May Cathepsin D Immunoreactivity Be Used as a Prognostic Factor in Endometrial Carcinomas? A Comparative Immunohistochemical Study
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dokuz Eylul University, Ismir, İzmir, TurkeyGynecologic Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.77). 10/2001; 83(1):20-24. DOI: 10.1006/gyno.2001.6348
Objective. To investigate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical detection of cathepsin D and the association between cathepsin D and established prognostic factors in endometrial carcinoma.Methods. Cathepsin D immunoreactivity was determined by an immunohistochemical technique in a series of 79 patients with surgical stage I–III primary endometrial carcinoma.Results. Of 79 tissue specimens, 48 (61%) showed a positive reaction for cathepsin D. A significant correlation between cathepsin D and histological grade was found (P < 0.05). The other established clinicopathological prognostic factors were not associated with cathepsin D. There was not any significant difference in prognosis between the positive cases and negative cases for cathepsin D (P > 0.05). In the univariate analysis cathepsin D immunoreactivity did not show significant prognostic value for overall survival (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis also showed that cathepsin D was not related to patient outcome (P = 0.24, relative risk = 0.34, 95% confidence interval = 0.05–2.09).Conclusions. Our results suggest that cathepsin D immunoreactivity may not be of prognostic value but more studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between its immunoreactivity in tumor cells and in other cells.
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ABSTRACT: Cathepsin D (CathD), a lysosomal aspartyl protease secreted by normal and malignant cells, is considered to be involved in breakdown of the extracellular matrix. Aim of the present study was to determine the frequency and tissue distribution of CathD in normal, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium. Paraffin-fixed endometrial tissue was obtained from premenopausal women in the proliferative phase (n = 5), early secretory phase (n = 4) and late secretory phase (n = 4) as well as glandular-cystic hyperplasia (n = 5), endometrial polyps (n = 5), endometrial polyps from the use of tamoxifen (n = 5), adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) grade I (n = 5), grade II (n = 4), grade III (n = 5) and endometroid adenocarcinoma (n = 5). CathD expression was evaluated with the IRS score and ANOVA analysis was used for statistical evaluation. CathD was primarily localised in luminal and glandular epihelium with little staining in stromal cells. The expression of CathD was significantly higher during the late secretory phase than in the proliferative phase. Highest expression of CathD was observed in the late secretory phase and in glandular-cystic hyperplasia, whereas endometroid carcinoma showed no expression. A continuous increase in CathD expression was observed in AH, with a significant difference between AH grade I and III. In conclusion, CathD was found to be expressed in normal and hyperplastic endometrial tissue. CathD immunostaining in normal endometrial glands varied on the basis of the phase of the menstrual cycle, suggesting physiological functions of CathD in endometrial maturation and degradation. Adenocarcinomas did express significant lower amounts of CathD. Therefore, the prognostic value of this parameter remains uncertain. A continuous increase in CathD immunostaining was observed in AH. Since AH grade III can be considered as a precursor of endometrial cancer, CathD could be a possible parameter for assessing malignant transformation.
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ABSTRACT: Cathepsin D is an aspartyl proteinase involved in tumoral invasion. The aim of this work was to study cathepsin D cytosolic levels in squamous carcinomas of the lung and their correlation with several clinical and biological parameters. The study group included 95 squamous lung carcinomas and 38 normal tissue samples from the same patients. Cathepsin D cytosolic concentrations were determined using an immunoradiometric assay (CIS BioInternational. France). EGFR, erbB2 protein, CD44s, CD44v5 and CD44v6 levels at cell surfaces were determined. The clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and S-phase cellular fraction (SP) were also considered as variables of the study. Cathepsin D cytosolic levels oscillated between 7.7 and 576 (median: 38.8) pmol/mg protein and were lower (p = 0.001) than those observed in 38 normal lung samples from the same patients. When tumors were classified according to different clinical and biological parameters, we noticed that cathepsin D levels were higher in carcinomas with lower proliferation rates and no nodal involvement, reaching statistical significance in both cases. Moreover, when lung carcinomas were classified according to cathepsin D concentrations, tumors with higher cathepsin D concentrations had lower EGFR levels (p = 0.011) and small global SP values (p = 0.025) and DNA index (p = 0.023). Likewise, they were found to be CD44s positive more frequently (p = 0.001) and SP positive less frequently (p = 0.022). These results lead us to suggest the following: a) in squamous carcinomas of the lung, cathepsin D cytosolic levels are lower than those observed in normal lung samples from the same patients, and b) in this subtype of lung carcinomas, high cathepsin D levels are associated with tumors without nodal involvement, with low proliferation rates, lower EGFR levels, and a reduced positivity for CD44s, pointing to a possible role of this proteinase as a parameter of good outcome.
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ABSTRACT: The immunohistochemical expression of cathepsin D was performed in paraffin embedded tissue from 79 endometrial carcinomas, 35 cases of hyperplasia, and 32 normal endometrium using the streptavidin-biotin method to investigate the role of cathepsin D (CD) in these lesions and its possible relationship with other potential and established prognostic markers. The association between CD and the other markers was assessed by univariate analysis. Tumor cell CD expression was lower in the group of carcinomas compared to the normal proliferative (P = 0.022) and secretory endometrium (P = 0.0005). In addition, hyperplastic cell CD expression was lower compared with epithelial cell CD expression in the secretory phase of normal endometrium (P = 0.009). Malignant cell CD expression was inversely correlated with tumor stromal cells (P = 0.007). A positive relationship of stromal cell CD expression with pRb (P = 0.046) and PCNA score (P < 0.0001) was detected in the group of carcinomas. In the proliferative phase of normal endometrium, epithelial CD expression was positively correlated with estrogen status (P = 0.015). The data show that down-regulation of CD expression is an early event in endometrial carcinogenesis. In addition, stromal cell CD expression may be involved in cell growth process in endometrial carcinomas.
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