The Impact of Kindergarten Learning-Related Skills on Academic Trajectories at the End of Elementary School

Article (PDF Available)inEarly Childhood Research Quarterly 21(4):471-490 · October 2006with2,113 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2006.09.003
Abstract
Recent research indicates that children's learning-related skills (including self-regulation and social competence) contribute to early school success. The present study investigated the relation of kindergarten learning-related skills to reading and math trajectories in 538 children between kindergarten and sixth grade, and examined how children with poor learning-related skills fared throughout elementary school on reading and math. Latent growth curves indicated that learning-related skills had a unique effect on children's reading and math scores between kindergarten and sixth grade and predicted growth in reading and math between kindergarten and second grade. In addition, children with poor learning-related skills performed lower than their higher-rated peers on measures of reading and mathematics between kindergarten and sixth grade, with the gap widening between kindergarten and second grade. Between third and sixth grade, this gap persisted but did not widen. Discussion focuses on the importance of early learning-related skills as a component in children's academic trajectories throughout elementary school and the need for early intervention focusing on children's self-regulation and social competence.
2 Figures
    • Future research should examine potentially interactive effects between family characteristics such as parent education and flame retardants on children's development. The use of teacher ratings of children's social behaviors is also a limitation because ratings are not as objective as direct assessments, yet teacher ratings are also advantageous because they reliably capture variation in children's behavior in classroom contexts that predicts their later success[47,48]. Also, the seven subsets of positive behavior skills are strongly correlated, which is why we modeled them separately. However, this does introduce the potential for false positive results due to multiple comparisons.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Children are exposed to flame retardants from the built environment. Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE) and organophosphate-based flame retardants (OPFRs) are associated with poorer neurocognitive functioning in children. Less is known, however, about the association between these classes of compounds and children’s emotional and social behaviors. The objective of this study was to determine if flame retardant exposure was associated with measurable differences in social behaviors among children ages 3–5 years. Methods We examined teacher-rated social behaviors measured using the Social Skills Improvement Rating Scale (SSIS) and personal exposure to flame retardants in children aged 3–5 years who attended preschool (n = 72). Silicone passive samplers worn for 7 days were used to assess personal exposure to 41 compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer. These concentrations were then summed into total BDE and total OPFR exposure prior to natural log transformation. Separate generalized additive models were used to evaluate the relationship between seven subscales of the SSIS and lnΣBDE or lnΣOPFR adjusting for other age, sex, adverse social experiences, and family context. ResultsAll children were exposed to a mixture of flame retardant compounds. We observed a dose dependent relationship between lnΣOPFR and two subscales where children with higher exposures were rated by their preschool teachers as having less responsible behavior (p = 0.07) and more externalizing behavior problems (p = 0.03). Additionally, children with higher lnΣBDE exposure were rated by teachers as less assertive (p = 0.007). Conclusions We observed a cross-sectional association between children’s exposure to flame retardant compounds and teacher-rated social behaviors among preschool-aged children. Children with higher flame retardant exposures exhibited poorer social skills in three domains that play an important role in a child’s ability to succeed academically and socially.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2017
    • Early education researchers have been particularly interested in the visible effects of young children's EF in terms of their behavioral regulation and learning-related skills as well as EF's contribution to school readiness and subsequent academic achievement (Cartwright, 2012;McClelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2006;Stipek, Newton, & Chudgar, 2010). On one hand, more rigorous research is needed to provide evidence of a causal relationship between the different aspects of children's EF and their cognitive outcomes (Jacob & Parkinson, 2015; S. M.Jones et al., 2016).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early education field increasingly is recognizing the key role played by young children’s executive function (EF) skills, generally defined as the cognitive abilities that consciously support goal-directed behaviors. To provide the field with an overview of research conducted on this topic over the past 15 years, we review research on the traits and skills that fall under the broader umbrella of preschool EF and the role it plays in young children’s developmental and academic outcomes. Also addressed are the child, environmental, activity-related, and curricular factors potentially impacting the development of EF and some EF-related topics for which additional research is needed. Finally, we provide practical and psychometric information regarding six examples of measures that focus on assessing preschoolers’ EF skills.This report can serve as a resource for early childhood researchers and practitioners who are interested in understanding EF development during the early years. By highlighting some topics for which additional research is needed and providing information regarding examples of valid and reliable measures to assess EF in children ages 3–5 years, we hope this report also will serve as a springboard for future studies related to preschool EF.
    Full-text · Article · May 2017 · Journal of Educational Psychology
    • Early education researchers have been particularly interested in the visible effects of young children's EF in terms of their behavioral regulation and learning-related skills as well as EF's contribution to school readiness and subsequent academic achievement (Cartwright, 2012;McClelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2006;Stipek, Newton, & Chudgar, 2010). On one hand, more rigorous research is needed to provide evidence of a causal relationship between the different aspects of children's EF and their cognitive outcomes (Jacob & Parkinson, 2015; S. M.Jones et al., 2016).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early education field increasingly is recognizing the key role played by young children's executive function (EF) skills, generally defined as the cognitive abilities that consciously support goal-directed behaviors. To provide the field with an overview of research conducted on this topic over the past 15 years, we review research on the traits and skills that fall under the broader umbrella of preschool EF and the role it plays in young children's developmental and academic outcomes. Also addressed are the child, environmental, activity-related, and curricular factors potentially impacting the development of EF and some EF-related topics for which additional research is needed. Finally, we provide practical and psychometric information regarding six examples of measures that focus on assessing preschoolers' EF skills. This report can serve as a resource for early childhood researchers and practitioners who are interested in understanding EF development during the early years. By highlighting some topics for which additional research is needed and providing information regarding examples of valid and reliable measures to assess EF in children ages 3–5 years, we hope this report also will serve as a springboard for future studies related to preschool EF.
    Full-text · Article · May 2017
    • Studies suggest there is a predictive relation between EF and math and literacy achievement in diverse samples of young children, even after controlling for relevant socio-demographic factors (e.g., maternal education, child IQ) and initial achievement scores (Bull, Espy, & Wiebe, 2008;Duncan et al., 2007;McClelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2006). Findings from a recent study demonstrate a long-term relation between EF and achievement, such that children who were rated higher on aspects of EF (e.g., attention and persistence) during preschool were more likely to complete college (McClelland et al., 2013).
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study explored the bidirectional and longitudinal associations between executive function (EF) and early academic skills (math and literacy) across 4 waves of measurement during the transition from preschool to kindergarten using 2 complementary analytical approaches: cross-lagged panel modeling and latent growth curve modeling (LCGM). Participants included 424 children (49% female). On average, children were approximately 4.5 years old at the beginning of the study (M = 4.69, SD = .30) and 55% were enrolled in Head Start. Cross-lagged panel models indicated bidirectional relations between EF and math over preschool, which became directional in kindergarten with only EF predicting math. Moreover, there was a bidirectional relation between math and literacy that emerged in kindergarten. Similarly, LGCM revealed correlated growth between EF and math as well as math and literacy, but not EF and literacy. Exploring the patterns of relations across the waves of the panel model in conjunction with the patterns of relations between intercepts and slopes in the LGCMs led to a more nuanced understanding of the relations between EF and academic skills across preschool and kindergarten. Implications for future research on instruction and intervention development are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2017
    • Çocukların okula girdiklerinde sahip oldukları yetenekler, gelecekte edinecekleri yeteneklerle doğrudan ilişkilidir (Snow, 2006: 8). Resmi eğitime başlamamış çocukların örneklem seçildiği araştırmalar, sosyal becerilerin henüz okul çağına gelmeden gelişmeye başladığını ve bu becerilerin çocukların akademik geleceklerini etkilediğini göstermektedir (Agostin ve Bain, 1997; Arnold vd, 2012; Capage ve Watson, 2001; McClelland, Acock ve Morrison, 2006). Sosyal becerilerin de aynı sosyal öğrenme gibi çok küçük yaşlarda geliştirildiği görülür.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Çalışma, “sosyal beceriler ve kurumsal mantıklar arasında nasıl bir ilişki vardır?” sorusundan yola çıkılarak hazırlanmıştır. Sosyal beceriler ve kurumsal mantıklar arasındaki ilişki kuramsal gerekçeleriyle beraber açıklanmıştır. Sosyal beceriler ve kurumsal mantık ilişkisinde sosyal öğrenmenin konumu tartışılmıştır. Modernleşme süreci ile kurumsal mantıkların düşünüldüğünden daha çeşitli olabileceği öne sürülmektedir. Bu kapsamda geleneksel mantıklar, geleneksel kökenli modern mantıklar ve modern mantıklar olmak üzere üç temel mantık sınıfı oluşturulmuştur. Belirlenen mantık kümelerinin alt mantıkları tanımlanmıştır. Sosyal becerilerin ve kurumsal mantıkların örgütlerin profesyonellik düzeyi üzerindeki etkisi üzerinde durulmuştur. Geleneksel mantıkların düşük profesyonellik düzeyiyle, geleneksel kökenli modern mantıkların orta profesyonelleşme düzeyiyle ve modern mantıkların yüksek profesyonelleşme düzeyiyle ilişkili olduğu öne sürülmüştür. Son olarak örgütlerin profesyonelleşme düzeyi ile kayırmacılık, güç algısı ve amaçlı toplum oluşturma sürecine ilişkin çıkarımlar üretilmiştir.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Feb 2017 · Journal of Educational Psychology
    • Çocukların okula girdiklerinde sahip oldukları yetenekler, gelecekte edinecekleri yeteneklerle doğrudan ilişkilidir (Snow, 2006: 8). Resmi eğitime başlamamış çocukların örneklem seçildiği araştırmalar, sosyal becerilerin henüz okul çağına gelmeden gelişmeye başladığını ve bu becerilerin çocukların akademik geleceklerini etkilediğini göstermektedir (Agostin ve Bain, 1997; Arnold vd, 2012; Capage ve Watson, 2001; McClelland, Acock ve Morrison, 2006). Sosyal becerilerin de aynı sosyal öğrenme gibi çok küçük yaşlarda geliştirildiği görülür.
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Çalışma, “sosyal beceriler ve kurumsal mantıklar arasında nasıl bir ilişki vardır?” sorusundan yola çıkılarak hazırlanmıştır. Sosyal beceriler ve kurumsal mantıklar arasındaki ilişki kuramsal gerekçeleriyle beraber açıklanmıştır. Sosyal beceriler ve kurumsal mantık ilişkisinde sosyal öğrenmenin konumu tartışılmıştır. Modernleşme süreci ile kurumsal mantıkların düşünüldüğünden daha çeşitli olabileceği öne sürülmektedir. Bu kapsamda geleneksel mantıklar, geleneksel kökenli modern mantıklar ve modern mantıklar olmak üzere üç temel mantık sınıfı oluşturulmuştur. Belirlenen mantık kümelerinin alt mantıkları tanımlanmıştır. Sosyal becerilerin ve kurumsal mantıkların örgütlerin profesyonellik düzeyi üzerindeki etkisi üzerinde durulmuştur. Geleneksel mantıkların düşük profesyonellik düzeyiyle, geleneksel kökenli modern mantıkların orta profesyonelleşme düzeyiyle ve modern mantıkların yüksek profesyonelleşme düzeyiyle ilişkili olduğu öne sürülmüştür. Son olarak örgütlerin profesyonelleşme düzeyi ile kayırmacılık, güç algısı ve amaçlı toplum oluşturma sürecine ilişkin çıkarımlar üretilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sosyal Beceri, Kurumsal Mantıklar, Sosyal Öğrenme, Modernlik, Profesyonelleşme
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Feb 2017 · Journal of Educational Psychology
Show more