituation – sowohl auf Prozessebene als auch hinsichtlich universitärer Kursmerkmale – essentiell, um der Frage nachzugehen, ob das Auftreten akademischer Prokrastination generalisierbar oder auf situationsspezifische Aspekte zurückzuführen ist (van Eerde, 2000). Bisher ist allerdings nicht hinreichend geklärt, inwiefern Merkmale universitärer Kurse für akademische Prokrastination relevant sind (Pychyl et al., 2000). Um die Forschungslücken zu adressieren, wurden in dieser publikationsorientierten Dissertation als Ausgangspunkt (Fachartikel I) die Zusammenhänge zwischen konditionalem Strategiewissen zur Motivationsregulation (Strategiepassung), Effektivität der Regulation, akademischer Prokrastination und Studienabbruchsintentionen von 515 Studierenden untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass Studierende mit hohem konditionalem Strategie-wissen zur Motivationsregulation auch eine bessere Regulationseffektivität aufwiesen, weniger prokrastinierten sowie geringere Studienabbruchsintentionen äußerten. Weiterhin deuten Mediationsanalysen auf kaskadierende intrapsychische Prozesse. Um diese detailliert zu untersuchen, wurde in zwei Folgestudien (Fachartikel II) der Fokus auf die Prozesse in konkreten Lernsituationen gelegt. In zwei Tagebuchstudien wurden 3 121 Einzelmessungen von 128 Studierenden und 1 450 Einzelmessungen von 218 Studierenden erfasst. Die Analysen zeigten, dass akademisches Prokrastinationsverhalten zwischen Studierenden variiert, während der Prüfungsphase abnimmt und insbesondere durch eine Strategiepassung reduziert werden kann. In Fachartikel III wurde mittels einer Sekundäranalyse untersucht, ob Motivationsregulation einen erklärenden Mechanismus für die Zusammenhänge zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit bzw. Neurotizismus und akademischem Prokrastinationsverhalten darstellt. In der Tat konnte der Effekt zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit und Prokrastinationsverhalten durch Motivationsregulation erklärt werden. Schließlich fokussierte Fachartikel IV die Bedeutung spezifischer Kursmerkmale universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen für akademische Prokrastination. Die Ergebnisse von Mehrebenenanalysen mit 1 809 Studierenden aus 90 Kursen zeigten, dass akademische Prokrastination in beachtlichem Maße mit Kursmerkmalen assoziiert war und insbesondere negativ mit wahrgenommener Autonomie, sozialer Eingebundenheit und Kompetenzerfahrungen sowie Klarheit der Instruktion und positiv mit wahrgenommener Aufgabenschwierigkeit zusammenhing. Zusammenfassend liefert die Arbeit eine umfassende Betrachtung akademischer Prokrastination im Hinblick auf die individuellen Faktoren der Motivationsregulation, der Gewissenhaftigkeit und des Neurotizismus sowie auf die situativen Faktoren bezüglich Kursmerkmalen universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen. Korrespondierend zu bisherigen Erkenntnissen zeigte sich, dass Prokrastinationsverhalten zeit- und situationsspezifisch variiert (vgl. Wieland et al., 2018) sowie im Verlauf der Prüfungsphase abnimmt (vgl. Wäschle et al., 2014). Darüber hinaus veranschaulicht die vorliegende Dissertation, dass neben einer reinen Strategienutzung (vgl. Schwinger et al., 2012) insbesondere eine Strategiepassung (vgl. Steuer et al., 2019) hilfreich zur Überwindung akademischer Prokrastination ist und Motivationsregulation den Zusammenhang zwischen Gewissenhaftigkeit und akademischer Prokrastination erklären kann (vgl. Ljubin-Golub et al, 2019). Zudem ergab eine umfassende Betrachtung verschiedener Merkmale universitärer Lehrveranstaltungen belastbare Hinweise darauf, dass Kursmerkmale eng im Zusammenhang mit akademischer Prokrastination stehen (vgl. Svartdal et al., 2020). Theoretisch tragen die vorliegenden Befunde zu einem besseren Verständnis der Aktualgenese akademischer Prokrastination bei. Praktisch implizieren die Ergebnisse, dass in Interventionen zur Verringerung akademischen Prokrastinationsverhaltens auf Möglichkeiten zur Motivationsregulation eingegangen und Wissen über die Eignung von Motivationsregulationsstrategien zur Überwindung spezifischer motivationaler Probleme beim Lernen vermittelt werden sollte. Weiterhin können Interventionen auf einer instruktionalen Ebene zusätzlich zu bisherigen Trainingsansätzen (vgl. Grunschel et al., 2018) ein vielversprechender Ansatz zur Verringerung akademischer Prokrastination sein.
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It was aimed in this study to reveal the reasons of physical education teacher candidates' for procrastination and their levels of academic procrastination. A mixed-method design was used in the study. 664 students participated in the quantitative part of the study, while 307 students participated in the qualitative part. In the research, semi-structured interview form was used as a qualitative data collection tool and Academic Procrastination Scale (APS) was used as a quantitative data collection tool. In addition, a personal information form was created to obtain the information of the participants. Reasons for academic procrastination were asked in analyzing the qualitative data, and the answers were subjected to content analysis. T-test, ANOVA, and post hoc test statistics (Tukey HSD) were performed in the analysis of the quantitative data which showed normal distribution. It was determined in the study that reasons for leaving academic duties and responsibilities to the last minute stemmed from factors related to individuals themselves, educational elements, and the environment. The participants' procrastination, effective use of time, and total APS scores were determined to be at the medium level, effective use of time and total APS scores of the male students were determined to be higher than the average of female students' scores, and the procrastination, effective use of time, and total APS scores of those who perceived their grade point average as low were determined to be higher. The findings of the study show that the participants sometimes left their school-related assignments to the last minute; however, they still sometimes fulfilled their academic duties and responsibilities regularly.
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The personal project is proposed as a new unit of analysis for the study of personality in its social, physical and temporal context. A sequential model of personal projects is proposed in which the major stages of project inception, planning, action, and termination are described in detail and related to dimensions of individual differences. A new methodology for assessing personal project content and structure is introduced, including techniques for assessing interproject impact and linkages with values and actions. The relevance of a projectanalytic approach to recent issues in environmental psychology is discussed. It is proposed that personal projects methodology might serve as a coupling device between the fields of personality and environmental psychology.
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Using B. R. Little's (see record 1983-26972-001) method of assessing ongoing personal projects (PPRs), 72 college students rated their PPRs on dimensions including task aversiveness and likelihood of failure and rated the extent to which they spent adequate time on each PPR. At 3, 6, and 12 wks later, Ss reported on adherence to PPR schedules and completed a trait procrastination scale. Trait procrastinators spent less adequate time on short-term PPRs than nonprocrastinators. Compared with low procrastinators, high procrastinators spent less adequate time on PPRs more likely to succeed and more adequate time on PPRs more likely to fail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the frequency of 342 college students' procrastination on academic tasks and the reasons for procrastination behavior. A high percentage of Ss reported problems with procrastination on several specific academic tasks. Self-reported procrastination was positively correlated with the number of self-paced quizzes Ss took late in the semester and with participation in an experimental session offered late in the semester. A factor analysis of the reasons for procrastination Ss listed in a procrastination assessment scale indicated that the factors Fear of Failure and Aversiveness of the Task accounted for most of the variance. A small but very homogeneous group of Ss endorsed items on the Fear of Failure factor that correlated significantly with self-report measures of depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, delayed study behavior, anxiety, and lack of assertion. A larger and relatively heterogeneous group of Ss reported procrastinating as a result of aversiveness of the task. The Aversiveness of the Task factor correlated significantly with depression, irrational cognitions, low self-esteem, and delayed study behavior. Results indicate that procrastination is not solely a deficit in study habits or time management, but involves a complex interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and affective components. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The focus of this chapter is on the course of action, which is understood to be a temporal, horizontal path starting with a person's desires and ending with the evaluation of the achieved action outcome. The phenomena of choosing an action goal, initiating the appropriate actions, and executing these actions are assumed to be situated in between. This comprehensive perspective conceives of the course of action as a number of consecutive, distinct segments or phases. It raises questions concerning how people choose action goals, plan and enact their execution, and eaaluate thek efforts. The concept of "mind-set" is employed to find answers to these questions in terms of the cognitive processes or orientations that allow for easy completion of the different action phases.
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Assume that you have decided to accomplish a personal wish or desire that has been on your mind for quite some time. Should you go ahead and plan the execution of behaviors that will eventually lead to your desire? Or would planning only be a waste of time, as you already feel highly committed to act and ready to go? Would passively waiting for a good opportunity to get started not be sufficient? As planning might not add anything to the commitment implied by your decision, the time and effort devoted to planning might be unnecessary. The present chapter focuses on this issue: Does planning promote the willful implementation of a person's goals and thus provide volitional benefits? My colleagues and I believe that planning helps to alleviate crucial volitional problems of goal achievement, such as being too easily distracted from a goal pursuit or giving up in the face of difficulties when increased effort and persistence are needed instead. The conceptual analysis of this question relies on ideas that have evolved around the model of action phases (Heckhausen & Gollwitzer, 1987). In particular, we use two different but related concepts to understand the processes by which planning unfolds its beneficial effects on goal achievement: "implemental mind-sets" (Gollwitzer, 1990) and "implementation intentions" (Gollwitzer, 1993).
Chapter
Personal projects are extended sets of personally relevant action, which can range from the trivial pursuits of a typical Tuesday (e.g., “cleaning up my room”) to the magnificent obsessions of a lifetime (e.g., “liberate my people”). They may be self-initiated or thrust upon us. They may be solitary concerns or shared commitments. They may be isolated and peripheral aspects of our lives or may cut to our very core. Personal projects may sustain us through perplexity or serve as vehicles for our own obliteration. In short, personal projects are natural units of analysis for a personality psychology that chooses to deal with the serious business of how people muddle through complex lives (Little, 1987a).
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Procrastinating in routine life tasks was investigated in university students (N = 314) by administering self-report measures of the phenomenon and various personality tests. Two conceptually independent aspects of procrastination—when one performed the task and how one handled scheduling tasks and adhering to schedule—were found to be highly correlated. Procrastination was greater on tasks regarded as unpleasant or as impositions, and to a lesser extent on tasks requiring skills the respondent did not believe he or she possessed. The phenomenon was inversely related to self-regulation, time-related factors of Type A behavior pattern, and life satisfaction, in men only. The findings were discussed in relation to broad concepts of cognitive appraisal, self-regulation, and coping with stress.
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Female college students (N = 112) completed a test battery of personality scales and performance tasks at home over four consecutive evenings, under one of eight combinations of the following experimental conditions: Schedule Source (experimenter versus self) × Scheduled Starting Time (strict versus lenient) × Plausibility of the Experiment. Delay in starting, summed over four evenings, constituted the measure of behavioral procrastination. This measure was moderately correlated with high test anxiety scores and low self-regulation. Procrastination was exacerbated when subjects were permitted to schedule the time of their expected completion of the test battery. Significant interactions of specific experimental conditions and specific personal traits demonstrated the situational requirements for trait-behavior relationships to emerge. Findings supported the internal consistency and construct validity of the behavioral procrastination measure. The practical and heuristic applications of a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) design and the theory-coordinated choice of experimental manipulation and corresponding organismic variable are recommended for future investigations of procrastination.
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Even when goals are self-generated, they may not feel truly "personal," that is, autonomous and self-integrated. In three studies (one concurrent and two prospective), we found that the autonomy of personal goals predicted goal attainment. In contrast, the strength of "controlled" motivation did not predict attainment. Studies 2 and 3 validated a mediational model in which autonomy led to attainment because it promoted sustained effort investment. In Study 3, the Goal Attainment Scaling methodology was used to provide a more objective measure of goal attainment, and additional analyses were performed to rule out expectancy, value, and expectancy x value explanations of the autonomy-to-attainment effects. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of volition and self-regulation.
Chapter
According to McClelland’s classic theory of motivation (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1953), a moderate discrepancy between an individual’s goals and her/his current achievements is the motivating source for subsequent efforts to approach those goals. Although the model claimed that large discrepancies resulted in a decrease of motivation, I tend to believe that scientists are sometimes motivated even by extremely large discrepancies between their goals and their achievements. When Heinz Heckhausen decided to pick up the line of research initiated by Jack Atkinson (1957), he created the perfect conditions for generating an inexhaustible source of motivation for his own subsequent research activities and those of his students. This motivational potential derived from the vast discrepancy between the simplicity of Atkinson’s structural model and the complexity of Heckhausen’s process-oriented visions of a future theory of motivation. Having been directly exposed to both sides of this discrepancy during my years at Michigan and Bochum, I might have experienced even more impatience about the discrepancy between aspirations and achievements in motivation research than my colleagues there. Each of us felt the need to transcend the rigid limitations of expectancy-value theories of motivation and each of us reduced the goal discrepancy in a different way, as many chapters in this volume testify.
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focuses on goals that specify what a person is typically trying to do / examples are "trying to overcome shyness with strangers," "avoiding being dependent on others," and "making others feel good about themselves" / these goals, which cannot be achieved by a single course of action, are enduring and recurring / calls these goals "personal strivings" / proposes that they are, like other personality attributes, relatively stable over time and consistently expressed in a variety of situations / [discuss] how personal strivings affect a person's subjective well-being / argues that it is not the actual fulfillment of these goals that is critical, but the kind of strivings people hold, how they frame them, and, most importantly, how they handle the conflicts between them / suggests that the negative relation between conflict and subjective well-being may be mediated by the conflicted individual's failure to solicit and utilize social support argues that creative integrations of personal projects may reverse the negative effects of conflict / through the creative integration of agentic (power) and communal (intimacy) strivings, the generative individual is able to achieve a reconciliation between power and intimacy / points out that certain personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) and implicit beliefs regarding the incompatability of goals may account for both the generation of conflict and the individual's potential for resolution / observes low subjective well-being in individuals who let their goals stand unrelated next to each other / argue that the experience of subjective well-being needs more than the possession of and progression toward important life goals / rather, people need to integrate separate goal strivings into a coherent Gestalt or philosophy of life (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Research in the field of personality psychology has culminated in a radical departure. The result is "Personality Psychology: Recent Trends and Emerging Directions." Drs. Buss and Cantor have compiled the innovative research of twenty-five young, outstanding personality psychologists to represent the recent expansion of issues in the field. Advances in assessment have brought about more powerful methods and the explanatory tools for extending personality psychology beyond its traditional reaches into areas of cognitive psychology, evolutionary biology, and sociology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Procrastination is a stress- and deadline-related phenomenon. Its forms are (a) delaying initiation of necessary tasks, and (b) perseveration on some aspect of a task. It follows from the structure of a situation rather than from purposeful design. Its likelihood increases with increase in the number of choice points, the amount of cognitive restructuring necessary, and the amount of stress at the choice point. Perseveration is more likely for task subcomponents that require less cognitive restructuring and are less stressful. Long-term consequences of the behavior are ignored but the procrastinator continues to maintain that choice is possible, sometimes at the expense of other desirable diversions. The self-image of the procrastinator deteriorates as he/she feeels less in control of behavior. S. Milgram's obedience experiments are interpreted in this framework. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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explore the use of the project analytic perspective to examine the daily pursuits of adolescents and to develop a line of argument about self-identity and the nature of alienation in adolescents personal projects and action theory focus on a specific dimension of meaning in PPA [Personal Projects Analysis] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Affective correlates of procrastination were examined through experience-sampling. 45 undergraduate students carried electronic pagers for 5 days preceding an academic deadline. Students were paged 8 times daily. At each signal, the participants indicated what they were doing, extent of procrastination and affective state. Contrary to previous research, procrastination was not found to be correlated with either positive or negative affect. Participants' appraisals of their tasks when paged revealed that they procrastinated on unpleasant, stressful and difficult tasks, while engaging in activities that were significantly more pleasant. Specious rewards, self-regulation and the apparent short-term benefits of procrastination are discussed in relation to these findings and as a basis for counseling intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Research on personal goals in relation to subjective well-being (SWB) typically involves appraisals of these goals on a number of appraisal dimensions. In this study, we examined how dimensional specificity affects predictions of SWB. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 19 doctoral candidates were interviewed with respect to their personal projects. Using a grounded-theory approach to the interview transcripts, 11 context-specific dimensions were identified: time pressure, time conflict, procrastination, anxiety, guilt, financial stress, uncertainty, social support, passion, commitment and positive effects on mood. These dimensions were then used in a second study of 81 doctoral students who completed a questionnaire package including: Personal Projects Analysis (PPA), the NEO Personality Inventory, and SWB measures. Regression analyses revealed that the context-specific PPA dimensions identified in Study 1 accounted for unique variance in perceptions of life satisfaction and provided a more detailed perspective on doctoral students' stress and coping resources. The results of the two studies are discussed in terms of the Personal Action Constructs now being used in studies of the conative aspects of well-being.
Article
This paper considered three studies designed to examine procrastinatory behavior. In Study I, a general form (G) of a true-false procrastination scale was created. This form was based on an earlier version of the scale containing parallel forms A and B. Procrastination was positively related to measures of disorganization and independent of need-achievement, energy level, and self-esteem. High scorers on the procrastination scale were more likely to return their completed inventory late. Procrastination was unrelated to grade-point average (R = −10). In Study II, subjects completed Form G of the procrastination scale and a variation of Little's (1983) Personal Projects Questionnaire. Based on ratings of their personal projects, procrastinators and nonprocrastinators were distinguished in a number of ways, foremost being the nonprocrastinator's more positive response to the project dimension of stress and the procrastinator's greater sensitivity to how enjoyable the project was in terms of time spent. In Study III, after completing a personality inventory, air-passengers awaiting their flight departure were asked to take an envelope with them and to mail it back on a designated date. Procrastinators were less accurate in doing so than were nonprocrastinators. Various aspects of procrastinatory behavior were discussed, including a reconsideration of the defining of the construct.
Article
The purpose of this research was to examine the relation between state orientation, proneness to boredom and procrastination as proposed in Kuhl's theory of action (Kuhl, 1994a). The findings from two studies are reported. Based on data collected from 143 undergraduate students on the Action Control Scale (Kuhl, 1994b), study 1 revealed arousal, avoidance and decisional procrastination to be positively related to state orientation. Results of study 2 (n = 120) demonstrated proneness to boredom to be positively related to state orientation, arousal procrastination and decisional procrastination. Overall, this research provides support for a link between proneness to boredom, state orientation, and procrastination. The results are discussed in terms of self-identity and time perception.
Article
Coherence and congruence-based measures of personality integration were related to a variety of healthy personality characteristics. Functional coherence was defined as occurring when participants' "personal strivings" (R.A. Emmons, 1986) help bring about each other or help bring about higher level goals. Organismic congruence was defined as occurring when participants strive for self-determined reasons or when strivings help bring about intrinsic rather than extrinsic higher level goals. Study 1 found the integration measures were related to each other and to inventory measures of health and well-being. Study 2 showed that these goal integration measures were also related to role system integration and were prospective predictors of daily mood, vitality, and engagement in meaningful as opposed to distracting activities.
Article
The relationships among five aspects of academic procrastination--behavioral delay, personal upset about the delay, task aversiveness, task capability, and the desire to reduce behavioral delay--were investigated in 10th-grade Israeli students (N = 195). Upset about delay was weakly related to delay itself, and--unlike delay--was strongly related to perceived capability to perform academic tasks and to the desire to change delaying behavior. Students delayed more on academic tasks labeled unpleasant than pleasant, were neutral in between, and were correspondingly more upset about the former than the latter. They more frequently acknowledged reasons for academic procrastination that were less threatening to their self-image (e.g., problems in time management) than reasons that were more threatening (e.g., lack of ability). Interest in reducing delay is related more to self-perceived ability to handle tasks than to time spent procrastinating or reasons given for procrastinating.
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