Article

The Organizational Context of Teleworking Implementation

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Abstract

The large-scale implementation of teleworking has not yet occurred in the industrialized world. This fact is in contrast to earlier predictions that viewed teleworking as the main organizational form of the electronic age that would largely eliminate work-related commuting. The slow adoption of the teleworking practice calls for a careful analysis of all elements that may influence the implementation of teleworking. The present article reports the empirical findings of a survey conducted among firms in Brussels, the Belgian and EU capital. The article's main objective is to identify the drivers and constraints relevant to the implementation of teleworking in the Brussels business environment. Furthermore, some insights are provided into the perceived social and economic advantages and disadvantages of teleworking implementation. Finally, the potential effectiveness of various policy tools to promote teleworking is assessed.

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... In particular, while it is premature to find an adequate volume of scientific articles on the contemporary mass teleworking experiment generated by the pandemic, it is striking not to find a number of large scale social media analyses [11][12][13][14]. For this reason, this paper aims to analyze public perceptions about teleworking during the pandemic by using one of the most common applications of Natural Language Processing, namely Sentiment Analysis. ...
... First, there are studies that emphasize the social benefits of teleworking [15]: it is widely accepted that teleworking offers the possibility to improve the integration of family life and work through a more flexible organization of work-related tasks, and, from this point of view, teleworkers can feel more satisfied compared to those who are office-based [11,12,28,29]. On the other hand, successes, failures and misunderstandings in its usage are intermeshed with cultural issues in organizations that foster or hinder such experiences; furthermore, the implementation of remote work might have a negative social influence by leading to social isolation, which in turn can lead to decreased perceived work productivity and work satisfaction [30,31]. ...
... Secondly, Illegems et al. [12] show that teleworking practices could bring several advantages in economic terms by improving productivity, enhancing the organization's recruiting potential and increasing the positive influence on the reputation of the company. On the other hand, negative considerations regarding the adoption of teleworking in terms of productivity have also emerged [12], with reference to increased work hours for teleworkers, less loyal employees, low security of internal data. ...
Article
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Due to the spread of COVID-19, new challenges and opportunities for business innovation have emerged, including the way work is organized and designed. In particular, pandemic created the conditions for the most extensive mass teleworking experiment in history. While there is a wide literature on the effects of teleworking as a business innovation, mainly from an environmental perspective, there are few studies investigating the public perceptions regarding teleworking and, in particular, studies that draw from social media analyses. Based on these considerations, a big data analysis has been carried out in order to frame the public perceptions about teleworking on Twitter. The six-months sentiment analysis of about 11,000 tweets shows that the ecological value of telework is not perceived by people; surprisingly, in a pandemic context of growing ecological concern, there is no significant evidence of environmental awareness in relation to teleworking. However, the positive and negative concepts which emerge in relation to teleworking and similar terms can be assimilated to the benefits and pitfalls highlighted in the literature, which are related to economic or social sustainability. This has important implications for practice in organizations employing teleworking, which are highlighted in the conclusion, together with the limitations and future research avenues.
... En effet, cette démarche nécessite une flexibilité au niveau de l'organisation du travail et du management (Taskin, 2006). Plus concrètement, cette forme de travail nécessite des réaménagements technologiques, institutionnels et organisationnels (Illegems et al., 2001). 8. Les espaces de coworking font référence à des lieux de travail partagé regroupant des individus de divers milieu favorisant ainsi les échanges de connaissances. ...
... L'influence du télétravail sur le besoin et la capacité de faire face aux réaménagements technologiques, institutionnels et organisationnels (Illegems et al., 2001) semble participer à augmenter la probabilité d'innover au niveau technologique 12 . ...
... La flexibilité horaire (variable instrumentale) joue un rôle positif sur la probabilité d'avoir une démarche de télétravail. Ces résultats confortent la littérature soulignant l'importance de la flexibilité au sujet de la mise en place du télétravail (Illegems et al., 2001). ...
Thesis
La transformation numérique des entreprises fait évoluer l’organisation du travail et soulève des défis au niveau social et environnemental. Ce constat pousse à analyser l’impact de ces changements sur les salariés et plus largement sur la Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises (RSE). Premièrement, une analyse empirique des déterminants numériques de la RSE au sein des Entreprises Artisanales (EA) est effectuée. Les résultats soulignent l’influence du numérique dans le déploiement de démarches responsables. Deuxièmement, cette thèse étudie la relation entre une démarche de télétravail (innovation sociale) et l’innovation technologique (produit et procédé). Cette recherche met en avant l’impact positif du télétravail (organisationnel et management) sur l’innovation produit. La dernière recherche analyse l’influence de la gouvernance de l’entreprise sur l’intérêt porté au numérique dans les rapports RSE des entreprises du CAC 40. Cette recherche permet d’illustrer comment et pourquoi les entreprises accordent un intérêt croissant au numérique dans leurs démarches RSE. Cette thèse, au-delà de ses contributions académiques a des implications managériales et de politiques publiques.
... En effet, cette démarche nécessite une flexibilité au niveau de l'organisation du travail et du management (Taskin, 2006). Plus concrètement, cette forme de travail nécessite des réaménagements technologiques, institutionnels et organisationnels (Illegems et al., 2001). ...
... L'influence du télétravail sur le besoin et la capacité de faire face aux réaménagements technologiques, institutionnels et organisationnels (Illegems et al., 2001) semble participer à augmenter la probabilité d'innover au niveau technologique 13 . Ce résultat peut s'expliquer par l'influence de la flexibilité aux changements organisationnels des entreprises qui mettent en place le télétravail. ...
... Dans la continuité du niveau d'étude, un score de 1 à 3 indiquant la proportion de salariés (noncadres supérieurs) pouvant décider collectivement de leur manière de travailler en équipe est aussi intégrée au modèle (Autonomie au travail) 26 tout comme la variable binaire Polyvalence indiquant si les salariés sont en mesure d'assurer les tâches d'autres collègues lors de leurs absences (au moins au niveau des équipes). Le télétravail nécessitant de la flexibilité (Illegems et al., 2001) et étant fortement influencé par l'autonomie (Tremblay, 2001;Schampheleire et Martinez, 2006), ces caractéristiques devraient ainsi avoir une influence positive sur le télétravail et l'innovation (proximité avec le niveau d'éducation). ...
... The present study addresses this gap by investigating the determinants of teleworking adoption in Italian high technology firms following the lockdown of economic activity caused by the COVID-19 emergency. Some previous research addressed investigation of teleworking adoption determinants [5,[13][14][15]. In this respect, using the resource-based view of the firm [16], researchers highlighted that: A high level of IT endowment, output-oriented coordination and control systems, experience in the use of flexible work hours, size and sector of activity of the firm, workforce education profiles and context play a key role in shaping the teleworking adoption [13]. ...
... Some previous research addressed investigation of teleworking adoption determinants [5,[13][14][15]. In this respect, using the resource-based view of the firm [16], researchers highlighted that: A high level of IT endowment, output-oriented coordination and control systems, experience in the use of flexible work hours, size and sector of activity of the firm, workforce education profiles and context play a key role in shaping the teleworking adoption [13]. ...
... In particular, we focused on manufacturing firms active in hi-tech sectors as defined by OECD [17]. The choice of restricting the sample to hi-tech industries allowed us to reduce the heterogeneity of external conditions, i.e., firms' differences in the nature of production processes that entail different upper thresholds of possible adoption rates of teleworking [13]. Our study aims to provide a base for future investigations of relevant questions related to if and how the high degree of telework adoption during the emergency period will be translated into ordinary operations after the end of the emergency, contributing to cities' sustainability. ...
Article
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The paper investigates the determinants and discusses the consequences of the switch towards Italian high-tech firms’ teleworking due to the COVID-19 crisis. Teleworking is important to reduce traffic congestion and increase the sustainability of cities, and as such, it is important to understand what helps the successful transition of firms to telework. COVID-19 crisis represents a natural experiment that allows studying organizational ability to adapt to unexpected environmental changes rapidly. The study is based on a survey conducted in mid-April 2020 during the COVID-19 lockdown among Italian manufacturing firms’ managers in high-tech sectors. The final sample is composed of 179 observations. Using path analysis, we model the organizational e-readiness as a mediator of the firm’s technological and organizational characteristics in the rate of adoption of teleworking. Teleworking is also modeled as dependent on human resources and from the exogenous shock represented by COVID-19 lockdown. While teleworking has been imposed by COVID-19, organizational readiness plays a key role in shaping the rate of teleworking adoption during emergencies.
... Desde la perspectiva de la empresa, la decisión de adoptar el teletrabajo está influida por distintos factores (Bernardino et al., 1992;Mokhtarian y Salomon, 1997;Illegems et al., 2001). Sin embargo, la literatura del teletrabajo se ha centrado más en el lado de la demanda (teletrabajadores) que en el lado de la oferta (empresas) ( Konradt et al., 2000;Shin et al., 2000;Bailey y Kurland, 2002). ...
... La experiencia de la empresa con el horario flexible y otras prácticas flexibles de trabajo puede fomentar la adopción de nuevas formas de organización del trabajo como el teletrabajo, el cual ofrece simultáneamente flexibilidad espacial y temporal. Varios investigadores (por ejemplo, Illegems et al., 2001) señalan que las empresas consideran al teletrabajo como un beneficio social que ofrecen a sus empleados, al igual que otras prácticas flexibles que ayudan a establecer contratos psicológicos con los empleados. Por ejemplo, Peters et al. (2004) evidencian que las empresas ofrecen teletrabajar con más frecuencia a sus empleados a tiempo parcial que a los de tiempo completo. ...
... El teletrabajo parece ser más frecuente entre los trabajos que pueden evaluarse más fácilmente o en las pequeñas empresas en las que puede controlarse el comportamiento con mayor facilidad (Ommeren, 2000). La literatura indica que la supervisión directa no es adecuada para gestionar a los teletrabajadores, mientras que la dirección por objetivos es más adecuada para el trabajo a distancia (Illegems et al., 2001). Además, las empresas están más dispuestas a ofrecer el teletrabajo cuanto más confíen en sus empleados. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aunque el teletrabajo es una nueva forma de organización del trabajo querequiere del uso intensivo de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, lo cierto es que constituye además una importante innovación organizativa. Pero a diferencia deotras prácticas laborales que también requieren cambios, como la rotación de tareas o losequipos de trabajo autogestionados, el teletrabajo tiene la capacidad de cambiar la flexibilidad espacial y temporal del sistema de trabajo. Este artículo analiza si las empresas que hanadoptado el teletrabajo son más flexibles que las empresas que no lo han adoptado. Los resultados indican que la flexibilidad interna está más asociada con el teletrabajo que la flexibili-dad externa. Las empresas adoptantes del teletrabajo utilizan más prácticas flexibles de trabajo, tienen un mayor porcentaje de empleados que participan en el diseño y planificación delas tareas, su sistema de control está más orientado a resultados, y utilizan más la compensación variable. El teletrabajo también modera el impacto positivo de la flexibilidad interna enlos resultados de la empresa, pero no modera la relación negativa entre flexibilidad externa y resultados. El artículo analiza las implicaciones directivas de los resultados para las empre-sas que se planteen la adopción del teletrabajo y el aumento de la flexibilidad organizativa.
... Examples of telework advantages, possibly benefitting all stakeholders, are enhanced job autonomy, time-spatial flexibility, work motivation, engagement, flow, and job satisfaction, and the reduction of commuting time and stress, and work-life conflict (cf., Bailey & Kurland, 2002;Peters, Poutsma, Van der Heijden, Bakker, De Bruijn, 2014). Examples of reported disadvantages are professional and social isolation, a possible loss of commitment, longer working hours, stress and burn-out, permanent availability, and enhanced work-home conflict (Dimitrova, 2003;Illegems, Verbeke, & S'Jegers, 2001;Kelliher & Anderson, 2010;Kurland & Cooper, 2002). In practice, however, organizations and their managers are reluctant to use telework (Bailey & Kurland, 2002), as they may expect individuals to benefit more from telework practices than the organization (Pérez, Sánchez, & de Luis Carnicer, 2002), even when technological developments make jobs increasingly 'teleworkable', i.e. 'fit for telework'. ...
... With regard to the former, telework research employing an international perspective reveals variations in telework use across nations (cf., EuroFound, 2007) which seems to suggest a better 'external fit' between the telework practice and national cultures that value individualism compared to those valuing collectivism (Peters, Bleijenbergh, & Oldenkamp, 2009;Peters & den Dulk, 2003;Raghuram, London, & Larsen, 2001). With regard to the latter, research employing an organizational perspective stresses the importance of 'internal fit' between telework practice and organizations' internal task control mechanisms (Illegems & Verbeke, 2004;Illegems et al., 2001;Peters & The International Journal of Human Resource Management 2583Batenburg, 2015Peters & Van der Lippe, 2007), that motivate workers to carry out organizational tasks effectively and efficiently in line with organizational goals and to safeguard productivity. However, to the best our knowledge, research into the actual level of formal telework practices used in organizations, taking into account both macro (national cultural values) and meso factors (structural task control mechanisms) explanations, has been advocated (Daniels et al., 2001), but not yet been conducted. ...
... Framed as a 'disruptive' work practice, some organizations and managers may decide not to adopt teleworking (Peters, Den Dulk, & De Ruijter, 2010), even when jobs are 'teleworkable' and competitive advancement may be possible, for example, because it may not fit with the organizations' institutional or internal contexts. For teleworking organizations, the uncertainty and vulnerability associated with teleworking [(and the need to trust virtual workers [Handy, 1995;Nilles, 1998)] represents a potential risk of damage due to teleworkers behaving opportunistically (Peters & Van der Lippe, 2007) resulting from weakened direct task control mechanisms in telework practices (Daniels et al., 2000;Illegems et al., 2001). To prevent potential trust violations (Handy, 1995), organizations need to mitigate this so-called 'telework risk' (Peters & Van der Lippe, 2007) by employing alternative control mechanisms that can manage workers' task motivation, commitment, and behaviors. ...
Article
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This study investigates how nation-level cultural values (‘individualism’ and ‘collectivism’) and intra-organizational task control mechanisms influence the level of organizations’ use of formal telework practices. Employing a multi-level analysis on survey data (2009/10), including 1577 organizations within 18 nations, we found that ‘high use of formal telework practices in organizations’ was more likely when: (1) organizations operated in nations characterized by strong national values; and when they employed (2) ‘hard’ indirect controls (i.e. individual performance-related pay and 360º performance-evaluations). High telework use was less likely when organizations employed direct controls (i.e. higher proportions of managers) and ‘soft’ indirect controls (i.e. higher proportions of professionals). ‘Low use of formal telework practices’ was more likely when organizations employed ‘soft’ indirect controls. Our findings suggest that national cultural values can function as ‘soft’ indirect controls to mitigate the ‘telework risk’ of high levels of telework practices. Internal ‘soft’ task controls only sufficed for managing low levels of telework practices. We discuss the smart and dark sides of telework and how these relate to the management of telework practice. Implications for future telework research and practices are discussed.
... En effet, cette démarche nécessite une flexibilité au niveau de l'organisation du travail et du management (Taskin, 2006). Plus concrètement, cette forme de travail nécessite des réaménagements technologiques, institutionnels et organisationnels (Illegems et al., 2001). ...
... L'influence du télétravail sur le besoin et la capacité de faire face aux réaménagements technologiques, institutionnels et organisationnels (Illegems et al., 2001) semble participer à augmenter la probabilité d'innover au niveau technologique 13 . Ce résultat peut s'expliquer par l'influence de la flexibilité aux changements organisationnels des entreprises qui mettent en place le télétravail. ...
... Dans la continuité du niveau d'étude, un score de 1 à 3 indiquant la proportion de salariés (noncadres supérieurs) pouvant décider collectivement de leur manière de travailler en équipe est aussi intégrée au modèle (Autonomie au travail) 26 tout comme la variable binaire Polyvalence indiquant si les salariés sont en mesure d'assurer les tâches d'autres collègues lors de leurs absences (au moins au niveau des équipes). Le télétravail nécessitant de la flexibilité (Illegems et al., 2001) et étant fortement influencé par l'autonomie (Tremblay, 2001;Schampheleire et Martinez, 2006), ces caractéristiques devraient ainsi avoir une influence positive sur le télétravail et l'innovation (proximité avec le niveau d'éducation). ...
... During the 1970s and 1980s, telework was perceived as the work arrangement of the future (Illegems et al., 2001;Iscan and Naktiyok, 2005). However, despite optimistic predictions, the diffusion of telework, mostly as an occasional work pattern, had proven slow until 2019, when the Covid-19 outbreak took place (European Commission, 2020;Illegems et al., 2001;Iscan and Naktiyok, 2005). ...
... During the 1970s and 1980s, telework was perceived as the work arrangement of the future (Illegems et al., 2001;Iscan and Naktiyok, 2005). However, despite optimistic predictions, the diffusion of telework, mostly as an occasional work pattern, had proven slow until 2019, when the Covid-19 outbreak took place (European Commission, 2020;Illegems et al., 2001;Iscan and Naktiyok, 2005). ...
... The lack of interaction is considered a significant disadvantage of telework mostly by student job-seekers but also by nonstudent job seekers. Illegems et al. (2001) Quantitative research Survey-based ...
Article
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Given the work and life conditions imposed by the ‘new normal’ Covid-19 era, a massive shift towards telework is expected and will likely continue long after the pandemic. Despite the resurgent interest in telework as an important aspect of ensuring business continuity, the literature base remains fragmented and variable. This study presents a taxonomical classification of literature on teleworking along with a comprehensive bibliography and future research agenda. To this aim, a systematic literature review methodology was adopted drawing on an evidence base of 40 articles published in high-ranking journals during the years 2000–2020. Findings capture key developments and synthesize existing areas of research focus. Important insights and gaps in the existing research are also pinpointed. The study may stimulate future research, represent a reference point for scholars interested in telework and at the same time provide an added advantage to managers for understanding crucial dimensions thereof.
... In this situation, workplace flexibility during the COVID-19 enabled workers to easily deal with their family situation or emergency and consequently influenced satisfaction and work-life balance during the pandemic. It was previously explained that the flexibility of time to work positively influences work-life balance by allowing employees to cope with their family needs and other work smoothly (Illegems et al., 2001). Furthermore, having the autonomy to choose when to work allows individuals to work when they are most productive, ultimately increasing productivity (Illegems et al., 2001;Lim and Teo, 2000). ...
... It was previously explained that the flexibility of time to work positively influences work-life balance by allowing employees to cope with their family needs and other work smoothly (Illegems et al., 2001). Furthermore, having the autonomy to choose when to work allows individuals to work when they are most productive, ultimately increasing productivity (Illegems et al., 2001;Lim and Teo, 2000). ...
... Corporate offices were significantly preferred for formal meetings, work meetings with several colleagues, socializing, getting trained and training others. These results align with concerns discussed in previous studies; professional and social isolation was a critical concern when implementing teleworking because of reduced interactions between coworkers (Baker et al., 2007;Illegems et al., 2001). Waizenegger et al. (2020) found, in interviews with knowledge workers, that virtual communication channels sometimes hindered quick and instant communication among workers and made knowledge sharing difficult. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to understand how knowledge workers working from home during COVID-19 changed their views on physical work environments and working-from-home practices. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted a survey targeting workers in the USA recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. A total of 1,651 responses were collected and 648 responses were used for the analysis. Findings The perceived work-life balance improved during the pandemic compared to before, while the balance of physical boundaries between the workplace and home decreased. Workplace flexibility, environmental conditions of home offices and organizational supports are positively associated with productivity, satisfaction with working from home and work-life balance during the pandemic. Research limitations/implications While the strict traditional view of “showing” up in the office from Monday through Friday is likely on the decline, the hybrid workplace with flexibility can be introduced as some activities are not significantly affected by the work location, either at home-based or corporate offices. The results of this study also highlight the importance of organizations to support productivity and satisfaction in the corporate office as well as home. With the industry collaboration, future research of relatively large sample sizes and study sites, investigating workers’ needs and adapted patterns of use in home-based and corporate offices, will help corporate real estate managers make decisions and provide some level of standardization of spatial efficiency and configurations of corporate offices as well as essential supports for home offices. Originality/value The pandemic-enforced working-from-home practices awaken the interdependence between corporate and home environments, how works are done and consequently, the role of the physical workplace. This study built a more in-depth understanding of how workers who were able to continue working from home during COVID-19 changed or not changed their views on physical work environments and working-from-home practices.
... Sin embargo, en la actualidad, un creciente porcentaje de la fuerza laboral son trabajadores de la información y el conocimiento, por lo que los trabajadores no son dependientes de lugar de trabajo. 12 Factores tales como el uso frecuente del computador, el grado de escolaridad y las habilidades en el uso de las TIC muestran asociación con la preferencia por teletrabajar. 18 Puntualmente, la labor docente avizorada desde las distintas dimensiones del quehacer universitario, como son la docencia, la investigación y la extensión, contempla la realización de múltiples actividades que no requieren de forma obligatoria de su presencia en la institución, tales como la preparación de clases, la elaboración y calificación de actividades evaluativas, reuniones con colegas, trabajo investigativo, actividades de extensión universitaria, entre otros, por lo que de manera parcial se evidencia una afinidad entre el quehacer del profesor universitario y el teletrabajo. ...
... Por el contrario, una insatisfacción por las disposiciones laborales actuales o por la baja calidad de tiempo que se pasa con las propias familias puede tener una influencia positiva hacia la adopción del teletrabajo. 12 En el ámbito académico, se observa en la actualidad que los estudiantes que ingresan a la universidad están más familiarizados con formatos de comunicación a través de herramientas de aprendizaje como una mejor conciliación entre la vida laboral y familiar del teletrabajador. 4,5 Igualmente, se ha encontrado un incremento en la satisfacción de los empleados y un mayor compromiso de los mismos con la organización. ...
... Pero dicha decisión de adoptar el teletrabajo está influenciada por una variedad de elementos tecnológicos, institucionales y organizacionales, así como por características individuales y de percepción y actitud hacia el uso de las TIC. 12 Es claro que las principales influencias inhibitorias para la adopción y la difusión del teletrabajo están relacionadas con factores humanos y organizacionales más que con factores tecnológicos, sin desconocer la importancia de la confianza y la autonomía del trabajo, el cambio administrativo, así como el disponer de una infraestructura tecnológica social, tales como Facebook, Twitter y WhatsApp, y esperan que estas sean replicadas en el salón de clases, lo que conduce a que los métodos de enseñanza tradicional lleguen a ser cuestionados. Por lo que, consecuentemente, el personal académico está encarando distintos retos para la inmersión en los nuevos ambientes de aprendizaje, lo cual adiciona complejidad y presión cuando ellos enseñan a estudiantes con una diversidad incrementada. ...
Article
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Multiple benefits are reported around the world with reference to the adoption of telework, and is widely recommended its implementation in activities related to knowledge management and information. But there is little research in the education sector. This research aims to determine what factors affect the disposition towards adoption of telework among university teachers. A survey was done among 118 teachers from public and private universities of a region of Colombia where related information with individual aspects, teleworking activities, perceptions and attitudes towards the use of ICT, aptitude for the management of ICT, and aspects related to their work environment was collected. Tests of independence, multiple correspondence analysis and logistic regression were applied. A high disposition towards the adoption of telework among academics is detected. Among the factors associated to the interest in telecommuting arise primarily those related to the aptitudinal and attitudinal aspects to the use of ICT in work activities, while on the contrary, the individual aspects, the working environment and the type of activities have very little impact on the willingness to telework.
... In the late 1970s and the 1980s, home office was perceived as the work arrangement of the future [17]. As underlined by [18], it becomes increasingly feasible thanks to advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ...
... For employers, the practice helps productivity, profitability and flexibility [14,[19][20][21]. It is also associated with a decrease of employees' absenteeism and turnover [17,22]. Some authors highlight the improvement in remote collaborations [23]. ...
... Some authors show greater commitment, work effort and performance associated with the practice [29,30] when some others highlight the lack of contact and reduced collaboration opportunities, social problems and isolation [12,20,31,32]. Another disadvantage is lower salary growth and professional advancement of teleworkers [17,33,34]. ...
Article
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In these times of successive lockdown periods due to the health crisis induced by COVID-19, this paper investigates how the usages of collaborative and communication digital tools (groupware, workflow, instant messaging and web conference) are related to the evolution of teleworkers’ subjective well-being (job satisfaction, job stress) and job productivity comparing during and before the first lockdown in spring 2020. Using a sample of 438 employees working for firms located in Luxembourg, this analysis enables, first, to highlight different profiles of teleworkers regarding the evolution of usages of these tools during the lockdown compared to before and the frequency of use during. Second, the analysis highlights that these profiles are linked to the evolution of job satisfaction, job stress and job productivity. Our main results show that (1) the profile that generates an increase in job productivity is the one with a combined mastered daily or weekly use of all of the four studied digital tools but at the expense of job satisfaction. On the contrary, (2) the use of the four digital tools both before and during the lockdown, associated with an increase in the frequency of use, appears to generate too much information flow to deal with and teleworkers may suffer from information overload that increases their stress and reduces their job satisfaction and job productivity. (3) The habit of using the four tools on a daily basis before the lockdown appears to protect teleworkers from most of the adverse effects, except for an increase in their job stress. Our results have theoretical and managerial implications for the future of the digitally transformed home office.
... In recent years, the development of workplace flexibility has gained momentum. Working flexibly is not only advantageous for employees, but also for organizations as it helps companies to recruit and retain the best candidates in the war for talents (Beham et al., 2015;Iscan and Naktiyok, 2005;Illegems and Verbeke, 2004;Illegems et al., 2001;Kossek et al., 2006). Besides already researched and discussed advantages of flexible workplaces, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the disadvantages of flexible workplaces and their effects on employee performance or motivation as well as organizational performance . ...
... Baruch (2000) discusses the aspects of stress and unhealthy employees, supported by Mann et al. (2000), by highlighting that working hours are increasing and that employees are working although they are sick. In addition, face-to-face contact and teamwork is reduced which limits the team spirit (Illegems et al., 2001). So, the issue of being productive is often in the focus (e.g. ...
... The majority of the disadvantages of flexible workplaces mentioned here have to do with a lack of social interaction. Isolation of employees was mentioned 11 times in the systematic literature review (Baruch, 2000;Collins, 2005;Harris, 2003;Illegems and Verbeke, 2004;Lal and Dwivedi, 2009;Mann et al., 2000;Maruyama and Tietze, 2012;Teo et al., 1998;Tietze, 2002), less face-to-face contact with colleagues and supervisors was discussed five times (Coenen and Harris, 2003;Illegems and Verbeke, 2004;Illegems et al., 2001;Watad and Will, 2003), fewer involvement in teamwork was discussed once (Illegems et al., 2001), less informal training was mentioned twice and worse employee visibility was mentioned three times Maruyama and Tietze, 2012;Taskin and Edwards, 2007). McClelland's (1987) need theory captures three major needs existing in people, namely achievement, affiliation and power. ...
Article
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The demand for more flexible workplaces is on the increase for employees and employers. The aim of this paper is, firstly, to identify and alleviate downsides of alternative workplaces in relation to the performance and motivation of employees that work outside the company's facilities in order to provide a deeper understanding of its consequences, and secondly, to develop a new conceptual framework focusing on workplace flexibility practices in SMEs. A systematic literature review was conducted, 50 relevant articles were identified and analyzed, offering a new conceptual framework which enables researchers and practitioners to combine several occupational, private, social and financial downsides in order to measure to what extent these aspects influence SME performance. Moreover, a research agenda was set up for further examination. Prior to this, no systematic literature review with this focus was conducted and no all-encompassing conceptual framework for SMEs (including all downsides) was identified, underlining the originality and value of this research. JEL Codes: J10, J61, M12, M50, M54.
... In teleworking literatures, many indicators are suggested for teleworking acceptance such as organisational and human resource issues (Bailey and Kurland, 2002), worker autonomy and technological provision (Clear and Dickson, 2005), and work-life balance flexibility (Sullivan and Lewis, 2001;Tietze, 2002;Harris, 2003;Madsen, 2003). Recent scholars focus on teleworking and organisational theories and test research hypotheses to explain teleworking adoption in organisations (Daniels, Lamond and Standen, 2001;Illegems, Verbeke and S'Jegers, 2001;Pérez, Martínez and de Luis, 2003;Peters et al., 2004;Sánchez et al., 2007). Previous literature indicates that employees' involvement in job design and planning (Pérez et al., 2003); teamwork organisation, management support, and training (Illegems et al., 2001) have a positive impact on the teleworking adoption. ...
... Recent scholars focus on teleworking and organisational theories and test research hypotheses to explain teleworking adoption in organisations (Daniels, Lamond and Standen, 2001;Illegems, Verbeke and S'Jegers, 2001;Pérez, Martínez and de Luis, 2003;Peters et al., 2004;Sánchez et al., 2007). Previous literature indicates that employees' involvement in job design and planning (Pérez et al., 2003); teamwork organisation, management support, and training (Illegems et al., 2001) have a positive impact on the teleworking adoption. Other scholars focus on culture change as a challenge in teleworking (Watad and Will, 2003). ...
Article
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Teleworking is enabled by technology which reflects an innovation capability of an organization to gain sustainable competitive advantage. A major gap that exists in teleworking research literature today is the absence of a theoretical framework that can be used to help firms understand the competitive advantage of a teleworking firm. This study attempts to bridge the gap by developing and proposing a framework which identifies factors that might have an impact on teleworking performance which in turn generates a firms sustainable competitive advantage. The resource-based theory (RBT) suggests that the sustainability of competitive advantage is dependent on a firm's innovation capability. This study applies RBT to understand the competitive advantage of teleworking firms. The interview findings reveal that innovation capability is ascertained by tangible and intangible resources that are acquired and accessed by a teleworking firm.
... Also, Filipczak (1992) The Appropriateness of the Organizational Factors for the Adoption of Teleworking Application The Context of "Mobile Telecommunications Sector" 604 argued that TA is based upon the concept of MBO. Adding that, Illegems et al. (2001) found that a firm becomes motivated to adopt TA if one of some drivers exists, one of the most important drivers is when TA managed mainly by output-oriented (the same meaning of results-oriented) coordination and control systems. ...
... Moreover, the results of this study came in line with (Di Martino and Wirth, 1990) and (Nilles, 1991) who found that the results-oriented managers considered their management style more suited to adopt telework rather than traditional approaches. Also, (Filipczak, 1992) and (Illegems et al., 2001) results supported the results of this study, they found that an organization becomes motivated to adopt TA when it is managed mainly by output-oriented (result-oriented or MBO). ...
Article
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This study aimed to examine the appropriateness of the organizational factors (OFs) for the adoption of teleworking applica (TA). This study was conducted within the context of the mobile telecommunication sector (MTS) in Jordan. It applied the triangulation methodology that includes grounded theory and quantitative methods, in order to find and examine OFs. The questionnaire were distributed to the 345 respondents and the results revealed that, the technological infrastructure (TI), work nature (WN), level of managerial flexibility (LMF), decentralization (DC), and management by objectives (MBO), which are highly appropriate for the adoption of TA in the context. Also, the results showed that the social relationships factor (SR) did not enhance the appropriateness for the TA adoption of in the context. This study highlighted the theme of TA and its importance to the organizations and provides some recommendations for the decision makers that can support their efforts towards adopting this new way of work.
... [2] Les quelques études analysant les enjeux du télétravail en matière de GRH se limitent ainsi trop souvent à la description des éléments intervenant dans le processus d'adoption de celui-ci (voir p.ex. Baruch, 2000;Illegems, Verbeke & S'Jegers, 2001;Kowalski & Swanson, 2005;Morgan, 2004;Perez, Sanchez & de Luis Carnicer, 2002) ou à l'étude de certains enjeux spécifiques que cette forme d'organisation du travail soulève, par exemple, en matière d'isolement social et de conciliation des rôles (voir p.ex. Felstead, Jewson, Phizacklea & Walters, 2002;Hill, Ferris & Märtinsson, 2003 ;Kurland & Cooper, 2002 ;Tremblay, 2002), en matière de gestion des connaissances et la performance organisationnelle (voir p.ex. Daniels, Lamond & Standen, 2001 ;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Illegems & Verbeke, 2004 ; Martinez-Sanchez, Perez-Perez, de Luis Carnier & Vela-Jimenez, 2007). de la coordination sociale et, donc, de l'adoption de règles (ou de nouvelles règles) à partir du comportement des acteurs. ...
... Indices des stratégies mises en place par les acteurs pour reconstruire leur visibilité à distance. (Illegems, et al., 2001 ;Clear & Dickson, 2005 ;Peters & Batenburg, 2015). Pourtant, la seconde étude réalisée dans le secteur public (HUMIN, présentée ci-après) illustre la compatibilité du télétravail avec une bureaucratie mécaniste. ...
Article
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L’introduction de projets de changement pose de nombreux défis en matière de gestion des ressources humaines. Ils sont d’ailleurs traduits, dans la littérature en management, comme autant d’opportunités à saisir et de prescriptions à observer pour piloter ceux-ci avec succès. Cet article présente le cas particulier de l’introduction d’une nouvelle forme d’organisation du travail, le télétravail à domicile, et invite à considérer à la fois la re-régulation des dispositifs de règles –en particulier, les règles de contrôle, et les croyances sur ce qu’il est normal d’attendre des travailleurs en situation de déspatialisation. Les théories de la régulation sociale et des conventions sont présentées dans leurs similarités et dissemblances, justifiant en cela l’articulation que nous proposons ici de considérer simultanément les croyances partagées par les acteurs « a priori » comme une condition nécessaire à l’adoption de nouvelles règles, et la négociation de dispositifs de règles par laquelle les acteurs produisent ces nouvelles règles et organisent (ou non) le projet et sa pratique. Afin d’illustrer cette proposition théorique, deux études de cas sont convoquées. L’une questionne l’échec de l’introduction du télétravail dans une administration publique alors que l’autre interroge le succès d’un projet identique. Finalement, notre proposition soutient les efforts d’enrichissement de notre compréhension des situations de gestion entrepris par d’autres, par le biais de la mobilisation de cadres théoriques qui peuvent être empruntés à d’autres disciplines des sciences sociales.
... This model, in conjunction with information from other articles, has been expanded in Figure 1 and updated to include modern technological advancements such as cloud computing [66,67] and modern pressures such as COVID-19 [29,68]. [25,29,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72]. ...
... Definitions for the generational progression of enabling technology for teleworking[25,29,[66][67][68][69][70][71][72]. ...
Article
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A scientometric analysis of extant literature is conducted to elucidate upon the practicality of teleworking throughout industry as a prelude to prescribing a bespoke conceptual adoption model which embeds innovative digital technologies to facilitate teleworking for construction professionals. The model is premised upon the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) work stages and illustrates how technologies are being used at each incremental stage. An interpretivist philosophy and inductive reasoning were adopted using a sample of longitudinal secondary data contained within pertinent extant literature, where each publication constitutes a unit of analysis. The qualitative scientometric software VOSviewer and Voyant Tools were utilised to examine emergent research trends, with further manual review of prominent papers contained within the sample dataset. Four distinct historical advances are delineated in a timeline that describes the evolution of home-working from the 1970s through to the present day (and during the global COVID-19 pandemic). Key milestones delineated indicate how technological advances have created new opportunities for teleworking. The research indicates that an acceleration of digital advances has engendered modernity in contemporary work-location patterns and that these offer potentials to reduce the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities. This unique study highlights how COVID-19 and available digital technologies have shaped the future of teleworking from home and the potential environmental impact of such. This concludes by signposting directions for future research into the adoption of teleworking at the organisational level and establishing the cost and environmental savings to businesses from abandoning the traditional model of employer-based working.
... Teleworkers are people who do some paid or unpaid work in their own home and who could not do so without using both a telephone and a computer (Teo et al, 1998;Illegems et al, 2001;Lyons 2002;Harrington and Walker, 2004). Teleworking is not a new phenomenon (Martin and Norman, 1970). ...
... The rapid advance recently in the information and communications technology (ICT) has not only made teleworking possible, but also attractive and increasingly popular. As a consequence, teleworking becomes a main issue nowadays for organisations as well as government policy makers aiming to make full use of the potential that ICT can offer (Teo et al, 1998;Grimes, 2000;Martinez, 2000;Venkatesh, 2000;Illegems et al, 2001). ...
Article
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This paper presents an exploratory analysis of teleworking in Australia. A number of changing patterns of teleworking in Australia are identified from perspectives of age group, educational level and gender, and the underlying causes for such changes are discussed. A strong correlation between the number of teleworkers and the number of households with computers and Internet access is identified. This facilitates the use of linear regression modeling for forecasting the number of teleworkers in Australia using both the number of households with computers and Internet access. The findings and the subsequent predictions are of practical significance to the individual organisations and government policy makers on how to effectively embrace the phenomenon of teleworking in Australia.
... The literature shows several benefits of teleworking for both employers and employees. Some of the potential benefits of teleworking to employers include improved recruitment and retention of different types of workers [24][25][26][27], increased productivity [24,26,28,29], reduced absenteeism [30], and reduced expenses related to office space and other operating expenses [2,31]. The benefits to employees include improved work/family balance [24,28,[32][33][34], increased morale and job satisfaction [28,35], and reduced commute time [36]. ...
... Some challenges of teleworking are also documented in the literature including difficulty of separating work and family life [37], lack of career development and promotions due to out-of-sight, out-of-mind syndrome [38][39][40][41][42], and professional isolation [43,44]. Overall, if properly implemented, teleworking could help improving the performance of both employees and organizations [18,27]. ...
Article
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A growing literature has pointed out disparities in teleworking among different racial and ethnic (hereafter racial) workers. This study estimated racial disparities in teleworking due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent to which these disparities were mediated by four-year college education and occupation in the United States. The data source for this study was the Current Population Survey, May 2020 through July 2021. The results showed that in the reduced model, the odds for Black and Hispanic workers to telework were 35% and 55% lower, respectively, and for Asian workers 44% higher than for White workers, controlling for covariates. When four-year college education and occupation were included as mediator variables in the model, the odds for Black and Hispanic workers to telework were reduced to 7% and 16%, respectively. Overall, disparities in four-year college education and occupation explained 83% and 78% of the variation in the odds of teleworking for Black and Hispanic workers, respectively. Between the mediators, occupation explained more than 60% of the total effect. The results of this study could not rule out the possibility of racial discrimination in teleworking. Ultimately, reducing racial disparities in four-year college education and in different occupations might be a long-term solution for reducing racial disparities in teleworking.
... They offer older and disabled people access to a wide range of Internet services which allow them to save money and to participate more fully in society e.g. broadband communications, digital inclusion measures, web-based social networking, etc. (Illegems, Verbeke et al. 2001, Lewin, Adshead et al. 2010 This table shows different segments of ALTS identified from the literature. With the aid of Boolean logic, we used combination of these names to search for the papers for the review in addition to the variant names identified in Table 2. ...
... Harris G in (Harris 1999), from USA, described the framework for telecare. A paper from Belgium (Illegems, Verbeke et al. 2001) described teleworking and the last paper in this category attempted to identify the effects of ideological differences on health care market infrastructures including the Internet and telecommunications technologies by a comparative case analysis of two large health care organizations: the British National Health Service and the California-based Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization (Seror 2002, Rodrigues 2003. ...
... Environmental issues, such the reduction of emissions generated by people that everyday have to move to and from their workplace, enterprises' needs such as increasing competitiveness, productivity and efficiency, have pushed organizations to redefine their organizational structure and to innovate the organizational models by introducing new ways of conducting the working activities, such as the telework. As pointed out by Illegems, Verbeke, and S'Jegers (2001) [3]: " Managing teleworkers requires that special attention has to be devoted to coordinating, controlling, and motivating them, to organizing their availability, their communication with non-teleworkers, and to preserving the corporate culture " . ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze how the work is moving out of firm’s physical boundaries by analyzing case studies and survey analyses conducted between 2005 and 2009. Research that has recently investigated the workplace changes among companies have analyzed only marginally the evolution of telework adoption and also have not interpreted the telework as prodromal of the offshoring decisions. Thus, this chapter examines the telework diffusion among companies, trying to identify new models and contingent factors that influence its diffusion and trying to answer to these two research questions: (1) Is telework correlated to broader changes towards an increased industrialization of material and information-based services? (2) Which factors influence telework adoption in SMEs and also are different telework typologies emerging in enterprises according to their size and the sector they belong to?. Specifically, this chapter shows how the telework supports the industrialization of services, favored also by the fact that the information based component in firms is increasing even more, and also how the telework is the result of continuous investments in IT infrastructure which determines organizational changes in the internal and external processes of material and information-based services. Finally, managerial implications are also proved.
... Management support and training are factors positively related to the intensity of telework adoption and without adequate training provision, the practice may be a short-lived experience as a lack of skills leads to restrictions on when and where employees can work (Illegems, Verbeke, & S'Jegers, 2001;Venkatesh & Speier, 2000). Indeed, it is suggested for telework to be successfully adopted managers need to institute regular training and sensitisation programs for all employees so that an appreciation for the perspectives of teleworkers and non-teleworkers alike can be fully grasped (Golden, 2009). ...
Article
The ubiquitous nature and use of technology in contemporary societies continues to transform lives and work environments. At the same time, transport continues to be a major source of harmful emissions. Telework has been suggested as a means to reduce unnecessary work-related travel, including the daily commute. Telework occurs when Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are applied to enable work be accomplished at a distance from the location where results are needed. However, despite its promising nature and early optimist predictions, telework has largely failed to capture management and workers' attention and imagination. Using a multi-level perspective (MLP) on sociotechnical transitions approach, this study reveals why telework continues to remain a ?niche? practice dominated by a small set of industries, managers and workers. The paper builds on MLP thinking with a view to highlighting behavioural, cultural, and political aspects of socio-technical transitions and their interactions, which are frequently limited in classical MLP thinking. The failure to enrol additional niche-actors, the dominance of traditional forms of working and automobility, and the absence of policy and lack of legitimacy, all act negatively to keep telework from emerging from the niche to the regime level and becoming established as a more mainstream practice.
... Teleworking has become one of the most popular methods for saving employees' time and energy and there are various studies on learning more about the effects of teleworking on quality of life (Illegems et al., 2001;Siha & Monroe, 2006;Wellman & Haythornthwaite, 2008). Baruch (2000), for instance, explored how teleworking was perceived by employees and highlighted its possible advantage and pitfalls. ...
Article
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Nowadays teleworking has become a useful technique for business development and improving employees’ quality of life. Many people are now able to stay at home and do their daily job activities without bothering to wear formal closes. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of teleworking on quality of life using Walton (1976) method [Walton, R. E. (1973). Quality of working life-what is it. Sloan Management Review, 15(1), 11-21.]. The variables of quality of working-life according to Walton Model are: “Adequate and fair compensation”, “Safe and Healthy Working conditions”, “Opportunity for Continued Growth and Security”, “The Social Relevance of Work Life”, “Total Life Space”, “Social Integration in the Work”, “Constitutionalism in the work Organization”, “Human Progress Capabilities”. Using different statistical tests, the study indicate that teleworking had significant positive relationship with Quality of Working-Life components. The study also reports that different personal characteristics such as age, gender had no meaningful impact on teleworking.
... One notable exception could be that the introduction of telework can be associated with a new form of employee control involving the implementation of technological means (Fairweather, 1999;Sewell and Taskin, 2015): therefore in some organizations the practice of home-based telework may depend on the possibility to implement such technologies, and on the associated costs. Moreover the adoption of teleworking practices often requires changes in the organization of work that can constitute a barrier (Illegems et al., 2001). Changes relate in particular to the surveillance and control of the teleworkers and more widely to the management of a remote workforce, especially the management of the psycho-sociological distance from the work environment (colleagues, common spaces, formal and informal exchanges etc.) (Belanger, 1999;Harris, 2003;Illegems and Verbeke, 2004;Taskin and Devos, 2005;Thomsin and Tremblay, 2008;Wilton et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The aim of this article is to explain the gap between high social expectations, particularly in terms of reducing commuting frequency, increasing productivity and improving work-life balance, and the reality of home-based telework. We use three French databases which give information about employers but also employees. We highlight that telework is not only a fairly restricted phenomenon but also one that lacks impetus; it is mainly an informal working arrangement. The main reasons raised by both employees and employers are the uncertain advantages coupled with immediate disadvantages. The conclusion examines different contextual factors that could alter this cost-benefits dilemma and foster the development of home-based telework.
... Besides the pattern of highly skilled and high-status employees being more likely to be employed in telework-suitable jobs (i.e. with the job traits discussed above), a central factor in this context is the organizational level (Hynes 2014;Pyöriä 2011). There is often scepticism about telework on the part of many employers (Aguilera et al. 2016) and it may be demanding to introduce telework because doing so requires changes in how work is organized and controlled (Brodt and Verburg 2007;Illegems et al. 2001). Management may lack trust (Lai and Burchell 2008), not least when it comes to technical as well as social possibilities to monitor, control and supervise employees when teleworking. ...
Article
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The share of Swedish employees eligible for telework, that is, when work tasks and contractual agreement allow, increased from 22% in 2005–2006 to 35% in 2011–2014. This article explores this fast diffusion of telework eligibility. Micro data from representative national surveys are used to examine how increasing opportunities for telework have spread among different groups of employees and different parts of the labour market and to examine the factors that increase or decrease the probability of being eligible for telework. We find significant increases in telework eligibility in almost all categories of workers and all labour market sectors. However, employees are clearly grouped into those achieving rapid gains in telework eligibility and those achieving such gains much more slowly. Telework continues to be primarily available to high-status segments of the labour market. Information and communication technology and technical solutions increasingly appear to be key factors enabling telework.
... Also the category of workers that are controlled and rewarded on the basis of their individual results, rather than on their actual 'face hours' at work, may be more likely to telework, as underperformance of these employees will be punished by rewarding them less, either directly by financial rewards, or indirectly by reduced career perspectives. Output management may avoid opportunistic behaviour and, therefore, reduces the need for close supervision (Illegems et al., 2001;Pérez Pérez et al., 2005). Also from a knowledge transfer perspective, setting targets and deadlines may reduce the need to share knowledge during the work process. ...
Article
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This study uses a knowledge transfer perspective, focusing both on 'disruptive' and 'commiting' consequences of teleworking affecting organisational knowledge transfer, to understand variations in the adoption and formalisation of teleworking practices in organisations. It hypothesises the influence of a set of conditions related to the so-called 'knowledge transfer risk': constituent characteristics (i.e., the percentage of knowledge workers; the presence of time and spatial flexible work arrangements; and output management), cultural compatibility (flexible organisational culture), and management cognition (managers' perceived telework attributes relating to productivity; social cohesion; and work-life balance). Hypotheses are tested through a series of multivariate logistic regression analyses. Survey data were collected in 2003 among 407 firms. Our study shows that firms are more likely to integrate teleworking practices in their strategic HR management policies and introduce formal teleworking policies as a long-Term investment in (highly-valued) personnel, when the knowledge transfer risk is lower and when they anticipate higher organisational commitment and productivity levels due to teleworking. These findings indicate direction for policy makers that aim to stimulate telework adoption and formalisation of fair telework policies.
... The result is that knowledge workers are less bounded to fixed workplace or fixed working times. This will not say that every knowledge worker is more flexible, but because it is more likely that the knowledge worker can work in new ways like teleworking (Illegems, Verbeke, & S'Jegers, 2001), the focus in this research will be on them. Therefore, the first sub-question for this research will be: WHICH IMPLICATIONS CAN BE FOUND FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THAT CAN HINDER THE ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE OF DEPARTEMENTS OF THE DUTCH CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TOWARDS 'THE NEW WAY OF WORKING'? ...
... Plusieurs auteurs soulignent que la diffusion du télétravail à domicile ne peut se faire sans l'implémentation de changements organisationnels conséquents (ILLEGEMS et al., 2001), voire d'une nouvelle culture d'entreprise (STORHAYE et BOUVARD, 2013). Selon TASKIN (2006), le véritable enjeu du télétravail est en fait la capacité à gérer la déspatialisation, c'est-à-dire la distance non seulement physique (géographique) du travailleur, mais aussi et surtout psychosociologique, liée à l'éloignement d'avec son environnement de travail au sens large (collègues, espaces communs, échanges informels et formels, etc.). ...
Article
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L'objectif de cet article est d'expliquer les écarts entre les fortes attentes sociétales attachées au télétravail et la faiblesse de sa pratique en France. Sur la base de trois enquêtes, nous montrons que le télétravail est non seulement un phénomène limité, mais qu'il est principalement lié à des arrangements informels, et enfin qu'il n'est plébiscité ni par les salariés ni par les entreprises. Les principales raisons avancées concernent ses avantages incertains et ses coûts immédiats. La conclusion discute les éléments de contexte qui pourraient modifier les choix des différents agents.
... Teleworking allows working on hours when the employee is most productive. The most reported disadvantages of teleworking include problems with career, limited interaction with colleagues, lower frequency of social contacts, disengagement, lack of the sense of belonging [6]. Separation from colleagues may cause stress and lower working morale. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research background: Teleworking is becoming more current and more used. It is an instrument that allows and supports globalization. The corona crisis increased its use even more. Teleworking has advantages, but also disadvantages which are perceived and evaluated by its users. With its more intense penetration, the users’ perception will become an important factor in the implementation. Teleworking has effects both on the whole economy and on the employees - it affects their social life, their working relations, and their flexibility. Purpose of the article: The purpose of the article is to identify the students’ perception of advantages and disadvantages of teleworking and the development of this perception from the year 2018 to the year 2020. In 2020, the data were collected during and after the corona crisis, and so we can observe its effects. Methods: We used an electronic survey to monitor students’ opinion on teleworking and processed the data by methods of descriptive statistics and more advanced statistical methods to obtain their characteristics. Findings & Value added: We found out that the perception of teleworking’s advantages and disadvantages didn’t change much from the year 2018 and stayed relatively stable in spite of the crisis. Only some effects of teleworking were considered by our respondents a little differently, e.g., the social aspects. Our findings may be used in addressing the perceived disadvantages of teleworking and supporting its advantages.
... Uzaktan/evden çalışma, 1990'ların başlarında geleceğin çalışma şekli olarak belirtilmiştir. Fakat model, işletmeler tarafından fazla benimsenmemiş ve uygulanmamıştır (Illegems, Verbeke ve S'Jegers, 2001). Yıllar içerisinde uzaktan çalışan insanların sayısı kademeli olarak artış gösterse de, bu artış çok büyük oranlarda gerçekleşmemiştir. ...
Book
Bu eserde, birçok farklı alanda dijital dönüşüm ve dijital teknolojiler ele alınmış ve gerek literatür incelemeleri gerek güncel araştırma verileri ile dijital geleceğin resmi çizilmeye çalışılmıştır.
... As stressed by a large strand of literature, during the last decades the expansion of occupations characterised by material tasks related to the creation, transformation and dissemination of information rather than physical outputs enabled the technical feasibility of telework across a wide spectrum of occupations (see Illegems et al., 2001;Taskim and Edwards, 2007;Bloom et al. 2015), although still not the majority in terms of employment. The outbreak of the Covid-19 global pandemic and the (forced) massive shift toward homeworking reinvigorates the production of new evidence on the potential distribution of this type of work arrangement from an occupational standpoint. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The global pandemic induced by the spread of the Covid-19 acted as an exogenous shock which forced organisations to adopt telework as a daily and common form of work along a relevant fraction of the occupational structure. Indeed, most of the growing contributions on telework focused on the estimation of employment which can work remotely, while less or any attention has been paid to the impact of the "new" work arrangement on the labour process. Our paper aims at filling this gap. Drawing from a real-time cross-professional, cross-organisational and cross-national qualitative survey, our research investigates two main and interrelated aspects. First, we show how organisations reacted to this shock in terms of autonomy and forms of control including standardisation and teamwork dimensions across different occupations and economic sectors. Second, we describe how and to which extent workers respond: adapting, resisting or appropriating the new organisation of work. More specifically, we study the effect on the above-mentioned dimensions across different occupations to highlight heterogeneity along the vertical division of labour. JEL classification: L23, M54, 033, J81.
... That a job may be suitable for telework in theory does not mean that the employer will allow the employees to work remotely. There is often scepticism about telework on the part of many employers [24]; it may certainly be demanding to introduce telework, because doing so requires changes in how work is organised and controlled [25,26]. However, new technologies are helping organisations monitor, control, and supervise employees while teleworking, which has led to a rapid increase in the gig economy during the last few years. ...
Article
Full-text available
Telework and ICT-based mobile work (TICTM) arrangements have emerged in response to technological changes driven by digitalisation, increasing flexibility within the labour market, and globalisation. As telework becomes more widespread, these flexible models of work are rapidly expanding to new categories of employees, changing the factors traditionally found to be important for telework eligibility. The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of new profiles of teleworkers, examining main factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of different TICTM arrangements. We apply multinomial logistic regression models to a sample of more than 20,000 workers from the 6th European Working Conditions Survey. Our findings confirm the heterogeneity in the profiles of teleworkers, particularly distinguishing by TICTM arrangement. Occasional teleworkers are usually male managers or professionals, but a relevant percentage of highly mobile teleworkers are technicians and associate professionals, while clerical support workers amount to a large group of home-based teleworkers. The majority of occasional and highly mobile teleworkers are still men, but this can no longer be said of home-based teleworkers. The correlations between telework and permanent contracts, full-time jobs, and living in urban areas are weak, showing that TICTM is spreading into more precarious, temporary, and lower-paid jobs, especially among home-based teleworkers and highly mobile teleworkers.
... Another prevalent theme in the literature reflects that remote work can generate surveillance and monitoring mechanisms by managers (Valsecchi 2006). Pre-pandemic research on telework and employment relationships have also investigated perceived social and economic advantages and disadvantages of working from home (Illegems, Verbeke, and S'Jegers 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Popular representations of remote work often depict it as a flexible, technologically feasible, and family-friendly work arrangement. Have the images of remote working as a desirable work arrangement been challenged by the COVID-19 pandemic? What have we learned from the widespread involuntary remote work imposed on many employees during this time? To answer these questions, we analysed 40 recent empirical studies that examined work-life balance while working from home during the pandemic. Our analysis was informed by the person-environment fit theory and complemented by literature reviews on remote work conducted prior to the pandemic. We found four themes representing misfits between desirable expectations and the undesirable realities of remote work: (1) flextime vs. work intensity, (2) flexplace vs. space limitation, (3) technologically-feasible work arrangementvs. technostress and isolation, and (4) family-friendly work arrangement vs. housework and care intensity. We highlight the important role HRD practitioners can play in assisting employees to achieve a fit between their expectations and experiences of remote work.
... The majority of responding organisations had already implemented policies and guidelines for remote work (63%) across all or part of the organisation. However, in 37% of the participating organisations no policies were implemented, which would make remote working difficult in large parts of these companies prior to the enactment of laws and directives to contain the pandemic in 2020, since employees need to have sufficient information about the possibilities, restrictions and advantages of remote work for adopting this mode of work (Illegems et al., 2001). 3.5 Responsibilities for remote working ...
Research
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##### Download: https://hbz.opus.hbz-nrw.de/opus45-kola/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2310 ##### The Remote Working Study 2022 is focused on the transition to work from home (WFH) triggered by the stay at home directives of 2020. These directives required employees to work in their private premises wherever possible to reduce the transmission of the coronavirus. The study, conducted by the Center for Enterprise Information Research (CEIR) at the University of Koblenz from December 2021 to January 2022, explores the transition to remote working. The objective of the survey is to collect baseline information about organisations’ remote work experiences during and immediately following the COVID-19 lockdowns. The survey was completed by the key persons responsible for the implementation and/or management of the digital workplace in 19 German and Swiss organisations. The data presented in this report was collected from member organisations of the IndustryConnect initiative. IndustryConnect is a university-industry research programme that is coordinated by researchers from the University of Koblenz. It focuses on research in the areas of the digital workplace and enterprise collaboration technologies, and facilitates the generation of new research insights and the exchange of experiences among user companies.
... Hence, the side effects generated by the impoverishment of social relationships at work may counteract the positive contribution of SW to OM. SW arrangements impair organizational behavior's cognitive and affective components, with indirect effects on organizational performances and individual well-being (Taskin and Bridoux, 2010). From this point of view, SW can be conceived as a double-edged sword (Illegems et al., 2001). Increasing the flexibility in shaping the spatio-temporal context of work, concurs in improving employees' working arrangements, allowing greater plasticity of organizational assignments (Skowron-Mielnik, 2011). ...
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Purpose This study aims to shed light on the ambiguous effects of smart working (SW) on work meaningfulness. On the one hand, SW enables people to benefit from greater work flexibility, advancing individual control over organizational activities. On the other hand, it may impair interpersonal exchanges at work, disrupting job meaningfulness. Hence, the implications of SW on work meaningfulness are investigated through the mediating role of interpersonal exchanges at work. Design/methodology/approach The authors investigate both the direct and indirect effects of SW on employees’ perceived meaningfulness at work. Secondary data come from the sixth European Working Conditions Survey. The study encompasses a sample of 30,932 employees. A mediation model based on ordinary least square regressions and bootstrap sampling is designed to obtain evidence of SW’s implications on meaningfulness at work through the mediating role of interpersonal relationships (IR). Findings The research findings suggest that SW triggers a positive sense of the significance of work. However, it negatively affects IR with peers and supervisors, entailing professional and spatial isolation. Impaired IR twists the positive implications of SW on organizational meaningfulness (OM), curtailing the employees’ sense of significance at work. Practical implications SW is a double-edged sword. It contributes to the enrichment of OM, enhancing the individual self-determination to shape the spatial context of work. However, its side effects on interpersonal exchanges generate a drift toward organizational meaninglessness. Tailored management interventions intended to sustain IR at work are needed to fit the design of SW arrangements to the employees’ evolving social needs. Originality/value The paper pushes forward what is currently known about the implications of SW on OM, examining them through the mediating role of IR at work.
... Technological advances since the publication of that research may have increased the capacity of employers to facilitate flexible work, but willingness remains mixed. A 2001 study of employers in Belgium found that the barriers to flexible work adoption were largely institutional rather than technological (Illegems et al., 2001). Handy and Mokhtarian (1996b) provides a good summary of early corporate resistance to flexible work, which includes concerns about productivity, supervision and morale loss due to "officelessness". ...
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A gradual growth in flexible work over many decades has been suddenly and dramatically accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The share of flexible work days in the United States is forecasted to grow from 4\% in 2018 to over 26\% by 2022. This rapid and unexpected shift in the nature of work will have a profound effect on the demand for, and supply of, urban transportation. Understanding how people make decisions around where and with whom to work will be critical for predicting future travel patterns and designing mobility systems to serve flexible commuters. To that end, this paper establishes a formal taxonomy for describing possible flexible work arrangements, the stakeholders involved and the relationships between them. An analytical framework is then developed for adapting existing transportation models to incorporate the unique dynamics of flexible work location choice. Several examples are provided to demonstrate how the new taxonomy and analytical framework can be applied across a broad set of scenarios. Finally, a critical research agenda is proposed to create both the empirical knowledge and methodological tools to prepare urban mobility for the future of work.
... Literature reviews have revealed mixed results about the relationship between firm size and telework adoption [20,36]. On the one hand, Sarbu [37,38] showed that telework adoption is more diffuse in SMEs due to their more task participative and people-centered culture; on the other hand, Illegems et al. [39] suggested that telework requires a deeper job redesign, resources, and competencies that only larger organizations possess. Home-based telework, especially during COVID-19, has involved essential and sometimes onerous changes in the work organization and the relationship between employees, supervisors, and firms [19]. ...
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Although a large part of the world’s workforce engaged in mandatory Work from Home during the COVID-19 pandemic, the experience was not the same for everyone. This study explores whether different groups of employees, based on their work and organizational characteristics (i.e., organizational size, number of days per week working from home, working in team) and personal characteristics (i.e., remote work experience, having children at home), express different beliefs about working remotely, acceptance of the technology necessary to Work from Home, and well-being. A study was conducted with 163 Italian workers who answered an online questionnaire from November 2020 to January 2021. A cluster analysis revealed that work, organizational, and personal variables distinguish five different types of workers. ANOVA statistics showed that remote workers from big companies who worked remotely several days a week, had experience (because they worked remotely before the national lockdowns), and worked in a team, had more positive beliefs about working remotely, higher technology acceptance, and better coping strategies, compared to the other groups of workers. Practical implications to support institutional and organizational decision-makers and HR managers to promote remote work and employee well-being are presented.
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The paper explores the potentialities of telework, a topic with rich literature published since the 1970s, which has become topical again with its forced application related to the COVID-19 pandemic emergency. The paper carries out an analysis of the potential territorial impact—transport networks and geographies of living—of telework in the Italian national context. The analysis highlights the potential relevance of the application of telework in certain metropolitan areas that present urban poles where economic sectors with a high propensity for telework are centralised. This survey relates the large stock of tourist housing in the vicinity of large metropolitan areas to a potential demand arising from the change in housing preferences towards more pleasant contexts made possible by the application of telework. In conclusion, this work aims to contribute to the construction of a platform for the Italian context—lagging behind but with recent legislative measures on smart working—aimed at favouring the definition of research lines able to enhance the potential offered by the application of telework for environmental, social, and territorial sustainability objectives, and it also aims to outline possible territorial scenarios for the main metropolitan areas
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The boost in the use and development of technology, spurred by COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences, has sped up the adoption of new technologies and digital platforms in companies. Specifically, companies have been forced to change their organizational and work structures. In this context, the present study aims to identify the main opportunities and challenges for remote work through the use of digital technologies and platforms based on the analysis of user-generated content (UGC) in Twitter. Using computer-aided text analysis (CATA) and natural language processing (NLP), in this study, we conduct a sentiment analysis developed with Textblob, which works with machine learning. We then apply a mathematical algorithm for topic modeling known as Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. Based on the results obtained from these data-mining techniques, we identify 11 topics, of which 3 are negative (Virtual Health, Privacy Concerns and Stress), 4 positive (Work-life balance, Less stress, Future and Engagement), and 3 neutral (New Technologies, Sustainability, and Technology Issues). In addition, we also identify and discussed 6 opportunities and 5 challenges in relation to the use and adoption of digital technologies and platforms for teleworking. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of the study are presented for companies that develop strategies based on teleworking and the adoption of new technologies in which stress management is configured as one of the most relevant indicators for further research on remote work. From the applied perspective, executives and policymakers can use the results of the present study to re-evaluate the benefits of remote work for employees.
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Transformations in the institutional environment and advances in technological infrastructures have led to a rise in remote work with implications for local environments. While there is significant literature on the social and spatial effects of telecommuting, the growth of remote work warrants a holistic analysis of its specific implications for local economic and community life. Drawing on interviews with representatives of 22 firms in one state, this exploratory study examines how locational factors drive firms’ remote work utilization. Together with an analysis of interviews with 12 remote employees, it also examines how remote work arrangements are modifying firms' and employees' connections to the local environment. The firm interviews indicate that remote work is increasingly utilized as a strategy to overcome regional talent acquisition challenges. The analysis reveals that remote work utilization can rework or attenuate the local economic and social linkages of remote-utilizing firms and remote employees. These findings suggest that the dynamics of remote work in local environments entail processes of disembedding and reembedding moderated by organizational and contextual factors. By situating questions and findings in relation to local contexts, this study details how firm dynamics and work-life patterns associated with remote work introduce opportunities and challenges for community and economic development efforts.
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Nowadays, moving toward globalization, removing physical borders and living in global village have made societies to accept information technology as an unseperable part of their lives. Teleworking is an important innovation embeded in the context of information technology, and internet. But, before any widespread use of every new technology, necessary basis should be provided for it to be welcomed by the users. Or else, obligation in its exertion will lead the society to the blind usagae of them. This paper first investigated the effective factors inelectronic readiness of governmental and semi-governmental organizations of Tabriz city; Then, effective factors in accepting information technologies and teleworking were recognized using research theories and exploratory factor analysis and KMO test. To identify different aspects of electronic readiness of the organizations considering their types and dimensions, 34 factors were regarded from which 7 factors were extracted expressing 66.74% of total changes. To identify different aspects of information technology and teleworking, 19 variables were used from which 7 variables were extracted, eliminating 2 questions (11 and 19) from the questionnaire, expressing 75.27% of total changes. Using One-SampleT-Test, effectiveness of each variable on electronic readiness of organizations was tested through research hypotheses. Exerting Fuzzy AHP (Chang method), factors were ranked. The results showed that electronic readiness variables have higher priority than technology acceptance variables.
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Objetivou-se analisar a produção científica disponível em bases de dados internacionais sobre o teletrabalho, com o intuito de verificar o volume da produção e identificar o foco de estudo dos artigos, por meio da revisão integrativa. A produção científica é crescente, com grande quantidade de artigos de revisão (12). Em relação aos artigos empíricos, com abordagem predominantemente quantitativa, nota-se a baixa publicação em organização públicas. Estados Unidos e Reino Unido lideram o ranking de quantidade de publicações, assim como a lista dos artigos mais citados. O foco dos estudos está na busca de impactos causados pela implementação do teletrabalho ao trabalhador e à organização. Identifica-se que há poucos estudos de cunho longitudinal e poucos combinando os diversos atores envolvidos no teletrabalho, principalmente em relação às equipes de trabalho.
Chapter
In the business research literature, e-business is considered to be a type of sourcing option of information systems outsourcing (ISO) if it is external to the firm and the renting supplier-owned resource delivers the solution over the internet. As the term “e-business” is conceptually included in ISO, this chapter seeks to investigate the factors that affect the adoption of ISO in general by comparing the effect across five business areas: human resources, finance, logistics, sales, and marketing. Based on the combination of a technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework and the diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory, the authors develop a conceptual model to study the determinants of ISO adoption by business area. This handbook chapter is one of the first to examine ISO adoption in these five business areas and to use a research model that combines the TOE framework and the DOI theory. Data collected from 261 firms in Portugal were used to test the proposed model. Based on a logistic regression, top management was found to be supportive and perceived benefits to be determinants of ISO adoption in all business areas defined. Moreover, other significant factors used to determine ISO included: complexity in human resources, finances and logistics; relative advantages for finance, logistics, and sales; firm size (logistics only); and competitive pressure for business areas (except marketing). Furthermore, attitudes toward change were found to have opposite effects—it is positive for sales and negative for human resources, finance, and logistics.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has created the conditions for the expansion of teleworking (TW) in numerous sectors and organizations, and higher education institutions (HEIs) have had to adapt to this context. This paper aims to identify and analyze five factors (technology, individual involvement and skills, physical inactivity, psychological well-being, and household activities) that influence the effort and results in TW and education (E) in HEIs from the perspective of their key internal stakeholders. The data were gathered by a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods, such as interviews and surveys. They were analyzed and interpreted through factorial analysis that uses the presentation of the main components as an extraction method, with the Varimax rotation method adopting Kaiser normalization, and processed with SPSS statistical software. This study shows that the effort and results of the key internal stakeholders of HEIs are influenced by the five factors. In this respect, students’ results are negatively influenced by technology and physical inactivity factors. Moreover, the efforts of auxiliary and non-teaching staff are highly positively influenced by the psychological well-being factor and their results are positively influenced by the individual involvement and skills factor and negatively influenced by the household activities factor.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse data from the New South Wales Government’s Pilot Programme of establishing Smart Work Hubs (SWHs) for enabling teleworking in two busy commuter corridors. The paper analyses the relationships between various firm, job and personal factors and the perceived value, attitudes and expected usage by users of the SWHs. Design/methodology/approach Employing a cross-sectional survey design, the characteristics, values and attitudes of 117 SWH users were analysed using partial least squares (PLS) method of structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM-PLS approach is considered appropriate especially in prediction-based studies and to estimate an endogenous target construct. Findings Results revealed that perceived SWH value significantly influenced attitude towards the SWH, which then had a significant influence on SWH usage intentions, with personal, job and firm factors also playing a role. Further analysis revealed four variables that significantly influenced the perception of family-value benefits (age, income, hub commute distance, work commute distance), however, there were none that significantly influenced the perception of work benefits. Research limitations/implications The small sample size limits statistical inferences and generalisations to be drawn. Further, this paper also discusses how the low and uneven uptake of teleworking at a SWH raises several managerial and policy implications needing attention. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study analysing the expected values, attitudes and usage intentions of teleworkers in a SWH context. This study adds to the emerging body of human resource management studies on an outward-looking approach. The novel context will provide a useful base for subsequent studies.
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RESUMO Em consonância às demandas da globalização, flexibilidade e necessidade de isolamento social, o teletrabalho tem se mostrado uma nova alternativa laboral para gestores e profissionais. A pesquisa, baseada na literatura sobre teletrabalho, sobretudo, no trabalho realizado em casa, verificou a oportunidade de uma experimentação de teletrabalho por alguns servidores da UDESC. O objetivo da pesquisa é planejar, implementar e avaliar o projeto piloto de teletrabalho em uma instituição pública de ensino superior, por meio da estratégia de pesquisa-ação. A coleta de dados se deu por diferentes formas: questionário, documentos e reuniões. A análise dos dados foi realizada de acordo com a interpretação do referencial teórico, onde seguiram-se as categorias analíticas: cultura e normatização, infraestrutura, sensibilização, seleção, supervisão, condutores e barreiras, benefícios e fragilidades. O estudo busca contribuir para a literatura do teletrabalho por meio da apresentação do desenvolvimento dessa modalidade ao longo do tempo e suas nuances encontradas. O alinhamento da cultura organizacional e elaboração de normatização foram vistos como fundamentais para um projeto efetivo. A infraestrutura e sensibilização são necessárias para que ocorra o teletrabalho com geração de benefícios, assim como, a seleção alinhada ao perfil mais adequado e de forma voluntária. Por fim, verificou-se que há desvantagens e barreiras em menor escala do que benefícios e condutores. Palavras-chave: Teletrabalho; Trabalho em casa; Instituição de Ensino Superior. ABSTRACT In line with the demands of globalization, flexibility and the need for social isolation, teleworking has shown itself to be a new job alternative for managers and professionals. The research, based on the literature on telework, above all, on the home-based work, verified the opportunity of a telework experiment by some UDESC staff. The objective of the research is to plan, to implement, and to evaluate the teleworking pilot project in a public higher education institution, through the action research strategy. Data collection took place in different ways: questionnaire, documents, and meetings. Data analysis was performed according to the interpretation of the theoretical framework, which followed the analytical categories: culture and regulation, infrastructure, awareness, selection, supervision, drivers and barriers, benefits, and weaknesses. The study seeks to contribute to the teleworking literature by presenting the development of this modality over time and its nuances found. The alignment of the organizational culture and the elaboration of norms were fundamental for an effective project. Infrastructure and awareness are necessary for teleworking to generate benefits, as well as selection in line with the most appropriate profile and on a voluntary basis. Finally, it was found that there are disadvantages and barriers on a smaller scale than benefits and drivers.
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The potential effectiveness of telecommuting as a demand management strategy depends on the extent to which it is adopted by firms and accepted by employees. To gain insight into the factors likely to influence the adoption process, a survey of employees was conducted in three Texas cities: Austin, Dallas, and Houston. In this paper the survey results, focusing on the attitudes toward telecommuting held by employees who presently do not telecommute as well as on their stated preferences toward different telecommuting options are analyzed. Individual and job-related characteristics likely to influence employee participation in telecommuting programs are identified. The results suggest that successful programs are likely to require some job redesign and means of fair performance evaluation. In addition, success appears to depend on the economic arrangements involved, as most employees seem reluctant to trade income for the flexibility afforded by working from home.
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In previous papers in this series we have presented a conceptual model of the individual decision to telecommute and explored relationships among constraints, preference, and choice. In a related paper we developed a binary model of the preference for home-based telecommuting. Noting that there is a wide gap between preferring to telecommute (88% of the sample) and actually telecommuting (13%), in this paper we develop binary logit models of telecommuting adoption. Two approaches to dealing with constraints are compared: incorporating them directly into the utility function, and using them to define the choice set. Models using the first approach appear to be statistically superior in this analysis, explaining 63 - 64% of the information in the data. Variables significant to choice include those relating to work and travel drives, and awareness, manager support, job suitability, technology, and discipline constraints. The best model was used to analyze the impact of relaxing three key constraints on the 355 people in the sample for whom telecommuting was previously identified to be a preferred impossible alternative (PIA). When unawareness, lack of manager support, and job unsuitability constraints are relaxed, 28% of the people in the PIA category would be expected to adopt telecommuting. The importance of behavioral models to forecast telecommuting adoption accurately is emphasized and is suggested to have wider implications for predicting technology-based activity changes.
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A conceptual model of the choice to telecommute was advanced in an earlier paper. In this paper we present empirical data from a nonrepresentative sample of 628 City of San Diego employees on key variables and relationships in that model. The relationships among possibility, preference, and choice are examined. A key finding is the existence of a large group of people (57% of the sample) for whom telecommuting is a preferred impossible alternative. Dichotomous and continuous constraints are distinguished, and three dichotomous constraints are defined. 'Lack of awareness' is active for 4%, 'job unsuitability' for 44%, and 'manager disapproval' for 51% of the sample. For 68% of the sample, at least one of these constraints is active. Even among those for whom none of the dichotomous constraints is in force, most people do not choose telecommuting because of the presence of active continuous constraints. For only 11% of the entire sample, telecommuting is possible, preferred, and chosen. The potential impacts of self-selection bias are estimated, and sampling bias is qualitatively assessed. This analysis provides a crude but useful estimate of the potential of telecommuting in the population, and more specifically, the relative share of potential telecommuters who are prevented by key dichotomous constraints from choosing that option.
Article
A company's sales workforce must be able to present their products and services using state-of-the-art personal computer technology. To communicate effectively with the company's main office, a salesforce working in the field must also be able to collect and transmit order data from remote locations. The authors studied how a company combined salesforce automation with a telecommuting program to create two new business strategies designed to improve organizational performance. The authors not only describe a successful "telework" program, but they also provide a framework for conducting a cost/benefit analysis. They conclude that the start-up cost of the telework program was high because the IT infrastructure was not current, however, the direct costs and savings offset each other within 3 to 4 years. In addition, they report that ongoing costs declined rapidly, depending on the number of new teleworkers joining the organization. The telework program enhanced accountability because the new software applications allowed managers greater oversight of employee activities, Productivity also increased. After learning how to increase the speed and accuracy of internal operations. the salesforce spent more time with customers and generated more sales. By integrating technology into business processes, the telecommuting program also spurred organizational adjustments and cultural change. Gradually, business managers adjusted policies and procedures to conform to the program's technical and business needs. They shifted from managing by attendance to managing by results, which depended on a reliable IT infrastructure and technical tools for communicating with their employees. The telework program quickened the pace of IT adoption at this company by linking IT improvements to the organization's mission and survival. This mobilized the salesforce, the information systems staff, and middle managers to adapt to and accept the new business environment.
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Reviews the traditional conception of validity as divided into the 3 separate and substitutable types of content, criterion, and construct validities and suggests that this view is fragmented and incomplete, especially in failing to account for the value implications of score meaning as a basis for action and for the social consequences of test use. The essence of unified validity is that the appropriateness, meaningfulness, and usefulness of score-based inferences are inseparable and that the unifying force behind this integration is the trustworthiness of empirically grounded score interpretation. Construct validity conceived comprehensively becomes the whole of assessment validity for both scientific and applied purposes, and assessment validation becomes scientific inquiry into score meaning and the consequences of score use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Predictions of the effects of office automation on organizations vary widely. This article focuses on changes in individual work patterns, management control, and organizational structure that may occur as a result of implementation of office technology. The most significant change predicted is that organizations will no longer be limited by a central office work environment operating between the traditional office work hours of nine and five. Computer and communications technology will facilitate the relaxing of those physical constraints as necessitated by social and economic pressures. Relevant research to date regarding the effects of the new technology on organizational behavior is reviewed. Management guidelines for preparing for the coming changes are included.
Article
This study examines three models of the individual's preference for home- and center-based telecommuting. Issues concerning the estimation of discrete models when the alternatives are non-exclusive are discussed. Two binary logit models are presented, one on the preference to telecommute from a center versus not telecommuting from a center (adjusted ρ2 = 0.24), and the other on the preference to telecommute from a center over telecommuting from home (adjusted ρ2 = 0.64). A nested logit model is also estimated on the following four alternatives: preferring not to telecommute, preferring either form of telecommuting, preferring to telecommute from home, and preferring to telecommute from a center (adjusted ρ2 = 0.35). The results of the models illustrated the importance of attitudinal measures in measuring an individual's preference to telecommute. Oblique factor scores representing workplace interaction, stress, workaholism, internal control, and commute stress were statistically significant in some or all of the models. Other explanatory variables which were found to be consistently significant were education, job suitability, and age. Most respondents preferred either to telecommute from home or were indifferent between either form of telecommuting, which raises the question as to whether there really is a sizeable market niche to be filled by telecommuting centers, and hence whether they may make a significant contribution to transportation demand reduction.
Article
This study investigates the preference to telecommute from home and from a center. While home-based telecommuting is fairly commonplace, center-based telecommuting is a relatively recent form that involves traveling to work at an office near home and remote from the regular workplace. The research presented here constitutes one of the first efforts to model the preference for center-based telecommuting. Survey data were collected from center-based telecommuters, home-based telecommuters, and non-telecommuters, as part of a telecommuting center demonstration project in California. Using attitudinal factor scores, as well as travel and sociodemographic variables, the preferences to work from the telecommuting center and to work from home were modeled. Logit models for center preference, home preference, and center versus home preference were estimated. The most frequently significant characteristics were personal benefits at the center, work ethic at home, and age of the respondent. Speculation on the future of the center-based form of telecommuting suggests slow growth for the near term, but potential long-term viability in connection with alternative uses of telecenter facilities and with the trend toward non-territorial office arrangements.
Article
This study explores the individual's choice of telecommuting frequency as a function of demographic, travel, work, and attitudinal factors. To do this, multinomial logit models are estimated using data collected in a recent survey of employees from three public agencies in California. Separate models are estimated, one for data collected from the Franchise Tax Board in Sacramento, one for data from the Public Utilities Commission in San Francisco, and one for data collected from employees of the City of San Diego. The results show that the most important variables in explaining the choice of frequency of telecommuting from home were the presence of small children in the household (irrespective of respondent gender), the number of people in the household, gender of respondent, number of vehicles in the household, whether respondent recently changed departure time for personal reasons, degree of control over scheduling of different job tasks, supervisory status of respondent, the ability to borrow a computer from work if necessary, and a family orientation. The empirical analysis also shows that model results are not transferable among the three organizations studied.
Article
This paper reports seven case histories involving the use of telecommuting in the environment of research software development over a 15-year period. The cases are presented and analyzed, and their normative implications are explored. These cases indicate three trends. First, remoteexpertise will become increasingly valuable and easy to obtain. Second, face-to-face contact will remain important and should be anticipated. It is necessary for ill-defined tasks, for group identity, and for general demonstration of judgement, ability, and competence. Third, telecommuting will become an ordinary, though augmentative, component of work involving highly motivated, independent knowledge workers with well-developed social skills. Such work will be loosely coupled and less hierarchical.
Article
Sumario: The author illustrates that telework is undeniably the corporeate wave of the future on a global level. Telework, or telecommuting, means basically moving the work to the worker instead of the other way around.
Article
In this paper a conceptual model of the individual decision to telecommute is presented. Key elements of that decision, including constraints, facilitators, and drives, are defined and the relationships among them described. The major types of constraints (if negative) or facilitators (if positive) include external factors related to awareness, the organization, and the job, and internal psychosocial factors. The major types of drives are work, family, leisure, ideology, and travel. It is argued that the absence of constraints is a necessary but not sufficient condition for telecommuting to be adopted by an individual. The presence of one or more drives, assumed to be associated with some dissatisfaction, is necessary to activate the search for a solution to that dissatisfaction. The choice set contains those alternative solutions perceived to be feasible by the individual. It may or may not contain telecommuting (depending on whether all constraints are nonbinding or not), and probably contains other alternatives having nothing to do with telecommuting. Each alternative is evaluated in terms of how effectively it satisfies the drive, and the individual's attitudes toward it. The alternative (or bundle of alternatives) which maximizes individual utility becomes the preferred behavioral pattern. However, short-term constraints may prevent the preferred behavior from being chosen. The process is a dynamic one, in which previous choices affect attitudes and constraints and alter drives. Work directed by the authors is under way to operationalize the conceptual model.
Article
This paper begins to operationalize a previously published conceptual model of the individual decision to telecommute. Using survey data from 628 employees of the City of San Diego, hypothesized drives to telecommute and constraints on/facilitators of telecommuting are measured. A binary logit model of the preference to telecommute from home is estimated, having a [varrho]2 of 0.68. The explanatory variables include attitudinal and factual information. Factor analysis is performed on two groups of attitudinal questions, identifying a total of 17 (oblique) factors which can be classified as drives and constraints. Additional measures are created from other data in the survey, usually objective sociodemographic characteristics. Variables representing at least four of the five hypothesized drives (work, family, independence/leisure, and travel) are significant in the final model. Variables from four of the ten groups of constraints (Job suitability, social/professional and household interaction concerns, and a perceived benefit of commuting) are significant, primarily representing internal rather than external constraints. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of attitudinal measures over sociodemographic ones, as the same demographic characteristics (such as the presence of children, commute time) will have different effects on preference for different people.
Article
This paper attempts to extend information-processing theory so that it can be meaningfully applied to MNCs. A specific multidimensional framework is developed that can be used to measure the information-processing capacities of macro-level features of MNC organizational design. An applied example, transnationalism, is used to illustrate how to apply the framework and demonstrate that it can contribute meaningful new insight to this complex organizational problem.© 1991 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1991) 22, 341–368
Telecommuting: A Manager's Guide to Flexible Work Arrangements
  • J Kugelmass
J. Kugelmass, Telecommuting: A Manager's Guide to Flexible Work Arrangements, Lexington Books, New York, 1995, p. 232.
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