Article

# The effect of regular aerobic exercise on positive-activated affect: A meta-analysis

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## Abstract

ObjectiveThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of regular aerobic exercise on self-reported positive-activated affect (PAA). Samples from 105 studies (1980–2008) were included yielding 370 effect sizes (ESs) and 9840 participants.MethodStudies were coded for the following moderators: baseline affect, exercise frequency, intensity, time, program duration, exercise dose, study quality, and study source. The analysis employed multiple measures of affect and corrected for statistical artifacts using the meta-analytical methods of [85] and [86].ResultsThe overall mean corrected and standard deviation (SDcorr) were .57 and .48, respectively. Two clear moderator effects were found: the inverse association between baseline PAA and ES and the positive association between study quality and ES. The effect also varied with exercise frequency (positive relation) and exercise intensity (negative relation). Exercise dose was only a weak moderator, but the results indicate the following aerobic exercise program as optimal for improving PAA: low intensity (∼30% VO2R), 30–35 min, 3–5 days/wk for 10–12 weeks. Similar effects were found for published and unpublished studies (source). Control conditions produced little change in .ConclusionRegular aerobic exercise results in moderate increases in self-reported PAA, but the effects vary by baseline affect and study quality. Exercise-related variables produced weaker moderating effects. PAA was unchanged for control conditions. A more comprehensive understanding of exercise-related affect will emerge when researchers examine the interaction of acute and chronic responses.

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... The association between physical activity and positive affect is a well-established finding with small to medium effect size 7,40-42 , which was also found in ambulatory assessment studies 43,44 (similar findings are available for arousal 32,36 ). Specifically, positive-activated affect (PAA) and perceived energy seem to increase with increasing physical activity 45,46 , which was also shown in meta-analyses 40,41 . ...
... This is also nicely in accordance with the anecdotal view that creative people use bodily movement to overcome mental blocks and lacks of inspiration 20,32,60,61 (but see 62 ). Bodily movement was also linked to PAA 40,41 , which in turn was associated with creativity 35,47,55 . Importantly and critically, while all three variables of interest were interrelated, the Bayesian mediation analysis indicated that PAA did not explain the relationship between bodily movement and creativity. ...
... While in accordance with previous research higher PAA was associated with more bodily movement 41,44-46 the more detailed analyses-using the proportion of time spent with bodily movement at different intensity levels-showed a divergent pattern of correlations. PAA was linked with very vigorous physical activity, but not with moderate and low intensities 40,42 . These additional analyses indicate one further explanation for the absence of a mediation effect. ...
Article
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Previous (predominantly) laboratory studies reported positive relations of physical activity (or everyday bodily movement) with executive functioning, some even showed effects on creative thinking. Furthermore, positive-activated affect was found to be positively associated with everyday bodily movements and creativity. The mechanisms, however, underlying these relationships are poorly understood. The aim of this study was twofold: Firstly, we investigated whether everyday bodily movement was associated with creative performance. Secondly, we examined if positive-activated affect may mediate the association between bodily movement and creative performance. In a sample of 79 participants everyday bodily movement was recorded during five consecutive days using accelerometers. Creativity in the figural and verbal domain was assessed with performance tests, along with self-reported positive-activated affect as a trait. Findings revealed that creativity, positive-activated affect, and everyday bodily movement were associated with each other. However, positive-activated affect did not mediate the association between everyday bodily movement and creative performance. The pattern of findings argues for shared variance between bodily movement and creativity (fluency and originality) that is largely independent from variations in positive-activated affect.
... Exercise is widely recognized as contributing to health and wellness. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses support that engaging in physical activity/exercise increases wellness (Reed and Buck, 2009;Rodriguez-Ayllon et al., 2019), while recognizing that the amount of exercise is likely important (there may be a minimum amount of weekly exercise needed to impact mental well-being). Although Rodriguez-Ayllon et al. (2019) found that physical activity improved wellbeing across many different measures, the association between physical activity and anxiety was less clear. ...
... Difficult to be at home due to family issues, hard to be away from friends and other loved ones a greater number of students than indoor exercise (74%) or outdoor exercise (53%), despite exercise being an activity that is known to lower stress (Reed and Buck, 2009;Rebar et al., 2015). One limitation in interpreting these numbers, however, is that we did not gather data on how often or for what duration of time students engaged in these activities. ...
... Despite the fact that only 53% of students reported engaging in outdoor exercise, it received the highest rating (5.8 ± 0.07) for contributing to well-being. This is consistent with many studies showing that engaging in exercise is beneficial for mental health and well-being (Reed and Buck, 2009;Rebar et al., 2015). Interestingly, exercising indoors (5.4 ± 0.07) was rated as having lower benefit than exercising outdoors, despite the fact that more students engaged in indoor exercise. ...
Article
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Participation in extra-curricular activities has been found to associate with increased well-being. Here we investigated in a survey (n = 786) what activities university students at a Canadian university engaged in during the stressful COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in April, 2020, which coincided with a novel online exam period, and how these activities related to perceived well-being, anxiety (STAI-S), social aspects of activities, and personality. Sixty-five percentage of students scored in the high anxiety category of the STAI-S, an alarming statistic given that only 24% had reached out for professional supports. This is consistent with reports that current supports on university campuses are inadequate. Listening to music (92%) and watching movies/series (92%) were engaged in most frequently, followed by socializing virtually (89%) and engaging in social media (85%). The activities students rated as most helpful to their well-being were somewhat different, with outdoor exercise rated highest, followed by socializing virtually and listening to music. While all activities were rated as beneficial, those with a social component tended to have high ratings, consistent with students attempting to replace lost social interactions. Linear regression models found few associations between STAI-S scores and other measures, likely because of large individual differences and lack of a pre-pandemic baseline needed to assess changes in anxiety. The importance of individual differences was evident in that those higher in conscientiousness or extraversion or emotional stability were more likely to engage in exercise, while those higher in openness to experience were more likely to engage in journaling, playing a musical instrument, or singing, with a trend for higher engagement in song writing. Individual differences were also evident in that equal numbers of students gave positive and negative comments related to their well-being during the pandemic. The individual differences uncovered here suggest that having a variety of proactive interventions would likely reach more students. Indeed, 52% indicated an interest in online group music therapy, 48% in art therapy and 40% in verbal therapy, despite music and art therapies being virtually non-existent on campuses. In sum, the findings highlight the importance of choice in extra-curricular activities and therapies that support well-being.
... Mounting evidence suggests that physical exercise enhances positive mood, and reduces negative affect, distress, anxiety, and depression (Asmundson et al., 2013;Barnes et al., 2010;Broman-Fulks & Storey, 2008;Calogiuri et al., 2016;Doré et al., 2016;Heggelund et al., 2014;McPhie & Rawana, 2015;Mochcovitch et al., 2016;Reed & Buck, 2009;Smith et al., 2013;Sylvia et al., 2014). The effects of exercise on mood and emotions have been linked to many factors. ...
... In line with previous studies (Arent et al., 2000;Blumenthal et al., 1991;Broman-Fulks & Storey, 2008;Doré et al., 2016;Hogan et al., 2013;Kanning & Schlicht, 2010;Mochcovitch et al., 2016;Reed & Buck, 2009;Smith et al., 2013;Stubbe et al., 2007), we also found that prolonged endurance exercise had a positive effect on anxiety, as demonstrated by the reduction of the STAI-Y1 scores after the race. This result further supports the potential of physical exercise in promoting well-being by reducing anxiety. ...
Article
Physical exercise has an impact in biasing attention to positive or negative emotional stimuli. While attentional shift to emotions varies with age, evidence is lacking on the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on age-related attentional bias to emotions. This study aims at filling this knowledge gap, by applying a dot-probe task to measure attentional bias to emotions before and after a half-marathon in healthy participants of different ages (age range 21–65 years). State anxiety, positive and negative affect were also assessed. Younger adults showed attentional bias towards anger and away from sadness after the race, supporting the hypothesis of the congruency between the high-arousing task and the associated emotion (anger) in the modulation of attention. Conversely, older adults showed a bias away from anger, likely representing an attempt to maintain an optimal emotional level after the competition. This study sheds new light on how age impacts on emotional mechanisms involved in prolonged endurance exercise and suggests that regulatory processes in response to stress may be involved differently, depending on age.
... (Bolier et al., 2013;Davis et al., 2016;Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009), mientras que hay reportes metanalíticos que muestran tamaños de efecto desde .13 hasta 1.1 para intervenciones de ejercicio (Lawlor & Hopker, 2001;Reed & Buck, 2009;Rethorst, Wipfli, & Landers, 2009;Wegner et al., 2014). ...
... En la muestra con la que se trabajó en este proceso de investigación, los puntajes basales de afectos positivos fueron alrededor de dos (Hurley & Kwon, 2012;Liau et al., 2016) y siete puntos (McMakin et al., 2011) más altos que en estudios similares, en los cuales tampoco se encontraron efectos. Esta misma situación asociada con los valores basales permitiría explicar la ausencia de efecto de las intervenciones de ejercicio en el bienestar psicológico (Hopkins, Davis, Vantieghem, Whalen, & Bucci, 2012;Reed & Buck, 2009). ...
Article
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El propósito de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de intervenciones de Psicología positiva y de ejercicio físico sobre indicadores de bienestar y malestar psicológico en estudiantes universitarios costarricenses. Se realizó una investigación cuasiexperimental, de diseño factorial (4 x 2) con me- diciones pre y post, en el que 233 estudiantes universitarios (18.97 ± 2.18 años, 135 mujeres, 98 hombres) se vieron expuestos a una de cuatro diferentes condiciones: intervenciones de psicología positiva (PP), intervenciones de ejercicio físico (E), intervenciones combinadas de PP y E y control (C). Se midieron indicadores de bienestar y malestar psicológico. Las intervenciones de Psicología positiva mejoraron el indicador de malestar psicológico “emociones negativas” (p = .022), pero no impactaron significativamente los indicadores de bienestar psicológico (p > .05). La combinación las intervenciones de PP y E generó los mismos efectos que cuando únicamente se utilizan las estrategias derivadas de la psicología positiva, esto es, se presentó una reducción significativa en el indicador “emociones negativas” (p = .028). Dicho efecto puede contribuir a la mejora de la vivencia de la vida universitaria y proteger a los estudiantes de los riesgos asociados con experiencias de malestar psico- lógico en diversas esferas de su vida. Las intervenciones de ejercicio por sí mismas no modificaron de manera significativa los indicadores de bienestar ni malestar psicológico (p > .05).
... For example, prior meta-analyses reported higher positive affect and life satisfaction (Wiese et al., 2018), self-efficacy (Netz et al., 2005), and happiness (Zhang and Chen, 2019) in those engaging in greater leisure time physical activity. Longitudinal and interventional studies also report that regular participation in exercise is associated with higher levels of subjective well-being and positive affect, as well as fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults (Camacho et al., 1991;De Moor et al., 2008;Reed and Buck, 2009). Despite this body of evidence, the effects elicited by exercise training on subjective well-being in MCI individuals are not well-understood. ...
... To address this knowledge gap, the second purpose of this study was to compare the association between the anterior insula FC and subjective well-being before and after the ET intervention. Based on separate pieces of evidence showing both increased intra-salience network connectivity (one of the primary seeds included anterior insula) (Voss et al., 2019) and enhanced subjective well-being (Reed and Buck, 2009) after ET, we hypothesized there would be a positive association between subjective well-being and anterior insula FC, and furthermore, that this correlation would be greater after ET compared to before ET. We further hypothesized that the correlation between anterior insula FC and subjective well-being would be greater after ET in MCI compared to CN. ...
Article
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While it is well known that exercise training is associated with improvement in subjective well-being among older adults, it is unclear if individuals with cognitive impairment experience the same effects elicited by exercise on subjective well-being. We further explored whether the bilateral anterior insula network may be an underlying neural mechanism for the exercise training-related improvements in subjective well-being. We investigated the effects of exercise training on subjective well-being in older adults (78.4 ± 7.1 years) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 14) and a cognitively normal (CN; n = 14) control group. We specifically assessed the relationship between changes in subjective well-being and changes in functional connectivity (FC) with the bilateral anterior insula from before to after exercise training. Cardiorespiratory fitness, subjective well-being, and resting-state fMRI were measured before and after a 12-week moderate-intensity walking intervention. A seed-based correlation analysis was conducted using the bilateral anterior insula as a priori seed regions of interest. The associations between bilateral anterior insula FC with other brain regions and subjective well-being were computed before and after exercise training, respectively, and the statistical difference between the correlations (before vs after exercise training) was evaluated. There was a significant Group (MCI vs CN) × Time (before vs after exercise training) interaction for subjective well-being, such that while those with MCI demonstrated significantly increased subjective well-being after exercise training, no changes in subjective well-being were observed in CN. Participants with MCI also showed an exercise training-related increase in the bilateral anterior insula FC. While there was no significant correlation between subjective well-being and bilateral anterior insula FC before exercise training, a positive association between subjective well-being and bilateral anterior insula FC was found in the MCI group after exercise training. Our findings indicate that 12 weeks of exercise training may enhance subjective well-being in older adults diagnosed with MCI and, further, suggest that increased bilateral anterior insula FC with other cortical regions may reflect neural network plasticity associated with exercise training-related improvements in subjective well-being.
... A meta-analysis by Reed and Ones (2006) analysed 158 studies on the acute effects of aerobic exercise and found a moderate but meaningful improvement in positive affect immediately following up to 35 minutes of low intensity activity. This finding was supported by other studies such as Reed and Buck (2009). However, the positive effect was even stronger over a sustained period of time; for example, 30-35 minutes of low intensity activity completed for 3-5 days per week for 10-12 weeks (Reed and Buck 2009). ...
... This finding was supported by other studies such as Reed and Buck (2009). However, the positive effect was even stronger over a sustained period of time; for example, 30-35 minutes of low intensity activity completed for 3-5 days per week for 10-12 weeks (Reed and Buck 2009). ...
Article
It is generally accepted that physical activity has many health benefits, such as improved cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and bone health. Despite this, inactivity remains a significant health challenge in the UK and globally, contributing to conditions such as coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus. Nurses have an important health promotion role in recommending the potential benefits of physical activity to the general public. However, research suggests that many nurses may not be undertaking enough physical activity themselves, despite the active nature of the nursing role. This article investigates the evidence that increased physical activity has the potential to improve the well-being of nurses. The article also examines the effect of physical activity on indicators of well-being, including feeling states such as affect, mood and emotion; depression; and sleep.
... A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise improves trait positive and negative affect (e.g., McIntyre et al., 2020;Reed & Buck, 2009). However, the effects of increasing aerobic exercise levels on daily or state affect remain largely unknown. ...
... Our study extends this research by testing the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on daily affect in those experiencing high levels of chronic psychological stress who were initially inactive. Participants randomized to exercise in our intervention significantly increased their daily positive affect to a greater extent than waitlist control caregivers, corroborating the findings from several other exercise interventions that used more trait-like measures to determine affect (Reed & Buck, 2009). Whereas past research has been inconsistent in whether physical activity and exercise on a daily basis are associated with daily negative affect in healthy individuals (Mata et al., 2012;Poole et al., 2011;Puterman et al., 2017;Wichers et al., 2012), the current investigation suggests that becoming a regular exerciser can significantly reduce daily negative affect, at least among physically underactive adults experiencing high chronic stress. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 24-week aerobic exercise training program on daily psychological processes and occurrence of stressors in a group of previously physically underactive family caregivers of patients with dementia. As part of the Fitness, Aging, and STress (FAST) randomized controlled trial, 68 participants (F = 55; M = 13) were randomized to either a staff-supported, 24-week aerobic training (N = 34) program or waitlist control (N = 34) group. Approximately 2 weeks prior to randomization, ecological momentary assessments were completed 6 times per day for 7 days and again in the 24th week of the trial to assess exposure to levels of momentary positive affect, negative affect, rumination, control, and the occurrence of stressors throughout the day. These secondary analyses with data from 56 of the participants revealed that the intervention group showed a significantly larger increase in daily positive affect and perceptions of control compared to control participants over the course of the intervention. A treatment effect was also found for negative affect and rumination, whereby both decreased to a greater extent in the intervention group when compared with participants in the control condition. The 24-week aerobic training program had significant impacts on daily psychological processes in family caregivers, deepening our understanding of the robust effects of exercise on mental health.
... In addition to these four psychological recovery experiences, physical exercise and sleep are important means of recovery from work stress (Sonnentag, 2018). Physical exercise enhances well-being and reduces psychological distress including anxiety and depression (Elkington, Cassar, Nelson, & Levinger, 2017;Puterman, Weiss, Beauchamp, Mogle, & Almeida, 2017;Reed & Buck, 2009) and aids recovery through stimulating neurophysiological as well as psychological processes (see Sonnentag, 2018). Sleep is an important physiological recovery process. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship is uniquely stressful. Entrepreneurs often cannot avoid entrepreneurial stressors (e.g., uncertainty, workload, resource constraints) and these stressors can deter natural recovery activities (e.g., detachment and sleep). Yet, entrepreneurs may be able to lessen the negative impact of stress on their well-being, health, and productivity by engaging in recovery. In this editorial, we outline how scholars can employ recovery interventions to ameliorate some of entrepreneurship’s ill effects and support entrepreneurs’ health, well-being, and productivity. We aim to move the focus of scholarly inquiry from documenting the health and well-being challenges of entrepreneurs, towards identifying and implementing solutions to support entrepreneurs.
... It is worth indicating that mood variables were not correlated with BDNF concentrations after HIIE. These data suggest that acute mood changes induced by HIIE arise from other factors, such as the dopamine pathways 15 , since exercise regulation can increase dopamine receptor 2 and 4 sensitivity in the hippocampus and this may facilitate dopamine transmission to the ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens (brain areas related to exercise motivation and behavioral www.nature.com/scientificreports/ processes) 29 ; however, this pathway was not measured in the present study. ...
Article
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Abstract Acute high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) induces the myokine secretion associated with neurogenesis, as well brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); however, it remains unknown how the menstrual phase influences this secretion after an acute exercise session. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of HIIE performed in luteal and follicular menstrual phases on BDNF, cognitive function, mood, and exercise enjoyment. Fourteen healthy women completed four experimental sessions, randomly. One graded exercise test (GXT) and one HIIE session (10 × 1-min runs 90% peak GXT velocity [1-min recovery]) were performed for each menstrual phase. Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after efforts, and the profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS) and Stroop-task test were applied. During the HIIE, subjective scales were applied (feeling, felt arousal, rate of perceived exertion, and physical activity enjoyment). The main results showed that the serum BDNF presented no difference between menstrual phases (p = 0.870); however, HIIE increased BDNF concentration in both menstrual phases (p = 0.030). In addition, the magnitude of circulating BDNF variation (Δ%BDNF) and $$\dot{\text{V}}{{\text{O}}}_{\text{2max}}$$ V ˙ O 2max demonstrated an inverse relationship in the follicular phase (r = − 0.539, p = 0.046), whereas in the luteal phase, Δ%BDNF was negatively correlated with time test (r = − 0.684, p = 0.007) and RPE (r = − 0.726, p = 0.004) in GXT. No differences between menstrual phases were observed for POMS (p ≥ 0.05); however, HIIE attenuated tension (p
... However, in two studies of representative samples of the German general population, 1-2% were diagnosed with AD according to the ICD-10 and 11 criteria (Glaesmer et al., 2015;Maercker et al., 2012). In clinical settings (primary and psychiatric care), AD is one of the most commonly used diagnosis, with prevalence ranging between 9 and 35% (Casey, 2014;Koopmans et al., 2011;Reed & Buck, 2009;Sundquist et al., 2017;Yaseen, 2017). ...
... Previous research has shown that, in addition to the level of PA, the frequency and pattern of accumulation of PA are also important in improving mental well-being [56]. Research has concluded that a higher exercise frequency (30-35 min, 3-5 days per week) of PA is optimal for improving positive moods [57]. Considering that nearly one-third of adult women in this study spent no time in 10-min bouts of activity on either of the recording days, the pattern of PA may have been inadequate to reduce stress and, in turn, possibly lower MMA. ...
Article
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Objectives To examine the relationship between masticatory muscle activity (MMA), self-reported oral behaviours (OBs) and overall physical activity (PA) in adult women. Materials and methods MMA and PA were assessed by a wearable electromyography (EMG) device and accelerometer respectively, worn over 2 non-consecutive days by 53 women (mean age 27.5 ± 6.4 years). Following the second recording day, self-reported OBs were assessed. MMA was assessed by the number, amplitude and duration of masseter contraction episodes. Masseter muscle EMG outcome measures were number of contraction episodes per hour (CEs/h) and the relative contraction time (RCT%). PA was assessed by time accumulated in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and 10-min bouts of MVPA per hour. Data were analysed using mixed model analysis. Results MMA in free-living conditions consisted mostly of low-amplitude (<10% maximum voluntary clenching) and short-duration (<10 s) contraction episodes. Masseter CEs/h were not associated with self-reported levels of OB. Masseter CEs/h were positively associated with time accumulated in MVPA (F = 9.9; p = 0.002) and negatively associated with 10-min bouts of MVPA/h (F = 15.8; p <0.001). RCT% was not significantly associated with either. Conclusions Objectively assessed MMA is not associated with self-reported OB in free-moving adult females. Moderate to vigorous exercise and physical inactivity are accompanied with an increase in the number of masseter muscle contractions and thus possibly tooth clenching activity. Clinical relevance OB can be influenced by the type and extent of PA. Subjective assessment of MMA by questionnaire and/or interviews may be invalid.
... The prior information emphasizes the potential of intermittent exercise modality to promote brain health. In fact, it is known that the physical exercise arouse dopamine pathways and consequently act on neurobehavioral systems, influencing positively the mood, exercise enjoyment and perceived 12 . ...
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The study aimed to investigate the effect of high-intensity intermittent effort (HIIE) performed in luteal and follicular menstrual phases on BDNF, cognitive function, mood and exercise enjoyment. Fourteen healthy women completed four experimental sessions, randomly. For each menstrual phase one graded exercise test (GXT) and one HIIE session (10 × 1-min runs 90% peak GXT velocity [1-min recovery]) were performed. Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after efforts, as well profile of mood states questionnaire (POMS) and Stroop-task application. During the HIIE, subjective scales were applied (feeling, felt arousal, rate of perceived exertion and physical activity enjoyment). In serum BDNF no difference was observed between menstrual phases ( p = 0.87). Nevertheless, HIIE increased BDNF concentration during two phases ( p = 0.03). In addition, the magnitude of circulating BDNF changes (BDNFΔ) and VO 2max showed an inverse relationship in follicular phase (r= -0.539, p = 0.046), whereas in luteal phase the BDNFΔ were negatively correlated with duration (r= -0.684, p = 0.007) and RPE (r= -0.726, p = 0.004) in GXT. No difference between menstrual phases was observed for POMS ( p ≥ 0.05); however, HIIE attenuates tension ( p < 0.01), depression ( p < 0.01) and anger moods ( p < 0.01), independently of menstrual phases. Subjective scales and Stroop-task did not show differences. Menstrual cycle does not affect BDNF, cognitive function, mood and exercise enjoyment, but HIIE increases peripheral BDNF and attenuate tension, depression and anger independently of menstrual phase. Besides, the BDNFΔ were correlated with fitness status in follicular phase, exhibiting higher changes in women with lower fitness status.
... Research has shown that the ratings of the arousing emotional pictures were significantly decreased after an exercise session [57], suggesting exercise reduces anxiety and increases resilience toward emotional stressors. Additionally, alleviation of negative mood states [58], a decrease in trait anxiety [59,60], and a decrease in the emergence of depression [61] have also been observed with exercise. Based on the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis [62], exercise might result in the adaptation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis [49,63,64], which in turn lead to anxiolytic effects. ...
Article
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The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated governmental recommendations and restrictions have influenced many aspects of human life, including exercise and mental health. This study aims to explore the influence of COVID-19 on exercise behavior and its impact on mood states, as well as predict changes in exercise behavior during a similar future pandemic in Taiwan. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 7 April and 13 May 2020 (n = 1114). Data on exercise behavior pre and during the pandemic and mood states were collected. A cumulative link model was used to predict changes in exercise frequency during a similar future pandemic by exercise frequency during the pandemic. A linear model was used to predict the influence of exercise frequency before and during the pandemic on mood states during the pandemic. A total of 71.2%, 67.3%, and 58.3% of respondents maintained their exercise intensity, frequency, and duration, respectively, during the pandemic. Frequent exercisers are more likely to maintain their exercise frequency during a similar pandemic (p < 0.001). Higher exercise frequencies during the pandemic were associated with better mood states (p < 0.05). Moreover, the effects of prepandemic exercise frequency on mood states are moderated by changes in exercise frequency during the pandemic (p < 0.05). Additionally, maintenance of exercise frequency during a pandemic specifically for frequent exercisers are recommended to preserve mood states. These results may provide evidence for health policies on exercise promotion and mental health before and during a future pandemic.
... Rezultati teh metaanaliz so pokazali pozitivno povezanost med telesno dejavnostjo in blagostanjem pri starejših odraslih (Netz idr., 2005), pri osebah s poškodbami hrbtenjače (Martin Ginis idr., 2009) in pri zaposlenih (Wiese idr., 2018) ter med telesno dejavnostjo in srečo (Zhang in Chen, 2019). Poleg tega metaanalize kažejo na porast pozitivnega čustvovanja ob redni aerobni vadbi (Reed in Buck, 2009), pa tudi takoj po aerobni vadbi (Reed in Ones, 2006 (Arent idr., 2000). ...
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V monografiji avtorice predstavljajo ugotovitve več raziskav, ki so jih izvedle v zadnjih desetih letih, in jih umestijo na področje pozitivne psihologije, ki se je kot znanstvena disciplina uveljavila po letu 2000. Kot teoretični okvir v prvem poglavju predstavijo raziskave laičnega pojmovanja sreče in teoretične modele subjektivnega blagostanja. Poudarek na znanstveni ustreznosti merskih instrumentov v pozitivni psihologiji je spodbudil interes za konstrukt subjektivnega blagostanja tudi na drugih področjih psihologije.
... PA is also a remedy for many stress-related illnesses (Klaperski et al., 2013(Klaperski et al., , 2014Pasco et al., 2011;Penedo & Dahn, 2005;Reed & Buck, 2009;Thompson et al., 2012;Warburton et al., 2006). Research has identified that individuals who are more physically active have improved cortisol profiles and reduced physiological responses to stressors (Klaperski et al., 2013(Klaperski et al., , 2014Wood et al., 2018). ...
Article
Background: Performing physical activity whilst exposed to nature can improve health. However, there is little evidence of its impact on stress outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the visual exercise environment on the response to a psychosocial stressor. Methods: Eighteen participants were randomized to one of three conditions: i. nature; ii. built or; iii. control condition. Participants exercised for 30 min on a treadmill at 50% of their VO2max whilst viewing a video of either a natural or built environment or a blank screen. Following the exercise, participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a standardized laboratory stressor. Salivary samples were collected before, during and after the TSST to calculate cortisol reactivity and recovery. Results: One-way ANOVA revealed a significant effect of viewing condition on cortisol reactivity [F(2, 11) = 4.686, p = .034; n²p = .460]; with significantly lower reactivity in the built compared to the nature condition (p = .027, d = 1.73). There was no effect of condition on cortisol recovery (p = .137; n²p = .257). Conclusions: In the context of the adverse health impact of lower (i.e., blunted) cortisol responding, these findings could indicate a negative impact of the built environment on stress responses.
... absence can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health [13] . ...
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Background: This study focused on different exercise motivations, especially mood regulation and their relation to the sociodemographic status, exercise pattern and physical conditions of adults and older adults in China who did not undergo interventions. Methods: A total of 5242 participants aged 20-69 years from 2016 to 2018 were recruited in this cross-sectional study to finish the questionnaire of Guangdong National Physique Monitoring organized by the Guangzhou Institute of Sports Science. Multiple statistical analyses methods were used to study each exercise motivation and its sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, education and job), exercise measurements (frequency, duration and intensity) and physical conditions (BMI, abdominal obesity and basic diseases). An exercise index that is good for mental health (index 1: 45 min per session and 3-5 times per week; index 2: exercise motivation of mood regulation and exercise 60-120 min per week) was also used to investigate the number and type of people who were more likely to meet the index. Results: In our study, 44.9% (2355/5242) of participants showed exercise inactivity. No gender difference was observed among those who exercised for mood regulation. Only older participants and those with an average level of education showed a significant association with mood regulation. Few people met the index that is good for mental health (16.64% (872/5242) met index 1 and 2.84% (149/5242) met index 2), and higher education showed a significant association with a reduction in the mental health burden and the prevention of depression. Conclusion: This investigation suggests motivating people to be more active, educating people on the mental health benefits of exercise.
... Previous meta-analyses and reviews investigated the association between physical activity and psychological well-being in older adults (Netz et al., 2005), the effects of leisure-time physical activity on SWB in workers (Wiese et al., 2018), the effect of acute aerobic exercise (Reed & Ones, 2006) and regular aerobic exercise (Reed & Buck, 2009) on positive affect, the relation between physical activity and happiness (Zhang & Chen, 2018), and the relation between physical activity and SWB in patients with spinal cord injury (Martin Ginis et al., 2009). All of these research syntheses found a positive relation between physical activity and well-being. ...
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Longstanding research suggests a positive relation between physical activity and health. However, when investigating this relation most studies focused on the absence of disease or infirmity as health indicators. The relation between physical activity and positive healthrelated constructs such as subjective well-being (SWB) remains oftentimes unexplored. The present meta-analysis offers a rigorous test of the relation between physical activity and SWB in healthy individuals, by including all different kinds of physical activity and SWB facets from childhood to old age. Random-effects meta-analysis using robust variance estimation revealed a positive relation (d = 0.360, 95% CI [0.301, 0.420]). Our results demonstrate a small beneficial main effect of physical activity on SWB, independent of the prior fitness level of the participants and various characteristics of the physical activity intervention. This effect was found in experimental studies as well as in correlational and quasi-experimental studies. Physical activity was more strongly related to positive affect compared to cognitive well-being and was unrelated to negative affect. Our results provide evidence for the importance of physical activity in the context of well-being. Further, we also systematically review and discuss the large heterogeneity of studies published on this relation and warrant further research regarding underlying mechanisms.
... Several studies have found participation in physical activity to be related to increased levels of pleasant-activated core affects (e.g., Bonham et al., 2018;Hyde et al., 2011;Kanning & Schlicht, 2010;Liao et al., 2015Liao et al., , 2017Reed & Buck, 2009 ). Previous studies have, however, reported inconsistent and inconclusive findings for the influence of physical activity on unpleasant core affects (Liao et al., 2015) and the general pattern in previous research is that physical activity has a more pronounced effect on positive affect than negative affect (Liao et al., 2017;Mata et al., 2012;Wichers et al., 2012). ...
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Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate (a) if daily physical activity at the within-person level is related to four different core affects the same evening, (b) if core affects in the evening predict physical activity the following day, and (c) if physical activity predicts core affects the following day. Design: A total of 166 university students were asked to complete the affect and physical activity measures once a day (in the evening), for seven days. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to investigate the relations within days and across days between the core affects and physical activity. Main outcome measures: Core affects and physical activity. Results: Physical activity had positive within-day associations with pleasant-activated and pleasant-deactivated core affects and a negative within-day association with unpleasant-deactivated affective responses. There were, however, no statistically significant relations between core affects and physical activity across days. Conclusion: These results highlight that the measurement interval might be an important factor that influences the association between core affects and physical activity behaviors.
... Regular exercise can provide protection against future depression in individuals of all ages [11]. This opinion was also supported in a meta-analysis sampling from 105 studies, which highlighted the role of regular aerobic exercise in increasing feelings of wellbeing and suggested that its absence can have detrimental effects on physical and mental health [12]. ...
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Purpose: This study focused on different exercise motivations, especially mood regulation and their relation to the possible influencing factors of adults in China. Methods: 5242 participants aged 20-69 years from 2016 to 2018 were recruited in this study to finish the questionnaire of Guangdong National Physique Monitoring organized by the Guangzhou Institute of Sports Science. Multiple statistical analyses methods were used to study each exercise motivation and its sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, education and job), exercise measurements (frequency, duration and intensity) and physical conditions (BMI, abdominal obesity and basic diseases). An exercise index that is good for mental health (index 1: 45 min per session and 3-5 times per week; index 2: exercise motivation of mood regulation and exercise 60-120 min per week) was also used to investigate the number and type of people who were more likely to meet the index. Results: Substantial evidence showed that exercise is good for mood regulation, but 44.9% (2355/5242) of participants showed exercise inactivity in this study. Only older participants and those with an average level of education showed a significant association with mood regulation. Few people met the index that is good for mental health (16.64% (872/5242) met index 1 and 2.84% (149/5242) met index 2), and higher education showed a significant association with a reduction in the mental health burden and the prevention of depression. Conclusion: This investigation suggests motivating people to be more active, educating people on the mental health benefits of exercise.
... The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) has also made clinical practice recommendations for physical activity as a treatment for mild-moderate depression . Not engaging in su icient physical activity is also a risk factor for developing depression and anxiety in children and adults (Abu-Omar 2004;Goodwin 2003;Motl 2004;Reed 2009;Zahl 2017). ...
... Although earlier studies consistently support a positive influence of physical activity on well-being and its dimensions in a variety of populations, [22][23][24] few of them have examined the simultaneous contribution to mental well-being of menopausal status and physical activity. ...
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Objective: To examine the relationship between menopausal status and mental well-being, and whether this relationship varies as a function of physical activity (PA). Methods: Based on a hormonal analysis and bleeding diary, women aged 47 to 55 were categorized as pre (n = 304), early peri (n = 198), late peri (n = 209), or postmenopausal (n = 387). Mental well-being was assessed using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. PA was self-reported and categorized as low, medium, and high. Associations between variables were analyzed using multivariate linear regression adjusted for age, marital and employment status, parity, self-reported mental disorder, use of psycholeptics and psychoanaleptics, and menopausal symptoms. Results: Depressive symptoms were lower amongst the pre than postmenopausal women (B = 0.07, confidence interval 0.01-0.13). Menopausal symptoms attenuated these associations. Menopausal status showed no associations with life satisfaction, or with positive or negative affectivity.Women with high PA scored higher on positive affectivity, and the pre, early peri, and postmenopausal women scored higher on life satisfaction (B = 0.79, P < 0.001; B = 0.63, P = 0.009; B = 0.42, P = 0.009, respectively) and scored lower on depressive symptoms (B = -0.13, P = 0.039; B = -0.18, P = 0.034; and B = -0.20, P < 0.001, respectively) than their low PA counterparts. The pre and postmenopausal women with medium PA scored higher on life satisfaction (B = 0.54, P = 0.001; B = 0.038, P = 0.004, respectively) than those with low PA. Conclusions: Postmenopausal women reported marginally higher depressive symptoms scores compared with premenopausal women, but menopause was not associated with positive mental well-being. However, this association varies with the level of PA.Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A520.
... The possible contribution of health behaviors, in particular physical activity, to group differences should also be discussed. Regular exercise is known to increase stress tolerance (Hamer & Steptoe, 2007), improve affective wellbeing (Reed & Buck, 2009), and confer benefits to mental and physical health (e.g., Dylewicz et al., 2005;Hoffmann et al., 2011). Various studies have furthermore demonstrated that higher levels of physical exercise and fitness are associated with reduced psychophysiological stress reactivity (e.g., Forcier et al., 2006;Klaperski et al., 2014). ...
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Directing disaster operations represents a major professional challenge. Despite its importance to health and professional performance, research on stress in crisis management remains scarce. The present study aimed to investigate self-reported stress and psychophysiological stress responses in crisis managers. For this purpose, 30 crisis managers were compared with 30 managers from other disciplines, in terms of self-reported stress, health status and psychophysiological reactivity to crisis-related and non-specific visual and acoustic aversive stimuli and cognitive challenge. Crisis managers reported lower stress levels, a more positive strain-recuperation-balance, greater social resources, reduced physical symptoms, as well as more physical exercise and less alcohol consumption. They exhibited diminished electrodermal and heart rate responses to crisis-related and non-specific stressors. The results indicate reduced stress and physical complaints, diminished psychophysiological stress reactivity, and a healthier life-style in crisis managers. Improved stress resistance may limit vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and facilitate preparedness for major incidents.
... Increased secretion of endorphins, decreased secretion of adrenaline, declined cortical level, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure have been observed among mothers by performing these exercises. [28][29][30][31][32][33] Mental health promotion has an undeniable role in the society's health. As shown in the studies conducted in other countries, appropriate interventions can have persistent effects on the positive attitude and mood of the mother, unborn infant, and even other family members. ...
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Context: Recognizing effective interventions for improving women's positive emotion can improve mental health and self-confidence in anxious women, at least during pregnancy. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of relaxation training on positive and negative emotions of primigravida women. Setting and Design: In this randomized quasi-experimental study, 100 primigravida women with gestational age of 28–32 weeks, who were referred to the prenatal care centers in Famenin City (Hamadan, Iran), were randomly assigned into two groups of intervention and control, using randomized blocking. Methods and Material: All the pregnant women completed the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire. In the intervention group, eight sessions were held twice a week with emphasis on relaxation techniques. The control group received routine prenatal care. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics, independent and paired t-tests were used to compare the difference between and within two groups. Results: The mean score of positive emotion increased from 31.92 ± 6.39 to 34.12 ± 5.41 after intervention (P = 0.034). In contrast, the mean score of positive emotion in the control group reduced from 33.62 ± 6.58 to 26.92 ± 6.35 after the intervention (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of positive emotion in the two groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). The mean score of negative emotion reduced from 24.12 ± 7.06 to 17.18 ± 5.95 in the intervention group (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the mean score of negative emotion in the control group increased from 22.08 ± 6.85 to 28.42 ± 7.24 after the intervention (P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the mean scores of negative emotion in the two groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). The mean score of positive emotion of the women increased after the intervention (from 31.92 ± 6.39 to 34.12 ± 5.41) (P = 0.034). In contrast, the mean score of positive emotion of the women in the control group reduced after the intervention (from 33.62 ± 6.58 to 26.92 ± 6.35) (P < 0.001). Also, the mean score of negative emotion reduced in the intervention group (from 24.12 ± 7.06 to 17.18 ± 5.95). On the other hand, the mean score of negative emotion of the women in the control group significantly increased after the intervention (from 22.08 ± 6.85 to 28.42 ± 7.24). Conclusion: Research findings suggest that relaxation training may increase positive emotion and reduced negative emotion in pregnant women. It is recommended that relaxation techniques are used in prenatal care centers as a simple and available health intervention in pregnancy.
... A role for Tai Chi in treating the imbalance between cellular and humoral immunity may be possible (102). The association between exercise duration and mood variation has been demonstrated to be non-linear, and performing 10-to 30minutes of aerobic exercise is enough to boost mood (103,104). When the sympathetic system is stimulated by moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, CA's such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine are released which play a role in the metabolic processes and immune system. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to several pioneering scientific discoveries resulting in no effective solutions with the exception of vaccination. Moderate exercise is a significant non-pharmacological strategy, to reduce the infection-related burden of COVID-19, especially in patients who are obese, elderly, and with additional comorbidities. The imbalance of T helper type 1 (Th1) or T helper type 2 (Th2) cells has been well documented among populations who have suffered as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and who are at maximum risk of infection and mortality. Moderate and low intensity exercise can benefit persons at risk from the disease and survivors by favorable modulation in Th1/Th2 ratios. Moreover, in COVID-19 patients, mild to moderate intensity aerobic exercise also increases immune system function but high intensity aerobic exercise may have adverse effects on immune responses. In addition, sustained hypoxia in COVID-19 patients has been reported to cause organ failure and cell death. Hypoxic conditions have also been highlighted to be triggered in COVID-19-susceptible individuals and COVID-19 survivors. This suggests that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF 1α) might be an important focus for researchers investigating effective strategies to minimize the effects of the pandemic. Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning (IHP) is a method of exposing subjects to short bouts of moderate hypoxia interspersed with brief periods of normal oxygen concentrations (recovery). This methodology inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory factors, activates HIF-1α to activate target genes, and subsequently leads to a higher production of red blood cells and hemoglobin. This increases angiogenesis and increases oxygen transport capacity. These factors can help alleviate virus induced cardiopulmonary hemodynamic disorders and endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, during the COVID-19 pandemic we propose that populations should engage in low to moderate exercise individually designed, prescribed and specific, that utilizes IHP including pranayama (yoga), swimming and high-altitude hiking exercise. This would be beneficial in affecting HIF-1α to combat the disease and its severity. Therefore, the promotion of certain exercises should be considered by all sections of the population. However, exercise recommendations and prescription for COVID-19 patients should be structured to match individual levels of capability and adaptability.
... Indeed, a rich body of evidence has documented the physiological (ie, stress-reducing) and emotional (ie, mood-elevating) benefits of exercise. 14,29,30 While this literature prominently features exercise as a moderator of pathways between potential stressors and positive psychosocial outcomes, we found that on days when adolescents exercised more, stress was also higher. It is plausible that higher stress prompted increased exercise as a means of coping; however, our ability to address this potential bidirectional relation is limited. ...
Article
Background and Objectives: This intensive longitudinal study investigated (a) the extent to which engaging in social distancing predicted adolescents’ same- and next-day stress and positive affect and (b) whether COVID-19-related knowledge and exercise moderated these links during statewide stay-at-home orders that mandated schools and nonessential businesses to close during the coronavirus pandemic. Methods: Over the course of 28 days at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a nationwide sample of 349 adolescents (Mean age = 15.0; 40% male; 44% Black, 39% White, 9% Latinx, 6% Asian American, 2% Native American) completed daily surveys about their social distancing behaviors, knowledge about the coronavirus, and exercise habits. Analysis was conducted on a total of 9,372 assessments using longitudinal multilevel modeling approaches. Results: Daily engagement in social distancing predicted increases in adolescents’ stress and decreases in their positive affect. Practical knowledge about COVID-19 and daily exercise moderated these links. Specifically, practical knowledge and exercise weakened the positive link between social distancing and stress as well as the negative link between social distancing and positive affect. Conclusions: Adolescents’ practical knowledge and exercise have the potential to buffer against the adverse effects of social distancing on stress and positive affect. However, it is critical for healthcare providers to recognize that youth are experiencing significant stress due to the disruption of developmentally normal patterns of social interaction. Pediatricians should focus on explaining the rationale behind social distancing while encouraging exercise as an adaptive coping mechanism that has benefits for psychological well-being.
... K. Pedersen & Hoffman-Goetz, 2000), and a long-term reduction to help in inhibiting any reduction in lung functions (Okita et al., 2004;Zheng et al., 2019). 4) It reduces anxiety and depression which can improve immune functions through an autonomic modulation (Broman-Fulks & Storey, 2008;Chan et al., 2019;Crabbe et al., 2007;Hogan et al., 2013;Marshall, 2011;Nabkasorn et al., 2006;Reed & Buck, 2009). ...
Article
Background The World Health Organization in March 2020 has announced that COVID-19 is a world pandemic because the number of infected cases increases rapidly. however, there are several available vaccines, their protection is limited to a certain period. Thus, the role of modalities that improve immune functions should be performed to counter COVID-19 viral load and decrease mortality rates. Objective To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on immune biomarkers, disease severity, and progression in patients with COVID-19. Design A randomized controlled study. Participants Thirty patients with COVID-19 participated in this study. Participants’ age ranged from 24 to 45 years old. Participants had a mild or moderate COVID-19. Participants were assigned randomly into two groups, exercise and control groups. There were two main dependent variables including blood immune markers and severity of respiratory symptoms. Interventions All participants performed 2 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for 40 min/session, 3 sessions/week. The measurements were performed at baseline, and after 2-weeks. Results At baseline measurements, there were non-significant differences between both groups in the Wisconsin scale total score, Leucocytes, Lymphocytes, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-10, Immunoglobulin-A, and TNF-α (P > .05). After the intervention, the Wisconsin scale (patient-oriented illness-specific quality-of-life) total score significantly decreased in the intervention group (P < .05); while, Leucocytes, Lymphocytes, and Immunoglobulin-A significantly increased in the intervention group (P < .05). Conclusion The current study indicated that 2 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise decreased the severity and progression of COVID-19 associated disorders and quality of life. Also, a 2-weeks of aerobic exercise positively affected immune function by increasing the amounts of Leucocytes, Lymphocytes, Immunoglobulin A.
... Such essential factors may include PA and SB. Indeed, emerging cross-sectional studies identify associations between both behaviors and mental health (Hamer, Stamatakis, & Mishra, 2010;Reed & Buck, 2009), e.g., significant relations to depression or anxiety (Hallgren et al., 2020;Huang et al., 2020;Rebar et al., 2015), but longitudinal data are sparse. ...
Article
Objective Given the increasing number of mental disorders, a growing body of studies now focuses on the relationship between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), and mental health. However, momentary mechanisms and interrelatedness between PA, SB, and mood in daily life are highly understudied. Methods To investigate whether the composition of light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and SB influences mood, we conducted an Ambulatory Assessment study in the everyday life of 103 university students over five days. We measured PA and SB via accelerometers and assessed mood up to six times each day on smartphone diaries. We combined compositional data analyses (CoDA) with multilevel modeling to analyze within-person effects of the behavioral composition on mood. Results Higher ratio of the SB to LPA and MVPA composition within the 60 minutes prior to a diary rating negatively influenced valence (p = 0.006) and energetic arousal (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a higher ratio of LPA to SB and MVPA positively influenced energetic arousal (p < 0.001) and a higher ratio of MVPA to SB and LPA positively influenced valence (p = 0.004) and energetic arousal (p = 0.022). Simulation analyses revealed that replacing 20 minutes of SB with PA can influence mood rating up to 3.39 units [range from 0–100]. Conclusions Findings suggest that minutely replacements of SB with PA may lead to mood enhancements. Given the high prevalence of mental disorders, more studies are warranted to deepen the understanding of momentary compositional mechanisms between SB, PA, and mood. Applying CoDA to intensive longitudinal data can serve as a starting point to identify the optimal composition of SB, LPA, and MVPA for mood enhancements in everyday life.
... Yoga practices offer regular physical exercise which has a positive impact on the physical, mental and social health (Reed & Buck, 2009Eime, Young, Harvey, Charity & Payne, 2013. Greater amounts of these activities are generally associated with reduced symptoms of depression (Dunn, Trivedi, & O'Neal, 2001). ...
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Stress, anxiety and depression are closely linked; depression is the leading cause of disability in adults under the age of 45. In the EU, Hungary is the Member State with the largest share of population reporting depressive symptoms (10.5%). Coping with stress is an important element in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Yoga is a commonly used tool among mind-body practices to cope with depression. The purpose of our study is to examine the correlation between time spent with yoga practice and the practitioner's levels of depression, anxiety, stress, emotion regulation and positive and negative affect. Subjects were Hungarian yoga practitioners (N=555, 465 female), 18 years and older who filled the questionnaire between November 2015 and February 2016 nation-wide. Outcome Measures were the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The results revealed significant differences between Beginner, Intermediate and Expert Yoga groups. Experts had a lower level of depression and stress as Beginners and Intermediates. Positive affect was higher in Expert group as both other groups and Negative effect was the lowest in Expert group compared to the Intermediate and Beginner group. Based on the data of Hungarian yoga practitioners, it can be concluded that long-term yoga positively influences the practitioner's ability to cope with stress and can lead to a higher level of quality of life. Yoga could be recommended for healthy adults to manage stress and prevent depression and anxiety. Keywords Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Yoga, Positive and Negative affect
... According to a wide range of research investigations, physical activity has a significant impact on mood. It has been found that lowintensity exercise for 30-35 minutes, 3-5 times a week, for ten to twelve weeks, promotes and strengthens positive emotions like alertness and enthusiasm [13]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of house isolation on the Palestinian people's lifestyles, mental health (MW), and physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic (PA). The Global Health Guidelines 5 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, as well as the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) (PSQI) (PSQI), were used to collect demographic data. To collect data from all staff and students in Palestinian universities, including faculty and staff, as well as students, a non-discriminatory approach to community sampling was used, consisting of 360 research participants. According to the statistics, men are more likely than women to be in a good emotional state. By and large, people with improved mental states reported improved sleep quality and overall health. Increased physical activity (i.e. 17.33.6) was connected with improved mental health compared to average physical activity (i.e. 13.74.2). It has been proven that there is a relationship between a mental state variable and the amount of regular daily activity. Physical activity improves mental health. Additionally, physical exercise was the strongest predictor of mental health ratings.
... Third, health and wellbeing practices that involve group activities (fitness classes, group-based mindfulness or resilience training) may improve psychological wellbeing because of the benefits of social activities [19]. Fourth, health and wellbeing practices that enhance physical health may also have effects on psychological wellbeing [20,21]. Fifth, some practices in health and wellbeing programs are targeted at psychological wellbeing (e.g., counselling services, resilience training, flexible working to reduce work-family conflict). ...
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Organizations typically deploy multiple health and wellbeing practices in an overall program. We explore whether practices in workplace health and wellbeing programs cohere around a small number of archetypal categories or whether differences between organizations are better explained by a continuum. We also examine whether adopting multiple practices predicts subsequent changes in health and wellbeing. Using survey data from 146 organizations, we found differences between organizations were best characterized by a continuum ranging from less to more extensive adoption of practices. Using two-wave multilevel survey data at both individual and organizational levels (N = 6968 individuals, N = 58 organizations), we found that, in organizations that adopt a wider range of health and wellbeing practices, workers with poor baseline psychological wellbeing were more likely to report subsequent improvements in wellbeing and workers who reported good physical health at baseline were less likely to report experiencing poor health at follow-up. We found no evidence that adopting multiple health and wellbeing practices buffered the impact of individuals' workplace psychosocial hazards on physical health or psychological wellbeing.
... One randomized-controlled trial showed that exercise was equally effective as anti-depressants after sixteen weeks (Blumenthal et al., 1999). Individuals who participated in both acute and regular bouts of aerobic physical activity reported significantly higher levels of positive affect when compared with control (Reed & Buck, 2009;Reed & Ones, 2006). Physical inactivity, on the other hand, contributes to multiple health problems, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer (I.-M. . ...
Article
Social connections and relationships are a critical component of overall human flourishing and well-being. Over time, the structure of physical spaces and how we engage with each other has changed. This paper explores how social ties impact well-being and how advances in technology have shifted people’s conception of public and private spaces and how we interact with each other in them It also examines both the positive and negative effects of video games on social connections and well-being with a focus on location-based games like Pokémon Go which blur the line between physical and virtual reality. It concludes with suggestions for how the disconnected disciplines of new media, place, and positive psychology can come together to explore the potential of location-based games to improve human well-being at scale.
... The relationships are not limited to nutritional urges. Sedentariness has regularly been connected to major depressive disorder (Schuch et al., 2017), while exercise is regularly linked to improvements in affect (Reed and Buck, 2009). Chronic sleep-deprivation will ring alarm bells in the body and mind (Davis, 2019), while sleep extension has been linked to improved performance on a variety of measures including sustained focus and cognitive/motor performance (Arnal et al., 2015;Ritland et al., 2019). ...
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In the discussion of mental health, there exist countless confounding variables. After all, psychology and matters of the mind are infinitely complex. Physiology and the body are (slightly) more predictable, and might play a larger role in student mental health than one might think. In the creation of mental health interventions, including the onboarding of Social Emotional Learning (SEL) strategies, schools would be well served to consider the role of the body.
... An experimental study of 1,546 first-year students found that physical exercise can effectively improve college students' resilience 80 . This may be because regular participation in physical exercise can successfully reduce physiological stress levels, harmonise emotions, and improve one's sense of self-control and state of mind, enhancing the level of resilience 81,82 . Additionally, physical exercise helps to cultivate students' positive psychological qualities such as self-confidence, extroversion, optimism, and emotional stability. ...
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Due to its suddenness and unpredictability, COVID-19 caused strife and effects on public mental health, resulting in a surge of negative emotions. The study explores the relationship between physical exercise and negative emotions in home-based college students during the COVID-19 epidemic, as well as the mediating role of resilience, thus providing a new basis for understanding the role of physical exercise in improving negative emotions in college students; A total of 1214 college students were investigated with the Physical Exercise Questionnaire, Negative Emotion Scale and Resilience Scale; Both physical exercise and resilience were significantly negatively correlated with negative emotions in college students (r = − 0.25, − 0.33, P < 0.001), and there was a significant positive correlation between physical exercise and resilience (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). Physical exercise had a direct effect on the negative emotions of college students (β = − 0.14, P < 0.001). Resilience had a partial mediating effect between physical exercise and the negative emotions of the college students, with a mediating effect value of 0.14 and a mediating effect contribution rate of 50.00%; The study found that physical exercise not only directly affected the negative emotions of college students but also improved their resilience by slowing down their negative emotions and promoting their mental health.
... 3 October 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 700408 quality of life, "life satisfaction, " and emotional or affective states, such as happiness (Dolan and White, 2007). On the one hand, the positive effects of physical exercise on psychological well-being have been proven in previous research (Penedo and Dahn, 2005), and most research focused on physical exercise that may result in a positive effect, especially well-being (Gauvin and Rejeski, 1993;McAuley et al., 1996;Fox, 2000;Focht and Hausenblas, 2001;Thomas and Davies, 2007;Reed and Buck, 2009). Meanwhile, participating in a group activity could also enhance women's psychological health and subjective well-being (Okun and George, 1984;Pinquart and Sörensen, 2000;Glass et al., 2006;Dai et al., 2013;Zhang and Zhang, 2015). ...
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Background: Chinese square dance has become well known worldwide in recent years, and most participants are women who dance with a group in their communities. In particular, middle-aged women may have physical and mental health problems, and participating in square dance may increase women’s positive subjective well-being and decrease their negative emotions, which may improve their health over the long term. In addition, participating in square dance can promote group cohesion. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between the subjective exercise experience of participating in square dance and group cohesion and whether some variables (e.g., age, education, duration, income level, and work) play a role as mediators in the association with subjective exercise experience and group cohesion. Methods: In total, 1,468 Chinese women from 31 provinces and 82 cities participated in this study by completing an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a subjective exercise experience questionnaire and a group environment questionnaire. We analyzed the collected data and built a statistical model. Results: (a) Square dance satisfied women’s physical and psychological needs partly; (b) positive well-being (PWB) was positively correlated with group cohesion, and fatigue was negatively correlated with group cohesion; and (c) the income level was a partial mediator of the relationship between group cohesion and subjective exercise experience. Conclusion: Chinese women have different motivations for participating in square dance. Because this activity can help meet women’s physical and psychological needs, an increasing number of individuals worldwide participate in square dance. As women’s subjective well-being increases, group cohesion increases, and vice versa. Moreover, the subjective exercise experience remains a significant predictor of group cohesion after including income level as a mediator, suggesting that the model indicates partial mediation.
... Aslankhani et al. believed that physical exercise is one of the most important, easiest, cheapest, and available treatment options for the elderly [9]. Reed and Buck believed that physical exercise not only enables different parts of the muscles to interact but also improves the daily life of the elderly and plays an important role in regulating physical and mental health [10]. According to Ruuskanen and Ruoppila, after analyzing the intensity and frequency of physical exercise in the elderly, the results showed that there was a significant relationship between the depression score of the elderly and the frequency and intensity of physical exercise [11]. ...
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Purpose: Based on meta-analysis to explore the effect of physical exercise on relieving the anxiety of the elderly. Methods: The retrieval time was published in the domestic and foreign literatures on the effect of physical exercise on the anxiety of the elderly published from 2005 to 2021. The random effects model was used to evaluate the mean standard deviation of the scores of the intervention group on reducing the anxiety level of the elderly before and after the test. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the articles were screened, quality evaluated, and data extracted, and the literature was meta-analyzed by RevMan5.3. Results: In meta-analysis and systematic review, 17 papers finally met the inclusion criteria. After sensitivity analysis, the random effects model (MD = 8.00, 95% CI (6.90, 9.10), Z = 14.23 (P < 0.00001)) and the fixed effects model (MD = 7.71, 95% CI (6.98, 8.43), Z = 20.72 (P < 0.00001)) show that physical exercise has a positive and significant effect on the anxiety of the elderly. Conclusion: Physical exercise plays an important role in reducing the anxiety of the elderly. Therefore, regular physical exercise can be regarded as part of the elderly pension plan, but more high-quality research is needed to further explore the impact of physical exercise on elderly anxiety.
... However, this line of argumentation is strongly restricted to acute effects of physical activity and does not provide explanations for the stronger chronic effects of physical activity on creative ideation performance. A second suggested mechanism why physical activity could boost creative ideation performance besides gearing for change is that acute as well as chronic physical activity is associated with higher positive affect and reduced negative affect and stress [120][121][122][123]. Based on the broaden and build theory, which assumes that positive affect coincides with more original ideas via cognitive flexibility [65,124], the physical activity-associated affective shift was suggested to increase creative ideation performance [43,87,125]. ...
Article
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Background Physical activity is a health-relevant lifestyle factor associated with various benefits on physical and mental health. Several meta-analyses indicated effects of acute and chronic physical activities on elementary cognitive functions such as executive control processes, memory, and attention. Meta-analytic evidence on the effects of physical activity on creative idea generation, which involves a conglomerate of these elementary cognitive functions, is largely missing. Objective A twofold approach was used to evaluate (1) if there is an association between habitual physical activity and creative ideation and (2) if physical activity interventions (acute and chronic) enhance creative ideation performance. Methods Multilevel meta-analytic methods were applied to (1) evaluate the cross-sectional association between creative ideation performance and measures of habitual physical activity and (2) the effect of physical activity on creative ideation performance. Indicators of creative ideation (fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, or composite score), creativity domain (verbal, figural), population (adults, children), gender, study quality, and publication year served as moderator variables for both meta-analyses. Analyses of intervention studies additionally examined the moderator variables study design (between, within), time of measurement (during, after), and implementation of intervention (acute, chronic). Results The applied meta-analytic multilevel analysis indicated a medium effect for cross-sectional studies ( r = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI [0.10–0.34]) based on 17 effects sizes from seven studies. The pooled effects of 28 intervention studies, providing 115 effect sizes, indicated a medium effect size of Hedges’ g = 0.47 (SE = 0.09, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.30–0.65]). Furthermore, a stronger effect was observed for chronic interventions of several days or weeks in comparison with acute interventions of one single bout. Conclusion This study adds important new meta-analytic evidence on the beneficial role of physical activity beyond mental and physical health outcomes: Physical activity has a positive impact on creative ideation, which expands the literature on the role of physical activity in more elementary cognitive functions such as executive control, memory, and attention. Moderator analyses suggested that chronic interventions showed stronger effects than single bouts of physical activity. Rigorously conducted randomized controlled intervention studies and more cross-sectional studies are needed to broaden the evidence in this nascent field of research.
... In certain conditions, a crucial periodicity of PA is required to be demonstrated before the exertion of its effects on habitual SWB. Despite several potential explanations and presumptions [30], we conclude that more prospective studies are needed to acquire more knowledge and understanding of the interactions between acute and chronic PA responses and our mental states. ...
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Longstanding research suggests a plausible relation between physical activity, the natural environment, and overall health. However, when investigating this relationship, most studies focused on the absence of disease or frailty as health indicators. The relation between physical activity (PA), subjective well-being (SWB), natural environment, and present moment awareness (PMA) remains unexplored. The presented qualitative review offers a perspective model of the relationship between physical activity, natural environment, and awareness of the present moment that helps us explore its underlying, relating pathways. Our review concludes that present moment awareness can be worthy of attention to detect the impact of physical activity, subjective well-being and staying in a natural environment on selected samples, as well as its influence on maximizing related benefits for health and well-being. The challenge after that is to consider how to monitor the complex interactions that will occur within the multiple levels of influence. Essentially, a unified model of research and practice which incorporates physiological and psychological theories is undoubtedly needed. If that happens, we can understand the role of the diverse regulators upon behavior and proceed to convey this evidence into future health-promoting interventions.
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Das Kapitel trägt Erkenntnisse zusammen, die das vermeintliche Allgemeinwissen relativieren, dass Sporttreiben der Gesundheit schon allein deshalb zuträglich sei, weil man sich durch Sport besser fühle: Richtig ist, dass sich die meisten Menschen bei niedrig-intensiver Bewegungsaktivität wohl fühlen. Jedoch fühlen sich viele Menschen schon bei moderat-intensiver körperlicher Beanspruchung, wie sie für Sport oft kennzeichnend ist, nicht mehr wohl und vermeiden sie deshalb. Psychologisches Wissen hilft, wirksame Interventionen für mehr Bewegung und Sport im Alltag zu entwickeln. Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.
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Introduction The Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011 impacted survivors’ mental health. This study examined whether exercise habits and mental health conditions were associated, and whether the degree of the effect varied depending on time. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was sent annually to former residents (born before April 1, 1998) in registered evacuation areas. Exercise habit was evaluated by participants’ exercise frequency, and responses were categorized into “almost never,” “once a week,” and “twice a week and more.” Data were tracked during three periods: fiscal year (FY) 2011–2012, 2012–2013, and 2013–2014. The association between baseline habitual exercise and new onset of psychological distress was assessed using the Japanese version of the Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale and logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 1,304 (5.7%) of 22,741, 1,060 (4.7%) of 22,709, and 759 (3.6%) of 21,220 respondents had psychological distress in FY 2011–2012, 2012–2013, and 2013–2014, respectively. An association between exercise and psychological distress was observed in men in FY 2011–2012 (P for trend: 0.010) and in women in FY 2013–2014 (P for trend: 0.026). “Almost never” was associated with onset of psychological distress in men in FY 2011–2012 [odds ratio (OR): 1.317, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.054–1.645] and in women in FY 2013–2014 (OR: 1.296, 95% CI: 1.027–1.636). Conclusions Exercise habit was associated with psychological distress, and its effect in time varied according to sex.
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Affective states and the cognitive appraisal of exertion during exercise may determine whether or not an individual will persist at an activity. Relationships among affect, cognition, and sensory information (physiological cues) are predicted by the parallel-processing model. The purpose of this study was to examine (a) changes in affect and perceived exertion; (b) the relationship of affect to perceived exertion; and (c) the relationship of affect and perceived exertion to the physiological cues of heart rate, ventilation, and glucose during a two-hour run. Results revealed that as exercise continued, perceived exertion increased and affect became more negative. In addition, as running continued after 60 min the magnitude of the negative relationship of affect to RPE increased slightly. It was expected that as fatigue increased, physiological cues would become more salient and their relationship to perceived exertion and affect would increase. This did not occur. Instead RPE maintained a consistent moderate positive relationship with ventilation and demonstrated a moderate negative relationship with plasma glucose after 90 min of running. Whereas affect demonstrated a moderate positive relationship with plasma glucose after 90 min of running. These results demonstrated that while running at a moderate intensity affect became more negative, RPE increased and physiological cues related to affect and RPE differed as the run continued beyond 60 min.
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The affective changes associated with acute exercise have been studied extensively in exercise and health psychology, but not in affective psychology. This paper presents a summary of the relevant findings and a tentative theoretical model. According to this model, affective responses to exercise are jointly influenced by cognitive factors, such as physical self-efficacy, and interoceptive (e.g., muscular or respiratory) cues that reach the affective centres of the brain via subcortical routes. Furthermore, the balance between these two determinants is hypothesised to shift as a function of exercise intensity, with cognitive factors being dominant at low intensities and interoceptive cues gaining salience as intensity approaches the individual's functional limits and the maintenance of a physiological steady-state becomes impossible.
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Interest in acute exercise-induced feeling states has intensified in recent years, signaling the need for development of domain-specific measures of these constructs. In response to this call, 2 exercise-specific measures of feeling states have been introduced-namely, the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI; Gauvin & Rejeski, 1993) and the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES; McAuley & Courneya, 1994). Although certain subscales of the 2 instruments are unique, a number of similar constructs exist both within and between instruments. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to (a) combine the EFI and SEES scales into a single, more encompassing instrument and (b) investigate potential factor redundancy within and between the 2 instruments. Initial correlational analyses indicated that the Positive Well-Being subscale of the SEES and the revitalization and Positive Engagement subscales of the EFI were highly correlated. Similar results were obtained for the Fatigue (SEES) and Physical Exhaustion (EFI) subscales. These findings provided the impetus for the construction of the Physical Activity Affect Scale (PAAS), an instrument consisting of the Psychological Distress subscale of the SEES and the subscales of the EFI. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated support for 4 components of exercise-induced affect that were subsequently labeled positive affect, negative affect, fatigue, and tranquility. The PAAS appears to be an improvement over the EFI and SEES in that it is a more encompassing measure of exercise-induced feeling states with less component redundancy than its predecessors.
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This paper highlights the use of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in physical activity research by reviewing and synthesizing literature generated in exercise settings. The results of many studies using the POMS have supported the relationships between exercise and acute mood changes in normal populations and between exercise and chronic mood changes in clinical populations. Based on the multitude of studies utilizing the POMS, Berger and colleagues developed a preliminary taxonomy containing enjoyment, mode, and practice guidelines to help maximize the mood benefits associated with exercise. The POMS also has been employed to identify underlying mechanisms that may promote mood alteration. Unfortunately, there is no conclusive evidence that identifies a single mechanism or group of mechanisms as consistently influencing the exercise-mood relationship. Although knowledge of the relationship between exercise and mood alteration is substantial, much remains to be studied. Promising avenues for future investigation of exercise include mood changes in specific populations, environmental influences on mood alteration, and personal characteristics impacting mood alteration.
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This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.
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This paper reports on the reliability, validity, and factor analysis of the subscales of the Thoughts and Real-Life Experiences Scale (THARL Scale). Two hundred and twenty-three subjects completed the THARL Scale. Of these, 86 subjects also completed anxiety, stress, depressive cognitions, well-being, and general psychological health scales. Six weeks later, 174 subjects completed the THARL Scale again. The four subscales of the THARL Scale were found to be reliable. Thought-related distress and real life related distress correlated positively with anxiety, stress, and depressive cognitions, and the thought-related positive affect and real life related positive affect correlated negatively with anxiety, stress, and depressive cognitions. High distress was associated with low well-being and low psychological health, and high positive affect was associated with high well-being and high psychological health. Results of multiple regression analyses showed that positive affect due to thoughts was the best predictor of anxiety, while positive affect due to day-to-day experiences was the best predictor of stress and depressive cognitions. Positive and negative affect caused by thoughts were the two significant predictors of well-being while negative affect caused by thoughts and positive affect caused by day-to-day experiences were the two significant predictors of general psychological health. It was concluded that the THARL Scale may be employed as an instrument for the diagnosis of psychological problems and emotional health.
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Coding is a critical part of research synthesis. It is an attempt to reduce a complex, messy, context-laden, and quantification-resistant reality to a matrix of numbers. Thus it will always remain a challenge to fit the numerical scheme to the reality, and the fit will never be perfect. Systematic strategies for evaluating coding decisions enable the synthesist to control for much of the error inherent in the process. When used in conjunction with other strategies, they can help reduce error as well. This chapter discusses strategies to reduce error as well as those to control for error and suggests further research to advance the theory and practice of this particular aspect of the synthesis process. To set the context, however, it is first useful to describe the sources of error in synthesis coding decisions.
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This study examined the effects of 6-week exercise programme, run by an occupational therapy student, on the psychological wellbeing and happiness of a group of 15 elderly community-dwelling women. The Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness was used to measure the subjects' wellbeing both before and after the intervention and was also administered to a control group of 20 women. The results indicated that the exercising women experienced a significant improvement in happiness and wellbeing while the controls did not. This finding appears to support the hypothesis that there is an association between physical exercise and mental health. Potential threats to the validity of the results are discussed.
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BACKGROUND: The management of persistent, unexplained physical symptoms is challenging and often unsatisfactory for patients and doctors. Aerobic exercise training has benefited patients referred to secondary care with symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. It is not known if this approach is either possible or beneficial for patients with the broader range of persistent, unexplained symptoms found in primary care. OBJECTIVES: To examine the feasibility and effects of aerobic exercise training in primary care patients with unexplained physical symptoms persisting more than 12 months. METHODS: Randomized comparison (n = 228) of aerobic exercise with stretching as control among patients recruited from primary care. Training comprised 20, one-hour, sessions led by NHS physiotherapists. Adherence to training was recorded along with two groups of outcome measures: (i) documented symptoms and health care use, monitored from six months before to six months after training; and (ii) self-reported measures including emotional state and perceived disability, assessed before, during and six months after training. RESULTS: Exercise training proved feasible: more than 70% of referred patients attended for assessment and were randomized to aerobic or control exercise; 78% of eligible patients attended the first session; and median attendance was 11 sessions for both programmes. Primary care consultations and prescriptions were significantly reduced in the 6 months after training; extent of reduction was related to attendance at training sessions, irrespective of type. Whilst self-reported measures improved similarly during both training programmes, improvements were unrelated to level of attendance. CONCLUSION: For primary care patients with persistent, unexplained physical symptoms willing to be involved in exercise training, aerobic exercise offers no benefits over non-aerobic exercise. Whilst the observed reduction in primary health care use following exercise training is potentially of practical importance in a group of patients characterized by high consultation rates, improvement in patients' subjective state was not clearly attributable to exercise training.
Article
Recent findings indicate that frontal brain asymmetry may be a marker of for depression. However, the psychological predispositions that account linkage between frontal brain asymmetry and depression are unclear. approach-withdrawal hypothesis is the primary framework that has been to account for the linkages between frontal brain asymmetry and or emotional disorders. We review evidence consistent with this and suggest several directions for its extension. One such direction is to constrain the approach-withdrawal hypothesis by linking frontal asymmetry to the known functions of the prefrontal cortex. On this we propose that frontal brain asymmetry may be preferentially linked processes that promote the temporal continuity and shifting of or emotional priorities and the suppression of interference by sources of motivation or emotion. We review evidence from and neurobiological studies of depression that is broadly consistent with these predictions. We emphasise the need for future studies testing our hypotheses.
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Rosenthan's (1979) concept of fail-safeN has thus far been applied to probability levels exclusively. This note introduces a fail-safeN for effect size.
Article
This study assessed the short-term psychological effects of an exercise training program for 267 healthy elderly volunteers randomly assigned to either a bicycle group that trained three times a week for 4 months or an attention control group that met once a week during the 4-month period. A second aim was to identify predictors of favorable change in either physiological performance in stress-test parameters or in behavioral attributes at the conclusion of training. Psychological assessment procedures included indicators of basic mental health, perceived quality of life, and activity level. One-way repeated-measure multivariate analysis of variance tests revealed only one significant univariate interaction effect: The exercising group showed significantly greater improvement in an index tapping report of feeling better from pretest to posttest as compared to controls. The directions of change for all other measures were uniformly in favor of exercisers but did not approach statistical significance. Behavioral and psychological variables were also found to be irrelevant in predicting improvement in physiological performance at Time 2. These data suggest that exercise program effects on psychological and behavioral indicators were very modest for older adults with very high levels of functioning.
Article
The psychological and physical benefits of regular physical activity are well established. but the majority of research to date has focussed on younger male samples. Two studies examined the impact of menopausal status on the ability of women to derive psychological benefits from exercise. Regular exercisers, assessed immediately following an exercise class. scored significantly lower on negative mood dimensions and higher on positive mood than did non-exercisers, regardless of menopausal status. Regular exercisers also showed significant improvements in mood state when assessed before and after a single exercise session; again this effect was independent of menopausal status. The results suggest that the acute mood-enhancing effects of exercise are maintained despite the endocrine changes associated with menopause. It is argued that encouraging menopausal women to adopt appropriate exercise patterns may assist in the alleviation of psychological distress as well as providing physical benefits.
Article
A meta-analysis was conducted on 40 studies (76 effects) in order to examine exercise training as a method of stress-management treatment for adults. It offered evidence of a low-to-moderate positive effect in anxiety reduction. Exercise training studies that examined change from pre to post-treatment and studies that examined both change over time and between group differences were examined separately. The unbiased weighted average effect sizes were .45 and .36, respectively. Thus, exercise training improved anxiety levels an average of .36 standard deviations over alternative or control conditions. Adults who were more likely to have a stressful lifestyle benefited more from the exercise training than those who did not. Recommendations are made for both practice and research.
Article
Acute bouts of aerobic exercise have been associated with modest reductions in self-reported state anxiety. Some have speculated that certain intensity or duration thresholds must be achieved before such reductions in anxiety can occur. Additionally, most of the previous research has focused on anxiety reduction or alleviation of negative affect with little concern for the positive affect enhancing potential of exercise. The purposes of the present study were to (1) determine whether anxiety reduction differs at two levels of exercise duration; and (2) examine both positive and negative responses to exercise. Sixteen males completed two (15 min, 30 min) randomly ordered exercise bouts (treadmill running at 75% VO2max) on separate days. Affective responses were assessed before, immediately after, and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 min after the exercise bouts. State anxiety was reduced equally for both durations of exercise, positive affect did not change, and 30 min of running reduced negative affect. The results are discussed in terms of implications for delineating mechanisms to explain such effects.