Article

Antioxidant activity and selected nutritional values of plums (Prunus domestica L.) typical of the White Carpathian Mountains

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Abstract

The paper presents a description of chemical characteristics of selected cultivars and subspecies of plum trees (Prunus domestica L.). Traditional commercial cultivars were compared with typical regional cultivars originating from the same locality of the White Carpathian Mountains. In this region, growing and use of specific local cultivars, and processing of fruit for alimentary purposes are a traditional activity which has been performed there for centuries. Regional cultivars showed outstanding nutritional properties, especially as far as the total content of phenolic substances was concerned (3.48–4.95 mg GAE g−1 FM); this parameter was highly correlated with the total antioxidant capacity of the fruit (r2 = 0.893). A higher content of minerals and pectins in some local cultivars was also of interest. This paper demonstrates beneficial properties of some less known but regionally typical European cultivars of plums and contributes to their wider use in breeding practice and also as a potential source of nutrients for human diet.

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... Plum fruit is rich in Vitamin A, B, (Thiamine), riboflavin and some minerals like calcium, phosphorus and iron. Plums are considered to be an ample source of nutrients and health beneficial compounds (Rop et al. 2009) [8] . The well blended acidity with sugars is helpful in the preparation of jams and squashes. ...
... Plum fruit is rich in Vitamin A, B, (Thiamine), riboflavin and some minerals like calcium, phosphorus and iron. Plums are considered to be an ample source of nutrients and health beneficial compounds (Rop et al. 2009) [8] . The well blended acidity with sugars is helpful in the preparation of jams and squashes. ...
... Kala Amritsari are medium in size, dark brown at maturity while pulp is slightly yellowish and juicy most suitable for preparation of jam. Several reports are available concerning the quality as well as estimation of physico-chemical properties and anthocyanin content of various plum cultivars (Rop et al. 2009;Usenik et al. 2009;Ionica et al. 2013) [8,9,3] . The aim of this paper was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of plum cv. ...
... Japanese plums originated in China but were introduced to the West from Japan only 150 years ago [2]. Various biologically active compounds important for the vital functions of the human body have been detected in plum fruit, including flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols), phenolic acids (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, protocatechuic, caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, and ferulic acids), and vitamins (ascorbic acid, tocopherols, phylloquinone, and carotenoids) [3][4][5]. Biologically active compounds in plum fruit have broad-spectrum biological effects, including the enhancement of cognitive functions, the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases, as well as laxative and antimicrobial effects [4,6]. Qualitative and quantitative content of biologically active compounds in plum fruit may vary greatly depending on the cultivars, which highlights the importance of the evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative variability in the phytochemical composition of plum fruit of different cultivars. ...
... As the chemical composition of edible fruits of different cultivars can vary considerably [5,9], it is very important to compare and assess the chemical composition of the plum fruit of different cultivars and to ensure their quality. The application of the UHPLC method and the use of methodology developed by us in the analysis of phenolic compounds allowed for the identification of the qualitative and quantitative content of individual phenolic compounds and their variability in the fruit of different plum cultivars. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in extracts of plum fruit. Fruit of 17 plum cultivars were analyzed. Fruit samples were collected in 2019 from fruit trees with “Myrobalan” (P. cerasifera Ehrh.) and “Wangenheim Prune” (P. domestica L.) rootstocks. The following glycosides of the flavonol group were identified: avicularin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, rutin, and an aglycone quercetin. Compounds of the flavan-3-ol group were identified, such as (+)-catechin, procyanidin C1, and procyanidin A2, along with chlorogenic acid attributed to phenolic acids and a non-phenolic cyclitol–quinic acid. Of all the analytes identified in plum fruit samples, quinic acid predominated, while chlorogenic acid predominated among all the identified phenolic compounds, and rutin predominated in the flavonol group. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that fruit samples of “Kubanskaya Kometa”, “Zarechnaya Raniaya”, “Duke of Edinburgh”, “Jubileum”, and “Favorita del Sultano” cultivars had different quantitative content of phenolic compounds from that observed in other samples. The highest total amount of phenolic compounds was found in the European plum samples of the “Zarechnaya Rannyaya” cultivar, while the amount of quinic acid was the highest in plum fruit samples of the “Jubileum” cultivar.
... For example, in apricots the value is around 13 g per kg and in plums it is on average 10 g per kg (NUNES et al., 2006;PINA and ERREA, 2006). In comparison with apricots or plums, which have on average 9.7 and 8.6 g per kg FW (ROP et al., 2009), these results are comparable with them. On the other hand, DOKOUPIL and ŘEZNÍČEK (2012) examined higher values of pectin in cultivars Jaltsky (15.5 g per kg), Jolico (14.7 g per kg) and Vyšegorodsky (15.0 g per kg) and organic acids was the highest in variety Fruchtal (27.8 g per kg) and Jolico (22.8 g per kg). ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L.) cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar 'Vydubeckij' had the highest dry matter (17.4%) and soluble solid (15.8%) content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the 'Titus' cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW) base. The 'Elegantnyj' and 'Vydubeckij' cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the 'Vydubeckij' cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. 'Devin', 'Vydubeckij' and 'Titus' cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively) and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively). This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.
... Genetic deficiency of non-suitable cultivars cannot be eliminated by optimum natural conditions, even with the application of modern cultivation technology. In order to fully express genetic potential of high-quality cultivars, it is necessary to cultivate them in appropriate agro-ecological conditions and the cultivar choice is the fundamental question for each producer of plum plantations [Miletić et al. 2001, Vitanova et al. 2004, Dinkova et al. 2007, Nenadović-Mratinić et al. 2007, Sestras et al. 2007, Walkowiak-Tomczak 2008, Erturk et al. 2009, Rop et al. 2009, Usenik et al. 2009, Ganji Moghaddam et al. 2011, Glišić et al. 2011, Ionica et al. 2013. ...
Article
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Some biological characteristics of 10 local and internationally well-known plum cultivars grown in Gornje Polimlje, Montenegro were studied between 2009–2011. Čačanska Rodna, Čačanska Lepotica, Stanley, Čačanska Rana, Valjevka and Valerija cultivars showed high productivity. The highest fruit mass was ob-tained from California Blue cultivar while the smallest fruit mass was measured for Požegača cultivar in all measured years. Soluble Solid Content (SSC), total acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars, sucrose, cellulose, vitamin C, total anthocyanin and ash content of plum cultivars were between 12.60–20.40%, 0.66–1.15%, 10.65–15.24%, 7.17–11.94%, 1.16–6.07%, 0.30–12.49%, 10.69–15.50 mg∙100 g-1, 0.6–7.7 mg∙100 g-1 and 0.55–0.78%, respectively. The amount of potassium, which predominates in percentage of minerals in the ash, ranged from 1893 to 2199 mg∙kg-1. Local cultivar Požegača had the highest content of potassium, mag-nesium, calcium, iron, soluble solid content and vitamin C, and second highest content of iron, sugar, reduc-ing sugars and cellulose. Anna Spath had the highest content of iron and sucrose. Highest content of sugar and anthocyanin was observed in Stanley cultivar. Total acids and reducing sugars were highest in cultivar Čačanska Lepotica.
... Plum cultivars and its wild genotypes have diverse physical, chemical and sensory characteristics ([6]; [33]; [34]; [35]; [36]; [37]; [38]; [39]; [40]).This diversity is due to the specifications ofcultivars and environmental conditions [41]. ...
... Our results for Anna cultivar skin and flesh 7.4 and 3 mg GAE/g DW respectively (values calculated using TPC and extract yields from Table 1) are within that range. A similar situation occurs in the case of plum, with determination of total phenolic contents in the literature revealing variability, with values ranging between 18.4-495 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight (FW) [14,26,27], whereas our findings of 109-179 mg GAE/100 g FW (values calculated using TPC, extract and lyophilization yields from Table 1) are in agreement with the published results. ...
Article
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The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives). These findings constitute the first report of such a high number and diversity of compounds in skins of one single plum cultivar and of the presence of proanthocyanidin pentamers in apple skins. Also, it is the first time that such a large number of glycosylated flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are reported in skins and flesh of a single plum cultivar. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC) was measured with high values observed for all samples, especially for fruits skins with a TPC of 619.6 and 640.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract respectively for apple and plum. Antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods were evaluated, with results showing also high values for all samples, especially again for fruit skins with IC50 of 4.54 and 5.19 µg/mL (DPPH) and 16.8 and 14.6 mmol TE/g (ORAC) respectively for apple and plum, indicating the potential value of these extracts. Significant negative correlation was found for both apple and plum samples between TPC and DPPH antioxidant values, especially for plum fruits (R = −0.981, p < 0.05) as well as significant positive correlation between TPC and ORAC, also especially for plum fruits (R = 0.993, p < 0.05) and between both, DPPH and ORAC antioxidant methods (R = 0.994, p < 0.05).
... (plum), as plum growing has a longstanding tradition in (and around) the region (Rop et al. 2009). Plum is also the most common Prunus in central Europe (Herzog 1998). ...
Research
In the present study, anatomical features were used to identify tree species chosen to craft farming tools from the 19th and first half of the 20th century preserved in specimen inventories of the open-air museum in Strážnice, south-eastern Moravia (Czech Republic). In total, 701 samples from 337 historical farming tools were obtained from museum specimens. The samples were identified at micro- or macroscopic levels, or both. Results indicated local people used floodplain forest wood to construct farming tools in the study region. Nineteen wood species were identified; from this total, those with higher densities and better mechanical properties were used to manufacture tools, and included predominantly beech, oak, and ash. Softwood species, with lower densities were mainly used for chiseled out implements. We hypothesized regional forest species composition played an essential role in woody species choice, however the species also possessed appropriate properties. Cultivated tree species, such as fruit trees, were employed to create common objects; however, currently, these species are typically applied for special purposes. We concluded an increased number of species were employed in the past for utilitarian purposes, including tree species grown outside local forest boundaries, including cultivated fruit tree species; and species were utilized with good, although perhaps tacit, knowledge of their properties.
... There are many beneficial nutrients contained in freshly made juices. Because plant foods contain many different classes and types of antioxidants, knowledge of their total antioxidant capacity, which is the cumulative capacity of food components to scavenge ROS, would be useful for nutritional purposes (16). This study supports the common perception that fresh is often best for optimal antioxidant activity, although the storage of juices at low temperature or after processing at high temperature induces, if any, minor changes in the antioxidant activity. ...
... The plum fruit is a good source of vitamins, minerals, fiber and enzymes that are good for the digestive system and positively associated with nutrient intake, improves anthropometric measurements; the prune is a useful antistresser (Hiramoto, 2008) and reduces risk of hypertension (Beals and Fulgoni, 2005;Ahmed et al., 2010a). Besides various sugars, acids, pectins, tannins and enzymes, European plum fruits also contain several important secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and phenolic acids (Tomas-Barberan et al., 2001;Gil et al., 2002;Walkowiak-Tomczak et al., 2008;Slimestad et al., 2009), with a strong antioxidant capacity (Kahkonen et al., 1999;Nakatani et al., 2000;Vinson et al., 2001;Kayano et al., 2002Kayano et al., , 2003Kayano et al., , 2004Kikuzaki et al., 2004;Kimura et al., 2008;Rop et al., 2009;Dhingra et al., 2014). Ascorbic acid is another antioxidant present in plum fruit, essential for higher primates and a small number of other species (Gil et al., 2002). ...
Article
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European plum (Prunus domestica L.) is an important fruit and medicinal plant. This fruit plant is a new introduction in the Northwest region of India. Flowers of this plant need cross-pollination for fruit set. However, the spectrum of pollinators and their relative role in pollination of flowers of this fruit plant in this region is not known. To meet these objectives, the present study was carried out. An entire range of flower visitors of this fruit plant was captured with hand net from its field and were identified. On the basis of foraging mode, the flower visitors were characterized as pollinators and non-pollinators. Their relative abundances, foraging rates, activity durations and number of pollen grains carried on the surface were recorded and these attributes were used to determine their pollinating efficiencies. During the two years of this study, a total of 12 insect species were observed on the three varieties of plum at Hisar. Among these insect visitors, five species belonged to Hymenoptera, five to Diptera, one to Lepidoptera and one to Coleoptera. Apis dorsata was the most abundant visitor having maximal foraging rate and carried maximal number of loose pollen grains, and proved to be the most efficient pollinator of plum (P. domestica ) in both the seasons followed by A. mellifera , A. cerana and A. florea; the dipterans were the least efficient pollinators of plum in both the years. On the basis of these attributes, melittophilous mode of pollination was found to predominate in this fruit plant in the semi-arid environment of Norhwest India. Conservation of already declining populations of Apis dorsata has been recommended.
... Its antioxidant activity is very important with the influence on the prevention of tumour diseases [3]. In any case, plant parts are very important to human nutrition having a positive effect on human health [4]. ...
Article
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The subject of this study are volatile fractions from fruit, leaf, kernel and husk of the plum (Prunus domestica) and walnut (Juglans regia), as well as the oils extracted from kernels of the above plants. One part of isolated oils was tested to antioxidant properties, while the other part was used for further characterization by chromatography. The plum volatiles were characterized by benzaldehyde. Walnut kernel was characterized by a high content of heptadecane, hexadecane and tetradecane. Among the volatiles of the husk and leaf, caryophyllene oxide and (E)-caryophyllene were the most abundant. Plum kernel oil was rich in oleic acid, while in walnut kernel oil, linoleic acid was the most abundant. The maximum radical scavenging activity was shown from the walnut kernel oil.
... The maximum methanol content (1265 mg/L) was documented when the process parameters were 25°C and pH 3.6, after 7 days of fermentation (Miljic and Puskas, 2014). The increase was attributed to high pectin content (2.0-3.5 mass %) and the high degree of esterification (Rop et al., 2009), and the addition of pectinase to the pomace (Craig et al., 1998;Cabaroglu, 2005). Methanol is known to be toxic to humans through ingestion and inhalation and its oxidation leads to production of formic aldehyde and formic acid, both toxic to the central nervous system (Ribereau- Gayon et al., 1999). ...
Chapter
Humans have been making and consuming wine from the time immemorial. Most of the wines produced in the world are undoubtedly made from grapes and the technique of winemaking has developed by hit and trial until the fundamental of microbiology, biochemistry, food science especially sensory science could be developed and applied. Fruits other than grapes are also used to make wine. This chapter focuses on the specific features of making table wine from non-grape fruits, viz., pome fruits, stone fruits, berries, citrus fruits, and tropical fruits. The pome fruits include apple, pear, quince, cotoneaster, hawthorn, loquat, medlar, Pyracantha, toyon, rowan, and whitebeam while apricots, plums, peaches, and cherries are the major stone fruits. Among the colorful fruits, are the berries such as blackberry (Rubus sp.), black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), strawberry (Fragaria. ananassa), etc. Citrus fruits include orange, lime, lemon, and kinnow, among others, whereas there are hundreds of edible tropical fruits. All these fruits are nutritious, tasty, and flavorful; are very good sources of anthocyanins/carotenoids, minerals like K, Na, Ca, Mg, and Fe, and vitamins, especially vitamin C; are juicy/pulpy in nature; and have appealing color; but their sugar and acid contents vary. In addition, many fruits are good sources of polyphenols that contribute to their antioxidant activities. Being highly perishable, these fruits have to be either consumed immediately or preserved in one or another form, and conversion of such fruits into wine of acceptable quality could save these precious resources from postharvest losses to a greater extent. Consequently, the production of wine from these fruits is receiving a lot of attention these days, with the added advantage that they contain antioxidants, considered useful in preventing cardiovascular diseases.This chapter describes in detail the methods used to produce wines and low-alcoholic beverages from pome fruits, stone fruits, berries, citrus fruits, and tropical fruits. The process of alcoholic fermentation to make wines from these fruits is basically the same as that for grapes, but there are some major differences in the techniques of production of wines from these fruits because of the difficulty in extracting the sugar from the pulp of some of the fruits, and their composition is especially high in acidity, and thus amelioration of the must or blending is needed to make the wine palatable. Biological deacidification in fruits using the yeast like Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been attempted and hold promise in future. In fruit wine production, the selection of good variety; amelioration, especially for sugar content; pectinase enzyme treatment (to increase the yield of juice) and later clarification of wines produced; inclusion of other additives, especially a nitrogen source; and, consequently, ethanol production are very important. Research and development efforts have been made quite extensively in the preparation of apple wine, apple cider, plum wine, apricot wine, strawberry wine, jamun wine, passion fruits wine, peach wine, berries wine and perry and accordingly, some of these products are produced commercially. Because almost all the stone fruits are low in sugar, have high acidity, and are pulpy in nature, to make wine of acceptable quality from these fruits is not easy, and accordingly, modifications are needed. Methods to prepare various berry wines, viz., strawberry, cherry, raspberry, sea buckthorn, and lychee, are well investigated, but wines from fruits like papaya, pumpkin, persimmon, passion fruit, etc., are still being standardized. Citrus wines, which are produced in a specific wine style, may demand unique conditions compared to grapes and other fruits. Specific mention can be made of problems of bitterness in citrus fruits and to overcome the same efforts have been made with encouraging results. These wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect their chemical composition and their volatile, phenolic, and sensory properties distinctively. Orange and mandarin winemaking techniques have been well documented and are described in this chapter. Wines from many tropical fruits like mango, banana, pineapple, papaya, guava, custard apple, lychee, watermelon, coconut, sapota, and jamun have also been prepared and evaluated for their acceptability, especially that from mango (Mangifera indica L), as reviewed in this chapter. For mango wine, optimization of the fermentation conditions, production profiles of higher alcohols and other volatile compounds during wine fermentation, total volatile composition, and identification of compounds having fruity aroma characters have been carried out. Similarly, a very interesting line of research is focusing on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of fruit wines and the components responsible for the same. Extensive research has been reported on various aspects of wine production including the study of the effects on maturation of these wines using wood chips from various trees.Compared to the quantity of grape wine produced and consumed in the world, the quantity of wine produced from nongrape fruits is insignificant, except for cider and perry, which are produced and consumed in significant quantities throughout the world. But research on the preparation of wines from other pome fruits is at the preliminary stage, so it could certainly be a fruitful area of research, especially in those countries and regions where these fruits are cultivated on a commercial scale. Despite the efforts made and described here for the preparation of berry wines, there are a large number of research gaps for more elaboration in future. But by and large, more concerted and in-depth research is required to make the technology for the commercial production of wines from these fruits a successful commercial venture.
... Commercial cultivars and wild species have been evaluated against distinctive local cultivars originating from the same vicinity (Rop et al. 2009). Azami and Jalili (2011) studied genetic diversity of some Iranian plum genotype based on morphological criteria and reported that cluster analysis at 9 distances, divided genotypes to four main groups. ...
Article
This study was made to determine variability in various pomological traits of well grown plum cultivars and wildly growing plum species on foothills of Mahadeva range. Various fruit parameters like fruit length, fruit diameter, suture diameter, fruit weight, stone length, stone width, pedicel length, acidity and TSS were taken and the variations in these parameters have been discussed. The results suggested that the plum genotypes differed in their pomological traits and these plum genotypes may be used in future breeding programmes. Analysis of variance showed that the studied genotypes were significantly different for most of the traits. Cluster analysis classified studied genotypes into four clusters. Among these clusters, cluster I and cluster IV were monogenic. Intra-cluster variation was higher in cluster III (117.10) as compared to cluster II (65.94). Cluster means for various traits within the plum germplasm revealed significant variation. Analysis of variance for the various traits under study revealed significant differences at genotypic level among the cultivars. The phenotypic variance and genotypic variance viz., (173.29%and 165.26%), phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation (56.37% and 55.20%) were recorded highest for fruit weight and fruit stone ratio respectively. The estimates of heritability in broad sense and genetic advance (as percent of mean) were high for TSS acidity ratio (0.99, 77.14%), TSS (0.97, 57.19%), suture diameter (0.97, 33.51%). Genetic advance (% of mean) among traits of studied germplasm set was found highest for fruit stone ratio (91.35%) followed by fruit weight (86.20%), TSS acidity ratio (77.14%) and TSS (57.19%).
... Considering the nutritional and health properties of old crop landraces, intraspecifi c diversity of these aspects has rarely been studied; however, interestingly, Rop et al. ( 2009 ) found signifi cantly higher antioxidant activity and nutrient content of local White Carpathian plum cultivars in comparison to modern varieties. As emphasized by Heywood ( 2011 ), there is enormous potential for ethnopharmacology and ethnobiology focusing on plants from local agroecological systems and agrobiodiversity, as traditional crop varieties and landraces have been an essential part of local and possibly "healthy" food cultures for many centuries, and they have shaped cultural heritages and local identities. ...
Chapter
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The inextricable link between biodiversity and cultural customs related to the holistic domain of food (gastronomy) represents the very foundation of the human experience and contributes in a variety of ways to the well-being of humans and their oikos. The study of the complex interactions between human societies, food, and their environment—what we defi ne here as gastronomic ethnobiology—is nowadays considered " the " crucial pillar for fostering food security and especially food sovereignty. This research area emerged from a broad range of studies encompassing , for example, those concerning folk categorization and uses of wild food plants and mushrooms, uses and management of neglected crops and local landra-ces, local bio-fermentative processing of food, as well as folk perceptions, uses, and management of animals/ethnoveterinary, nutritional transitions among migrant and diasporic groups, and bio-cultural interactions between foodscapes and terroirs. Food biodiversity and foodscapes constitute the very foundations of the human experience and contribute in a variety of ways to the holistic well-being of humans. However, biodiversity as such is in a state of decline worldwide and the key factors
... Considering the nutritional and health properties of old crop landraces, intraspecifi c diversity of these aspects has rarely been studied; however, interestingly, Rop et al. ( 2009 ) found signifi cantly higher antioxidant activity and nutrient content of local White Carpathian plum cultivars in comparison to modern varieties. As emphasized by Heywood ( 2011 ), there is enormous potential for ethnopharmacology and ethnobiology focusing on plants from local agroecological systems and agrobiodiversity, as traditional crop varieties and landraces have been an essential part of local and possibly "healthy" food cultures for many centuries, and they have shaped cultural heritages and local identities. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The inextricable link between biodiversity and cultural customs related to the holistic domain of food (gastronomy) represents the very foundation of the human experience and contributes in a variety of ways to the well-being of humans and their oikos. The study of the complex interactions between human societies, food, and their environment?what we define here as gastronomic ethnobiology?is nowadays considered ?the? crucial pillar for fostering food security and especially food sovereignty. This research area emerged from a broad range of studies encompassing, for example, those concerning folk categorization and uses of wild food plants and mushrooms, uses and management of neglected crops and local landraces, local bio-fermentative processing of food, as well as folk perceptions, uses, and management of animals/ethnoveterinary, nutritional transitions among migrant and diasporic groups, and bio-cultural interactions between foodscapes and terroirs.
... It may be because this fruits do not have a potent primary antioxidant. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) the most well known antioxidant, is an important molecule in plant tissues to protect plants against oxidative damage resulting from the oxidant metabolites of photosynthesis, aerobic processes and substance responsible for antioxidant activity 16,17 . In our finding from the four wild plum genotypes, significant correlation ship was obtained in Ukhrul Applemix and Imphal Kalenheikha with 'r' value as -0.695, and -0.633 respectively indicating high relationship between vitamin C and antioxidant activity. ...
Article
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The North - East state Manipur, India is a powerhouse of many wild flora and fauna. Varied ran ges of wild edible Prunus triflora genotypes commonly known as plum are found in valley and hill districts of the region. Each fruit has d istinctive physiological habitat and geographical characteristic. However, to the best of our knowledge no biochemical evaluation has been carried out of these fruits from this region . Four populations of wild Prunus triflora genotypes ( Imphal kalenheikha, Senapati maoheikha, Ukhrul applemix, Ukhrul mangomix ) were selected as source for study to estimate bio - chemical cont ents using standard protocols . The selected site differed in respect to their altitudes rang ing from 750 - 2740 m above msl . P roximate analysis revealed that the Prunus triflora genotype of Senapati maoheikha have high est amount of t otal soluble sugar , redu cing sugar, total soluble protein and antioxidant activity of 34.67 ± 0.65 mg / 100g , 23.65±2.22 mg / 100g , 5.66±0.23 mg / 100g , IC 50 666.3 ± 26 µg/ml , respectively. While the genotype of Ukhrul applemix showed high value of 16.51± 5.9 mg / 100g non – reduci ng sugar. A scor bic acid content was h igh est in Imphal kalenheikha having 13.19±0.9 mg / 100g of fresh weight among the genotypes . S ignificant correlationship was achieved between ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in all the genotype s . O ur study showed that wild Prunus triflora is a pot ential source of nutrition and a food containing health giving additives like functional food. Therefore, popularizing and bringing into mainstream cultivation of the s e fruit need initiation .
... Such variation was due to varietal characters and also due to environmental and growth conditions [Vursavus et al. 2006]. Differences for phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity [Gil et al. 2002, Chun et al. 2003, Kim et al. 2003a, b, Cevallos-Cassals et al. 2006, Rupasinghe et al. 2006, Rop et al. 2009, Kristl et al. 2011 have also been recorded among plum cultivars. ...
Article
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In the present work, genetic diversity in nutritional composition of sixteen plum genotypes growing at four different locations of Tehsil Rawalakot, District Poonch of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan) were studied. Various parameters like moisture, dry matter, ash and total soluble solids contents, acidity, pH, vitamin C and sugar content, shelf-life and sensory/organoleptic evaluation, anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant activity were evaluated and variation in these characteristics has been discussed. The results suggested that the genotypes differed in their nutritional composition of fruits, anthocyanin and phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of fruit. The results of the present study regarding the nutritional status of existing plum germplasm will contribute and increase our knowledge about the genus Prunus and broaden the gene pool available for future plant breeding programs. © Copyright by Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie, Lublin 2015.
... The effect of antioxidants found in those raw materials is multiple on human health, and one of major factors with influence on the prevention of many tumour diseases [3]. Plant parts make an important source of nutrients and other nutritive substances having, without any doubt, a positive impact on human health [4]. ...
... Several researches were made concerning the quality and the physical and chemical properties of plum fruits in various ecological conditions (Vitanova et al., 2004: Walkowiak-Tomczak, 2008: Vangdal et al., 2007: Usenik et al., 2009: Rop et al., 2009. ...
Article
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Fruits from twelve plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.), were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. The fruits trees were grown in a trial at University of Craiova - Fruit Growing Research Station (SCDP) Valcea, which is located in Bujoreni, an important Romanian plum production area. Fruits were picked at harvest maturity. Several analyzes were performed, such as fruit linear dimensions, size index, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanins, malic, tartaric and citric acids content. The best features in terms of physical and chemical properties proved to be found in 'Alina', 'Alutus', 'Tuleu Timpuriu', 'Oltenal' and 'Renclod Althan'.
... These correlations show that phenolics are the main hydrophilic compounds responsible for the antioxidant capacity of plums, as previously reported in a wide range of plum species and cultivars. 9,29,32 Apart from total phenolics, the individual phenolics and anthocyanins were determined by HPLC in BS cultivar, which has purple pulp (Fig. 3). Results revealed that the major phenolic compound was neochlorogenic acid, followed by quercetin 3-arabinoside and chlorogenic acid, in agreement with previous reports in other plum cultivars such as 'Angeleno', 'Red Beaut', 'Santa Rosa', 'Black Beaut', 'Wickson', 'Byrongold', 'Black Splendor' and 'Burgundy'. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Plums are very appreciated by consumers as fresh fruit but have a limited storage life. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated to fruit ripening, an increase on ROS scavenging antioxidant systems could lead to a delay on the postharvest plum ripening and to maintain fruit quality after long cold storage. RESULTS Results showed that crop yield (kg tree‐1) and fruit weight were enhanced by pre‐harvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment of plum cultivars (‘Black Splendor’ and ‘Royal Rosa’), although the on‐tree ripening process was delayed. In addition, plum ripening process during cold storage was also delayed in plums from OA‐treated tress, manifested by lower firmness and acidity losses and reduced ethylene production, as compared with fruits from control trees. Antioxidant compounds (phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were higher in plums from OA‐treated trees than in controls, at harvest and during 50 days of cold storage. CONCLUSION OA preharvest treatment could be a useful tool to maintain plum quality properties during long term storage, by delaying post‐harvest ripening process throughout a delay of ethylene production, with an additional effect on increasing bioactive compounds with health‐beneficial effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Several researches were made concerning the quality and the physical and chemical properties of plum fruits in various ecological conditions (Walkowiak-Tomczak, 2008;Usenik et al. 2009;Rop et al. 2009;Ionica et al. 2013). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the physical properties of plum cv. ...
Conference Paper
The present study was carried out to determine the physical properties of plum (cv.Kala Amritsari) which will be helpful for the design of fruit processing machineries. The parameters viz. moisture content, length, width, thickness, diameter, colour, sphericity, geometric mean diameter, surface area, aspect ratio, porosity, volume, bulk density and true density were determined. Initially the fruits were graded in two categories viz. smaller (S) and bigger (B) on the basis of linear dimensions. Moisture content of the fruit pulp was 85.19±0.54 % (w.b). Linear dimensions of smaller fruits were: major intercept (19.41±1.96 mm), minor intercept (16.79±1.46 mm), geometric mean diameter (18.48±1.72 mm), arithmetic mean diameter (3.31±0.12 mm), sphericity (0.79±0.03), surface area (1082.59± 120.81 mm 2) and aspect ratio (1.15±0.17), while the corresponding values for bigger fruit were, 25.15±0.77 mm, 23.61±0.30 mm, 24.49±0.41 mm, 3.17±0.08 mm, 0.98±0.02, 1901.98±66.93 mm 2 , 1.08±0.15, respectively. The density values in terms of bulk density were, 660±27.54 kgm-3 (S), 473±18.69 kgm-3 (B), true density 1213±58.3 kgm-3 (S), 1120± 47.28 kgm-3 (B) and porosity 45.6±5.30 (S), 56.8±7.28 (B) were also recorded.Colour in the form of L, a, b values for smaller fruits (33.62±2.04, 66.87±6.75, 10.24±2.62) and for larger fruits (37.38±1.88, 61.25±5.91, 12.28±2.66), respectively were observed. The average fruit weight, pulp weight and seed weight for smaller grade fruits was 32.35±4.25 g, 28.74±3.50 g, 1.09±0.32 g, while for bigger grade fruits it was 38.14±5.33 g, 33.57±6.53 g, 1.73±0.26, respectively.
... As the chemical composition of the edible fruits of different cultivars can vary considerably [13,14] it is very important to compare and assess the chemical composition of the American cranberry fruit of different cultivars and to ensure their quality. The diversity of the chemical composition of plants is an important characteristic that is used for the selection of garden and medicinal plants as well as for the evaluation of the quality of botanical raw material. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in ethanol extracts of eight different cultivars of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) fruit using spectrophotometric and UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro of these extracts. The highest total amount of phenolic compounds evaluated via Folin–Ciocalteu spectrophotometry was detected in American cranberry fruit samples of the ‘Bain’ clone, and the highest total amount of flavonoids was found in samples of the ‘Drever’ and ‘Baiwfay’ cultivars. The highest total amount of the individual phenolic compounds (519.53 ± 25.12 mg/g DW) identified and quantitatively evaluated via chromatography was detected in samples of the ‘Searles’ cranberry cultivar. In the studied cranberry samples, the predominant phenolic compounds were hyperoside, quercetin, and procyanidin A2, while the amounts of other compounds were significantly lower. HCA and PCA revealed that ‘Woolman’, ‘Holliston’, ‘Pilgrim, and ‘Searles’ fruit samples had different quantitative content of phenolic compounds from other cranberry cultivars. Meanwhile, fruit of ‘Baiwfay’, ‘Drever’, ‘Bain’, and ‘Bergman’ were similar in their phytochemical profile.
... However, their common attribute is that their fruit is an excellent source of nutritive substances for humans (Cao et al., 1997). They are particularly known for their high antioxidant content, which was proven in many studies worldwide (Kim et al., 2003;Rop et al., 2009;Mihalanche et al., 2014;Rahaman et al., 2019;Li et al., 2019;Durán et al., 2020). Anthocyanins pose an important group of antioxidants in the fruit of plums (Rupasinghe et al., 2006; They are phenolic substances, belonging to the subgroup of The presence of these pigments in plums is manifested in Colour plays a fundamental role in consumer choices, is associated to quality and genuineness, and could be correlated with the presence of a characteristic pigments (Patsilinakos et al., 2018). ...
... The high content of sodium and potassium, the equilibrate sugar content (Bobiş et al., 2017), give these fruits also different health benefits (Mehta et al., 2014, Igwe and Charlton, 2016, Wallace, 2017. The antioxidant activity of plums is due to their polyphenolic content (Li et al., 2016, Miletic et al. 2013, Mihalache Arion et al., 2014, Rop et al., 2009, Sahamishirazi et al., 2017. ...
Article
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Plums are low-calorie fruits with a low glycaemic index score. Prunus domestica L. is one of the tree fruits threatened by Plum pox potyvirus (PPV), a quarantine disease that causes fruit loss to plums and other stone fruits. HoneySweet is a plum tree created to be resistant to this virus. Beside genetical determinations, chemical composition and nutritional value are important for a future acceptance in the cultivation of this type of fruit trees. Two conventional (Renclod Althan and Stanley) and one genetically engineered (HoneySweet) plum fruits were evaluated for the nutritional value determination. The analyzed samples showed nutritionally valuable features. HoneySweet variety had a balanced content of individual carbohydrates. The total lipid content had values quite close to the HoneySweet and Stanley varieties, far superior to Renclod Althan variety. HoneySweet transgenic plum had the highest total protein content. Also, HoneySweet variety is distinguished by a balanced protein and lipid content. By comparing the three analyzed varieties from the perspective of the most important physic-chemical nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids), the highest nutritional value was registered in Stanley variety, closely followed by HoneySweet, and then by Reine Claude d’Althan.
... Genetic deficiency of non-suitable cultivars cannot be eliminated by optimum natural conditions, even with the application of modern cultivation technology. In order to fully express genetic potential of high-quality cultivars, it is necessary to cultivate them in appropriate agro-ecological conditions and the cultivar choice is the fundamental question for each producer of plum plantations [Miletić et al. 2001, Vitanova et al. 2004, Dinkova et al. 2007, Nenadović-Mratinić et al. 2007, Sestras et al. 2007, Walkowiak-Tomczak 2008, Erturk et al. 2009, Rop et al. 2009, Usenik et al. 2009, Ganji Moghaddam et al. 2011, Glišić et al. 2011, Ionica et al. 2013. ...
Article
Some important fruit characteristics of twelve promising cornelian cherry selections from Montenegro were presented. Average fruit mass and flesh ratio of promising selections ranged from 1.90 g (BA-13) to 4.40 g (BR-135) and 83.16 % (BA-13) to 88.63 % (BR-135). External fruit color was dark red in the majority of selections but there were also selections with a red and yellow color. The selections had a total dry matter content between 18.83 % (BP-07) and 27.73 % (BP-54); total acid content between 1.65 % (BP-38) and 3.54 % (BP-07); total sugar content between 10.42 % (PL-99) and 17.52 % (BR-135), reducing sugar content between 8.73 % (BP-21) and 15.78 % (BR-135); sucrose content between 0.29 % (BP-38) and 3.51 % (BA-13); ash content between 0.65 % (BP-07) and 1.59 % (ŽB-143); Ca-pectate content between 1.03 % (BA-13) and 2.47 % (BP-51) and vitamin C content between 52 mg/100 g (BP-07) and 103 mg/100 g (ŽB-143). The results showed that a particularly high content of pectin and vitamin C of the selections make them suitable for table use and various forms of processing. The selection BR-135 was found to be the most promising overall for the best fruit mass and chemical composition characteristics, except its vitamin C content.
... Our results for the contents of K and Fe were lower, and for Ca they were higher than those reported by Nergiz and Yıldız (1997). The obtained results for the content of K, P, Ca, and Mg were in accordance with that reported by Rop et al. (2009). In comparison with the results of Milošević and Milošević (2012), our values for K and Ca were similar, for P we found higher values, and for Mg and micro elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B) our values were lower. ...
Article
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This paper presents the chemical composition of the fruits of three European plum cultivars (‘Cacanska Rana’, ‘Cacanska Lepotica’, and ‘Cacanska Najbolja’) grafted on four rootstocks (Myrobalan, ‘Pixy’, ‘Fereley’, and ‘St. Julien A’). The rootstock/cultivar combinations significantly influenced the content of most of the phenolic compounds in the plum skin and flesh. The total anthocyanin content in the skin ranged from 1.87 to 7.33 mg cyanidin- 3-glucoside g−1 fresh weight. The major phenolic compound in the skin was rutin, which ranged from 95 to 238 mg kg−1, while in the flesh, cinnamic acid and catechin were dominant. The total sugar content in the fruit ranged from 66.2–147 mg g−1. The highest glucose and fructose contents were in ‘Cacanska Lepotica’, then in ‘Cacanska Najbolja’, and the lowest were in ‘Cacanska Rana’ cultivar. The highest contents of glucose and sucrose were found in fruits from trees grafted on Myrobalan rootstock, and the lowest in fruits from trees grafted on ‘St. Julien A’ rootstock. The rootstocks significantly influenced the potassium, calcium, and copper contents in the plum fruit. The results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstocks on the phenolic and sugar profiles, and on the mineral content of the plum fruits.
... Plant species of genus Prunus are different depending on climatic and soil conditions because of its wide range of distribution across the globe. Such variation in environmental conditions may also influences the chemical composition of these species, which stand out the presence of compounds that are considered as nutraceuticals since they provide nutritional and health benefits (Rop, Jurikova, Mlcek, Kramarova, & Sengee, 2009;Simon, Dörken, L-M-Arnold, & Adamczyk, 2018). The plums are rich sources of nutrients including carbohydrates, fibers, vitamins (A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, C and folate) and minerals (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium, potassium and iron). ...
Article
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of pathologies and conditions such as obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension representing a serious health concern in many countries due to its high rate of mortality and morbidity. Insulin resistance is known to play a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and several risk factors, including visceral obesity, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, could trigger insulin resistance. Different strategies are currently in practice to manage metabolic syndrome. Along with dietary components, botanicals contain secondary metabolites, which may play a pivotal role in the maintenance of health by combating chronic disorders. Genus Prunus is classified under family Rosaceae and consists of 400 – 430 species. This genus contains some important species of fruits and ornamental plants. Prunus species contain important micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals and their consumption could maintain health by nourishing the body with essential and non-essential compounds. Besides nutritional components, they also contain bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, which make them potential alternative therapeutic agents for a number of chronic disorders including dysregulated metabolic conditions. The present review is designed to highlight the evidence-based effects of Prunus species against metabolic syndrome risk factors.
... In the flowers of the studied apricot cultivars, the total phenolic content ranged from 404.08 to 768.45 mg GAE/100 g FW. These values are comparable to the values in fruit of common fruit species such as plums (348-495 mg GAE/100 g FW) (Rop et al., 2009), blueberries (300-489 mg GAE/100 g FW) (You et al., 2011), and blackcurrants (533 mg GAE/100 g FW) (Lugasi et al., 2011). Despite a high variation in total phenolic content in apricot fruit, from 58.4 to 309.5 mg GAE/ 100 g FW (Rapisarda et al., 1999), 30.3 to 742.2 mg GAE/100 g FW (Drogoudi et al., 2008), and 326 to 1600 mg · 100 g -1 FW (Ruiz The value of antioxidant capacity is closely linked to the total phenolic content, which was confirmed in our experiment. ...
Article
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The nutritive quality of food and the aesthetic aspect contribute to the appearance of consumed food. In this study, apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) flowers were used to determine vitamin C, total phenolic content, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and amygdalin. Vitamin C content fluctuated between 24.97 and 47.35 mg·100 g –1 fresh weight (FW). The results show that all apricot flowers are a good source of phenolic compounds [404.08–768.45 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW] and flavonoids [198.76–538.11 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/100 g FW], and have good antioxidant capacity [414.66–1026.18 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g FW]. A high value of anthocyanins was measured in ‘Vestar’ (28.41 mg·100 g –1 FW) and also in ‘Blenheim’ (13.40 mg·100 g –1 FW). On the contrary, a low value was found in ‘Scout’ (1.60 mg·100 g –1 FW). The highest value of carotenoids was measured in ‘Blenheim’ (6.41 mg·100 g –1 FW), and the lowest in ‘Chuang Zhi Hong’ (1.36 mg·100 g –1 FW). Amygdalin content fluctuated between 110.81 and 419.78 mg·100 g –1 FW. Newly acquired information about the composition and nutritional value of edible flowers give reasons for their consumption.
... But were lower than those reported for red (501.3 mg GAE 100 g -1 FW) and yellow guava (292.0 mg GAE 100 g -1 FW) by Biegelmeyer et al. (2011), for jaboticaba (440 mg GAE 100 g -1 FW) by Rufino et al. (2010), for plum (227 to 495 mg GAE 100 g -1 FW) by Rop et al. (2009), and for carambola (142.9 to 209.9 mg GAE 100 g -1 FW) by Luximon-Ramma, Bahorun, and Crozier (2003). ...
... Chun and Kim (2004) also recorded the average TPC in 13 plum genotypes as 370 mg/100 g FW. Parallel to our results, several other studies reported the TPC and TFC in plum genotypes ranging from 5.8-10.5 and 144-563 mg/100 g FW, respectively (Karakaya et al., 2001;Cevallos-Casals et al., 2006;Rop et al., 2009;Arion et al., 2014;Kaulmann et al., 2014;Mehta et al., 2014). ...
Article
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In the current study, the biochemical components, antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity, and antimutagenic activity of 5 plum (Demal, White Cancur, Cancur, Red plum, and Sugar plum) fruits grown in Posof/Ardahan, Turkey were investigated. While other genotypes are cultured, Demal genotype grows wild. The highest total ascorbic acid (TAC; 454 mg/100 g FW (fresh weight)) and total flavonoid content (TFC; 29.1 mg/100 g FW) were detected in Red plum genotype. The Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2ʹ-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) values were obtained highest in Sugar plum (563.8 µmol/g and 50.9%, respectively). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) content among the plum genotypes was also insignificant. Gallic acid, naringin, resveratrol, and caffeic acid were the predominant phenolic compounds in plum fruits. The resveratrol content in Red plum was significantly higher. The total sugar was found maximum in White Cancur and Cancur genotypes (545.15 and 546.08 mg/g, respectively). Twenty-three fatty acids were identified and quantified. Palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid (SFA) in all samples. It was observed that all the plum extracts, except Cancur, exhibited antibacterial activity against the experimental bacteria. Further, different doses of plum extracts exhibited the antimutagenic effect.
... Growing and utilization of particular local cultivars including wild plums as food and for medication has been a usual practice for centuries (Ahmed et al., 2009;Nisar et al., 2015). Commercial cultivars and wild species have been evaluated against distinctive local cultivars originating from the same vicinity (Rop et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Plum (Prunus domestica L.) and its wild relatives are found at different locations in Pakistan, existing in naturalized form, which have not been characterized yet. In the present work, genetic diversity in morpho-physiological characteristics of sixteen plum genotypes growing in the area of Rawalakot, district Poonch, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan were studied. Various parameters like tree size, number of branches per plant, leaf area, number of flowers per plant, blooming period, number and percentage of fruits set per plant, number and percentage of fruits matured per plant, fruit size and fruit weight were taken into count and variation observed in these characteristics was discussed. The results suggested that the plum genotypes differed in their morpho-physiological traits, and this ultimately provides important information on how to make the best use of these plum genotypes in future breeding programmes. The differences were probably due to their genetic make-up as well as prevailing climatic factors in the region. © Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, 2015.
... Plum fruit, whose cultural history dates back to ancient civilizations, is one of the fruits whose popularity is constantly increasing among the other fruit species and is inevitable in the industrial sector. It has been emphasized by many researchers that the fruits of plum species are important in human health and nutrition due in particular to its relatively high total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity [10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. Plum is considered one of the most important fruits in the market due to the growing interest of consumers [17]. ...
Article
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In this study, agro-morphological, sensory and biochemical characteristics of 23 plum genotypes belonging to Prunus spinosa L. subsp. dasyphylla (Schur) Domin growing wild in the West Black Sea Region in Turkey were investigated. Agro-morphological, sensory and biochemical properties of genotypes were highly different from each other. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the correlation between these properties and genotypes. The variation in the study was determined to be 63.5% in agro-morphological properties, 53.8% in organic acids and 46% in phenolic compounds. In terms of fruit weight, 14BLM08 genotype (38.42 g) was determined to be superior to other genotypes. The fruit firmness value, which is important in the storage of fruits, was recorded as the highest in the 14BLM14 genotype (9.07 kg/cm2). Chlorogenic acid was higher than the other phenolic compounds and the highest value was obtained in the 14BLM20 (11.45 mg/kg) genotype. It was recorded that the value of malic acid, which is the major organic acid of the plums, varied between 269.65–1294.64 mg/100 g. Genotypes showed diverse vitamin C content, and the highest value was found in the 14BLM18 genotype as 54.42 mg/100g. Each genotype showed superiority according to the type of traits, and thus breeders may have used these genotypes as the superior ones for specific plum breeding purposes. In addition, these genotypes could be satisfactorily used in domestication.
... This method proved to be an effective method for producing homogeneous mixtures in previous tests [54]. Of course, the mixed sample is divided into four parts according to the method of the first step and then put the four parts into the instrument successively, which also conforms to the principle of selecting representative samples in the test [55,56]. Then, after the particles were added to reach a height slightly higher than the specified layer height (e.g., each layer was 100 mm), each sample was compacted with a heavy hammer in a clockwise direction, as shown in Fig. 7b; the hammer fall height and the number of compaction hits are the same for each layer, where the height is about 100 mm and the number is about 15. ...
Article
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Binary geotechnical mixtures are usually studied as homogeneous materials; however, it is difficult for coarse and fine particles to mix evenly during the formation process of binary geotechnical mixtures. Whether the mixing degree index (Md), which is one of the factors that can affect the local and overall properties of granular materials, will affect the strength of binary geotechnical mixtures has become a topic of interest. At the same time, the evaluation of the mixing degree of binary geotechnical mixture by the existing indexes is obviously insufficient. In this context, an improved index is proposed and well verified and applied. Then, a series of triaxial shear tests are performed as both physical experiments and numerical simulations. The samples are prepared from particle packings with different coarse particle contents and Md values. The reliability of the numerical simulations is verified by physical experiments. The macroscopic mechanical results of the physical experiments and numerical simulations show that the shear strength of the binary geotechnical mixture increases with increasing Md. The microscopic mechanism results of the numerical simulations show that the anisotropy of the normal contact forces an dominates the shear strength and that the increase in shear strength is mainly caused by the increase in an and normal contact anisotropy ac. In addition, a detailed analysis of the three contact subnetworks (coarse-coarse, coarse-fine and fine-fine contact subnetworks) indicates that the increase in the shear strength of the binary geotechnical mixture may primarily be due to the increased number and globalized distribution of coarse-fine contact. This conclusion is further proven by meticulous analysis of the force and fabric anisotropies of the three subnetworks.
... The results of current study are found to be higher than the results of Kornsteiner et al., (2006) who reported 1.025 mg GAE 100 g -1 antioxidant activity. In some of examples, Cosmulescu and Trandafir (2012) reported a range from 16.40 to 50.72 mg AAE g -1 , Rupasinghe et al., (2006) noted a variation from 214 to 468 GAE 100 g −1 and Rop et al., (2009) suggested a range from 86 to 413 GAE 100 g −1 in their studies. It is a well-known phenomenon that the chemical content and antioxidant capacity of plants are significantly affected by several factors. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity in pollens collected from ten different walnut cultivars. Pollen samples of walnut cultivars ("Aslan", "Chandler", "Fernette", "Fernor", "Franquet", "Kaman", "Oguzlar", "Pedro", "Sebin"and"Yalova")were collected during flowering of catkins in Uşak Province of Turkey. Identification and quantification of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, pH, organic acids and phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanilic acid, caffeic acid and syringic acid) were individually analyzed for each cultivar. The results of observed parameters are significantly varying among the cultivars (p<0.05) and wide range of biochemical compounds were identified from the walnut pollens. Results showed that total phenolic contents varied from 5.050 to 11.030 mg GAE/g and total flavonoids content ranged from 1.530 to 4.123 mgQE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of pollen extracts was found to range from 1.510 to 2.003 mg AAE g-1. Among the identified phenolic compounds, gallic acid (10.610-13.410 mg/100g-1) and protocatechuic acid (1.410-3.623 mg/100g-1) were found in highest amounts. Moreover, oxalic acid and citric acid were identified as the dominant organic acids for all cultivars. Results of present study showed that the walnut pollens have high antioxidant capacity which is very beneficial for human health.
... Moreover, there are health benefits related to plum consumption such as an antidiabetic effect, cardio protection (Santhakumar et al., 2015), hypertension reduction (Beals and Fulgoni, 2005) and due to their high phenolic compounds content, they reduce oxidative stress in human cells and neutralize free radicals in the body. In addition, plums are a good source of antioxidants as has been proven in many studies worldwide (Kim et al., 2003;Rop et al., 2009;Mihalache Arion et al., 2014;Traore et al., 2021). One of the main interests of many breeders is to develop more attractive plums for consumers with good taste together with a high content of healthy nutritional substances. ...
Article
Introduction. Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) is a promising fruit species originating from North America. Among pomaceous fruits, saskatoon berries are a valuable source of chemical compounds with an antioxidant effect. Materials and methods. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and their correlation associated with the total antioxidant capacity of fruit of five particular cultivars were ascertained. Reactive oxygen species (specifically nitric oxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical) and antioxidant activity in the liver lipid system of their methanolic extracts were also assessed. Results and discusssion. In saskatoon berry cultivars the total contents of phenolic compounds ranged from (2.52 to 3.82) g gallic acid Eq·kg-1 of fresh mass, while the values of total antioxidant capacity were observed to be from (4.17 to 5.29) g of ascorbic acid Eq·kg-1 of fresh mass. High correlation coefficients between phenolics as well as flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were calculated (r2 = 0.8921 and r2 = 0.9901, respectively). Nitric oxide, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and antioxidant activity in the liver lipid system of saskatoon berry fruit methanolic extracts (10%) were provided for the first time. In the case of nitric oxide, the inhibitions were 21.08-27.52%; as regards superoxide anion, they were 25.14-30.73%; concerning hydroxyl radical, 18.25-21.18%, and in respect of antioxidant activity in the liver lipid system, 7.90-8.38%. These inhibitions are stronger than, e.g., in apples which are the most important species of pomaceous fruit worldwide. Conclusions. Saskatoon berry fruit could be a suitable supplement for modern human nutrition. Furthermore, our work contributes to the popularisation of this pomaceous species, with the focus on its potential in relation to high antioxidant strength.
Chapter
Plums (Prunus domestica) are produced in over 60 countries under diverse climatic conditions. This chapter covers production, postharvest storage, and processing aspects of plums. Commonly processed plum products are: dried prune, prune juice, prune juice concentrate, canned prunes, plum juice, plum puree/paste, jam and jelly. In addition to discussion on processing and quality aspects of plums and plum products, this chapter covers plum and prune composition, nutritional profile, and health benefits. Furthermore, given the antioxidant rich nature of plum fruit, there is a greater potential for preparing a variety of plum-based functional foods.
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The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity in 12 cultivars of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.). Two assays based on ion reduction of ABTS (2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals were used for antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content of the fruit was analysed by Folin-Ciocelteau colorimetric method and ascorbic acid content was analysed using column chromatography - electrochemical detector (Coulochem III). The highest amounts of total phenolic content were found in cultivars 'Vydubeckij' and 'Titus' as 7.96 and 8.11 g gallic acid kg-1 of fresh mass (FM). High correlation between polyphenols and antioxidant activity in fruits of the cultivars was observed (r2 = 0.970 for DPPH test and r2 = 0.978 for ABTS test). The highest total content of ascorbic acid was determined in cultivar 'Olomoucky', with the value of 3.11 g kg-1 FM. This study attempts to contribute to the knowledge of human nutritional properties of these cornelian cherry cultivars and may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information and further propagation of cultivation and utilization of this fruit in the world.
Article
Plums are among the most consumed fruits in Romania, being a good source of health promoting compounds. The objective of this paper is to evaluate in comparison the total phenolic content, the flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity in fruit of four plum cultivars. The total phenolic, flavonoids and anthocyanin contents were determined by colorimetric methods and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results show that studied chemical indices vary depending on the analyzed cultivar. The obtained results show that all the studied cultivars show a high phytochemicals content and significant antioxidant activity and recommend their use as sources of phenolic compounds and natural antioxidants.
Article
The fiuctuations in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Viburnum opulus fruits were studied. The total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. To determine the antioxidant activity, the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) test was applied. Results indicate that no correlation can be made between the total phenol content and the antioxidant capacity of the extract during refrigerated storage.
Article
Introduction. Deciduous tree fruits like peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. persica), nectarine (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica (Suckow) C.K.Schneid), and especialy plum (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica) are very common in Serbia. These fruits are known for their nutritional value and therapeutic properties and are valuable sources of antioxidants. Materials and methods. The goal of this work was to evaluate fruit tissue antioxidant activity using methanol extracts of 9 peach, 3 nectarine and 7 plum cultivars. The following parameters were measured: total phenolic content (TPC); antioxidant activity as estimated by radical scavenging activity of (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH); cation decolorization activity (2,2-azinobis-3 ethylbenxothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, ABTS); ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); and total reducing power (TRP). Results and discussion. Total phenolic contents of the plum cultivars were higher than those of peach and nectarine and significant positive correlations were recorded between all antioxidant activity assays and total phenolic contents. Results obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) are in agreement with those obtained by cluster analysis (CA). Conclusion. The selected methods revealed antioxidant activities for all plum cultivars significantly higher than in the peach and nectarine cultivars. PCA and CA allow grouping the different fruit species based on TPC, DPPH, ABTS, TRP, FRAP and CUPRAC values.
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Two species of edible honeysuckle were studied in the trial established in the autumn 1994. The spacing used was 2.0 x 1.5 m and the experiment included irrigated as well as non- irrigated variants. The aim of this study was to provide a summary of nutritional values of Lonicera kamtschatica and Lonicera edulis berries under the Nitra conditions during the period 2001-2003. The berries were examined for the content of dry mater, sugar, organic acids, ascorbic acid, mineral substances - K, Ca, P, Mg, Na and anthocyanins from pomace and juice. The results of our experiments refer to the exceptionally high content of ascorbic acid ranging from 28.56 up to 86.96 mg/100 g, potassium 10,175 to 14,764 mg/kg and anthocyanins from pomace 6.245-17.36 g/kg. The values of ascorbic acid varied and they were statistically significantly depending on the year; similarly, only year can be taken into account as a statistically significant factor for forming content of sugar, magnesium and sodium. The content of dry mater, organic acids, potassium, calcium and anthocyanins in juice was influenced not only by year but also by species. The interaction species - year as a source of statistically significant differences is evident in the case of phosphorus and organic acids. A significant influence of irrigation on all evaluated nutrients was not confirmed.
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Plasma levels of major essential antioxidants were determined in representative random samples of middle-aged men from 16 European study populations which differed up to 6-fold in age-specific mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD). In 12 study populations having total plasma cholesterol in the medium range (5.7-6.2 mmol/l) and usual blood pressure, both these classical risk factors lacked a significant correlation to IHD mortality, whereas the absolute level of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) showed a strong inverse correlation (r2 = 0.63, P = 0.002). On evaluation of all study populations, cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure had a moderate direct association with IHD, but their importance still remained inferior to that of vitamin E as an inversely associated, presumably protective factor. In stepwise regression and multiple regression analysis, the IHD mortality of the study populations was predictable to 62% by lipid-standardized vitamin E, to 79% by vitamin E and total cholesterol, to 83% after inclusion of lipid-standardized vitamin A (retinol) and to 87% by all the above parameters plus diastolic blood pressure. In conclusion, in the present study the plasma status of vitamin E is the most important factor to explain cross-cultural differences of IHD mortality. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the prevention of arteriosclerosis by antioxidant protection against peroxidative lipoprotein modification, but does not exclude additional effects of antioxidant vitamins, e.g. on the cellular or immunological level.
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Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making plums are dehydrated in hot air at 85 to 90 degrees C for 18 h, then further processed into prune juice, puree, or other prune products. This extensive literature review summarizes the current knowledge of chemical composition of prunes and their biological effects on human health. Because of their sweet flavor and well-known mild laxative effect, prunes are considered to be an epitome of functional foods, but the understanding of their mode of action is still unclear. Dried prunes contain approximately 6.1 g of dietary fiber per 100 g, while prune juice is devoid of fiber due to filtration before bottling. The laxative action of both prune and prune juice could be explained by their high sorbitol content (14.7 and 6.1 g/100 g, respectively). Prunes are good source of energy in the form of simple sugars, but do not mediate a rapid rise in blood sugar concentration, possibly because of high fiber, fructose, and sorbitol content. Prunes contain large amounts of phenolic compounds (184 mg/100 g), mainly as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids, which may aid in the laxative action and delay glucose absorption. Phenolic compounds in prunes had been found to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro, and thus might serve as preventive agents against chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, high potassium content of prunes (745 mg/100 g) might be beneficial for cardiovascular health. Dried prunes are an important source of boron, which is postulated to play a role in prevention of osteoporosis. A serving of prunes (100 g) fulfills the daily requirement for boron (2 to 3 mg). More research is needed to assess the levels of carotenoids and other phytochemicals present in prunes to ensure correct labeling and accuracy of food composition tables in order to support dietary recommendations or health claims.
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The free and bound phenols have been measured in 20 fruits commonly consumed in the American diet. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard after correction for ascorbic acid contribution. On a fresh weight basis, cranberry had the highest total phenols, and was distantly followed by red grape. Free and total phenol quality in the fruits was analyzed by using the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation promoted by cupric ion. Ascorbate had only a minor contribution to the antioxidants in fruits with the exception of melon, nectarine, orange, white grape, and strawberry. The fruit extracts' antioxidant quality was better than the vitamin antioxidants and most pure phenols, suggesting synergism among the antioxidants in the mixture. Using our assay, fruits had significantly better quantity and quality of phenol antioxidants than vegetables. Fruits, specifically apples and cranberries, have phenol antioxidants that can enrich lower density lipoproteins and protect them from oxidation. The average per capita consumption of fruit phenols in the U.S. is estimated to be 255 mg/day of catechin equivalents.
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Fruit samples of 8 red-fleshed peach and 13 red-fleshed plum selections were collected from plots at the USDA-ARS Prunus collection at Byron, GA and frozen at-20C. These were assayed for total phenolics and anthocyanin content as well as antioxidant activity. The anthocyanin content of the peaches ranged from 7.64 to 50.01 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g fresh tissue and that of the plums ranged from 44.1 to 231.29 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/100 g fresh tissue. The total phenolics content for peaches ranged from 99 to 449 mg chlorogenic acid/ 100 g fresh tissue and the phenolic content of plums ranged from 298 to 563 mg chlorogenic acid/100 g fresh tissue. The anti-oxidant activity ranged from 440 to 1784 ug equivalent Trolox/ g fresh tissue for peaches and from 1254 to 3244 ug equivalent Trolox/ g fresh tissue for the plums. Correlation analysis indicated that the anthocyanin content and phenolic content was well correlated with the anti-oxidant activity. Plum extracts showed good antimicrobial activity and some potential as a colorant.
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Nutritional and technological properties for the design of fruit processing machines were determined for wild plum fruit, at a moisture content of 20.65% (d.b.). The moisture, ash, crude protein, crude oil, crude fibre, pH, acidity, water soluble-extract and mineral contents of completely ripe fruits were investigated. Mineral content of wild plum growing in Turkey were determined by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). All materials contained high amounts of K (9879.57 mg/kg), Ca (920.82 mg/kg), Mg (916.68 mg/kg), P (659.15 mg/kg), S (122.69 mg/kg), Na (40.46 mg/kg) and Fe (30.1 mg/kg). Also, technological properties such as length and diameter of fruit, unit mass, volume of fruit, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk density, fruit density, porosity, projected area, terminal velocity kernel and pulp mass, static and dynamic coefficient of friction were measured at 20.65% moisture content. The values of length, mass, diameter, geometric mean diameter and sphericity of wild plum fruit were established as 28.14 mm, 15.33 g, 30.16 mm, 29.47 mm and 1.04, respectively. In the same moisture content, projected area, volume, kernel and pulp mass, bulk density, fruit density, porosity, terminal velocity, fruit hardness, static friction and dynamic friction coefficients were determined as 8.96 cm2, 17.02 cm3, 1.60 g, 15.66 g, 515.12 kg/m3, 1057.99 kg/m3, 50.20%, 16.19 m/s, 7.8 N, 0.449–0.625 and 0.381–0.519, respectively. This work attempts to allocate the knowledge deficit on the nutritional properties of these plants.
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Our objective was to determine the amount of variation in total phenolics and antioxidants present in European plum fruits, so that it can be utilized in breeding programs to enhance the health benefits. Total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the fruit, and the fruit skin color were determined in 20 genotypes, comprising of released varieties and advanced selections of European plums. Among the 20 genotypes, the total antioxidant capacity ranged from 105 to 424mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/100g fresh weight (FW) while the total phenolic content was 86–413mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g FW. The two parameters had a strong correlation of r2=0.96. A direct correlation between skin color intensity and total phenolic content could also be observed. This study demonstrates that there is adequate variation in total phenolic compounds and antioxidants within European plums and hence there is potential for improvement towards enhancing these health-promoting phytochemicals in this fruit.
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The physical characteristics and chemical composition of 11 plum varieties adapted to the Aegean region of Turkey at Ege Agricultural Research Institute, Izmir, were investigated. Variety Giant had the most fruit weight within all the plum varieties and it was followed by Krikon Damson, Tuleu Timpuriu, and Baneasa 3/5. Mean chemical compositions for all varieties were as follows:  moisture, 837.4 g kg-1; soluble solids, 155.5 g kg-1; titratable acidity, 15.1 g kg-1; soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio, 12.6; total sugar, 96.5 g kg-1; total sugar to acidity ratio, 7.59; reducing sugar, 51.9 g kg-1; sucrose, 42.4 g kg-1; ascorbic acid, 157.9 mg kg-1; protein, 7.5 g kg-1; ash, 5.5 g kg-1; sodium 161.53 mg kg-1; potassium, 2228.12 mg kg-1; calcium, 25.47 mg kg-1; iron, 4.70 mg kg-1; pH 3.46. Imperial Epineuse was the most suitable variety for drying. Grand Prize had the highest ascorbic acid content. Keywords: European plums; Prunus domestica; Chemical composition; Physical characteristics
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BACKGROUND: There is no literature on changes in organoleptic, nutritive and functional properties during plum development and on-tree ripening. In this work a comparative study on the evolution of physical, chemical and nutritive parameters and bioactive compounds of eight plum cultivars (yellow and dark-purple) was performed.RESULTS: The main changes related to ripening (colour, total soluble solids, acidity, firmness and bioactive compounds) started at the early stages of fruit development, with significant differences among cultivars. Colour hue angle was highly correlated with increase in anthocyanins or carotenoids (in both skin and flesh). Total antioxidant activity (TAA) was determined in the hydrophilic (H-TAA) and lipophilic (L-TAA) fractions separately, and values were always higher in the skin than in the flesh. A continuous increase in both H-TAA and L-TAA during the process of ripening occurred. H-TAA was about twofold higher than L-TAA in the dark-purple cultivars, while the opposite was found in the yellow cultivars. In addition, H-TAA was correlated with total phenolics and total anthocyanins, while L-TAA was positively correlated with total carotenoids.CONCLUSION: In order to achieve the optimal organoleptic, nutritive and health-beneficial properties of plum consumption, it would be advisable to harvest the fruits at the fully ripe stage. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry
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The spectrophotometric characteristics of chemicals used as equivalents in Folin–Ciocalteu method were evaluated. Gallic acid and (+)-catechin showed the highest response at the range of 20–100 mg/L, followed by tannic acid, and then chlorogenic acid which exhibited relatively very low absorbance. Chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid showed the lower absorbance than gallic acid by 0.6 times, and it might result in underestimation of the real total phenolic content of chlorogenic acid-rich samples. Chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid exhibited nearly the same spectra in a broad absorbance range, and chlorogenic acid could be appropriate for an equivalent chemical instead of neochlorogenic acid, which has been proved as a major phenolic compound in plums. The average total phenolics in 13 plum cultivars expressed by chlorogenic acid equivalent was 678.2 mg/100 g, whereas it was 368.7 mg/100 g as gallic acid equivalent. Overall, chlorogenic acid as an equivalent chemical is recommended to determine the total phenolic content of chlorogenic acid-rich plums to predict more accurate total phenolic content.
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The variation in the antioxidant content and the associations that may exist with harvest quality characteristics in peel and flesh tissue from seven apple cultivars were studied. Total antioxidant activity, total phenolic and ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids, total acidity and color parameters were measured in flesh and peel fruit tissues from the apple cultivars Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Jonagored, Mutsu, Starkrimson and Fyriki. In flesh tissue, Fyriki contained the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (up to 82% and 67% more, respectively), while the lowest values were found in Fuji, Golden Delicious and Granny Smith. The ascorbic acid content was also greatest in the flesh tissue of Fyriki (up to 36% more). In peel tissue, the greatest antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were found in Starkrimson (up to 64% more) whereas the lowest values were found in Golden Delicious and Granny Smith. Apple peel contain from 1.5 to 9.2 times greater total antioxidant activity and from 1.2 to 3.3 times greater total phenolic content compared with flesh. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that a more nutritious peel may be darker, redder and bluer, while a more nutritious flesh may have a lighter color and lower soluble solid content. It is concluded that Starkimson and the local cultivar Fyriki should be regarded as a valuable source of antioxidants, while fruit harvest quality characteristics may suggest for nutritional properties of apple.
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Guava fruit extracts were analyzed for antioxidant activity measured in methanol extract (AOAM), antioxidant activity measured in dichloromethane extract (AOAD), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents. The ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays were used for determining both AOAM and AOAD, whereas the ORAC was used for determining only AOAM. Averaged AOAM [μM Trolox equivalent (TE)/g fresh mass (FM)] were 31.1, 25.2, 26.1, and 21.3 as determined by the ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays, respectively. Averaged AOAD (μM TE/g FM) were 0.44, 0.27, and 0.16 as determined by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays, respectively. AOAM determined by all assays were well correlated with ascorbic acid (0.61⩽r⩽0.92) and total phenolics (0.81⩽r⩽0.97) and also among themselves (0.68⩽r⩽0.97) but had negative correlation with total carotenoids (−0.67⩽r⩽−0.81).
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Polyphenolic phytochemical extractions of six cultivars of plums (Beltsville Elite B70197, Cacak Best, French Damson, Long John, Stanley, Yugoslavian Elite T101) and Gala apples were performed using 80% aqueous methanol with ultrasound assistance and extracts were analyzed for total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic contents of various cultivars of plums were in a range of 174 to 375 mg/100 g, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), on a fresh weight basis. Total flavonoid concentrations ranged from 118 to 237 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g fresh weight. The concentrations of total phenolics and flavonoids in Gala apples were 118±1.4 mg GAE and 62.0±6.9 mg CE per 100 g fresh sample weight, respectively. The stable radical chromogen, ABTS•−, commonly employed for the antioxidant activity measurement, was used to evaluate antioxidant capacity of plums and apples. The total antioxidant capacities, expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), of fresh plums ranged from 266 to 559 mg/100 g. The order of total antioxidant capacity among different plum cultivars was as follows: Beltsville Elite B70197>Cacak Best⩾French Damson>Yugoslavian Elite T101>Long John>Stanley. The total antioxidant capacity of fresh Gala apple was 205±5.6 mg VCEAC/100 g. There was a good correlation between total phenolics or flavonoids contents and VCEAC at the high level of P<0.001. Dietary polyphenolics from plums may supply substantial antioxidants, which may provide health-promoting advantages to the consumer.
Article
The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white grape, banana, apple, tomato, pear, and honeydew melon. On the basis of the dry weight of the fruits, strawberry again had the highest ORAC activity followed by plum, orange, pink grapefruit, tomato, kiwi fruit, red grape, white grape, apple, honeydew melon, pear, and banana. Most of the antioxidant capacity of these fruits was from the juice fractions. The contribution of the fruit pulp fraction (extracted with acetone) to the total ORAC activity of a fruit was usually less than 10%. Among the commercial fruit juices, grape juice had the highest ORAC activity followed by grapefruit juice, tomato juice, orange juice, and apple juice.
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Vyd. 1. Obálkový podnázev: Jižní Valašsko, Luhačovické Zálesí, Slovácko 2000 výt.
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The antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids and the related activity-structure relationships were investigated in this study using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Three different reactive species were used in the assay: 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, a peroxyl radical generator; Cu(2+)-H2O2, mainly a hydroxyl radical generator; and Cu2+, a transition metal. Flavonoids including flavones, isoflavones, and flavanones acted as antioxidants against peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and served as prooxidants in the presence of Cu2+. Both the antioxidant and the copper-initiated prooxidant activities of a flavonoid depend upon the number of hydroxyl substitutions in its backbone structure, which has neither antioxidant nor prooxidant action. In general, the more hydroxyl substitutions, the stronger the antioxidant and prooxidant activities. The flavonoids that contain multiple hydroxyl substitutions showed antiperoxyl radical activities several times stronger than Trolox, an alpha-to copherol analogue. The single hydroxyl substitution at position 5 provides no activity, whereas the di-OH substitution at 3' and 4' is particularly important to the peroxyl radical absorbing activity of a flavonoid. The conjugation between rings A and B does not affect the antioxidant activity but is very important for the copper-initiated prooxidant action of a flavonoid. The O-methylation of the hydroxyl substitutions inactivates both the antioxidant and the prooxidant activities of the flavonoids.
Article
Fruits from 107 genotypes of Vaccinium L., Rubus L., and Ribes L., were analyzed for total anthocyanins (ACY), total phenolics (TPH), and antioxidant capacities as determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Fruit size was highly correlated (r = 0.84) with ACY within Vaccinium corymbosum L., but was not correlated to ACY across eight other Vaccinium species, or within 27 blackberry hybrids. Certain Vaccinium and Ribes fruits with pigmented flesh were lower in ACY, TPH, ORAC, and FRAP compared to those values in berries with nonpigmented flesh. ORAC values ranged from 19 to 131 micromol Trolox equivalents/g in Vaccinium, from 13 to 146 in Rubus, and from 17 to 116 in Ribes. Though ACY may indicate TPH, the range observed in ACY/TPH ratios precludes prediction of ACY from TPH and vice versa for a single genotype. In general, TPH was more highly correlated to antioxidant capacity than ACY was. This study demonstrates the wide diversity of phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacities within and across three genera of small fruit.
Article
Total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of 11 cultivars of fresh plums were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Identification and quantification of individual polyphenolics were performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a diode array detector. The total phenolic contents of various cultivars widely varied from 125.0 to 372.6 mg/100 g expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The level of total flavonoids in fresh plums ranged between 64.8 and 257.5 mg/100 g expressed as catechin equivalents. Antioxidant capacity, expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ranged from 204.9 to 567.0 mg/100 g with an average of 290.9 mg/100 g of fresh weight. Cv. Beltsville Elite B70197 showed the highest amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids and the highest VCEAC. A positive relationship (correlation coefficient r (2)() = 0.977) was presented between total phenolics and VCEAC, suggesting polyphenolics would play an important role in free radical scavenging. The level of IC(50) value of superoxide radical anion scavenging activity of the plum cultivars ranged from 13.4 to 45.7 mg of VCEAC/100 g. Neochlorogenic acid was the predominant polyphenolic among fresh plums tested. Flavonols found in plum were commonly quercetin derivatives. Rutin was the most predominant flavonol in plums. Various anthocyanins containing cyanidin aglycon and peonidin aglycon were commonly found in all plums except for cv. Mirabellier and NY 101.
Article
To study the effect of polyphenolics on antioxidant capacities of plums, the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and individual phenolic compounds, and vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of eleven plum cultivars was determined. There was a good linear relationship between the amount of total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity (r2 = 0.9887). The amount of total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity also showed a good correlation (r2 = 0.9653). Although the summation of individual antioxidant capacity was lower than the total antioxidant capacity of plum samples, there was a positive correlation (r2 = 0.9299) of total antioxidant capacity of plum samples with the sum of the VCEACs calculated from individual phenolics. Chlorogenic acids and glycosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and quercetin were major phenolics among eleven plum cultivars. The antioxidant capacity of chlorogenic acids and anthocyanins showed higher correlation (r2) of 0.7751 and 0.6616 to total VCEAC, respectively, than that of quercetin glycosides (r2 = 0.0279). Chlorogenic acids were a major source of antioxidant activity in plums, and the consumption of one serving (100 g) of plums can provide antioxidants equivalent to 144.4-889.6 mg of vitamin C.
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