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Nutrient Composition of Taro Corms and Breadfruit

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Abstract

Lehua and Bun-long (Chinese) variety taro corms and Hawaiian breadfruits were collected from major production sites in Hawaii. The macro- and micronutrients were analyzed and statistically compared. The Bun-long taro has significantly (p<0.05) higher protein, ash and macro-mineral contents when compared to Lehua taro and breadfruit. The dietary fiber content in both taro varieties is higher than USDA data for taro. Breadfruit has significantly lower fiber content but is higher in vitamin C than the two taro varieties. The monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, are significant in breadfruit but not in taro corms.
JOURNAL OF FOOD COMPOSITION AND ANALYSIS (2000) 13, 859 }864
doi:10.1006/jfca.2000.0936
Available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Nutrient Composition of Taro Corms and Breadfruit
A. S. Huang*, C. A. Titchenal*, and B. A. Meilleur-
*Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822,USA; and
-Center for Plant Conservation, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166,U.S.A.
Received February 9, 2000; and in revised form May 19, 2000
Lehua and Bun-long (Chinese) variety taro corms and Hawaiian breadfruits were collected from
major production sites in Hawaii. The macro- and micronutrients were analyzed and statistically
compared. The Bun-long taro has signi"cantly (p(0.05) higher protein, ash and macro-mineral
contents when compared to Lehua taro and breadfruit. The dietary "ber content in both taro
varieties is higher than USDA data for taro. Breadfruit has signi"cantly lower "ber content but is
higher in vitamin C than the two taro varieties. The monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, are
signi"cant in breadfruit but not in taro corms. 2000 Academic Press
Key =ords: taro; breadfruit; Lehua; Bun-long; protein; dietary "ber; mineral; ash; vitamins;
vitamin C; monosaccharides; glucose; fructose; sucrose.
INTRODUCTION
Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is grown throughout the humid tropics mainly for its
edible corms, which are enlarged underground starchy stems. In Hawaii, taro
corms are used mainly for making poi, a sticky paste still consumed as a staple
by many Hawaiians (Huang et al., 1994). There are many varieties of taro grown
in Hawaii, but the Lehua variety, planted in #ooded "elds, produces the preferred
taro corms for poi (Moy and Nip, 1983). Another major taro variety, Bun-long or
the Chinese taro, has been introduced to Hawaii and is grown mostly in irrigated
but not #ooded "elds. The production of Bun-long has increased in recent years
due to its suitability in making taro chips (Nakamoto et al., 1994). However,
both taro chips and poi manufacturers in Hawaii use the same set of USDA
nutrient data as the nutrient reference source that does not account for any varietal
di!erences.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) in Hawaii is a large tree with edible fruits. The
plant has been distributed by Polynesians throughout Oceania and is absent only
on Easter Island, Chatham Islands, and New Zealand in Polynesia. The starchy
fruits are mostly composed of water and carbohydrates (Miller and Branthoover,
1957), but previous nutrient data were limited in scope and relied on older and
less precise analytical techniques. The purpose of this study is to analyze and
statistically compare the nutrient composition of the breadfruit variety most com-
monly consumed in Hawaii with the compositions of Lehua and Bun-long taro corms.
To whom correspondence and reprint requests should be addressed. Fax: (808) 956-4024. E-mail:
ahuang@hawaii.edu
BALA Jayashree yamuna JFCA*20000936 DATE 10*7*2000.........................
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MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sample Preparation
Average full-grown taro corms and breadfruits were randomly selected at major
production sites in Hawaii. The taro corm maturity was based on corm weight. The
breadfruits were mottled but still "rm and not overripe. The sites selected to collect
breadfruit were Hilo and Keauhou (Kona). Hanalei (two samples), Haleiwa, Hilo, and
Waipio were sites for Lehua taro, and Molokai, Hilo, and Haleiwa (two samples) for
Bun-long taro. The average taro corm weight was approximately 900 g and the
breadfruits weighed between 1350 and 1800 g. The samples were washed and peeled
immediately. The breadfruits were sliced in half and the cores removed. The #esh of
individual taro corms and breadfruits was then cut approximately into 3 cm squares,
blended together and treated as individual samples. Triplicate samples were prepared
for each collection site. Each sample was placed in a triple-layered freezer bag, labeled
and frozen overnight, before being transported to the University of Hawaii at Manoa
campus located in Honolulu.
Moisture Analysis
The samples were thawed in sealed plastic bags by immersing them for approximately
30 min in a running water tank. The thawing was done within two days from sam-
ple collection to avoid excessive tissue damage to the samples. Two accurately
weighed representative portions of approximately 10 g each were dried at 1003Cto
constant weight for the determination of moisture content. The majority of the
remaining samples were freeze-dried for nutrient analysis. A small portion of approx-
imately 50 g from each sample was saved for immediate analysis of vitamin C content.
Each nutrient was analyzed in duplicate.
Macronutrient Analyses
Protein (Kjeldahl), fat (ether extract), and ash in the taro and the breadfruit were
determined by the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC, 1995) methods
No. 46-12, 30-25, and 08-01, respectively. The starch was determined by removing
free sugars with 10 volumes of 85% ethanol 3 times and then drying overnight at
403C. The dried powder was then enzymatically hydrolyzed as described in the Associ-
ation of O$cial Analytical Chemists (AOAC, 1995) method 979.10, employing
amyloglucosidase. The resulting glucose was quanti"ed by high-performance liquid
chromatography (HPLC) as previously described (Huang et al., 1994).
Dietary Fiber
The soluble and insoluble dietary "bers were analyzed using the enzymatic gravi-
metric method described by Lee et al. (1992). The total dietary "ber content was
calculated as the sum of the amounts of soluble dietary "ber and insoluble dietary
"ber.
Measurement of Individual Sugars
The sugars (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) were extracted in duplicate using the
AOAC (1995) method 982.14C. After "ltration, the extract was treated with a C18
Seppak cartridge using a mobile phase of acetonitrile}water (82 : 18, v/v). The second
860 HUANG, TITCHENAL AND MEILLEUR
pass of the eluate was collected. The eluate was analyzed by HPLC as described by
Huang et al. (1994).
<itamin Analyses
Both vitamins A and C were analyzed with HPLC methods. Vitamin A analysis was
based on a method described by Singh and Bradbury (1988). The provitamin A in taro
and breadfruit was saponi"ed in 10% KOH in alcohol}water (50 :50, v/v) at 803C for
1 h. After "ltration the solution was extracted with hexane. Separation on the HPLC
was achieved using a 5 lm C-18 steel column with a mobile phase of methanol}
acetonitrile}water (40:40:20, v/v/v). Vitamin C was extracted in aqueous metaphos-
phoric acid (5%) as described by Bradbury and Singh (1986a). The HPLC condition
of using a micro-Bondapak-NH2 cartridge and a pH 4.6 phosphate bu!er as the
mobile phase was also adopted. The total vitamin C content equals the sum of the
amounts of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid.
Thiamin, ribo#avin and niacin were quanti"ed by methods described by Bradbury
and Singh (1986b). Thiamin was extracted in 0.1 NHCl at 1003C for 1 h. The super-
natant after centrifugation was treated with basic lead and dilute sulphuric acid and
subjected to centrifugation again. The thiamin was oxidized to #uorescent thiochrome
in alkaline solution using potassium ferricyanide. The #uorescence was measured with
an excitation wavelength of 370 nm and an emission wavelength of 455 nm. Ribo#a-
vin was extracted by homogenizing samples in acetate bu!er at pH 4.3 and then
heated at 1003C for 1 h. After centrifugation, the supernatant solution was oxidized
with potassium permanganate, and the #uorescence of the ribo#avin was measured
with an excitation wavelength of 440 nm and an emission wavelength of 530 nm.
Niacin (nicotinic acid) was extracted in 0.5 MHSOand heating at 1003C for 1 h. The
pH was adjusted to 4.5 with sodium hydroxide and the solution was "ltered. Addition
of ammonium sulphate followed by cyanogen bromide and sulphanilic acid produced
a colored compound for quanti"cation. The color intensities at 440 nm from the
sample and a blank which contained only ammonium sulphate, cyanogen bromide
and sulphanilic acid were compared following the methods of Bradbury and Singh
(1986b).
Minerals
All minerals were measured by the Agricultural Diagnostic Services of the University
of Hawaii using an inductively coupled plasma machine (ICP/6500, Perkin-Elmer
Instruments, Norwalk, CT).
Statistical
Measurements of replicate samples were averaged to obtain a single datum point.
Di!erences in averages were analyzed for statistical signi"cance using ANOVA and
Duncan's multiple-range test. Statistical analyses were conducted using the STAT-
PAK software program (Northwest Analytical Inc., Portland, OR). All the results are
expressed on as-is-basis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 compares the macro- and micronutrients in raw Lehua and Bun-long taro
corms and Hawaiian breadfruit. Water content is high in these starchy staples which
TARO CORMS AND BREADFRUIT 861
TABLE 1
Nutrient composition of breadfruit and taro corms, mean (S.D.)
Taro (Lehua) Taro (Bun-Long) Breadfruit
Nutrients (n"15) (n"12) (n"6)
Proximates (g/100 g)
Moisture 72.4 (6.2) 65.8 (8.4) 73.5 (5.6)
Protein 1.1 (0.1) 1.9 (0.2) 1.2 (0.1)
Fat 0.2 (0.02) 0.2 (0.02) 0.3 (0.02)
Ash 1.0 (0.2) 1.8 (0.2) 0.9 (0.2)
Starch 19.2 (2.6) 23.1 (3.4) 20.1 (2.2)
Total "ber 3.6 (0.3) 3.8 (0.3) 0.9 (0.1)
Soluble 1.3 (0.1) 0.8 (0.1) 0.2 (0.02)
Energy (kJ)372.6 468.0 416.5
Sugars (g/100 g)
Sucrose 1.3 (0.1) 2.0 (0.2) 1.7 (0.1)
Fructose 0.1 (0.01) 0.2 (0.02) 0.6 (0.07)
Glucose 0.1 (0.02) 0.2 (0.04) 0.6 (0.05)
<itamins (mg/100 g)
Vitamin A (LOD(LOD(LOD
Thiamin 0.05 (0.01) 0.07 (0.01) 0.28 (0.03)
Ribo#avin 0.06 (0.01) 0.05 (0.01) 0.10 (0.01)
Niacin 0.64 (0.07) 0.82 (0.06) 1.70 (0.10)]
Vitamin C 15 (2) 12 (1) 21 (2)
Minerals (mg/100 g)
Calcium 38 (7) 65 (6) 28 (7)
Phosphorus 87 (8) 124 (15) 28 (2)
Magnesium 41 (5) 69 (8) 34 (7)
Sodium 11 (2) 25 (3) 7 (3)
Potassium 354 (48) 861 (79) 289 (43)
Iron 1.71 (0.18) 1.44 (0.16) 0.40 (0.06)
Zinc 0.17 (0.03) 0.21 (0.03) 0.09 (0.01)
Copper 0.12 (0.02) 0.10 (0.01) 0.08 (0.02)
Boron 0.12 (0.02) 0.09 (0.01) 0.52 (0.02)
Estimated energy content calculated from available carbohydrates, protein, and fat using 16.74, 16.74
and 37.67 kJ/g, respectively.
LOD: less than limit of detection (0.005 mg/100 g).
on average ranges between 65.8% for the Bun-long taro to 73.5% for the breadfruit.
The protein content in Bun-long corms is signi"cantly ( P(0.05) higher than those in
Lehua taro and Hawaiian breadfruits. This protein content is approximately the same
as raw potatoes and may be one of the reasons why it is the taro variety commonly
used for making chips. The protein content of taro in the USDA database (SR-12,
1998) is listed as 1.9%, which is the same as we found in the Bun-long variety but
higher than that in the Lehua taro. The USDA data on breadfruit protein are
approximately the same as that found in our samples. All these starchy staples are low
in fat content, which also agrees with the USDA data.
The ash content in Bun-long was signi"cantly higher than in Lehua taro and
Hawaiian breadfruit, and was also higher than the USDA data for both taro and
breadfruits. The mineral pro"le we analyzed with ICP indicated signi"cantly higher
amounts of all major minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium and potas-
sium) in Bun-long corms than in Lehua taro and Hawaiian breadfruit. Since our
862 HUANG, TITCHENAL AND MEILLEUR
samples for both taro and breadfruit came from several production areas in Hawaii,
the statistical di!erences can be attributed to varietal rather than geographical factors
Another clear di!erence between our data and USDA data is the dietary "ber
content in taro. The "ber content of taro corms in the USDA database is 0.9 g/100 g,
which is much lower than our data for both Lehua and Bun-long taro. The enzy-
matic/gravimetric method we used was recently adopted by the AOAC and di!ers
greatly from the acid digestion method used in the past. Based on our dietary "ber
data, when taro is used as a staple with an estimated consumption of 1 lb (454 g) per
meal by Paci"c Islanders, it alone can provide the common recommended dietary
"ber of 25 g per day. A similar high "ber content was previously reported by
Holloway et al. (1985) who analyzed taro collected in Tonga and found the total "ber
content to be 4.1% on a fresh weight basis. This result is close to our total dietary "ber
data in Table 1.
Among the vitamins analyzed, the vitamin C content in breadfruit is signi"cantly
higher than that in taro varieties. A 300 g portion of raw breadfruit contributes60 mg,
equivalent to the adult RDA (10th edn., National Research Council, 1989). When
consumed as a staple, the cooked breadfruits would still provide a substantial amount
of the daily vitamin C needs because ascorbic acid is retained well after cooking in
starchy foods. It has been documented (Abbott, 1992) that breadfruit was a signi"cant
trade item between native Hawaiians and European sailors in the late 18th and early
19th centuries which might have been an important source of vitamin C for Paci"c
explorers who had spent extended periods of time living at sea on preserved foods.
Among the three simple sugars analyzed, sucrose predominates in the taro varieties
and in the breadfruit. The sucrose content in Lehua taro is signi"cantly lower than in
the Bun-long taro and the Hawaiian breadfruit. The monosaccharides glucose and
fructose are signi"cant in the breadfruit but not in the taro varieties.
Our results identi"ed signi"cant di!erences in protein, minerals, and sucrose
content between the two taro varieties. Signi"cant di!erences in dietary "ber and
vitamin C content between Hawaiian breadfruit and the taro varieties were also
found. When consumed as staples by Paci"c Islanders, these di!erences could be
nutritionally signi"cant.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors wish to thank Kealakekua Ranch, Ltd., for a grant to B. A. Meilleur for research on the
Hawaiian breadfruit, some of the results of which contributed to this paper.
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864 HUANG, TITCHENAL AND MEILLEUR
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... g, and crude lipid of 0.-15-0.20 g per 100 g fresh weight (fw). These results were similar to those reported by Wills et al. (1983), who found the nutrient composition of corm for taro cultivars from Papua New Guinea, and by A.S. Huang et al. (2000), who compared the nutrient compositions of different varieties of taro corm that are commonly consumed in Hawaii. The crude protein and lipid contents were lower than those (i.e., 6.62 and 0.67% fw, respectively) of the Boloso taro corm grown in Ethiopia, as reported by Azene and Molla (2017). ...
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Societal Impact Statement Using Taro (Colocasia esculenta) as a case study, we examine how perception gaps contribute to negative feedback loops that create or maintain the orphan status of certain crops. For students and researchers seeking uncrowded areas for study, orphan crops and crop‐wild‐relatives offer large open spaces, figuratively and literally. Learning how to see what has not been seen may in turn help us to reduce our global dependence on very few crops, and the risks that follow from this. The combination of climate change and variability and increasing population has painted a dark picture of future food security for many regions in the world where resources are scarce. The key to future food and nutrition security may very well lie in unlocking the untapped potential of orphan and overlooked crops. Summary The present distribution of taro (Colocasia esculenta), as a cultivated food plant, extends from southern to northern Africa, western Asia to eastern Asia, throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, and through the Americas, from the USA to Brazil. Despite its vast geographical range, high nutritional value, and considerable trade as a fresh and processed crop, there has been relatively little interest in taro and its wild relatives among research funding agencies, and little effective or large‐scale assessment of production, trade and usage. Given the proven ability of this crop to grow under diverse climatic regimes, from the equatorial tropics to northern and southern temperate zones it may be useful to consider perception gaps that contribute to disregard of the crop. Here we suggest and discuss a range of perception gaps that together may explain the status of taro as an orphan crop. Perception gaps exist because of many factors: dogma, linguistic diversity, social biases, under‐research, limited physical visibility of living wild populations, poor archaeological visibility, missing production numbers and inaccurate distribution maps. These contributing factors are shared, to lesser or greater extent, by many other orphan crops, but the disjunction between actual utilization (significant) and research effort (minimal) may be greater for taro than for most other “orphans”.
... This study identified that one particular traditional food item, poi, as being an important complementary food. Poi is suitable for complementary food introduction as it is nutrient dense (high in carbohydrates and minerals, especially potassium, magnesium and calcium), hypoallergenic, and easily modified to meet a semi-liquid texture (27)(28)(29)(30)(31). However, the contemporary modifications of the traditional Hawaiian diet occurring across generations were interesting to observe. ...
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Background Infancy is a significant disease prevention and health promotion stage in life. There is a need to examine factors influencing complementary feeding among Native Hawaiians through an indigenous framed lens. Objective To identify Hawaiian complementary feeding practices through in-depth interviews with kūpuna (grandparents) from across the state of Hawai‘i. Methods The chain-referral-sampling method was used to identify Native Hawaiian kūpuna knowledgeable in Hawaiian complementary feeding practices from across the 4 counties in Hawai‘i. Interview question topics included sharing about their formative years, infant health, infant feeding, transgenerational knowledge, and opportunities and barriers related to traditional food consumption. Interviews were recorded and then transcribed. 3 coders used NVivio12 to code transcripts using a priori and emergent themes. IRB approval was received prior to data collection. Results Fourteen kūpuna interviews were included in the analysis. A majority of the kūpuna were female. Most kūpuna shared that complementary feeding practices in their childhood and when their children and grandchildren were being raised reflected aspects of the traditional Hawaiian diet. Poi or steamed mashed taro root was the most common traditional Hawaiian dietary staple of infancy. However, kūpuna shared that traditional dietary practices evolved to reflect contemporary dietary practices such as the mixing of poi with infant cereal or milk. Female family members were prominent influences on kūpuna complementary feeding practices. Lifestyle and lack of knowledge were the most commonly shared reflections by kūpuna on the supports and barriers, respectively, to promoting and engaging in traditional Hawaiian complementary feeding practices. Conclusions Complementary feeding practices have evolved over generations but aspects of traditional Hawaiian feeding practices have remained. These findings are important when working with Hawaiian families as kūpuna play a prominent role in feeding infants.
... In addition to its high starch content, taro has a rich content of various minerals and vitamins, such as potassium, calcium, magnesium and ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin [3]. It has also been reported that taro is a good source of carbohydrates with small granules and a high soluble dietary fiber content for extruded special products [4]. In this sense, these characteristics of taro tuber bring it among other root and tuber plants to an important position in terms of nutrition. ...
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Numerous researches have been still carried out for bakery products to improve their technological and nutritional properties. A well-balanced technological properties and nutritional value is needed to attract consumers. This study investigated the substitution of taro flour for both wheat flour cake (WFC) and gluten free flour cake (GFC) formulation. Taro flour was used as an alternative flour type for WFCs and especially GFCs, due to its nutritional components. Cake batter rheology, cake quality and some nutritional properties were determined and compared with those of control cakes. Significant effect was observed in the higher substitution of taro flour (25%) with wheat flour in terms of storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″). For gluten free formulation, gradual increment for G′ value and notable reduction of damping factor (tan δ) was observed with higher substitution value ranged from 12.5 to 25%. The substitution of taro flour up to 25% into GFC formulation cause no significant increase in hardness value (p > 0.05). Total color difference (ΔE) in the crust and crumb characteristics were not detected for WFC significantly (p > 0.05). The highest ΔE values were obtained for both crust and crumb colour characteristics from substitution level of 18.7% and 25% in GFC formulation (p < 0.05). Sensorial evaluation showed that addition of taro flour up to 25% provided similar quality attributes when compared with control cakes in terms of general acceptability.
... Among root crops, taro is unusual in also having highly-nutritious leaves (petioles and blades) (Ferreres et al., 2012;Isabelle et al., 2010;Standal, 1983) that are commonly consumed (young leaves of cassava and sweet potato can be eaten, but this does not appear to be general for either crop). As a result, taro as a whole offers a very rich complement of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals;Huang, Titchenal, & Meilleur, 2000;Kaushal et al., 2015;Maga, 1992;Matthews, 2010;Nip, 1997;Onwueme, 1994;Opara, 2003;Standal, 1983). ...
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The present distribution of taro (Colocasia esculenta), as a cultivated food plant, extends from southern to northern Africa, western Asia to eastern Asia, throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, and through the Americas, from the USA to Brazil. Despite its vast geographical range, high nutritional value, and considerable trade as a fresh and processed crop, there has been relatively little interest in taro and its wild relatives among research funding agencies, and little effective or large-scale assessment of production, trade and usage. Given the proven ability of this crop to grow under diverse climatic regimes, from the equatorial tropics to northern and southern temperate zones it may be useful to consider perception gaps that contribute to disregard of the crop. Here we suggest and discuss a range of perception gaps that together may explain the status of taro as an orphan crop. Perception gaps exist because of many factors: dogma, linguistic diversity, social biases, under-research, limited physical visibility of living wild populations, poor archaeological visibility, missing production numbers and inaccurate distribution maps. These contributing factors are shared, to lesser or greater extent, by many other orphan crops, but the disjunction between actual utilization (significant) and research effort (minimal) may be greater for taro than for most other “orphans”.
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We examined the effect of taro drying processes on the properties of taro flour and taro flour products. Taro flour produced by blast-drying with hot air was characterized by the formation of aggregated starch granules during storage. Consequently, pastes made from blast-dried flour exhibited higher hardness and adhesiveness than pastes made from fresh taro. Pastes made from freeze-dried flour exhibited similar increases in hardness and adhesiveness due to the formation of aggregated starch granules during heating. Starch granules did not aggregate in flour that was blast-dried after heating, and the hardness and adhesiveness of pastes were lower than those of fresh taro. Bread substituted with 10 % blast-dried flour after heating exhibited softening and increased cohesiveness. The results demonstrated that the drying processes of taro flour have a marked effect on the texture of products by affecting the aggregation and swelling of starch granules.
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Colocasia esculenta is an annual herbaceous plant found in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant species is known for treatment of asthma, arthritis, diarrhea, internal hemorrhage, neurological disorders, and skin disorders. The corm juice is used for treatment of body ache and baldness. The starch paste of Colocasia esculenta plant corm possesses anticancer activity, and the methanolic extract was found as effective against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, and Streptococcus faecalis. The whole parts of Colocasia esculenta are traditionally used for treatment of high blood pressure, hepatic disorder, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, and ulcer. It has been reported that this plant species exhibits anti‐inflammatory, hypolipidemic, anticancer, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities.
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Microbiological and chemical changes of poi (cooked tare paste) stored at 20 degrees C were quantitatively measured. Commercial poi samples were stored in a constant-temperature chamber and sampled periodically. Both the pH and bacterial counts changed drastically in the first 2-3 days but thereafter remained at 4.0-4.5 and log(10) 5.8 CFU/g, respectively Lactococcus lactis was identified to be the predominant bacterial species in sour poi. Sucrose is the main carbon source for bacterial metabolism at the early stage of the souring process. Lactic acid and acetic acid accumulated in sour poi to 92 and 45 mg/100 g of fresh weight, respectively, while oxalic acid and succinic acid contents decreased substantially.
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A joint AOAC/AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists) collaborative study of methods for the determination of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber (SDF, IDF, and TDF) was conducted with 11 participating laboratories. The assay Is based on a modification of the AOAC TDF method 985.29 and the SDF/IDF method collaboratively studied recently by AOAC. The principles of the method are the same as those for the AOAC dietary fiber methods 985.29 and 991.42, Including the use of the same 3 enzymes (heat-stable α-amylase, protease, and amyloglucosldase) and similar enzyme Incubation conditions. In the modification, minor changes have been made to reduce analysis time and to Improve assay precision: (1) MES-TRIS buffer replaces phosphate buffer; (2) one pH adjustment step Is eliminated; and (3) total volumes of reaction mixture and filtration are reduced. Eleven collaborators were sent 20 analytical samples (4 cereal and grain products, 3 fruits, and 3 vegetables) for duplicate blind analysis. The SDF, IDF, and TDF content of the foods tested ranged from 0.53 to 7.17, 0.59 to 60.53, and 1.12 to 67.56 g/100 g, respectively. The respective average RSDR values for SDF, IDF, and TDF determinations by direct measurements were 13.1, 5.2, and 4.5%. The TDF values calculated by summing SDF and IDF were in excellent agreement with the TDF values measured independently. The modification did not alter the method performance with regard to mean dietary fiber values, yet It generated lower assay variability compared with the unmodified methods. The method for SDF, IDF, and TDF (by summing SDF and IDF) has been adopted first action by AOAC International.
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The thiamin, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid contents of sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, taro (Colocasia esculenta), giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza), giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis), taro (Xan-thosoma spp), yam (Dioscorea alata and D. esculenta) were determined for fresh and 40°C dried material obtained from six South Pacific countries. Losses on drying at 40°C for 2-3 days were 10-15% for the three vitamins. Sweet potato contained the largest amount of thiamin (40-120 μg/100g fresh weight) and along with Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma spp. the largest amounts of nicotinic acid. The root crops provided inadequate amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, and nicotinic acid with values ranging from 12-123, 12-59 and 220-1310 Hg/100g fresh weight, respectively. Losses on cooking were about the same for all vitamins and root crops, with about a 20% loss on boiling (water retained) or baking and about a 40% loss on boiling (water discarded).
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An HPLC method was developed for the analysis of α-carotene, β-carotene, retinol and vitamin D2. Sweet potato Ipomoea batatas, taro Colocasia esculenta, taro Xanthosoma sagittifolium, giant taro Alocasia macrorrhiza, giant swamp taro Cyrtosperma chamissonis, yam Dioscorea alata and yam D esculenta contained no appreciable amounts of α-carotene, retinol or vitamin D2 and the amounts of β-carotene were equivalent to 0-300 μg kg-1 retinol in the fresh samples. This small amount, compared with the WHO/FAO adult RDA of 750 μg day-1, and the virtual absence of vitamin A related eye diseases in the South Pacific region, demonstrates the adequacy of greens and fiuits, and fish coastal areas, in meeting the vitamin A requirement.
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The total vitamin C content (ascorbic acid (AA) plus dehydroascorbic acid (DAA) was estimated by HPLC for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), taro (Colocasia esculenta), giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza), giant swamp taro (Cyrtosperma chamissonis), taro (Xanthosoma spp.), yam (Dioscorea alata), yam (D. esculenta), cassava (Manihot esculenta) and mean values were 23.6, 15.1, 16.9, 15.7, 13.6, 27.5, 20.3, and 14.9 mg/100g fresh weight, respectively. Standard titrimetric and colorimetric methods gave results only for AA which were generally comparable with HPLC. Drying at 40°C caused loss of AA which was not quantitatively converted into DAA. Storage of sweet potato at 25°C and 15°C for 28 days reduced the total vitamin C content by 17% and 15%, respectively; there was no significant decrease at 0°C. Cooking reduced the levels of AA and DAA by up to 70%.
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Components of dietary fiber (soluble nonstarch polysaccharide, pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin), water, energy, protein, lipid and starch were measured in banana, breadfruit, cassava, coconut, mango, pawpaw, plantain, sweet potato, taro and Pacific yam, all from the Pacific Island Kingdom of Tonga. The Tongan foods were generally higher in dietary fiber than New Zealand foods, consistent with the hypothesis that dietary fiber is an important factor contributing to a lower incidence of certain gastrointestinal disorders in Tonga, than in New Zealand.
Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. The Association ¸a1au Hawaii: ¹raditional Hawaiian ;ses of Plants Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid content of tropical root crops from the South Paci"c
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Cassava, Ginger, Sweet Potato and ¹aro ¹rade Statistics Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources Recommended Dietary Allowances HPLC determination of vitamin A and vitamin D2 in South Paci"c root crops
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