Article

Mineral profile of raw and cooked leafy vegetables consumed in Southern Brazil. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 16(5), 605-611

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Abstract

Butterhead lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, and a spinach substitute (Tetragonia expansa) are widely consumed in Southern Brazil. Samples were collected five times during a year in food markets and analyzed for total potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and for moisture content. All vegetables can contribute to diet in terms of potassium, calcium and magnesium. Kale offers the highest amounts of calcium (283±43 mg Ca/100 g) and Chinese cabbage, cabbage, and butterhead lettuce the lowest, with values from 33 to 58 mg Ca/100 g. The highest concentrations of magnesium were found in kale and in the spinach substitute and they were 52±4 and 55±16 mg Ca/100 g, respectively. Moisture content varied less among samples of the same vegetable than minerals did. Four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage) were cooked briefly during 3 min and analyzed for the same elements. The brief cooking did not cause appreciable losses for any of the minerals.

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... Standard recovery corresponded to 80% based on sample concentration. Leafy vegetables occupy an important place in well balanced diets with the most common leafy vegetables consumed raw in Southeast Brazil being lettuce, arugula, and watercress, with cabbage, cauliflower, endive, and spinach used as cooked vegetables (Kawashima, Soares, 2003). The lack of information on the composition of Brazilian foods highlights the need for more data on the composition of leafy vegetables as these are present in the main meals of all social classes (Kawashima, Soares, 2003;Dôres, Paiva, Campana, 2001). ...
... Leafy vegetables occupy an important place in well balanced diets with the most common leafy vegetables consumed raw in Southeast Brazil being lettuce, arugula, and watercress, with cabbage, cauliflower, endive, and spinach used as cooked vegetables (Kawashima, Soares, 2003). The lack of information on the composition of Brazilian foods highlights the need for more data on the composition of leafy vegetables as these are present in the main meals of all social classes (Kawashima, Soares, 2003;Dôres, Paiva, Campana, 2001). Brazilian researchers explain that the national bibliography is quite sparse regarding Vitamin K; for this reason, it is necessary to carry out further studies and improve composition tables, to increase knowledge of Vitamin K levels in Brazilian foods (Klack, Carvalho, 2006; Dôres, Paiva, Campana, 2001).Table Ishows the means of triplicate data for both in nature and processed samples collected at CEAGESP at different times of the year in 2011 and 2012. ...
... Some possible causes for the variations in phylloquinone levels of samples grown in Southeast Brazil are cultivating, planting location, agricultural practices, such as irrigation and possibly temperature. For the latter, drastic temperature changes during the year cause prolonged periods of drought and irregular rainfall – conditions which have also been cited byKawashima and Soares (2003)to explain the variations in mineral content found in samples of fresh leafy vegetables such as lettuce, kale, spinach, cabbage and chicory purchased from markets in Southeast Brazil. Regarding processed samples, the aim was to reproduce the domestic practice of heat treatment for products such as leafy and floral vegetables commonly used in Brazilian cuisine (UNICAMP, 2011).Table Ishows the influence of domestic processing on total phylloquinone content for the evaluated vegetables. ...
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Recent research on Vitamin K has shown its importance in maintaining vascular and bone health. Brazilian food composition tables do not show phylloquinone content in national foods. These data are needed to obtain more reliable results in nutritional status assessment studies of individuals in relation to this vitamin as studies have shown a geographical influence in food phylloquinone content. This study aims to determine phylloquinone (Vitamin K1) levels in its most important source: dark green leaved vegetables. Several varieties of vegetables were purchased directly from CEAGESP (General Warehouse Company of São Paulo) at different times. Phylloquinone was extracted using organic solvents and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography - HPLC. Results show the concentrations of phylloquinone in commonly consumed foodstuffs. In general, results showed variations with data from literature on the amount of Vitamin K in the plants analysed.
... Besides, literature data suggest that each carotenoid shows an individual pattern of absorption, plasma transport and metabolism [22]. The levels of cis-isomers of carotene are much higher in leafy vegetables [26] [27]. Therefore, isomer separation is needed for the accurate determination of the vitamin A activity of leaf meals. ...
... Other researchers have also reported postharvest losses in ascorbic acid. [23] The fact that losses of ascorbic acid (A.A) from vegetables are large during blanching occurs primarily by leaching rather than by chemical degradation [1] [26]. A. A is easily oxidized, so it will gradually decrease during storage. ...
... Initial contents of some of the vitamins were in agreement with previous reports. [26] 3.45mg/100g niacin, 0.14mg/100g thiamin and 19.6mg/100g ascorbic acid in P mildbraedii. However, lower values of some of these vitamins were reported for various dark green leafy vegetables by Uusiku et al. [22]. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ambient temperature storage (29±2°C) and domestic processing on the carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins and minerals in Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaves. Total β-carotene was determined spectrophotometrically while HPLC was used for detailed analysis of carotenoids. The results indicated that P. mildbraedii was rich in lutein (261.96µg/gdwt) and Total-β-carotene (83.53µg/gdwt). Cooking and storage significantly (P>0.05) increased the contents of total β-carotene. β-carotene isomerized more, due to thermal processing than storage. Initial concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b ratio were 1.86 mg/gfwt, 0.72mg/gfwt and 2.44 mg/gfwt respectively. Preliminary nutritional data including the mineral elements (K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe) and vitamins contents (ascorbic and, riboflavin, thiamin, Niacin and phyllquinone) are presented. Cooking significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the contents of chlorophylls, water soluble vitamins and minerals. However, storage conditions in our study resulted in a non-statistical decrease in the contents of vitamins and minerals when compared with raw samples. The levels of β-carotene (Vitamin A), riboflavin, ascorbic acid and phylloquinone in cooked leave sample, are adequate to meet their corresponding RDAs in Children and adults respectively.
... Besides, literature data suggest that each carotenoid shows an individual pattern of absorption, plasma transport and metabolism [22]. The levels of cis-isomers of carotene are much higher in leafy vegetables [26] [27]. Therefore, isomer separation is needed for the accurate determination of the vitamin A activity of leaf meals. ...
... Other researchers have also reported postharvest losses in ascorbic acid. [23] The fact that losses of ascorbic acid (A.A) from vegetables are large during blanching occurs primarily by leaching rather than by chemical degradation [1] [26]. A. A is easily oxidized, so it will gradually decrease during storage. ...
... Initial contents of some of the vitamins were in agreement with previous reports. [26] 3.45mg/100g niacin, 0.14mg/100g thiamin and 19.6mg/100g ascorbic acid in P mildbraedii. However, lower values of some of these vitamins were reported for various dark green leafy vegetables by Uusiku et al. [22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ambient temperature storage (29±2°C) and domestic processing on the carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins and minerals in Pterocarpus mildbraedii leaves. Total β–carotene was determined spectrophotometrically while HPLC was used for detailed analysis of carotenoids. The results indicated that P. mildbraedii was rich in lutein (261.96μg/gdwt) and Total –β – carotene (83.53μg/gdwt). Cooking and storage significantly (P>0.05) increased the contents of total β – carotene. β –carotene isomerized more, due to thermal processing than storage. Initial concentrations of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b ratio were 1.86 mg/gfwt, 0.72mg/gfwt and 2.44 mg/gfwt respectively. Preliminary nutritional data including the mineral elements (K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe) and vitamins contents (ascorbic and, riboflavin, thiamin, Niacin and phyllquinone) are presented. Cooking significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the contents of chlorophylls, water soluble vitamins and minerals. However, storage conditions in our study resulted in a non – statistical decrease in the contents of vitamins and minerals when compared with raw samples. The levels of β – carotene (Vitamin A), riboflavin, ascorbic acid and phylloquinone in cooked leave sample, are adequate to meet their corresponding RDAs in Children and adults respectively.
... Deficiency of calcium in human populations is a worldwide problem. Interestingly, it is documented that calcium absorption from cabbage is higher than from the other plant sources, owing to its content of organic acids like malic and citric acids [34]. The obtained results showed that the content of calcium in young shoots was much higher than in red headed cabbage-2413.74 ...
... The content of iron in tested young shoots and the vegetable at full maturity was 19.7 and 12.1 mg/100 g DW, respectively. Other authors have reported a different content of this mineral in cruciferous sprouts [22,34]. Czech et al. [38] who also analyzed the var. ...
... The obtained results showed that the content of zinc in young shoots was much higher than in the vegetable at full maturity (6.21 and 2.61 mg/100 g DW, respectively). Other authors who examined cruciferous sprouts, including red cabbage sprouts, showed similar findings to our data [22,34]. The zinc content in red headed cabbage is comparable to the results obtained by Warman and Havard [36]. ...
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Cruciferous vegetables are a valuable source of ingredients with health benefits. The most characteristic compounds of cruciferous vegetables with identified anticancer properties are glucosinolates. Young shoots and sprouts of red cabbage are becoming a popular fresh food rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. The objective of this research was to determine, for the first time in a comprehensive approach, whether young shoots of red headed cabbage are a better source of selected nutrients and glucosinolates in the human diet in comparison to the vegetable at full maturity. The proximate composition (protein, fat, digestible carbohydrates, fiber), fatty acids profile, minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper), as well as glucosinolates were examined. The red headed cabbage was characterized by a significantly larger amount of dry matter, and total and digestible carbohydrates in comparison to young shoots. The ready-to-eat young shoots, which are in the phase of intensive growth, are a better source of protein, selected minerals, and especially glucosinolates. The level of some nutrients can be enhanced and the intake of pro-healthy glucosinolates can be significantly increased by including young shoots of red cabbage into the diet.
... Studies evaluating the nutrient composition of kale have been limited to either old varieties (Migliozzi et al., 2015) or the adult stage tissues (Ayaz et al., 2006). Kawashima and Soares (2003) analyzed the mineral profile of eight leafy vegetables popularly consumed in Brazil and reported that kale offered the highest concentrations of K and Ca. Currently, popular kale market classes include curly ('Dwarf Blue Curled' and 'Scarlet'), lacinato, Siberian ('Red Russian'), and ornamental (Migliozzi et al., 2015). ...
... Calcium, as well as P and Mg, are important for bone health. The concentration of Ca in our study was 36.8% to 69.1% lower than the values reported by Kawashima and Soares (2003), whereas the Mg concentration was 53.5% to 92.1% higher in all three adult kales evaluated. Overall, fresh kale had higher concentrations of Ca and Mg at baby leaf (BL1 and BL2) and adult stages than at the microgreen stages (MG1 and MG2). ...
... The concentration of Na was generally lower in 'Scarlet' and there was no difference at adult stage among the three cultivars. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in adult kale were similar to values reported for adult fresh kale by Kawashima and Soares (2003) (Table 4). The concentration of Mn (0.96-1.27 mg/100 g FW) was higher, whereas the Zn concentration (0.45-0.61 mg/100 g FW) detected in adult fresh leaves was lower than the values reported in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutrition database (2016) of 0.56 and 0.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively. ...
Article
Kale (Brassica oleracea L. and other species) is considered a rich source of important minerals. Kale at the early stage of leaf development is assumed to contain higher levels of minerals than at maturity. However, literature supporting this assumption is scarce. In this study, the concentrations of macronutrients [potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P)] and micronutrients [sodium (Na), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu)] either essential to plant growth and development, or important to human health, were determined. Three kale cultivars (green leaf ‘Dwarf Blue Curled’ and red leaf ‘Scarlet’ in B. oleracea, and green leaf with purple midvein ‘Red Russian’ in Brassica napus) were evaluated at five different leaf developmental stages; cotyledon [microgreen 1 (MG1)], two true leaf [microgreen 2 (MG2)], four true leaf [baby leaf 1 (BL1)], six true leaf [baby leaf 2 (BL2)], and adult. As kale matured, total mineral (ash) decreased from 14.6–19.1% at the microgreen stages to 3.9–6.4% at the adult stage, on a dry weight (DW) basis. Microgreen kale contained higher concentrations of most minerals than adult kale, on a DW basis, in all cultivars. On a fresh weight (FW) (as consumed) basis, the highest level of total mineral concentration was detected at baby leaf stage 1 (1.3–1.7%) and there was no difference between microgreen and adult stages. Fresh microgreens generally contained lower K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn than fresh baby leaves, and lower concentrations of Ca and Mg and higher Na compared with fresh adult kale. Overall, water content deceased from 95.1% at MG1 stage to 80.0% at adult stage. The variation in water content and mineral accumulation during leaf development might contribute to the discrepancy. In addition, fresh leaves of ‘Scarlet’ contained higher concentration of total minerals than that of ‘Dwarf Blue Curled’ or ‘Red Russian’. Although ‘Dwarf Blue Curled’ and ‘Red Russian’ are different species, their mineral content profile during leaf development was similar. Together, cultivar and leaf developmental stage influenced mineral content in kale. © 2017, American Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.
... Furthermore, previous researchers disclosed the mineral profile of raw and cooked common cabbage that reflected higher amounts of potassium followed by calcium, magnesium and sodium, whereas trace amounts of iron, manganese, copper and zinc were also detected. Interestingly, it is documented that calcium absorption from cabbage is higher owing to the existence of organic acids like malic and citric acids (Kawashima and Soares, 2003). Besides, cabbage juice is considered as a rich source of potassium that could fulfill 17% of the daily requirement hence maintains body's fluid balance especially for those who consume higher amounts of sodium in their diet or facing nutrient malabsorption. ...
... were nearly within the ranges as noted in the present study. After cooking, the percent increase in potassium was 7% whilst, percent decrease in rest of the minerals was observed as sodium 21, calcium 2, magnesium 2, iron 1, manganese 11, copper 3 and zinc 5(Kawashima and Soares, 2003). Recently,Malav et al. (2015) reported calcium content in cabbage up to 45 mg/100g F.W. that was higher than the current study result. ...
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Nowadays, vegetables are gaining attention amongst the masses to mitigate lifestyle related dysfunctions owing to their safe nature and functional properties. Considering health benefits and cost-effectiveness of cabbage, the current research was designed to investigate the proximate composition and mineral profile of locally grown green and red cabbage. Comparative compositional characterization of green and red cabbage indicated significantly higher amounts of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content in red cabbage as compared to green cabbage due to non-momentously lower content of moisture in red cabbage. However, on fresh weight basis, moisture was the major constituent differing from 89.84±4.04 to 91.29±4.29 g/100g F.W. trailed by nitrogen free extract, crude fiber, crude protein, ash and crude fat. Moreover, most of the minerals like potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper, cobalt and manganese were on higher side in red cabbage except magnesium, zinc and copper. However, potassium was the most abundant mineral in both cabbage samples varying between 53.42±1.87 96.44±3.38 mg/100g F.W. followed by magnesium and calcium, ranged from 20.61±0.99 to 22.60±0.81 and 19.88±1.29 to 20.56±1.11 mg/100g F.W., respectively. In the nutshell, red cabbage has shown better nutritional value, thus this knowledge need to be disseminated among the masses to change their dietary preference. As a response, vegetable growers in Pakistan should focus on the production of red cabbage over green equivalent.
... In other words, samples that exhibit a net loss of Mn from radish leaves and vegetables are much less in magnitude than samples that showed net accumulation of Mn. This study complements past investigations of nutrient/ mineral amounts in edibles, which show that such products do not pose any health risks for consumers (Bukhari et al. 2013;Ekholm et al. 2007;Davis 2009;Gholamalizadeh Ahangar et al. 1995;Fiskel and Mourkides 1955;Ismail et al. 2011;Fan et al. 2008;Kawashima and Valente Soares 2003;Sanchez-Castillo 1998). These studies tested a wide range of edibles (e.g., plants, fruits, vegetables), and in regard to Mn amounts, these ranged from~1 to 250 μg/g. ...
... Still, these concentrations are at least 1 to several orders of magnitude less than the required human daily intake of Mn. The net loss of Mn amounts observed in some samples of radish leaves and vegetables is analogous to the dilution effect of minerals/ nutrients in edibles due to the use of select fertilizers (Ekholm et al. 2007;Davis 2009;Ahanga et al. 1995;Fan et al. 2008;Kawashima and Valente Soares 2003;Sanchez-Castillo 1998). ...
Article
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Miracle-Gro Singles, Miracle-Gro Shake and Feed, and Vigoro fertilizers are associated with net loss/enhancement of Mn, up to an order of magnitude when referenced to controls in soil, radish vegetables, and radish leaves; Mn enhancements are a factor of 4 to 65 below the daily required intake for humans (2–5.5 mg/day). Manganese levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Control soil, radish vegetables, and radish leaves contained 65 μg/g to 146 μg/g (median = 108), 65 μg/g to 357 μg/g (median = 281), and 185 μg/g to 401 μg/g (median = 323) of Mn, correspondingly. Manganese uptake was ten times greater in radish leaves compared to radish vegetables and enhanced by a factor of 3 in soils. Edible radish leaves/vegetables contain 65 times less than human Mn daily requirements. This equates eating 140 lb/day of radish vegetables/leaves. The fertilizers have a minor impact on Mn accumulation in radish leaves/vegetables. The USDA Nutrient Database for radish (0.69 μg/g of Mn) contradicts this notion as one would need to consume ~ 7 to 18 lb/day of radish to satisfy their daily intake. This study complements investigations showing that fertilizers induce minimal uptake of heavy metals in food; simultaneously, the net loss of Mn amounts observed in some samples of radish leaves and vegetables is analogous to the dilution effect of minerals/nutrients in edibles. Although a deficiency/excess of Mn in one’s diet may lead to adverse health effects, background inhalation exposure in general public, occupational, and emergency response settings has a greater influence on one’s propensity toward developing adverse health effects related to Mn inhalation exposure.
... La (Burg, 1994;Fraile, 1995;Fraile and Burg, 1997;Kawashima and Valente Soares, 2003). ...
... Les pertes à la cuisson ont été mieux étudiées pour les vitamines que pour les éléments minéraux et relativement peu de travaux spécifiques ont été consacrés à ces derniers. Récemment, Kawashima and Valente Soares (2003) ...
Thesis
Les transferts de matière intervenant au cours du procédé d'immersion dépendent essentiellement de la taille des produits immergés, la température, la concentration et la nature de la solution d'immersion. L'objectif principal de ce travail porte sur l'étude des transferts dans un système solide/liquide constitué d'un produit végétal (aubergine) et d'une solution saline. Afin de parvenir à une bonne maîtrise de ces paramètres, les études cinétiques ont été conduites à 3°C sur des aubergines immergées dans des solutions salines avec deux concentrations. Les propriétés des solutions et des sels telles que la concentration molaire, la masse molaire et surtout la nature ionique influencent le mécanisme de perte et de gain. Les connaissances sur les interactions ions/pectines végétaux sont importants pour la formulation de nouveaux produits La détermination du coefficient de partage des ions à l'équilibre dans le système aubergine/solution ont montré que les principales propriétés des ions et des solutions influençant le coefficient de partage sont le rayon ionique, l'électronégativité, la force ionique et la concentration molaire. Un modèle mathématique a permis de prédire le coefficient de partage des ions dans ce système. Dans le but d'expliquer l'absorption des ions par la phase solide, une simulation par dynamique moléculaire a été menée sur un système pectine-eau-sels. Quatre systèmes ont été utilisés. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que la nature ionique influencent la nature et le nombre d'interaction entre pectine-ion et eau-ion et donc offrent une description explicite des phénomènes de transferts et distribution des ions dans le système solide/liquide
... Food ingestion is generally the main means of metal uptake [9]. Nevertheless, information on the average composition of elements (including Ni) in edible vegetables from different regions is still scarce in Brazil [10,11]. In several studies, as of Rocha et al. [12] and Trannin et al. [13], Ni concentrations (among other metals) in plants resulting from the addition of residues to the soil were determined [14]. ...
... In the sample pretreatment, modified procedures for washing and drying proposed by Santos et al. [11] and Kawashima & Soares [10], respectively, were used. First, each plant sample was rinsed with distilled water to remove dirt and other debris. ...
Chapter
Nickel, although essential to plants, may be toxic to plants and animals. It is mainly assimilated by food ingestion. However, information about the average levels of elements (including Ni) in edible vegetables from different regions is still scarce in Brazil. The objectives of this study were to: (a) evaluate and optimize a method for preparation of vegetable tissue samples for Ni determination; (b) optimize the analytical procedures for determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and by Electro-thermal Atomic Absorption (ETAAS) in vegetable samples and (c) determine the Ni concentration in vegetables consumed in the cities of Lorena and Taubaté in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. By means of the analytical technique for determination by ETAAS or FAAS, the results were validated by the test of analyte addition and recovery. The most viable method tested for quantification of this element was HClO4-HNO3 wet digestion. All samples but carrot tissue collected in Lorena contained Ni levels above the permitted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The most disturbing results, requiring more detailed studies, were the Ni concentrations measured in carrot samples from Taubaté, where levels were five times higher than permitted by Brazilian regulations.
... The potassium, calcium and iron value in T. triangulare correlated well with the findings in the reports of Mepba et al. [44], Souzan & ABD EL-AAl [57] and Sobowale et al. [50]. However, higher values for calcium and potassium were reported by Luciane et al. (2003) [58] in watercress Kale and cabbage and in the review of Uusiku et al [53] in Amaranths spp and Solanum nigrum leaves respectively. This variability was expected since the Fresh Green Leafy Vegetable (FGLV) belonged to different locations, where the soil and climatic conditions including light and temperature are dissimilar [39]. ...
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To alleviate hidden hunger on a long-term basis, there is need to establish the nutrient composition of vegetables and determine the level of their incorporation into diets to meet body requirements of relevant vitamins and minerals. This research was aimed at evaluating the nutrient composition and changes in nutrients induced by processing and storage of an underutilized leafy vegetable (Talinum triangulare ) with good potentials for alleviating micronutrient malnutrition. Changes in carotenoids, chlorophylls, selected vitamins (ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin K and niacin) and minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron) of T. triangulare leaf during moist heat treatment and storage (28±2 ° C) were evaluated. HPLC was used to determine the carotenoid profile. Results indicated that the raw leaf contained moderate amounts of lutein (124.03 μg/gdwt) and total β-carotene (45.42μg/gdwt). Cooking and storage significantly (p > 0.05) increased the contents of Total-β-carotene. Cooked leaf samples contained more trans/cis-isomers of β-carotene than raw and stored samples. The initial concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a/b ratio was 2.62, 0.94mg/100gfwt and 2.78 respectively. T triangulare was found to be a good source of magnesium, ascorbic acid and zinc. Cooking decreased the contents of chlorophylls, water-soluble vitamins and minerals significantly (p>0.05), but remarkably increased the pro-vitamin A content of T. triangulare. Storage resulted in the reduction of vitamins and minerals. The levels of β-carotene (pro-Vitamin A) in cooked water leaf, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and phylloquinone are adequate to meet their corresponding in Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) s for children and adult
... Dwivedi et al. (2006) found that a mixture of 20% biodiesel with 80% diesel had higher emissions of Cr, Fe, Al, Zn and Mg, and lower Pb, Cd, Na and Ni, than 100% diesel in a diesel engine. Certain metals might be originally present in the food ingredients, such as Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in vegetables (Kawashima and Valente Soares, 2003); Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in meat (Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2005), and Cu, Zn and Cd in fish (Atta et al., 1997). Additionally, some metals are released into cooking oil during hightemperature frying, or from cooking utensils (Kuligowski and Halperin, 1992). ...
Article
Establishment of emission standards is an important measure for controlling vehicle exhaust. This study examined the emission factors of air pollutants from 40 four-stroke motorcycles of various emission standard phases, ages, and mileage. Based on the emission standards, the motorcycles were divided into three groups (Phases III, IV and V). Regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, and NOx), CO2, and 52 volatile organic compounds were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) test cycle. The sequence of CO and HC emission factors was Phase III > Phase IV > Phase V, and their ratios of emission factor of Phase IV to Phase III and Phase V to Phase III were 0.66 and 0.42 for CO and 0.61 and 0.57 for HC, respectively. Exhaust from motorcycles deteriorates with age and mileage. For NOx emission, the sequence of emission factor was Phase V > Phase IV > Phase III. However, the relationship was insignificant between CO2 emission factor and motorcycle age. The total VOC emissions of Phase V motorcycles were the lowest (0.59 g km–1) among all test motorcycles; however, the fraction of VOC groups was similar among all test motorcycles regardless of different regulation phases. For organic air toxics, the emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) decreased by 37–58% and 44–62%, respectively, for Phases IV and V motorcycles compared to those of Phase III motorcycles. Results also indicated that the ozone formation potential (OFP) was high in older motorcycles with high mileage. In summary, emissions of CO, HC, total VOCs, BTEX, and OFP may decrease with the decrease of motorcycle age and mileage as well as the phase of emission standards. The results implied that tightening emission standards indeed encourages motorcycle manufacturers to improve engine technology and combustion efficiency, resulting in reduced emission of air pollutants, except NOx emission in this study.
... Por otra parte, la rúcula es conocida por su agradable sabor amargo y, como otras verduras crucíferas, contiene una serie de fitonutrientes que promueven la salud, tales como carotenoides, vitaminas C, flavonoides y glucosinolatos, así como potasio y azufre (Kawashima y Soares, 2003;Bennett y col., 2004;Nunes y col., 2013). Esta hortaliza es ampliamente consumida como ensalada fresca o como parte de ensaladas mixtas en los países mediterráneos y también en Argentina (Ahmed y col., 2013). ...
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A pesar de la poca estructuración formal del mercado de maderas en Santiago del Estero, existe la necesidad de generar información y un mayor conocimiento de la dinámica del mercado, con el propósito de contribuir a la implementación de estrategias que impulsen el desarrollo del sector forestal y su inserción comercial en la región. Con el objetivo de trazar un perfil cualitativo de la producción y el consumo de maderas provenientes de la industria de transformación física, el trabajo analizó los resultados de 100 encuestas aplicadas a titulares de establecimientos madereros (encuesta de oferta) y de unas 300 encuestas a consumidores finales de productos de madera (encuesta de demanda). Las encuestas se aplicaron en diferentes localidades de la provincia de Santiago del Estero de los departamentos Capital, Banda, Robles, Loreto, Copo y Alberdi. El estudio de la oferta utilizó información primaria y secundaria para trazar un diagnóstico de la actual situación, a partir de la cual se analizó el perfil del establecimiento, el estatus tecnológico, las especies maderables utilizadas, la comercialización, los resultados empresariales y las fortalezas y debilidades de la actividad. Se efectuó un análisis descriptivo univariante y se compararon los seis sitios para destacar características diferenciales entre los mismos. El estudio de demanda sirvió para analizar la conducta del consumidor final de productos de madera mediante la exploración de su comportamiento, sus opiniones y preferencias y sus patrones de consumo. Las variables relevadas de la encuesta de demanda fueron, entre otras, tipo de productos consumidos, frecuencia de compra, especies forestales de los productos demandados, cualidades buscadas en la madera, opinión sobre la sustitución de productos de madera por otros alternativos y disposición a pagar más por un producto de madera proveniente del uso sustentable del bosque. Palabras clave: diagnóstico; MiPyMEs madereras; aserraderos y carpinterías; muebles y productos de madera; consumo
... Por otra parte, la rúcula es conocida por su agradable sabor amargo y, como otras verduras crucíferas, contiene una serie de fitonutrientes que promueven la salud, tales como carotenoides, vitaminas C, flavonoides y glucosinolatos, así como potasio y azufre (Kawashima y Soares, 2003;Bennett y col., 2004;Nunes y col., 2013). Esta hortaliza es ampliamente consumida como ensalada fresca o como parte de ensaladas mixtas en los países mediterráneos y también en Argentina (Ahmed y col., 2013). ...
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En la Región Chaqueña, el sobreuso forestal y el avance de la frontera agropecuaria aumentaron la presión sobre tierras forestales para reconvertirlas a diferentes usos con la consiguiente degradación y desaparición de grandes superficies de bosques naturales. Por consiguiente, las plantaciones forestales representarán a medio plazo la fuente más importante de abastecimiento a la industria de la madera. Por eso, es necesario que en los planes de manejo y mejoramiento se incorporen variables referidas a la calidad de la madera. Este proyecto planteó la caracterización y evaluación de la variación de los parámetros de calidad de la madera de materiales selectos de especies con aptitud maderera de la región Chaqueña Seca, mediante el análisis de propiedades físicas tales como la densidad básica y los cambios dimensionales, además del ritmo de crecimiento y los caracteres macro y microscópicos. Desde el Estado Nacional para la región Chaqueña se recomienda la plantación de las especies Prosopis alba Griseb. y Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Se incluyó también a Gonopterodendron sarmientoi (Lorentz ex Griseb.) A.C. Godoy-Bürki, una especie endémica de gran importancia que, debido a la belleza y características de su madera, sufrió sobreexplotación desmedida y se encuentra actualmente protegida. En la caracterización y determinación de modelos de crecimiento se incluyó a Prosopis affinis Spreng., una especie característica de la región de monte. El proyecto se llevó a cabo en los diferentes sitios de distribución de las especies mencionadas y en un ensayo de progenies Eucalyptus camaldulensis instalado en Santiago del Estero. El conocimiento de la variabilidad de la madera es un tema imprescindible para el correcto aprovechamiento de este recurso. Categorizar los grados de calidad de madera de los diferentes materiales de ambas especies contribuye a escoger los mejores materiales genéticos con base en la calidad de la madera y obtener índices sencillos de calidad, dar un mayor valor a la misma y, por ende, impulsar y alentar su cultivo para así revertir, en parte, la degradación del bosque remanente del Chaco. Palabras clave: Calidad madera; Productividad; eucalipto; algarrobo; palo santo
... The total calcium content of sample was determined using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) method described by Kawashima and Soares (2003) with slight modification. Fresh or thawed samples (5 g) were digested with 10 mL of 65% HNO 3 solution for 1 h, then put into a muffle furnace (SX-8-10, Taisite Instrument Co. Ltd., Tianjin, China) at 550°C for 3.5 h. ...
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Voids, filled with air, in plant tissues, can attenuate ultrasound, resulting in weakening the effectiveness of ultrasound during immersion freezing. The effect of voids on ultrasound-assisted immersion freezing (UF) in selected plant tissues, apple, radish, and potato was investigated in the present study. The freezing time and quality attributes of firmness, drip loss, total calcium content, and total phenolic content were investigated in apple, radish, and potato samples treated by normal immersion freezing (IF) and UF. The results showed that the more the percentage voids in the plant tissues, the lower the effectiveness of the ultrasound treatment. The total freezing time reduction (%) due to UF was a power function of the volume of voids (%): y = 0.018x−1.057 (R² = 0.994). Ultrasound at 0.62 W/cm² (28 kHz) resulted in the best firmness and lowest drip loss in potato, while no significant (p > 0.05) differences in quality attributes were observed between IF and UF in apple samples. These findings indicated that UF was more effective in freezing fruit or vegetables with a highly dense structure.
... Since vegetables contain high concentrations of potassium [9,10], it is suggested that the patients with impaired kidney function do not take raw vegetables, rather, they should be soaked in water and boiled in order to reduce the K content through leaching [11]. Nevertheless, a K reduction by these cooking methods can be considered limited, while other important minerals and hydrophilic vitamins could be significantly lost [12][13][14]. In addition, it should be considered that people are also accustomed to eating raw vegetables, which makes it difficult to propose some vegetable-based dishes for patients with impaired kidney function. ...
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Chronic kidney disease represents a global problem together with other so-called 'lifestyle-related diseases'. Unlike the healthy population, for the patients with impaired kidney function, it is of course prudent to recommend a restriction of high-potassium foods. Thus, it is suggested to limit the consumption of vegetables, because they generally contain high concentrations of potassium. At the same time, a lower consumption of vegetables reduces the intake of healthy compounds such as vitamins, fibers, and antioxidants, which also reduces the vegetables' potential benefit in chronic kidney disease patients. Microgreens are an emerging class of specialty crop that represent a nutritious and refined food. In this study, for the first time, some chicory (local variety 'Molfetta' and cultivar 'Italico a costa rossa') and lettuce (cultivar 'Bionda da taglio') genotypes were grown using a hydroponic system with different potassium (K) levels (0, 29.1, 58.4, and 117 mg L-1) in order to produce microgreens with a low potassium content. The crop performances, cations content, proximate composition, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. Independent of the genotype, the K content in the microgreens was successfully reduced using a nutrient solution (NS), without K or with 29.1 mg K L-1, which supplied between 103 and 129 mg of K 100 g-1 FW (about 7.7⁻8.6% of the K daily intake that was recommended for the patients that were affected by chronic kidney disease). Whereas, 100 g of microgreens that were grown by using an NS with 58.4 or 117 mg K L-1 supply between 225 and 250 mg of K (about 15.8⁻16.5% of the K daily intake recommended for patients affected by chronic kidney disease). No differences were observed in terms of the shoot height, dry matter, proximate composition, and visual quality. A slightly lower yield was observed using an NS with a K concentration.
... Dwivedi et al. (2006) found that a mixture of 20% biodiesel with 80% diesel had higher emissions of Cr, Fe, Al, Zn and Mg, and lower Pb, Cd, Na and Ni, than 100% diesel in a diesel engine. Certain metals might be originally present in the food ingredients, such as Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in vegetables (Kawashima and Valente Soares, 2003); Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in meat (Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2005), and Cu, Zn and Cd in fish (Atta et al., 1997). Additionally, some metals are released into cooking oil during hightemperature frying, or from cooking utensils (Kuligowski and Halperin, 1992). ...
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This study examines the emission properties of particulate matter and particle-bound metals from a diesel engine generator fueled by traditional fossil diesel (D100) with the addition of n-butanol (B), hydrous n-butanol (B′), acetone (A), hydrous acetone (A′), isopropyl alcohol (I) or waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (W). The fuel blends were B30W20D50 (abbr. B30), B′30W20D50 (abbr. B′30), A3I1W20D76 (abbr. A3), A′3I1W20D76 (abbr.A′3), B30A3I1W20D46 (abbr. B30A3) and B′30A′3I1W20D46 (abbr. B′30A′3) tested at loads of 1.5 kW and 3.0 kW for the diesel engine generator. Experimental results indicate that adding B30, A3 or B30A3 reduces the PM mass concentration in the exhaust at both engine loads compared to using only W20. Additionally, the PM emission concentrations are lower when using B′30, A′3 and B′30A′3 than when using B30, A3 and B30A3, respectively; in other words, replacing pure n-butanol/acetone with hydrated n-butanol/acetone in the blends further reduces the PM emission concentrations. However, B30 or B30A3 is more effective than A3 in reducing the PM emissions, irrespective of the water content in the fuel blends. Conversely, using B30, B′30, A3, A′3, B30A3 or B′30A′3 instead of W20 reduces the metal content in the PM emissions at both engine loads. The major metal components in PM are Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Zn, accounting for about 97 wt.% of 21 overall metals. The remaining analyzed metals were dominated by Mn, Ni, Cu, Mo and Ba. Accordingly, adding biodiesel from waste cooking oil and hydrous acetone/n-butanol to diesel fuel for diesel engine generators reduces the levels of PM and particle-bound metals. The waste hydrous acetone/n-butanol can be used for recycling purposes during this process.
... In fact boiling usually leads to a significant loss of minerals due to their diffusion from food to boiling water (Cuq, 1992). Moreover the highest ash content of "Fried plantain" can result to the fact that frying favors minerals retention due to the migration of water particles from food to oil (Kawashima and Valente-Soares, 2003). ...
... mg/100 g. Some studies also reported that fresh kale has the potential to provide significant quantities of several essential micronutrients, including minerals (27)(28)(29). Kawashima and Soares (28) compared K, Ca, and Mg levels in Brazilian-grown kale to other green vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, cabbage, butter head lettuce, and spinach. They found fresh kale to have the highest concentration of K (712 mg/100 g), Ca (283 mg/100 g), and Mg (51 mg/100 g). ...
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Fermented kale juices using four types of lactobacilli were produced in the present study. After 48 h of fermentation time, viable cell counts of all ferments reached an above 10⁹ CFU/mL. The viability of the ferments after cold storage in the refrigerator for 4 weeks showed 10⁸ CFU/mL in all ferments. Among four types of fermented kale juices, the ferment of Lactobacillus acidophilus IFO 3025 indicated a good nutritional composition, including neutral sugar (1, 909.76 μg/mL), reducing sugar (564.00 μg/mL, P<0.05), and protein contents (160.06 μg/mL, P<0.05). The results of mineral composition analysis had the highest potassium value in all ferments (854.16∼895.07 μg/mL), particularly in the ferment of Lactobacillus brevis FSB-1 (P<0.001), which is necessary to sustain osmotic pressure, prevention of high blood pressure, and protein synthesis. Moreover, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium contents related to bone health were generally sufficient in all ferments. Consequently, in this study, fermented kale juices may be suggested as a healthy fermented beverage with essential nutrients. However, the acceptability of the fermented kale juice to the Korean taste should be further investigated with a trained taste panel to determine whether inoculated fermentation could be an option for the consumers. © Copyright 2017 by The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights Reserved.
... This vegetable that belongs to the Brassicaceae family ranks third among the most popular vegetables in Brazil. Arugula contains phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, vitamin C, flavonoids, glucosinolates, potassium, sulfur, and fibers ( Bennett, Mellon, & Kroon, 2004;Kawashima & Soares, 2003). The increased consumption of fruits and vegetables has aroused greater concern on growers and retailers as for the nutritional, sensory, and microbiological aspects of these products ( Chemat, Zill-e-Huma, & Khan, 2011;Martin ez-S anchez, Allende, Bennett, Ferreres, Gil, 2006;Plaza et al., 2011;Vandekinderen et al., 2009). ...
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Sanitization is a critical step for the reduction of microbial contaminants in fruits and vegetables in an effort to lessen the occurrence of foodborne diseases. The efficiency of different chemical compounds, either individually or combined with ultrasound treatment, in decontaminating fresh arugulas was evaluated here. The main physicochemical properties and the natural microbiota of arugulas were evaluated after sanitization for 5 min at 25 °C. The synergistic effect of ultrasound and sodium hypochlorite led to the best outcome. Ultrasound treatment improved the bactericidal effect of sodium hypochlorite (100 mg/L), leading to a reduction of 1.46 log cycles in relation to the non-sanitized samples, whereas sodium hypochlorite itself provided a 0.85 log cycle reduction. This synergism is due to the ability of ultrasound-induced cavitation to form oxidizing free radicals (e.g., ·OH and ·Cl), in addition to its mechanical energy input that facilitates the permeation of hypochlorous acid molecules into microbial cells. It is noteworthy that this mechanical action also favors the removal of microbial biofilms and cell disintegration. The residual chlorine content was lower than that recommended by the current legislation for public water supply. The combined action did not significantly alter the physicochemical and colorimetric properties of the arugulas. Therefore, this sanitization protocol denotes a promising alternative for the decontamination of fruits and vegetables in the food industry and in food processing facilities. Currently, there has been an increase in the demand for fresh food as well as an increase in the number of food outbreaks involving these products. In this context, to reduce microbial contamination, this research presents an alternative sanitization method that can be easily used in food processing units for decontamination of vegetables, increasing the microbiological safety of the final product to the consumer.
... It may be possible to select species and cultivars of vegetables and to manage soil fertility to improve the nutrient content of vegetables ( Arivalagan et al. 2014;Arsenault, Hijmans, and Brown 2015;Barickman et al. 2016;Farnham and Grusak 2014;Herencia et al. 2011;Lyons et al. 2015;Simon 2014). A comparison of the nutrient status of several leafy vegetables reported considerable differences in calcium content among individual species ( Kawashima and Valente Soares 2003). Among them, kale offered the highest amounts of calcium, whereas cabbage and butterhead lettuce had the lowest calcium. ...
Article
Depleted soil fertility and high-yielding cultivars have been associated with low nutrient contents in vegetables. This study explored if elemental nutrient concentrations in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) can be increased through selection of cultivars and nutritional regimes. Cultivars with different phenotypes of heirloom and modern origins were studied in field experiments in two years. Chemical fertilizer (10-10-10), compost, and an organic fertility regime of soybean meal, bone meal, and potassium sulfate were assessed for their effects on growth and composition of fruits of the cultivars. Differences in nutrient concentrations between modern or heirloom cultivars or among fertility treatments were small or non-significant. Differences among individual cultivars for each element were large with some cultivars having nearly twice the concentrations of nutrients of others and with considerable uniformity in cultivar rankings among the elements. This work suggests that cultivars can be selected for production of nutrient-dense tomatoes.
... Mean daily consumption of lettuce in Europe is 22.5 g, which corresponds to 6.5% of the total dietary intake of vegetables (WHO, 2003). Lettuce also contains several macro-elements (e.g., K, Na, Ca and Mg) and microelements (e.g., Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se) which are vital for human nutrition (Kawashima and Valente Soares, 2003). Fresh lettuce is eaten in salads by a large number of people in the world. ...
Thesis
Novel iron (Fe) cross-linked alginate (FCA) beads were used for aqueous phosphate removal. Batch experiments were conducted with the beads using three different concentrations of phosphate (5, 50 and 100 mg PO4 3--P/L) as well as environmentally relevant (eutrophic lakes) concentration of 100 μg PO4 3--P/L. About 80-97% phosphate was removed within 3 h. for lower concentrations of phosphate. The maximum phosphate sorption capacity was found to be 78.7 mg PO4 3--P/g of beads. Phosphate removal was not affected because of the presence of Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3- and natural organic matter (NOM). FCA beads were also used with actual lake waters (11-69 μg PO4 3--P/L) and 81-100% phosphate removal was observed in 24 h. The FCA beads having a point of zero charge (PZC) of 9.2 make it an ideal candidate for phosphate removal in eutrophic lakes. Phosphate-laden spent iron cross-linked alginate (FCA) beads were used in hydroponics to evaluate the bioavailability of P and Fe using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as a test plant. Phosphate-laden spent FCA beads were found to support the plants throughout the growth period. The bioavailability of P and Fe in the spent beads is promising considering the importance of phosphorus and iron in global nutrient security. Experiments were also conducted with lettuce and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) to evaluate the availability of iron from nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI). In both plants, bare NZVI enhanced the uptake of Fe as well as other essential elements. The results indicate that biofortification of spinach and lettuce with Fe is possible. The enhanced uptake of iron and other elements by lettuce and spinach is likely to have implications on global nutrient security. In another experiment, an iron-regulating gene (LsHA2) in lettuce was investigated to gain insights into the strategy taken by plants for the acquisition of Fe from a readily unavailable source, e.g., NZVI. The gene of interest was found to be regulated by the presence or absence of available iron in the solution. This research is likely to give us insights into the mechanism of plant nutrient fortification with nanoparticles.
... It has been demonstrated that a number of dietary macro-minerals such as P, K, Ca and Mg are crucial components of the human diet due to their multifaceted nutraceutical properties such as, lowering blood pressure and hypertension (K), promoting bone health and reducing osteoporosis (P, Ca and Mg) [29]. Our results on the mineral profile of green and red-pigmented butterhead lettuce were proximate to those reported by the National Nutrient Database for Standard References [59] and by several authors [29,60,61] on green and red leaf lettuce including the butterhead type: K (48-72 mg g −1 dw), P (4-6 mg g −1 dw), Mg (1.4-2.8 mg g −1 dw) and Ca (4-10 mg g −1 dw). ...
Article
Consumer demand for vegetables of fortified mineral and bioactive content is on the rise, driven by the growing interest of society in fresh products of premium nutritional and functional quality. Biofortification of leafy vegetables with essential micronutrients such as iron (Fe) is an efficient means to address the human micronutrient deficiency known as hidden hunger. Morphometric analysis, lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities of green and red butterhead lettuce cultivars in response to Fe concentration in the nutrient solution (0.015 control, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mM Fe) were assessed. The experiment was carried out in a controlled-environment growth chamber using a closed soilless system (nutrient film technique). The percentage of yield reduction in comparison to the control treatment was 5.7%, 13.5% and 25.3% at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM Fe, respectively. Irrespective of the cultivar, the addition of 1.0 mM or 2.0 mM Fe in the nutrient solution induced an increase in the Fe concentration of lettuce leaves by 20.5% and 53.7%, respectively. No significant effects of Fe application on phenolic acids and carotenoid profiles were observed in green Salanova. Increasing Fe concentration in the nutrient solution to 0.5 mM triggered a spike in chlorogenic acid and total phenolics in red Salanova lettuce by 110.1% and 29.1% compared with the control treatment, respectively; moreover, higher accumulation of caffeoyl meso tartaric phenolic acid by 31.4% at 1.0 mM Fe and of carotenoids violaxanthin, neoxanthin and β-carotene by 37.0% at 2.0 mM Fe were also observed in red Salanova compared with the control (0.015 mM Fe) treatment. Red Salanova exhibited higher yield, P and K contents, ascorbic acid, phenolic acids and carotenoid compounds than green Salanova. The wok shows how nutrient solution management in soilless culture could serve as effective cultural practices for producing Fe-enriched lettuce of premium quality, notwithstanding cultivar selection being a critical underlying factor for obtaining high quality products.
... Glucosinolates alone have limited health benefits for humans, but the hydrolysis product isothiocyanates are proven to exhibit cholesterol-lowering, anti-carcinogenic and antimutagenic activity, and therefore consumption of food rich in glucosinolates is associated with reduced risk of cancer and other chronic diseases [4,5]. Sugar levels, together with glucosinolates, determine the flavor and acceptance of Chinese broccoli by the consumer [6] In addition, Chinese broccoli, like other leaf vegetables, is believed to provide a modest source of essential mineral elements including K, Ca and Mg, for well-balanced diets [7]. ...
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Vegetable product quality is an important consideration for consumers. Long-term root cooling could improve certain food quality of horticultural crops, but often comes at the expense of reduced shoot biomass or yield. Since few studies have investigated how fast Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey) responds to changes of root temperature, we shortened the duration of the root cooling treatment to one week before harvest to make the production system more effective. The aim of this study was to improve the food quality of Chinese broccoli without causing deleterious effects on plant growth and yield. The seedlings were cultivated hydroponically at two root temperatures (10 and 20 °C) during the last week prior to harvest in summer 2018 (Exp-1) and autumn 2019 (Exp-2). Plant growth, yield, physiological variables, soluble sugars, total chlorophyll, glucosinolates and mineral elements concentration were examined. The results showed that the yield reduction was alleviated compared to results over the long-term. Specifically, yield was not affected by root cooling in Exp-1 and reduced by 18.9% in Exp-2 compared to 20 °C. Glucose and fructose concentrations of the leaves were increased when the root temperature was 10 °C in both experiments with a more pronounced impact in Exp-2. In addition, root cooling produced a significant accumulation of individual glucosinolates, such as progoitrin, gluconapin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, in the stems of Exp-1 and the leaves of Exp-2. Minerals, such as N, showed reductions in the shoot, but accumulation in the root. Therefore, compared to long-term root cooling, short-term (one week) reduction of the root temperature is more economical and could help improve certain quality characteristics of Chinese broccoli with less or even no yield reduction.
... Por otra parte, la rúcula es conocida por su agradable sabor amargo y, como otras verduras crucíferas, contiene una serie de fitonutrientes que promueven la salud, tales como carotenoides, vitaminas C, flavonoides y glucosinolatos, así como potasio y azufre (Kawashima y Soares, 2003;Bennett y col., 2004;Nunes y col., 2013). Esta hortaliza es ampliamente consumida como ensalada fresca o como parte de ensaladas mixtas en los países mediterráneos y también en Argentina (Ahmed y col., 2013). ...
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La degradación de los bosques implica un proceso de cambio que afecta negativamente las características de un bosque, de manera tal que el valor y la producción de bienes y servicios reducen su capacidad. Por eso, su evaluación es siempre complicada, ya que es un proceso multicausal y de intensidad variable. Los bosques nativos de Argentina producen 4 millones de toneladas anuales de productos forestales, de los cuales un 75% proviene de tres de las once provincias que componen la Región Chaqueña: Chaco, Salta y Santiago del Estero. Entre las estrategias propuestas para la conservación de los bosques nativos pueden mencionarse las plantaciones forestales, las cuales deberían atender a mediano y largo plazo la demanda de la industria forestal, pues el estado actual de los bosques naturales no permite satisfacer eficientemente las necesidades de la industria, debido a la diversidad de dimensiones y calidades de madera que ofrece. La urgencia por revertir la deforestación, sumado a que prestan beneficios económicos a corto y medio plazo, ha dado lugar a programas de reforestación a cargo de los propios Estados nacionales y organismos internacionales. Producir madera de calidad para usos sólidos involucra estudiar la velocidad de crecimiento, la calidad del fuste y las propiedades de las maderas y de otros componentes del bosque para asignarles un uso adecuado. Parte del proyecto es integrar los resultados obtenidos durante toda la investigación previa, para hacer un análisis integral de los temas tratados individualmente. Así, el objetivo principal es evaluar las propiedades de los recursos boscosos del Parque Chaqueño Seco para optimizar su utilización a partir del estudio de la calidad de la madera, usos etnobotánicos, patrones ecoanatómicos, distribución espacial de los recursos y estado de degradación del bosque. Palabras clave: Utilización sustentable; recurso; bosque; Chaco Seco
... Por otra parte, la rúcula es conocida por su agradable sabor amargo y, como otras verduras crucíferas, contiene una serie de fitonutrientes que promueven la salud, tales como carotenoides, vitaminas C, flavonoides y glucosinolatos, así como potasio y azufre (Kawashima y Soares, 2003;Bennett y col., 2004;Nunes y col., 2013). Esta hortaliza es ampliamente consumida como ensalada fresca o como parte de ensaladas mixtas en los países mediterráneos y también en Argentina (Ahmed y col., 2013). ...
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En Argentina, existe una gran demanda de biomasa vegetal para satisfacer necesidades de energía para el consumo doméstico de pequeños productores y emprendimientos rurales, urbanos y periurbanos. En ese sentido, el establecimiento de plantaciones forestales de corta rotación con fines energéticos o plantaciones dendroenergéticas es una de las estrategias empleadas para la producción de dendrocombustibles y actualmente es una de las más prometedoras. Sin embargo, para favorecer una producción eficiente de bioenergía derivada de plantaciones, se requiere el desarrollo de material genético apropiado para las condiciones de Santiago del Estero. El Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalipto rojo) es una de las especies más utilizadas en el mundo para la generación de energía, ya que proporciona carbón y leña de buena calidad y tiene un poder calorífico superior de aproximadamente 19.600 KJ/kg (4.680 kcal/kg). Por otra parte, la especie nativa Prosopis alba (algarrobo blanco) genera grandes cantidades de biomasa y su madera es un buen combustible. En consecuencia, se inicia un programa de mejoramiento con fines dendroenergéticos para determinar el material genético más adecuado para la Región Chaqueña. Para esto, actualmente se realiza la evaluación de los ensayos instalados por la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero en conjunto con otras instituciones del medio provincial y nacional para la producción de semillas de calidad genética de ambas especies y la instalación de plantaciones dendroenergéticas con material genético seleccionado. Estos ensayos permitirán conocer la variación genética existente, la adaptación al medio y la selección de genotipos mejorados para el uso con fines dendroenergéticos. Disponer de semillas de calidad podría incrementar los rendimientos, diversificar la producción y disminuir el riesgo de inversión, brindando la base necesaria para promover la instalación de plantaciones energéticas en la región. Palabras clave: Mejoramiento genético, bioenergía, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Prosopis alba
... The Potassium, Calcium and Iron in G. africanum correlated well with the findings in the reports of Ekpedeme et al., (2000), Mepba et al. (2007) and Sobowale et al. (2010). However, higher values for calcium and potassium were reported by Luciane et al. (2003) in watercress Kale and Cabbage and in the review of Uusiku et al. (2010) in Amaranths spp and Solanum nigrum leaves, respectively. This variability was expected since the Fresh Green Leafy Vegetable (FGLV) belonged to different locations, where the soil and climatic conditions including light and temperature are dissimilar (Federico et al., 2004). ...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ambient temperature storage condition (27-29 °C) and domestic cooking on contents of carotenoids, chlorophylls, vitamins and minerals in the leaves of Gnetum africanum. Research method: Carotenoids were separated and analyzed by HPLC. Total-carotene content, vitamins and minerals were assessed spectrophotometrically. Main findings: Results indicated that G. africanum was rich in lutein (528.87 μg g-1 (dry weight basis) and total β-carotene (248.10 μg g-1). There was no statistical increase in total β-carotene content due to cooking, but there was a decrease due to storage. Total β-carotene isomerized more during thermal processing than in storage. Cooking decreased (p>0.05) the contents of chlorophylls, water soluble vitamins and minerals. Cooking and storage of G. africanum resulted in significant losses in ascorbic acid, riboflavin and niacin. Cooking also reduced the potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc. Iron contents of cooked and stored samples were higher than that of the raw sample. Research limitations: We had to travel over 600 km to use facilities for carotenoid analysis. Originality/value: The concentrations of lutein, β-carotene and certain micronutrients in G. africanum are much higher than typical contents in conventional edible leafy vegetables. The results of this study therefore provide evidence that G. africanum leaf could be an important contributor for improving the nutritional status of rural and urban people.
... García-Herreraa et al. (2014) shown that chicory contained higher K and Mn than dandelion, but lower Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn. Also, chicory leaves had 30% more Fe, but 50% less Cu than spinach (Lisiewska et al. 2009;Kawashima and Soares 2003). As can be seen from these results, mineral content of chicory can vary considerably, which is attributable to genotype and ecological conditions, maintenance, maturity, as well as the use of wild or cultivars. ...
Article
Despite being ignored in the modern agricultural approach, wild vegetables have an important use in Turkey and contribute to a balanced diet and food security at the household levels. This study focused on the nutritional content of wild chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) that is widely consumed as a vegetable by people living in rural areas in Turkey. The nutritional value and bioactive compounds and antioxidant contents in twenty-one wild chicory populations from Turkey were investigated by analyzing the leaf. The collected chicory seeds were sown in pots and grown in greenhouse conditions. 40 days after sowing, crude protein, mineral matters (Ca, Mg, P, K, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn) and antioxidant contents were determined. Significant differences were noted among to chicory populations regarding all the investigated parameters. Crude protein content among the population was between 20.45 and 27.89% and averaged 23.65%. Averaged mineral contents over the populations were ordered as follows: K > Ca > Mg > P > Fe > Mn > Cu. The variation was between 15.3 and 25.8 mgGAE/g extract for total phenolic and between 1.43 and 2.55 µgQE for total flavonoid content. Overall results showed that chicory can contribute to a healthier diet and food security by diversification of food sources. In addition, the geographical origin of the population was important in the traits examined, which can shed light on the selection of genotypes for breeders.
... The green leafy vegetables are a rich source of minerals; therefore essential minerals must be taken up through the diet. Lettuce contains macro and micro minerals which are essential for human nutrition (Kawashima and Soares, 2003). The application of chemical fertilizers (NPK) in soil significantly influenced the mineral accumulation in spinach and ambat chukka (Reddy and Bhatt, 2001). ...
Article
The nutritional quality of green leafy vegetables can be enhanced by application of plant beneficial micro-organisms. The present study was aimed to increase the food values of lettuce leaves by bacterial treatment. We isolated bacterial strain KE2 from Kimchi food and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus by phylogenetic analysis. The beneficial effect of B. methylotrophicus KE2 on plants was confirmed by increasing the percentage of seed germination of Lactuca sativa L., Cucumis melo L., Glycine max L. and Brassica juncea L. It might be the secretion of array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, GA34 and GA53) and indole-acetic acid from B. methylotrophicus KE2. The mechanism of plant growth promotion via their secreted metabolites was confirmed by a significant increase of GA deficient mutant rice plant growth. Moreover, the bacterial association was favor to enhance shoot length, shoot fresh weight and leaf width of lettuce. The higher concentration of protein, amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Leu, Tyr and His), gama-aminobutric acid and fructose was found in bacterial culture (KE2) applied plants. The macro and micro minerals such as K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Zn and N were also detected as significantly higher quantities in bacteria treated plants than untreated control plants. In addition, the carotenoids and chlorophyll a were also increased in lettuce at bacterial inoculation. The results of this study suggest that B. methylotrophicus KE2 application to soil helps to increase the plant growth and food values of lettuce.
... The moisture, ash, fat, fiber and crude protein content of Malva sylvestris L. samples are shown in Table 1sylvestris L. was comparable with spinach. These values for Spinacia oleracea L. (Spinach) and Malva sylvestris L. were Cu (0.05, 0.18 mg/100gfw), Zn (0.3, 0.27 mg/100gfw), Fe (1, 4 mg/100gfw), K (537, 544 mg/100gfw), Na (94, 194 mg/100gfw), Ca (64, 643 mg/100gfw), Mg (55, 131 mg/100gfw) (Kawashima and Valente Soares, 2003). Table 2. Fatty acid composition of Malva sylvestris oil (relative content %) Petiole Leaf Fatty acid Dezful Dehloran Ilam Dezful Dehloran Ilam 1.70±0.21c ...
... A study of the nutrient status of butterhead lettuce, kale, cabbage, spinach, and other leafy vegetables showed that kale offered the highest amounts of calcium (Ca), whereas cabbage and butterhead lettuce had the lowest Ca (Kawashima and Valente Soares 2003). In a listing of powerhouse fruits and vegetables ranked according to 17 nutrients of public health importance, watercress, Chinese cabbage, chard, beet greens, spinach, chicory, and leaf lettuce ranked high, whereas cabbage and iceberg lettuce scored low (Di Noia 2014). ...
Article
An improvement in the mineral nutrient contents of fruits and vegetables is needed to offset reported declines in concentrations of these elements in fruits and vegetables. The declines have been associated with the high productivity of modern cultivars and to depleted soil fertility. This research addressed differences in mineral nutrient concentrations between modern F1 hybrids and heirloom cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.) and among fertilization practices with conventional chemical or organic fertilizers and compost. Crop production was greater with the chemical or organic fertilizers than with the compost. Mineral nutrient composition did not vary between modern or heirloom cultivars or among fertilization regimes but varied among cultivars, suggesting that cultivar selection could lead to production of nutrient-rich cabbage. Neither mass of heads nor days to maturation of crops affected nutrient composition.
... According to Slupski et al (2005), boiling reduces the mineral content of foods. However, a necessary amount remains in the cooked food (Kawashima and Valente Soares, 2003). By associating milk or dairy products with the consumption of traditional Ivorian-type dishes, the calcium deficiency could be made up for. ...
Article
Objective: According to regional or ethnic affiliation, Ivoirians consume a variety of traditional dishes. This study aimed to discover the dietary diversity and determine the nutritional contribution of the Ivorian traditional dishes. Methodology and results: For that, a family food survey was conducted in forty-four localities in different regions (North, South, East, Center and West). Households from these localities were interviewed using a questionnaire. The interview focused on the preparation of the most commonly consumed traditional dishes, selected based on the consumption frequency. Then, the physico-chemical characteristics of these dishes were determined. The results showed that Ivorian traditional dishes consist mainly of starchy basic dishes and side sauces. The main dishes consist of tubers and roots (yam, cassava, potato) or cereals (rice, corn, millet, sorghum.) and starchy fruits (plantain). The side sauces are cooked from vegetables (eggplants, seeds, tomatoes, okra, leaves, peppers, peanuts, and pistachios), proteins like fish, meat, poultry, molluscs, mushrooms, seafood and spices (salt, pepper). The Ivorian traditional dishes provide a sufficient share of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids with average contents ranging respectively between 45 to 69 %, 10 to 20 % and less than 35 % of dry matter. In addition, these dishes provided sufficient energy (373.33 to 516.78 Kcal / 100 g DM) and had low sodium, calcium and magnesium contents. Their iron contents were relatively good. Conclusion and application of results: The Ivorian population’s diets diversity is real and beneficial to them because the different dishes consumed provide the necessary nutrients for the proper functioning of the consumer’s bodies. However, compliance with the principles of a good diet, particularly in terms of quantity, is essential to avoid pathologies by excess or by default. Keywords: Dietary diversity, traditional dishes, chemical composition, Côte d’Ivoire
... Nevertheless, in order to become edible, they are processed by culinary treatments (blanching, boiling or steaming) (Sat et al., 2002). The changes undertaken during processing treatments are well described for several vegetables regarding antioxidant properties (Adebooye, Vijayalakshmi, & Singh, 2008), mineral content (Kawashima & Soares, 2003;Kumari, Gupta, Lakshmi, & Prakash, 2004), nutritional value (Miglio, Chiavaro, Visconti, Fogliano, & Pellegrini, 2008), and bioactive components (Negi & Roy, 2000). Nevertheless, information concerning grapevine leaves changes during the culinary and preservation processes is very limited. ...
Article
Grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L. var. Malvasia Fina and Touriga Franca) under culinary treatment (blanching and boiling at 60, 75 and 90 min) were studied for their color, pigments and volatile fraction changes. Blanching and boiling caused a decrease in luminosity and a loss of green coloration in both varieties, while a yellow-brownish color arose. Significant correlations were established between the loss of green color (monochromatic variable a∗) and the total chlorophylls content. The main volatiles in fresh leaves [(Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate] were drastically reduced by blanching and suppressed by boiling. Other compounds like pentanal and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2 one arose from blanching and boiling. A boiling time of 60 min is adequate for the culinary process of grapevine leaves, since the product is considered edible and the pigments and volatile changes are not as drastic as observed at 75 and 90 min of boiling.
... Sugar levels, together with glucosinolates, also influence the flavor and acceptance by the consumer [11]. Chinese broccoli, like other leaf vegetables, is believed to provide a modest source of essential minerals such as K, Ca and Mg, in well-balanced diets [18]. Air temperature has been reported to influence the levels of glucosinolates and sugars in curly kale and turnips [19,20]. ...
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Root temperature has long been considered an essential environmental factor influencing the plant’s physiology. However, little is known about the effect of root temperature on the quality of the food produced by the plant, especially that of horticultural crops. To fill this gap, two independent root cooling experiments (15 °C vs 20 °C and 10 °C vs 20 °C) were conducted in autumn 2017 and spring 2018 in hydroponics with Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey) under greenhouse conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of root temperature on plant growth (biomass, height, yield) and food quality (soluble sugars, total chlorophyll, starch, minerals, glucosinolates). A negative impact on shoot growth parameters (yield, shoot biomass) was detected by lowering the root temperature to 10 °C. Chinese broccoli showed no response to 15 °C root temperature, except for an increase in root biomass. Low root temperature was in general associated with a higher concentration of soluble sugars and total chlorophyll, but lower mineral levels in stems and leaves. Ten individual glucosinolates were identified in the stems and leaves, including six aliphatic and four indolic glucosinolates. Increased levels of neoglucobrassicin in leaves tracked root cooling more closely in both experiments. Reduction of root temperature by cooling could be a potential method to improve certain quality characters of Chinese broccoli, including sugar and glucosinolate levels, although at the expense of shoot biomass.
... There are many sources of metals from food additives, foods, edible oils and biomass burning (Anwar et al., 2004;Acciai et al., 2017;Zhao et al., 2019). For example, Kawashima et al. (2003) found Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn in vegetables, Lombardi-Boccia et al. (2004) found Cu, Fe, and Zn in meat, and Atta et al. (1997) found Cu, Zn, and Cd in fish. Mn could also be contained in the mushrooms. ...
Article
The chemical composition of three lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars (?SA Standard?, ?WL711? and ?WL525?) were compared to spinach beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.), a familiar leafy vegetable (as control), in order to establish its potential as an alternative green leafy vegetable for human consumption. The degrees Brix, macro- and micro-minerals, protein, amino acids, dry matter, moisture, ash, fat, fibre, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The protein content of the cooked ?SA Standard? and ?WL525? lucerne cultivars had significantly (p < 0.001) higher protein contents than cooked spinach beet. Cooked lucerne cultivar ?SA Standard? had a significantly (p < 0.001) higher energy content than cooked lucerne cultivar ?WL525? and spinach beet. Based on these findings, the chemical composition of lucerne compared well to the properties of spinach beet, making them desirable in terms of nutrition and could be used as a potential vegetable for human consumption.
Article
To improve nutrition of humans, it is recommended that fruits and vegetables constitute a major portion of diets. An improvement in the mineral nutrient contents of fruits and vegetables is needed to offset apparent declines in these elements in these foods. This research addressed enrichment of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.) through selection of nutrient-rich cultivars and soil fertility practices. Conventional fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and compost were evaluated with modern F1 hybrids in field experiments. Crop production was greater with the chemical or organic fertilizers than with the compost. Mineral nutrient composition varied among cultivars but not with fertility practices, suggesting that cultivar selection could lead to production of nutrient-rich cabbage. Neither mass of heads or days to maturation of crops affected nutrient composition.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate mineral, vitamin C, phenolic and flavonoid concentrations and antioxidant activity levels in 15 leafy Amaranthus species. Across species, the concentration ranges of Ca, K, Mg, P and phenolics, and activity ranges of antioxidants in amaranth leaves were 1.5–3.5 mg/g, 5.5-8.8 mg/g, 1.8–4.5 mg/g, 0.5–0.9 mg/g, 3.2–5.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and 38–90 μmol Trolox equivalents/g (all values on a fresh weight [FW] basis), respectively. Amaranthus acanthochiton had the highest concentrations of Ca, Mg, Ni, Zn, and A. deflexus and A. viridis had the highest concentrations of Fe. A serving of any of the Amaranthus leaves (1 cup; 30 g FW) would contribute from 13 to 34% of the daily value (DV) of Mg (DV = 400 mg; as established by the US Food and Drug Administration), and up to 68% of the DV of vitamin C (DV = 60 mg). In addition, A. acanthochiton would be considered a good source of Ca, Mn and Mo (10%–19% of the DV), and an excellent source of Mg and vitamin C (20% or more of the DV). Amaranth leafy vegetables should be promoted as a dietary source of essential nutrients and health-beneficial compounds.
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Brassica spp. are good sources of bioactive substances, which are known to have beneficial health effects. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, microwaving, pressure cooking and vacuum cooking) on the antioxidant capacity and on the flavonoid, organic acid and mineral contents of Galega kale. Results indicate that this vegetable has a high antioxidant capacity and high contents of total flavonoids, organic acids, and minerals such as potassium and calcium. All of the cooking methods yielded losses of antioxidant capacity and of total flavonoids, organic acids and minerals, relative to the contents in fresh kale. Steaming proved to be the best method of preserving the antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds. Although cooking did not cause large losses of oxalic acid, the resulting oxalate:calcium ratio was rather low (<2). The present data demonstrate that the different cooking methods have different effects on the bioactive compounds in kale, and that it is important the optimisation of such methods in order to minimise losses of the nutritional properties.
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Landraces of spinach in Iran have not been sufficiently characterised for their morpho-agronomic traits. Such characterisation would be helpful in the development of new genetically improved cultivars. In this study 54 spinach accessions collected from the major spinach growing areas of Iran were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity profile of spinach genotypes on the basis of 10 quantitative and 9 qualitative morpho-agronomic traits. High coefficients of variation were recorded in some quantitative traits (dry yield and leaf area) and all of the qualitative traits. Using principal component analysis, the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 1 contributed 87% of the variability among accessions for quantitative traits, whereas the first four principal components with eigen-values more than 0.8 contributed 79% of the variability among accessions for qualitative traits. The most important relations observed on the first two principal components were a strong positive association between leaf width and petiole length; between leaf length and leaf numbers in flowering; and among fresh yield, dry yield and petiole diameter; a near zero correlation between days to flowering with leaf width and petiole length. Prickly seeds, high percentage of female plants, smooth leaf texture, high numbers of leaves at flowering, greygreen leaves, erect petiole attitude and long petiole length are important characters for spinach breeding programmes.
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Rocket plant (Eruca sativa) is a green leafy vegetable with significant levels of bioactive active components. Although, this plant is known in Bulgaria, scanty data concerning chemical composition of representatives with Bulgarian origin is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the biological potential of Italian and Bulgarian rockets in terms of their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and total hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. The micro- and macro elements were evaluated as well. The highest content of total phenolic content was detected in Bulgarian rocket – 4.45 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight, while in Italian samples dominated the total hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives – 1.52 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per g dry weight. The antioxidant activity was not significantly different in both samples. The presence Co and Al was reported for the first time, as in our study their values were higher in a rocket from Italian origin (75.6 and 595 mg/kg). Italian rocket contained arsenic (0.07 mg/g) in comparison with Bulgarian samples where it was not found. The results revealed the sample with Italian origin as a significant better source of antioxidants with potential beneficial effects. Bulgarian rocket was evaluated with smaller amount of some metals as nickel, arsenic, chromium, manganese, aluminum and sodium, but the concentrations of Pb (0.58 mg/kg) and Cd (0.27 mg/kg) were higher than accepted levels by EU.
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Traditional vegetables are piloted as champion species for sub-Saharan Africa, a region experiencing high levels of nutritional food insecurity and water scarcity. The important benefits of traditional vegetables over alien vegetables are; (i) their high nutrient density (iron, zinc, and β-carotene), (ii) their productivity under water stress, and (iii) their availability to rural resource-poor households. However, information on these benefits is anecdotal. The objectives of this study were to benchmark nutritional water productivity [NWP = (aboveground edible biomass and/ or storage organ biomass/actual evapotranspiration) × nutritional content of a product] of ten traditional vegetables and compare them with ten alien vegetables. We selected vegetables that are widely utilized by rural resource-poor households. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using common databases. Data [biomass (aboveground biomass and/ or storage organ), water use, and nutrient concentration] sourced from the literature were used to compute water productivity, nutritional yield (NY), and NWP of selected vegetables. Our results revealed that the water productivity of traditional vegetables was comparable to that of alien vegetables. In addition, traditional vegetables were superior in nutritional yield (Fe-NY and Zn-NY) and NWP (Fe-NWP and Zn-NWP) of micronutrients. Alien vegetables were rich in β-carotene-NY and β-carotene-NWP; this is contrary to the anecdotal information. We acknowledge the weakness of our approach; generating the NWP database using two independent datasets (crop water productivity and the nutrient concentration databases). However, this was the only pragmatic approach to establish first-order estimates of NWP for selected groups of vegetables. We propose that future research should be conducted to validate these results.
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Kale is a leafy green vegetable regularly grown using non-organic agricultural systems. In recent years, organic kale demand has increased at near-doubling rates in the USA due to its perceived nutritional value. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of organic cover cropping systems on subsequent kale biomass production and nutrient composition (protein, mineral, and prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations) and to assess organic kale as a potential whole food source of daily essential mineral micronutrients and prebiotic carbohydrates. A single 100-g serving of fresh organic kale can provide mineral micronutrients (43–438 mg Ca; 11–60 mg Mg; 28–102 mg P; 0.5–3.3 mg Fe; 0.3–1.3 mg Mn; 1–136 µg Cu; and 0–35 µg Se) as well as 5.7–8.7 g of total prebiotic carbohydrates, including sugar alcohols (0.4–6.6 mg), simple sugars (6–1507 mg), raffinose and fructooligosaccharides (0.8–169 mg), hemicellulose (77–763 mg), lignin (0–90 mg), and unknown dietary fiber (5–6 g). Fresh organic kale has low to moderate concentrations of protein (1.3–6.0 g/100 g). Study results indicate that Starbor and Red Russian are the most suitable kale cultivars for organic production without considerable biomass and nutrient composition losses. Among the cover crops, faba bean results in the highest mineral, protein, and prebiotic carbohydrate concentrations in subsequent kale crops but ryegrass increases kale biomass production. Results also demonstrated a significant interaction between kale variety and organic cover crop with respect to biomass and nutrient concentration. Future organic nutritional breeding of kale is possible by selecting cultivars that perform well following different cover crops.
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This book covers all areas of agricultural sciences. The contributions by the authors include risk management; agricultural insurance policy; subsidies; grape insurance; insurance indicators; crop; water scarcity; effective rainfall; irrigation; climate change; quantitative traits; genotypic correlation; phenotypic correlation; wheat cultivars; cold stress; floret sterility; grain yield; castor bean; mulching; nitrogen sources; soil properties; biomass; cellulose; cellulose; tomato cultivars; chemical composition; microbiological profile; antioxidant activity; storage conditions; agricultural production; women; prospects; challenges; sustainability; trace elements; atomic absorption spectrometry; calcinations; wet digestion; environmental pollution; mango ginger; Curcuma amada; zingiberaceae; Kerala; variability; wheat flour; new wheat varieties; pasta properties; pasta products; quality; grain; chemical analysis; mineral content; pearl millet; food etc. This book contains various materials suitable for students, researchers and academicians in the field of agricultural sciences.
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Wild greens can contribute to the human diet as an important source of essential nutrients and drugs. Since environmental factors, including soil properties, may affect the chemical composition of plants, it is necessary among others to assess various habitats in terms of their usefulness for wild plant harvesting and to study impact of environmental factors on the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of plants. This study was aimed at (1) examining the mineral composition of leaves of three dandelion microspecies, (2) determining the variability of macro- and microelement concentrations in dandelion leaves from populations growing on salty, brackish and non-saline coastal meadows, and (3) assessing the effects of different habitat conditions on the mineral composition of dandelion leaves. It was hypothesized that dandelion microspecies would differ significantly in the mineral composition of leaves. It was also expected that soil conditions would significantly affect nutrient concentrations in dandelion leaves, with soil salinity being the most important factor that differentiated studied populations. Leaves of three dandelion microspecies (Taraxacum balticum, T. nordstedtii, T. haematicum) were harvested in Baltic costal grasslands, along the soil salinity gradient, to determine macro-and microelement concentrations. Soil samples collected in the closest vicinity of the harvested plants showed the study sites to differ significantly in their soil properties. Moderately saline and organic soils, rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca), supported T. balticum. Moderately or weakly saline and non-saline, organic or mineral soils, with lower median values of K, Mg, and Ca, were typical of T. nordstedtii sites, while the lowest median values of all the soil properties studied were found for T. haematicum sites. Our results proved that dandelion microspecies differ significantly in the mineral composition of their leaves. The between-microspecies differences were significant for all the macroelements except magnesium and all the microelements except molybdenum. Most of the macro- and microelements in leaves of the dandelion microspecies correlated positively and significantly with the soil properties, the strongest correlations being found for soil salinity and the leaf Na, Mn, Ca, Fe, K and Zn contents, followed by soil pH and the leaf Na, Mn, Fe, K, Ca, Zn and Mg. Moreover, the impact of soil properties on the mineral contents in leaves of the dandelions we examined seems to be stronger than the genetic differences between dandelion microspecies. Results of our studies on mineral composition of dandelion leaves lend support to the contention that wild greens provide essential mineral nutrients to the diet. Coastal meadows, fed by the brackish water of the Baltic Sea and free of anthropogenic pollution, are a good habitat to collect wild greens from.
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Background Dietary factors have been noted to influence the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) which are the number one global cause of death. In this study, the nutritional importance and human health risk of the minerals composition of 20 medicinal plants’ (MPs) parts used for treating CVDs and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) were assessed. Methods Inductively coupled plasma technology was used for determining the minerals composition of the MPs while human health risk assessment was based on hazard quotients, hazard indexes and non-carcinogenic risk analysis of the studied heavy metals. Results The investigation showed varied level of minerals in the studied MPs’ parts with K having the highest concentration in most. Although level of some elements inM. lucida, V. amygdalina leaves, T. cacao seed and Z. officinale rhizome revealed their possibility in preventing the occurrence of atherosclerosis, unsafe levels of some trace elements were recorded in M. lucida and V. amygdalina leaves. V. amygdalina leaves and A. cepa bulb also had their Pb contents higher than the WHO/FAO Codex permitted maximum level for leafy and bulb vegetables, respectively. In spite of the desirable Na/K and Zn/Cu ratios in all the tested MPs with their Cd and Pb levels below the WHO recommended maximum levels for dried medicinal plant materials, health risk assessment showed that habitual use of almost all of the studied MPs would present an unacceptable risk of non-carcinogenic effects on health. With the exception of S. aromaticum flower bud and T. tetraptera fruit, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses of other plants’ parts (MPs’ parts aside from the leaves) analysed provided a distinction between MPs which have found food applications and those solely used for medicinal purposes. Conclusions The study revealed that type of MP, plants’ part, maturity stage, agricultural practice, growing environment and conditions, are among the factors determining the safety of plant materials used for CVDs’ and related risk factors’ treatment in SSA. To protect the lives of CVDs patients who rely on traditional medicine for treatment, government of SSA countries and relevant authorities need to set a regulatory limit for maximum acceptable concentration of minerals in MPs used in the region. Assessment of the physicochemical properties and pollution level of soil used for cultivation of these MPs is also encouraged.
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Knowledge of the engineering properties of seeds, grains, nuts, kernels, and fruits is vital in the design of planting, harvesting, and postharvesting machines. This study investigates moisture-dependent geometrical, gravimetrical, frictional, rheological, and aerodynamical properties of arugula seed. The length, width, and thickness of the seed distributions were modeled by the Normal, Log-normal, and Weibull probability density functions. In the moisture ranges of 4.68–20.50%, the major, intermediate, and minor seed dimensions increased from 2.01 to 2.35 mm, 1.60 to 1.98 mm, and 1.17 to 1.33 mm, respectively. The results indicated that Log-normal distribution had the best performance in most cases. Values of 1,000-seed mass, bulk density, particle density, and porosity ranged between 1.33 to 1.77 g, 703.07 to 644.37 kg m⁻³, 1,160 to 1,392 kg m⁻³, and 39.39 to 53.71% as in the above moisture ranges. The filling and emptying angles of repose increased from 29.21° to 34.78° and 37.95° to 39.75°, respectively, as the moisture content increased. Incremental trends were observed for terminal velocity in water and air and residual stress during relaxation tests. Decreasing trends were observed for drag coefficient, modulus of elasticity, maximum contact stress, toughness, hardness, rupture force, and reduced stress during relaxation tests. Practical Applications Arugula (Eruca vesicaria L. or Eruca sativa Mill L.) is a popular worldwide vegetable. Besides consuming its leaves as a vegetable, the oil extracted from its seeds has industrial uses. This study investigated properties of arugula seeds with varying moisture contents with a view to understand their relevance in mechanical processing and bulk handling. The results presented in the current work would contribute to designing the metering devices (distributors), sorters, separators, cleaners, transportation systems, conveyors, oil extractors, etc.
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Oxalates occur as end products of metabolism in a number of plant tissues; some leafy plants and some root crops contain markedly high levels of soluble and insoluble oxalates. When consumed these oxalates can bind calcium and other minerals. Measurement of oxalate content in vegetables commonly consumed in New Zealand shows that cooking reduces the oxalate content of the food by leaching losses into the cooking water. Roots and brassicas grown in New Zealand appear to contain relatively low levels of oxalates. Leafy vegetables such as silverbeet and NZ spinach appear to approach and exceed levels found in rhubarb stalks, although New Zealand silverbeet stems contain lower levels.
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The analysis of dietary patterns emerged recently as a possible approach to examining diet-disease relation. We analysed the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with dietary patterns in men and women, while taking a number of potential confounding variables into account. Data were from a prospective cohort study with follow-up of total and cause-specific mortality. A random sample of 3698 men and 3618 women aged 30-70 years and living in Copenhagen County, Denmark, were followed from 1982 to 1998 (median 15 years). Three dietary patterns were identified from a twenty-eight item food frequency questionnaire, collected at baseline: (1) a predefined healthy food index, which reflected daily intakes of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal bread, (2) a prudent and (3) a Western dietary pattern derived by principal component analysis. The prudent pattern was positively associated with frequent intake of wholemeal bread, fruits and vegetables, whereas the Western was characterized by frequent intakes of meat products, potatoes, white bread, butter and lard. Among participants with complete information on all variables, 398 men and 231 women died during follow-up. The healthy food index was associated with reduced all-cause mortality in both men and women, but the relations were attenuated after adjustment for smoking, physical activity, educational level, BMI, and alcohol intake. The prudent pattern was inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after controlling for confounding variables. The Western pattern was not significantly associated with mortality. This study partly supports the assumption that overall dietary patterns can predict mortality, and that the dietary pattern associated with the lowest risk is the one which is in accordance with the current recommendations for a prudent diet.
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Absorption of calcium from three intrinsically labeled Brussica sp. vegetables was measured in 15 normal women in a three-way randomized design. The test load of calcium was about 83 mg for each source. Fractional calcium absorption from broccoli averaged 0.478 ± 0.089, from bok choy stems, 0.519 ± 0.089, from bok choy leaves, 0.520 ± 0.074, and from kale 0.527 ± 0.091. These differences were both absolutely small and statistically insignificant. Mean absorbability of milk calcium ingested at the same load has been previously shown to be 0.463 ± .095. This value is slightly but significantly lower than the average value for the Brassica sources combined (0.514 ± 0.090). Thus, Brussicu vegetable sources exhibit excellent calcium bioavailability.
Article
In vitro calcium availability from four varieties of Brassica oleracea L. (broccoli, cauliflower, green cabbage and kale) was evaluated. The effect of including some brassica vegetables in composite dishes (macaroni and broccoli, macaroni and cauliflower) was also studied. Brassica vegetables were rich in calcium (20.6–35.3 mg/100 g) and in organic acids. Dietary fibre content in brassica vegetables (2.4 g/100 g) was lower than in composite dishes, the latter having a higher content of the soluble fraction. Uronic acids represented 50% of the soluble fibre fraction of brassica vegetables and only 24% of that of composite dishes. Approximately 25% of the total calcium of brassica vegetables was dialysable; ionic dialysable calcium was about 7% of the total calcium. The addition of macaroni to vegetables significantly lowered only calcium dialysability (p<0.001). Unlike vegetables, composite dishes had a percentage of soluble calcium higher (p<0.001) than that of dialysable calcium. The presence in dialysates of higher amounts of bound calcium compared to free ionic calcium implies that most of the absorbable calcium was bound to low molecular weight compounds. Organic acids might constitute the main association of calcium in brassica vegetables. Brassicaceae can be regarded as a good source of available calcium; their consumption in the diet may contribute to an adequate calcium nutriture.
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A simple and cost-effective method is described for minimising adventitious contamination from laboratory blenders prior to their use for the homogenisation of food samples that are to be analysed for mineral content. The blenders were treated with a hot aqueous solution of a mixture of 2% EDTA and 2% citric acid. The solution was allowed to mix in the blender at medium speed for a total period of 5 min before the bowls of the blenders were rinsed and the treatment repeated for a second time. A range of metals was determined from food samples homogenised in the treated blenders and the concentrations of metals were compared with those found in identical food samples homogenised in untreated blenders. Significant differences in metal level concentrations were observed for iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and chromium — with the untreated blenders giving rise to a considerably higher degree of contamination. The results obtained indicate that laboratory blenders intended for homogenising food samples prior to analysis for metal content may need a chemical clean-up before use. The clean-up procedure described may provide a viable way of minimising contamination, particularly in the absence of specially modified equipment.
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The role that diet plays in the management of plasma lipid levels is discussed in this review. It has long been recognized that saturated fatty acids and cholesterol raise the plasma cholesterol level whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids lower it. Recently, the effects of other dietary constituents in the management of plasma lipid levels have been established. In particular, monounsaturated fatty acids, soluble fiber, and vegetarian diets favorably affect plasma lipid levels. Overweight and obesity adversely affect plasma lipid levels. Omega-3 fatty acids are hypotriglyceridemic, and high carbohydrate diets low in saturated fatty acids are hypocholesterolemic. Further work is required to establish the long-term consequences of alcohol and coffee consumption on the plasma lipid response. A variety of alternative dietary strategies can be employed in conjunction with traditional dietary recommendations (i.e., reduce total fat, especially saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol) for the management of plasma lipid levels. The expected plasma total cholesterol (specifically low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol) reduction is approximately 10% to 20% when dietary saturated fatty acids and cholesterol are decreased to less than or equal to 7% of calories and less than or equal to 200 mg of cholesterol per day. Further dietary modifications, such as increasing soluble fiber, may lead to additional reductions of 1% to 10% in plasma total cholesterol.
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Obtaining sufficient amounts of absorbable dietary calcium to optimize bone density and to protect against bone resorption is a protective measure to lower the risk of osteoporosis. This goal is difficult in Western-style diets without the inclusion of dairy foods, fortified foods, or supplements. Lactovegetarians are able to meet recommended calcium intakes and do not have compromised bone mineral densities. Few other foods provide concentrated sources of absorbable calcium. Estimates of the absorbable calcium content of several plant foods are provided.
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McCance and Widdowson's the composition of foods
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  • I D Unwin
  • D H Buss
  • A A Paul
  • D A T Southgate