Biogenic amine accumulation in ripened sausages affected by the addition of sodium sulphite

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The effect of two concentrations of sodium sulphite on biogenic amine accumulation during the ripening of slightly fermented sausages was examined. Three batches of sausages were manufactured: one without sulphite (control), one with 500 mg/kg and one with 1000 mg/kg of sodium sulphite. Considerable tyramine production (75–140 mg/kg dry matter [dm]) was observed in all batches. Sausages with sulphite, especially those with 500 mg/kg, accumulated higher amounts of tyramine than those without sulphite. Cadaverine was observed in the batch without sulphite (38 mg/kg dm), but its production was markedly inhibited by the presence of sulphite. A small amount of putrescine (4–12 mg/kg dm) was found during ripening and its final content was slightly higher in sausages with 1000 mg/kg of sulphite. No production of histamine, phenylethylamine or tryptamine was observed. Agmatine and spermine levels decreased during ripening, whereas spermidine levels remained constant. Although sausages with sulphite showed lower microbial counts, only cadaverine production was lower than in sausages without sulphite. In contrast, tyramine and putrescine production seemed to be stimulated by the presence of sodium sulphite.

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... Several researchers have found that the concentration of putrescine is associated with the total aerobic viable count (BOZKURT, 2006;KURT & ZORBA, 2010). Moreover, putrescine formation is related with growth of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacter spp., and some lactic acid bacteria (BOVER-CID et al., 2001;KURT & ZORBA, 2010). SIROCCHI and coworkers (2013) studied the effects of essential oils of Rosmarinus offi cinalis incorporated into high density polyethylene on the formation of biogenic amine in fresh meat. ...
... KURT & ZORBA (2010) found that tyramine content increased in the fi rst days of the fermentation. Some researchers (BOVER-CID et al., 2001) reported that tyramine formation increased due to the activity of lactic acid bacteria. Additionally, the total aerobic viable count could also infl uence tyramine concentration (PÖTZELBERGER et al., 1997). ...
In this study, effects of novel casing, antimicrobials (chitosan and AgZeo) incorporated into multilayer polyethylene casing, on chemical and microbial attributes of sucuks were followed through 3 days of fermentation and 12 days of storage after heat treatment. Microbial growth was reduced by chitosan incorporated casing. Aerobic plate count (APC) of 8.81 log CFU g-1 on the 3rd day of fermentation was reduced to 2.60 log CFU g-1 by the end of storage. APC and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were decreased signifi cantly (P<0.05) by antimicrobial casings. The lowest concentrations of histamine and tyramine were observed (P<0.05) in sucuks stuffed into chitosan incorporated casing. These results show that antimicrobial casing could be used in sucuk production to improve its safety and quality.
... Effect of sodium sulphite on biogenic amine accumulation during the ripening of slightly fermented sausages has been studied. The study reported stimulation of tyramine production in the presence of sulphite, whereas, cadaverine formation was drastically inhibited (Bover- Cid et al., 2001). ...
Many public health associated issues have been raised due to low weighted nitrogenous bases termed as biogenic amines, when present at certain levels. The presence of substrate and the decarboxylase enzymes are prerequisite for the production of these amines. As meat and meat products are rich repository of proteins and are very perishable (readily available free amino acids), they act as suitable substrates. As they show consistent presence with microbial spoilage, they are also utilized as spoilage/freshness indicator (quality) of meat and meat products. They can be detected in our food by employing various new rapid analytical techniques. The key to control biogenic amines is the good manufacturing practices. Regulatory bodies have also prescribed the threshold limits of these amines in various foods for the safety of public health. Further, by practicing various controlling methods, the levels can be reduced to permissible/safe limits.
... Naila et al. (72) found that Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, Brevibacterium casei, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus haminis produced HIS. Many strains of enterococci (e.g., E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium) and Lactobacillus (e.g., L. curvatus and L. brevis) are able to produce TYR (8). ...
Essential foods as part of a daily meal may include numerous kinds of biogenic amines (BAs) at various concentrations. BAs have a variety of toxicological effects on human health and have been linked to multiple outbreaks of foodborne disease. BAs also are known to cause cancer based on their ability to react with nitrite salts, resulting in the production of carcinogenic organic compounds (nitrosamines). Ingestion of large quantities of BAs in food causes toxicological effects and health disorders, including psychoactive, vasoactive, and hypertensive effects and respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders. The toxicity of BAs is linked closely to the BAs histamine and tyramine. Other amines, such as phenylethylamine, putrescine, and cadaverine, are important because they can increase the negative effects of histamine. The key method for reducing BA concentrations and thus foodborne illness is management of the bacterial load in foods. Basic good handling and hygiene practices should be used to control the formation of histamine and other BAs and reduce the toxicity histamine and tyramine. A better understanding of BAs is essential to enhance food safety and quality. This review also includes a discussion of the public health implications of BAs in foods. HIGHLIGHTS
... Also sulfur containing antimicrobials were used to control BA accumulation in foods. Bover-Cid et al. (2001b) added sodium sulfide (maximum concentration 1000 mg/kg) to ripened sausages and observed a contradictory effect on BA accumulation. In fact, while the cadaverine content was inhibited by the addition of sulfide, tyramine, and putrescine accumulation was strongly enhanced. ...
... In order to be able to produce fermented sausages with low amine concentrations, highly competitive decarboxylase-negative starter cultures and high-quality raw materials are necessary as well as good manufacturing practice (Suzzi & Gardini 2003;Coisson et al. 2004). Factors like high protein content of the raw material, long ripening periods, extensive proteolysis, pH decrease and other production factors (like temperature, salt content, food additives) may promote or influence accumulation of biogenic amines in fermented sausages (Bover-Cid et al. 2001;Suzzi & Gardini 2003;Papavergou et al. 2012). Stadnik and Dolatowski (2012), for example, found a time-dependent increase in the contents of cadaverine, putrescine and tryptamine in dry-cured pork shoulder during ripening, with tryptamine being the main amine at the end of the ripening period of 16 months. ...
Tryptamine acts as a neuromodulator and vasoactive agent in the human body. Dose-response data on dietary tryptamine are scarce and neither a toxicological threshold value nor tolerable levels in foods have been established so far. This paper reviews dose-response characteristics and toxicological effects of tryptamine as well as tryptamine contents in food, estimates dietary exposure of Austrian consumers and calculates risk-based maximum tolerable limits for food categories. A dose without effect of 8 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 was derived from literature data. Dietary exposure via fish/seafood, beer, cheese and meat products was estimated for Austrian schoolchildren, female and male consumers, based on 543 food samples analysed in Austria 2010–2015 and on food consumption data from 2008. Even worst-case estimates based on very high tryptamine contents reported in literature did not exceed 5.9 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 and thus, were below the dose without effect. Maximum tolerable levels for food commodities were calculated for high consumption scenarios (95th percentile of female Austrian consumers). For fresh/cooked fish, preserved fish, cheese, raw sausage, condiments, sauerkraut and fermented tofu, maximum tolerable levels were 1650, 3200, 2840, 4800, 14120, 1740 and 2400 mg kg-1, respectively. For beer, the maximum tolerable limit of 65 mg kg-1 included an uncertainty factor of 10. None of the Austrian occurrence data exceeded these levels (in fact, only 3.3 % of samples demonstrated measurable amounts of tryptamine), and in literature, merely one report was found on a raw fish sample exceeding the respective tolerable level. In sum, dietary intake of tryptamine should not cause adverse health effects in healthy individuals. The assessment did not take into account combined effects of simultaneously ingested biogenic amines, and increased susceptibility to tryptamine, e.g. due to reduced monoamine oxidase activity.
... Statistical analysis showed that storage time, additives, % RH and temperature had a significant reduction effect ( P < 0.05) on the tyramine formation. Sulphite has also shown an inhibition effect on tyramine formation in sausages (Bover-Cid et al., 2001). ...
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