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Hotel cleanliness - How do guests view it? Let us get specific. A New Zealand study

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Abstract

It is of extreme importance for hotels and other accommodation providers to understand the factors that influence the selection of accommodation. There have been a number of research projects which have investigated this question, with many finding that cleanliness is the most import important of the factors affecting selection of accommodation. However, a review of previous research indicates the research has stopped at that point. This paper looks at specific areas for cleanliness (the ‘toilet’, the ‘shower cubicle floor’, ‘bed linen, etc.) and in so doing, takes the question of accommodation cleanliness a step further. A survey was conducted in New Zealand which resulted in 412 usable responses. It found that for many of the critical areas of accommodation guest expectations were not being met, with particular evidence around the area of the bathroom and toilet. The results give accommodation management specific direction pertaining to cleanliness and guest expectation, indicating that there is a significant difference between performance and importance in some areas where results show expectations to be higher than performance. It is also revealed that there is statistically significant difference between the importance rating of females and males, with females rating almost all areas higher in importance, while there was almost no gender difference in the rating of performance.

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... There is an expectation that a clean guestroom is a basic amenity (Torres and Kline, 2006). Hotel guestroom cleanliness is thought to affect loyalty and consumption behaviors in addition to overall guest satisfaction (Barber and Scarcelli, 2010;Callan, 1996;Suhartanto, 2000, 2003;Lockyer, 2002Lockyer, , 2003Mehta and Vera, 1990;Saleh and Ryan, 1992;Torres and Kline, 2006;Weaver and Oh, 1993;Zemke et al., 2015). According to Barber and Scarcelli (2010), hotel guests decide to select, stay or return to an establishment based on the perceived cleanliness of hotels. ...
... The importance of cleanliness goes beyond the hotel room. Lockyer (2003) found that cleanliness of hotels included not only guestrooms but also public areas such as the lobby and building exterior as an influence on hotel selection in New Zealand. ...
... This research suggests that hotels should market the cleanliness aspect of their bed linens because those areas where guests perceive the highest levels of touch may translate into higher guest-satisfaction scores or return business. Hotel and housekeeping managers need to focus and highlight the cleaning of those surfaces that guests perceive as high-touch areas because guest perception positively influences hotel image, guest satisfaction, loyalty and consumption behaviors (Barber and Scarcelli, 2010;Callan, 1996;Suhartanto, 2000, 2003;Lockyer, 2002Lockyer, , 2003Magnini et al., 2011;Mehta and Vera, 1990;Saleh and Ryan, 1992;Torres and Kline, 2006;Weaver and Oh, 1993;Zemke et al., 2015). ...
Purpose This study aims to strengthen implications about hotel cleaning outcomes by comparing guests’ perception of the amount of contact they have with cleanliness of hotel surfaces. Design/methodology/approach This study used two data-collection methods, a survey and an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test. Data were collected from recent hotel guests using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Guests were asked to identify hotel surfaces that they touch most frequently. Actual hotel cleanliness was measured using empirical data collected with ATP meters. The two data sets were used to compare guests’ perceptions about the amount of contact they have with actual cleanliness measurements of those hotel surfaces. Findings This study found that amount of guest contact was related to cleanliness of surfaces in guestrooms. Significant differences were found in guest perception between high- and low-touch areas and between guestrooms and hotel public areas. More high-touch areas and higher ATP readings were found in guestrooms than in hotel public areas. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge this study is the first to compare guest contact with hotel surfaces to a scientific measure of hotel cleanliness. In addition, this study is unique because it assesses guest contact and cleanliness of public areas to provide a holistic view of hotel-cleaning needs. The study offers industry empirically based results from guest perception and scientifically based data that can be used to improve hotel housekeeping programs.
... Organizational silence is expressed as employees who do not want to express their concerns prefer silence due to fear (Milliken andMorrison, 2003, p.1563), and employees deliberately do not want to express their ideas and opinions (Scott, 1993). Employee silence is the deliberate retention and non-sharing of information for a variety of reasons (Pinder and Harlos, 2001;Van Dyne, Ang and Botero;2003). ...
... Hygiene and cleanliness have always been a priority and concern for hotel guests (Lewis & McCann, 2004;Lockyer, 2003), as well as a driver of income for hotels. However, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic it is fair to say that hotels haven't been that consistent in the implementation of practices including disinfection, handwashing, and hand sanitizer use. ...
Conference Paper
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The commitment to the organization, productivity and the achieved performance are resulting to some extent from the motivation of the employees. Therefore, it is important for any organization to be able to understand the relation between motivation and performance and to find out what actually motivates employees to put more effort in terms of quality and quantity, into their work. People are different from each other, each individual has his own set of motivators that encourage him to put more or less effort in the performance of a particular activity and achieve a certain goal. Motivation is the driver of human activity, shapes it in a certain direction and maintains it during the formation and until the final achievement of the set goal(s). It is extremely difficult to determine what are the real motives that force the maximal and high quality effort to work. In order to understand what is the motivation and how it contributes to increasing the performance in the organizations in Republic of North Macedonia, this research was conveyed with the following set goals: analysing motivation and what it entails; perceiving the motivation for work in Republic of North Macedonia; discovering what motivates the employees; perceiving what is the motivation of the employees during a pandemic; where, based on the conducted research, a review and analysis of the obtained results was prepared and pointing out possible good ways to increase the motivation of the employees, which will improve the performance. Only a well-established and focused motivation policy can deliver good performance and satisfied employees who achieve the stated performance. The path to effective (self-)management of a person lies in understanding their motivation. Keywords: motivation, factors, performance, improvement, satisfied employees
... Nevertheless, some previous studies found guests not satisfied with cleanliness of hotels to influence their choice of hotels ( e.g. Lockyer, 2003;Alananzeh, 2017).Thus, we formulate the following hypothesis: ...
... This finding corroborates the findings of previous studies such as Callan (1996), Lockyer(2000), Lockyer(2002), Lockyer(2005), Sohrabi et al(2011) and more recently Soulidou et al(2018). Our finding contrasts those of Lockyer(2003) and Alananzeh (2017) on the relationship between cleanliness and choice of hotels although the possible departure from the present study on cleanliness-choice of hotels relationship could be that these studies were somehow satisfaction-based. ...
Article
This study was conducted to establish a framework of the determinants of leisure guests’ choice of hotels in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The study became necessary owing to the fact that there is a dearth of empirical studies that examined the determinants of customer choice of hotels in any of the different segments of the hotel industry in the Nigerian context. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses with the aid of SPSS Version 20.0 software at 5% level of significance. The result from a convenience sample of 246 respondents who lodge in hotels in Awka metropolis show that the two factors investigated namely cleanliness and location influence consumer choice of hotels. More importantly, cleanliness has more influence than location. A key recommendation is that the regulator in the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria should liaise with health authorities to carry out periodic hygiene inspection on cleanliness and hygiene practices of hoteliers.
... Organizational silence is expressed as employees who do not want to express their concerns prefer silence due to fear (Milliken andMorrison, 2003, p.1563), and employees deliberately do not want to express their ideas and opinions (Scott, 1993). Employee silence is the deliberate retention and non-sharing of information for a variety of reasons (Pinder and Harlos, 2001;Van Dyne, Ang and Botero;2003). ...
... Hygiene and cleanliness have always been a priority and concern for hotel guests (Lewis & McCann, 2004;Lockyer, 2003), as well as a driver of income for hotels. However, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic it is fair to say that hotels haven't been that consistent in the implementation of practices including disinfection, handwashing, and hand sanitizer use. ...
... For example, in a study of four business hotels, Gundersen, Heide and Olsson (1996) found that tangible aspects of the housekeeping department and intangible aspects of the reception department had the strongest impact on overall satisfaction. Lockyer (2003) stated that many studies report strong evidence that cleanliness is a very important factor in the selection of accommodation. In a survey of three hotel chains, Hartline, Wooldridge and Jones (2003) concluded that only front-desk and housekeeping performance have a positive and significant impact on guests' perceived service quality. ...
... Other studies focus on aspects of occupational health and safety (Oxenbridge & Lindegaard-Moensted, 2011;Goggins, 2007;Krause et al., 2005;Zock, 2005) such as occupational risks (musculoskeletal diseases, poisoning, falls, etc.). There are also works on cleaning from the customer's point of view, for example, on how it affects their satisfaction or service experience, what importance they attach to it and how they value it, etc. (Manhas, 2015;Lockyer, 2003;Sherman, 2011). However, there are very few studies that have focused on how to measure cleaning times and the variables that influence them. ...
Article
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Purpose: Housekeeping is an important hotel process from the point-of-view of the number of work hours it takes and its impact on customer satisfaction. However, few previous scientific studies have addressed this topic or the variables that are determinants of the time required to clean a room. Design/methodology/approach: A stopwatch Time Study has been performed in a 4-star-hotel. Additionally, data on several variables that could affect cleaning time have been collected and subjected to regression analysis. Findings: Results show that only the task-related variables have a statistically significant influence on total cleaning time. None of the analyzed employee-related variables have any effect on cleaning time. Moreover, five tasks represent over 2/3 of the total cleaning time. Originality/value: In addition to empirically identifying the variables that influence cleaning time and to what extent, this study demonstrates the advantages of using stopwatch time studies to establish cleaning times.
... For example, according to Gefen and Straub (1997), white women perceived environment health risk to be much higher as compared to white men. In addition, Lockyer (2003) found a significant gender difference in hotel cleanliness perceptions with women giving cleanliness a much higher importance rating than did males. A gender difference was also found in the perceived importance of cleanliness and hygienic practices in Australian supermarkets (Mortimer & Clarke, 2011) Women shoppers perceived store cleanliness and hygienic practices (food handling) to be more important than men (Mortimer & Clarke, 2011). ...
... First, as to gender, female passengers were more concerned about cleanliness conditions compared to males. The results of this gender difference were in line with previous studies that found females to be more sensitive to cleanliness (Borchgrevink et al., 2013;Lockyer, 2003). Results from the second demographic variable, age, found that age matters in terms of cleanliness perceptions in airplanes. ...
Article
As the number of air travelers grows, the need for a clean environment has become important during air travel. This study assessed passenger perceptions of cleanliness in airplanes. Using attributes from prior research, this study was able to extract three cleanliness dimensions and found that the most important cleanliness dimensions were food & flight attendants and lavatory. The importance of cleanliness was greater for females, older, and less experienced passengers. Almost one-third of the respondents reported taking active measures during air travel to prevent themselves from becoming sick. Results offer theoretical and practical contributions to the airline industry.
... Cleanliness is highly valued in our society and has a direct influence on our positive attitude towards public spaces such as hotels (Lockyer, 2003 Henson et al., 2006), and hospitals (Whitehead, May, & Agahi, 2007). It is often impractical for people to interact with every aspect of a facility to objectively evaluate its overall cleanliness due to limited access of information. ...
... Thus, the perception of cleanliness may depend on an inference-based heuristic, where some factors influence the perception more than others. The cleanliness of the washroom and toilet has been shown as a key factor driving the overall perception of cleanliness (Lockyer, 2003;Prayukvong et al., 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Whitehead et al., 2007). If the washroom is dirty, people may infer other areas of the facility are also dirty. ...
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Washroom cleanliness is a key influence on our positive attitude towards public spaces. Recently, interactive technology has been introduced. While the role of physical cleanliness is obvious, interactive technology may affect the perception of cleanliness. This study investigates whether the most recent washroom service time displayed on a touchscreen influences the perception of washroom cleanliness. Participants leaving a washroom were asked to rate the cleanliness of the washroom. The touchscreen that showed the service time was visible for the experimental group and covered for the control group. Results showed that participants who noticed the most recent washroom service time in the experimental group perceived the washroom as cleaner than the control group. In addition, the touchscreen was preferred as an interface for washroom service request, compared with telephone calls and text messaging. The results suggest interactive technology has potential to enhance attitudes towards public space.
... "Hygiene and cleanliness" is related to a customer's desire for a quiet and clean condition with basic amenity (Ren, Zhang, & Ye, 2015). Many studies have confirmed that cleanliness is one of the most influential factors of accommodation selection and customer satisfaction (Barber & Scarcelli, 2010;Lockyer, 2003;Ren et al., 2015). Customers perceive both hygiene and cleanliness are likely to influence their intention to revisit a hotel, thereby determining the hotel success and development. ...
... The model's predictive accuracy (R 2 ) was also calculated to measure the amount of variation in the dependent constructs caused by the independent constructs. According to Hair et al. (2013), the R 2 scores of 0.75, 0.50, or 0.25 for dependent variables represent substantial, (Matthews et al., 2003); (Talavera, 2005); (Gallardo, S anchez-Cañizares, L opez-Guzm an, & Margarida Nascimento Jesus, 2010) Top management support (Elbaz & Haddoud, 2017) Environmental Hygiene and cleanliness (Lockyer, 2003); (Barber & Scarcelli, 2010) Hotel interior and exterior design/ look (Min et al., 2002); (Barber & Scarcelli, 2010) Location (Adam & Amuquandoh, 2013) Hotel success and development ...
Article
This study aimed to identify the relative importance of the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that contribute to the success and development of hotel industry in Malaysia. Drawing uponTechnology-Organization-Environment (TOE) and Human-Organization-Technology (HOT) fit models, this study developed a theoretical model to predict the significant factors that contribute to the success and development of hotel industry. A two-stage Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)-Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) method was applied to test the research model and reveal the importance level of factors in the model. SEM analysis showed that the use of IT, financial performance, benchmarking, service standardization, top management support, customer satisfaction, service quality, hotel interior and exterior design/look, location, employee training and empowerment were significant factors influencing hotel success and development. Moreover, the results of ANFIS showed that customer satisfaction under human dimension was the most critical predictor of hotel success and development.
... Cleanliness is highly valued in our society and has a direct influence on our positive attitude towards public spaces such as hotels (Lockyer, 2003 Henson et al., 2006), and hospitals (Whitehead, May, & Agahi, 2007). It is often impractical for people to interact with every aspect of a facility to objectively evaluate its overall cleanliness due to limited access of information. ...
... Thus, the perception of cleanliness may depend on an inference-based heuristic, where some factors influence the perception more than others. The cleanliness of the washroom and toilet has been shown as a key factor driving the overall perception of cleanliness (Lockyer, 2003;Prayukvong et al., 2007;Barber & Scarcelli, 2009;Whitehead et al., 2007). If the washroom is dirty, people may infer other areas of the facility are also dirty. ...
Article
Full-text available
Washroom cleanliness is a key influence on our positive attitude towards public spaces. Recently, interactive technology has been introduced. While the role of physical cleanliness is obvious, interactive technology may affect the perception of cleanliness. This study investigates whether the most recent washroom service time displayed on a touchscreen influences the perception of washroom cleanliness. Participants leaving a washroom were asked to rate the cleanliness of the washroom. The touchscreen that showed the service time was visible for the experimental group and covered for the control group. Results showed that participants who noticed the most recent washroom service time in the experimental group perceived the washroom as cleaner than the control group. In addition, the touchscreen was preferred as an interface for washroom service request, compared with telephone calls and text messaging. The results suggest interactive technology has potential to enhance attitudes towards public space.
... Available definitions and operationalizations mainly focus on how customers perceive the cleanliness of specific interior elements (i.e., windows, bathroom) while ignoring other dimensions, including the aesthetic quality of a service environment (Barber & Scarcelli, 2010). Also, the existing measurement instruments are predominantly intended for specific settings, such as restaurants and hotels (Barber & Scarcelli, 2010;Lockyer, 2003), which complicates generalisability to other service settings. Recently, this void was filled by the introduction of the cleanliness perceptions scale (CPS), this instrument offers a more holistic take on perceived cleanliness by distinguishing three dimensions: cleaned, fresh, and uncluttered (Vos, Galetzka, Mobach, van Hagen, & Pruyn, 2019a). ...
Conference Paper
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Background and aim-How do customers determine the cleanliness of their surroundings? Research and practice typically focus on the quality of cleaning services while ignoring the role of other environmental stimuli. The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of seating materials and architectural clutter as determinants of customers' perception of cleanliness. Methods / Methodology-The perception of cleanliness was operationalized using the dimensions: cleaned, fresh, and uncluttered. Effects of seating materials and architectural clutter were examined in three separate experiments in train stations. A field experiment was used to examine the effects of seating materials (N = 544) and a photo experiment evaluated the effects of architectural clutter (N = 220). Results-Smooth seating materials and uncluttered architecture were found to positively influence different dimensions of perceived cleanliness. Originality-This study provides deeper insight into the concept of perceived cleanliness and related dimensions by demonstrating that perceived cleanliness may be influenced by other determinants than cleaning quality only. Practical or social implications-The results may allow facility managers to improve decision making. Instead of solely increasing cleaning frequencies to improve customers' perception of cleanliness, facility managers may decide to invest in replacing or refurbishing seating materials and/or uncluttering architecture. Type of paper-Research paper.
... Another (Prayukvong et al., 2007) study found that negative customer experience, especially in 1-2 star category hotels, was mainly caused by bathroom and toiletries. When another study makes an evaluation in terms of cleanliness among the factors affecting the choice of accommodation, it has been determined that the two most important areas are "Bathroom and Toilet" and "Kitchen" and that these are much more important than the cleanliness of other areas (Lockyer, 2003). Genç and Batman (2018) have stated that the bathroom and toilet are at the top of the issues that tourists complain about the most in historical mansion businesses. ...
Article
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Hotel bathrooms are one of the most important places in terms of customer satisfaction, and where the most complaints are reported. To share their experiences, guests rate hotels, comment, and share images of their positive or negative ratings. An important part of the room images shared by guests is related to bathrooms. Guests tend to prove their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the bathrooms with images in their comments. These Positive or negative comments and visuals potentially affect the prospective guests. In this study, two different versions of a deep learning algorithm were designed to classify hotel bathrooms as satisfactory (good) or unsatisfactory (bad, when any defects such as dirtiness, deficiencies, malfunctions were present) by analyzing images. The best-performer between the two models was determined as a result of a series of extensive experimental studies. The models were trained for each of 144 combinations of 5 hyper-parameter sets with a data set containing more than 11 thousand bathroom images, specially created for this study. The "HotelBath" data set was shared also with the community with this study. Four different image sizes were taken into consideration: 128, 256, 512 and 1024 pixels in both directions. The classification performances of the models were measured with several metrics. Both algorithms showed very attractive performances even with many combinations of hyper-parameters. They can classify bathroom images with very high accuracy. Suh that the top algorithm achieved an accuracy of 92.4% and an AUC (area under the curve) score of 0.967. In addition, other metrics also proved the success of the algorithm. The proposed method can allow the rapid, accurate and automatic detection of such undesired circumstances in hotel bathrooms from images. Such a detection system can allow hotel management to take necessary actions quickly to remedy such unsatisfactory cases.
... ., 2011;Yang & Mao, 2020), cleanliness(Lockyer, 2003), and value(Juaneda et al., 543 2011) contribute to guest experience and influence ratings and are evaluated as part of 544 every rental process (Danaher & Mattsson, 1994). Our model includes guest ratings of 545 these variables from our dataset in order to control for variation attributable to property 546 location and the underlying service capabilities of the hosts 547 ...
Digital platforms can provide mechanisms to reduce barriers to entry for individuals in Internet-enabled commerce. These platforms provide a broad range of technical and administrative capabilities to support marketing and transaction processing; however, users may fail to take full advantage of these capabilities. This study examines how property hosts apply the affordances of a hospitality digital platform within developing economies. We consider skill by which a host uses the online platform as a resource, and evaluate the extent to which a host’s use of the platform corresponds with guest review scores. Our findings demonstrate that, after accounting for location and property characteristics, hosts who skillfully utilize hedonic marketing affordances achieve higher guest review scores than those who do not.
... This is a very relevant dimension, as it reflects the most basic features that users expect from the service. Considering that these basic aspects, such as cleanliness, are among the most crucial factors affecting selection of accommodation (Lockyer, 2003), it is expected that this dimension will have a significant impact on overall service satisfaction. ...
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Sharing economy accommodation services offered by companies such as Airbnb have become a very popular alternative to traditional hotels. However, existing research about service quality (SQ) in shared accommodation focuses only on the guest’s perspective. Given that hosts are an essential part of these services, this paper aims to identify the determinants of SQ for both guests and hosts. Based on an international survey (N = 501) the proposed dimensions are validated through an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. Then, structural equation modeling is applied to assess the impact of the SQ dimensions on overall guest and host satisfaction.
... Within the restaurant sector, brand experience is crucial for consumers and is directly related to the future decision to return to the same establishment (Mohamed & Musa, 2012), the recommendation of the establishment or the generation of word of mouth (Schmitt et al., 2015). Cleanliness is also known to be a variable that can influence the quality of the service received and the customer experience (Barber & Scarcelli, 2010;Bienstock et al., 2003;Liu et al., 2017;Lockyer, 2003). Therefore, it is proposed that there may also be a relationship between Cleanliness and the Brand Experience in the restaurant sector and the following hypothesis is proposed: H1: Cleanliness influences the Brand Experience in the restaurant sector. ...
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This study was conducted with the aim of finding the relationships between the variables Cleanliness (CLL) and Brand Equity (BEQ) in relation to Brand Experience (BE), Customer Well-Being (CWB) and Customer Satisfaction (CS) within the restaurant sector. The study population consisted of people who have eaten on the premises in restaurants in Peru during the last six months of the year 2021. The sample consisted of 416 people. A PLS-SEM analysis was used using SmartPLS 3 software in order to respond to the hypotheses set out in the study. The results allowed all the hypotheses to be tested, highlighting the confirmation of the influence of Cleanliness and Brand Equity on Customer Well-being in building Brand Experience and Customer Satisfaction in the restaurant sector.
... As mentioned before, hygiene has always been an essential factor in choosing a destination, especially services offered in accommodation facilities, restaurants and tourism attractions. This factor has been emphasized as a determining factor in choosing a destination in many previous studies (Lockyer, 2003;Ryan and Huimin, 2007;Tsai et al., 2009;Ramanathan and Ramanathan, 2013;Amblee, 2015;Zemke et al., 2015;Alananzeh, 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to investigate the changes in travel patterns and tourist behavior due to the COVID-19 outbreak. This study realizes these changes and reports them to help restore tourism. Design/methodology/approach This applied study used library sources and a survey conducted through an online questionnaire. The questionnaire incorporated data from previous studies and the most recent online databases. Items were exploratory factors analyzed using the principal component method and varimax rotation. The interpretation of the data collected was consistent with the attributes the questionnaire was designed to measure. Findings The research findings show that health and safety have come to the forefront of travelers' needs. The hygiene and disinfection of tourism facilities have changed from hygiene factors to motivator factors. The extended length of trips is perceived as a risk to their health; hence travelers prefer to take shorter trips. They also rather get help from professionals to book their trips. Research limitations/implications This research was conducted only in Iran, where travel restrictions were periodically put on and removed. If this study could be conducted in countries with no domestic travel restrictions, other valuable findings such as changes in consumer spending and preferences toward travelling and safety could be found. Practical implications This paper provides information on the latest changes to travel patterns and tourists' behavior which can be implied by DMOs (Destination Marketing Organization), governments and private tour operators to understand and consider travelers emerging needs. Originality/value This paper enables better planning and organization for the future and restart of tourism post-COVID-19.
... Amid the explored physical servicescape factors, in recent research, cleanliness has been shown to have a noteworthy positive influence on customer satisfaction and loyalty (Lockyer, 2003;Park et al., 2019;Zemke et al., 2015). In the wake of COVID-19 and rising hygienic concerns, cleanliness is believed to be prominent physical evidence that can be considered an element of the service environment that requires management and updating to maintain sales and avoid customer dissatisfaction (Jiang and Wen, 2020). ...
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has tremendously affected the hospitality industry. With the experiences of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2003 and commitments to ensure guests’ health and safety, many hotels in Asia have actively engaged in updating and implementing new service standards and measures. This study aims to investigate hotels’ service standard changes, processes of management decisions and preparations for the future. Design/methodology/approach Using grounded theory methodology, this research interviews 24 hotel managers from mainland China and Hong Kong. It examines the differences among hotels with different operation types, classifications and locations, and analyzes the service standards in physical and social services cape. Findings Building on the service marketing and crisis management literature, this research provides a synthesis that reflects how hotels have coped with the COVID-19 crisis. It depicts the service standard update process during the COVID-19. Research limitations/implications In line with the literature in disaster management, hotels experienced the outbreak, response and recovery phases of the crisis management procedure. However, given the severity and scope of the COVID-19 pandemic, undertaking particular processes is necessary at every procedure such as following local guidelines and updating local standard operating procedures (LSOPs). This research also expands the literature on the process of adopting new technology in hotels during crisis management. Practical implications The paper suggests that hotel managers should update and use well-thought-out standards on the bases of available scientific evidence. For example, hotels should use LSOPs according to the local situations. Hotels are also suggested to exert additional efforts and attention in service innovation, guest experience and enhancing hospitableness. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is one of the first efforts to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on hotel operations. It offers empirical evidence from hotel operators who worked against the crisis during the pandemic and provides valuable theoretical contribution to the hospitality service literature as well as managerial implications for hotel operators globally.
... When examining Middle East tourists' hotel selection attributes in Kuala Lumpur (Yusoff & Abdullah, 2010) found that "cleanliness attributes" are the most hotel selection attributes for Middle Eastern tourists. This was supported by (Lockyer, 2003) who identified cleanliness as a strong indicator in a selection of a hotel. Customers frequently International Journal of Research in Social Sciences http://www.ijmra.us, ...
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The present research aims to identify the factor affecting hotel selection and perceived behavioral changes among domestic tourists for a family holiday during COVID-19. The study employed mix method. Five variables destination attraction, price, location, health and safety and security; and Hygiene, and cleanliness were taken for the quantitative measure, and data was collected using a survey questionnaire. Respondents were the family who went on a family holiday and spent a minimum of one night in a hotel during the time of Christmas and New Year in the outskirt of Kathmandu. Total 244 samples were collected using snowball and convenience sampling techniques. For the qualitative part to understand perceived behavioral changes the in-depth-interview with hotel representatives was taken. The study concludes health and safety; and security issue, hygiene and cleanliness, location and destination attraction has a significant impact on the hotel selection. However, the price does not have any significant impact on hotel selection during COVID-19. On behavioral aspects, the consumer is concerned about health and safety, and security; hygiene and cleanliness, and the destination with low density and availability of medical facilities while selecting the hotel Keywords: Hotel selection, family decision making, destination attraction, price, location, health and safety and security; and Hygiene, and cleanliness, behavioral changes
... This finding is consistent with earlier research which showed that cleanliness, significantly and positively, affects guests satisfaction (see e.g. Prayukvong et al., 2007) and intention to return (Lockyer, 2003). So, hoteliers in Crete should primarily invest on quality assurance in areas such as room cleanliness. ...
Article
The current study demonstrates how MUltiplecriteria Satisfaction Analysis (MUSA) can turn online hotel guests' satisfaction ratings from TripAdvisor into a valuable source of information for hotel managers and other hotel industry stakeholders. This information relates to customers' demanding level and the contribution of customer ratings on four important aspects of their hotel stay (location, cleanliness, service, and value for money) to overall guests satisfaction. This study looked at 137.268 ratings from 564 hotels located on the island of Crete, Greece. The findings revealed that hotel guests in Crete are non-demanding customers suggesting that they are satisfied even if a small portion of their expectations is fulfilled. Moreover, cleanliness is the most important contributor to hotel customers' overall satisfaction, followed by service. These findings can help decision makers in the hotel sector prioritize areas for service quality-and consequently customer satisfaction-improvements and allocate their limited resources more effectively. ARTICLE HISTORY
... These characteristics confirm findings by Rhee and Yang (2015b) who proved that hotel guests using high standard hotels consider cleanliness to be the most important attribute. Moreover, in our study, the cleanliness is high on most of the tourists' priorities lists when choosing an accommodation, corroborating findings of many researchers studying either hotel choice criteria or sources of hotel dissatisfaction (Lockyer 2003;Zaman et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Given the increasing importance of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in the global tourism market, the purpose of the study was to estimate weights customers assign to main attributes of tourist accommodations embodied in easily observed eWOM numerical ratings and subsequently to determine segments of customers with homogenous preferences. To this goal, the preferences tourists attach to price and seven other accommodation attributes rated by Internet users on Booking.com were revealed with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Next, a two-stage clustering procedure based on these preferences was undertaken followed by profiling of the clusters in terms of their socio-demographics and travel characteristics. The results show that even if the ranking of the attributes is roughly the same for all the segments (with cleanliness, value for money, and location always in top four), all eight attributes effectively segment tourists into three clusters: “quality-seekers” (45% of the market), “bargain-seekers” (35%), and “cleanliness-seekers” (20%). The segments differ in terms of tourists’ income and expenditures, type of accommodation, actual payer for accommodation, and trip purpose. In contrast, socio-demographics, and most tourists stay variables are alike across the segments. The proposed method of benefit segmentation provides a new perspective for an exploitation of eWOM data by accommodation providers in their marketing strategy.
... e cleanliness score indicates the degree of customer satisfaction with the cleanliness and good tidiness of the accommodation. For some customers, cleanliness is almost literally a hygiene factor because it is generally associated with the condition of the sheets, mattresses, pillows, the floor, the bathroom, etc., and it is one of the most reported determinants of customer satisfaction in the hotel literature [57], although Lockyer [58] pointed out that customer expectations with regard to cleanliness often exceed the performance offered by accommodation establishments. ...
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Understanding the determinants of satisfaction in P2P hosting is crucial, especially with the emergence of platforms such as Airbnb, which has become the largest platform for short-term rental accommodation. Although many studies have been carried out in this direction, there are still gaps to be filled, particularly with regard to the apprehension of customers taking into account their category. In this study, we took a machine learning-based approach to examine 100,000 customer reviews left on the Airbnb platform to identify different dimensions that shape customer satisfaction according to each category studied (individuals, couples, and families). However, the data collected do not give any information on the category to which the customer belongs to. So, we applied natural language processing (NLP) algorithms to the reviews in order to find clues that could help us segment them, and then we trained two regression models, multiple linear regression and support vector regression, in order to calculate the coefficients acting on each of the 6 elementary scores (precision, cleanliness, check-in, communication, location, and value) noted on Airbnb, taking into account the category of customers who evaluated the performance of their accommodation. The results suggest that customers are not equally interested in satisfaction metrics. In addition, disparities were noted for the same indicator depending on the category to which the client belongs to. In light of these results, we suggest that improvements be made to the rating system adopted by Airbnb to make it suitable for each category to which the client belongs to.
... Regarding the measurement of perceived cleanliness, in 2003, a study conducted on a sample of hotels in New Zealand offered specific guidance to industry regarding commonly found deficiencies in hotel cleanliness and how to rectify those deficiencies (Lockyer, 2003). In subsequent years, a couple of scales were developed and purified that can be used to measure the perceived cleanliness of a hospitality environment with survey-based approaches. ...
Article
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, now and for years to come, guests at hospitality venues will have heightened awareness with regard to formulating their perceptions of cleanliness. While perceived cleanliness has received attention in our existing body of literature, this conceptual paper integrates potential subconscious influencers on cleanliness perceptions into our understanding. Specifically, findings contained in various streams of research suggest that a number of factors can have subconscious influences on individuals’ perceptions of cleanliness in service environments. Such factors include the degree of lighting, the presence of plants / greenery, the shininess of surfaces, the use of ambient scents, the use of white bedding, and the presence of cleaning staff. Evidently, the sooner hospitality venues (particularly airlines, lodging operations, restaurants, and cruise ships) are perceived as clean and safe, the faster they will recover from the pandemic. As such, this paper is rich with both practical and research implications.
... For this study, we chose the most common and significant attributes used in previous studies, both from the guests' perspective as well as that of the managers of the establishment (Ady and Quadri-Felitti, 2015;Albayrak and Caber, 2015;Bulchand-Gidumal et al., 2011;Callan and Kyndt, 2001;Choi and Chu, 2001;Chung et al., 2004;Dolnicar and Otter, 2003;Lockyer, 2003;Rodriguez Antón et al., 2012). The classification of the attributes resulted in a reduction of the number of categories identified in previous studies on hotels in general, according to the services provided by smaller hotels, such as boutique hotels (see Table 2) and it is divided into four groups: 1 room and bathroom 3 general infrastructure 4 general hotel services and classified depending on their nature (tangible or intangible). ...
... The objective of this study was to establish how the road sanitation workforce planning problem could be solved using a multiobjective optimisation model, and in particular, to introduce a unique optimisation solver, differential evolution algorithm, to solve a non-linear association among the road sanitation maintenance workforce variables. Besides, the work is informed by three objective functions of maximization of cleanliness (Amblee, 2015;Lockyer, 2003;Vos et al., 2019), maximization of worker's effectiveness (ISF-UTS & SNV, 2016) and minimization of traffic obstruction. Although road maintenance activities involving the maintenance of signs (i.e. ...
Article
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At present, labour unions of waste disposal agencies and company management are at logger-heads, frequently turning out contradictory sanitation assessments. This reveals a shifting outlook of sanitation accomplishment that should be resolved. Unfortunately, there is scanty research on road sanitation and no study exists on how to determine the important workforce variables of these workers. To solve this research problem, a multi-objective optimisation model is developed and solved using the differential evolution model. The proposed model considered different constraints including workforce size, budgets, and service time. Three conflicting goals of maximization of cleanliness, maximization of workers' effectiveness and minimization of traffic obstruction were incorporated into the model and solved using practical data from a waste disposal agency in a developing country. A key result shows that the system's average workers' turnover rate is 0.2472 while the system's average service failure rate is 0.2518. For each location , the system requires an average of eight workers per period. The worker's average quality of work done is 0.8552. The outcome of the work revealed the feasibility of the model application. It was concluded that the model serves as a basis to evaluate road sanitation workers and may be used for budgetary purposes.
... Baccarani, Marta and Angelo's (2015). Lockyer's (2003) study also support the same findings. Other studies that support these findings include Xu and Li (2016) and Lopez &Serrano's (2017) study on critical factors of customer satisfaction with different star-rated hotels. ...
Conference Paper
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Hotel classification systems are prone to criticism for overemphasising infrastructure and facilities at the expense of service quality. Hotel professionals in India also are debating the relevance and effectiveness of the Hotel classification system. This case study explored the impact of hotel classification system on service quality as perceived by the hotel managers. A survey of one hundred forty-seven managers of classified hotels was conducted in north India through a structured questionnaire. The stepwise linear regression between the different constructs of the hotel classification system and overall hotel service quality revealed the positive impact of hotel classification on hotel service quality across all star categories
... Following previous research (e.g., Liu and Jang, 2009;Lockyer, 2003), this study quantitatively analyzed the significant impact of hotel cleanliness on hotel booking intention. More specifically, potential hotel customers who know that a particular hotel adopts enhanced cleaning practices are likely to have less concern about potential health risk (Zemke et al., 2015). ...
Article
As an essential risk-reduction strategy, technology innovation is likely to play a key role in the hotel industry's recovery from the 2020 coronavirus pandemic. However, its impact on customer decision-making behavior is unknown. Focusing on technology innovation for reducing guest interaction with employees and enhancing cleanliness, the purpose of this research was to examine the impact of expected interaction and expected cleanliness on perceived health risk and hotel booking intention. Three experimental studies were conducted using online consumer samples. The studies found that low levels of expected interaction through technology-mediated systems lead to low levels of perceived health risk. Perceived health risk mediates the relationship between expected interaction and hotel booking intention. In addition, high levels of expected cleanliness through advanced cleaning technologies moderate the impacts of expected interaction on perceived health risk. Importantly, the proposed perceived risk mechanism was effective in post-pandemic scenarios. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Friendliness and politeness of the staff, comfort of the bed and pillow and sufficiency of laundry services were mentioned as additional attributes. Table 1 explains the most important hotel attributes underlined by customers according to different studies (Caber and Albayrak, 2014;Choi and Chu, 2001;Cobanoglu et al., 2003; Online ratings of hotels Crnojevac et al., 2010;Dolnicar, 2002;Lockyer, 2003;Philips and Hyun, 2011;Sohrabi et al., 2012;Yusoff and Abdullah, 2011). ...
Article
Purpose Fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS), a soft computing method used for big data analysis, is used to determine which single hotel attribute or interrelated hotel attributes used in Travel 2.0 data play a role on price–performance (PP). Design/methodology/approach FRBS, based on fuzzy set theory, is used using the data set of four- and five-star hotels in the Alanya destination in Turkey collected from HolidayCheck.de website for the period between 2009 and 2016. Findings Single attributes do not have an impact on PP. At least two or more attributes are necessary to have an impact on PP. Compensations among attributes that are observed to be leading to PP not to change from their current level. Instead of assuming a linear relationship between hotel attributes and PP, non-linearity should often be assumed. In addition, some hotel attributes do not have an impact on PP until some other attribute reaches a certain level. Research limitations/implications The limitations of this research can be grouped under two topics. While the first is related to data, which is German-speaking tourists staying at four- and five-star hotels between 2009 and 2016, the second is the limitation on generalizability. By implementing other types of data related to hotel attributes, new insights can be generated to shed light on different aspects of the relationship between hotel attributes and PP or other measures such as overall evaluation. Originality/value A data-driven model called FRBS is constructed using original verbal statements. Novel insights pertinent to relations between hotel attributes and PP have been extracted.
... For this study, we chose the most common and significant attributes used in previous studies, both from the guests' perspective as well as that of the managers of the establishment (Ady and Quadri-Felitti, 2015;Albayrak and Caber, 2015;Bulchand-Gidumal et al., 2011;Callan and Kyndt, 2001;Choi and Chu, 2001;Chung et al., 2004;Dolnicar and Otter, 2003;Lockyer, 2003;Rodriguez Antón et al., 2012). The classification of the attributes resulted in a reduction of the number of categories identified in previous studies on hotels in general, according to the services provided by smaller hotels, such as boutique hotels (see Table 2) and it is divided into four groups: 1 room and bathroom 3 general infrastructure 4 general hotel services and classified depending on their nature (tangible or intangible). ...
... However, surprisingly, word of mouth does not moderate the relationship of customer satisfaction with revisit intention of customer at fast food restaurant. The results of the study correspond with some previous findings [15,29,32,69,93]. Positive relationship between customer satisfaction and revisit intention is consistent with the findings of the previous studies [5,8,[94][95][96]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract This study is to identify the positive association of food quality, restaurant service quality, physical environment quality, and customer satisfaction with revisit intention of customers at fast food restaurants. Additionally, word of mouth is investigated as moderator on the relationship of customer satisfaction with revisit intentions of customers at fast food restaurants. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from 433 customers of fast food restaurants through convenience sampling. Hypotheses of proposed model were tested using structural equation modeling with partial least squares SEM-PLS in SMART PLS 3. The results confirmed the positive association of food quality, restaurant service quality, physical environment quality, and customer satisfaction with revisit intentions of customers at fast food restaurants. However, word of mouth does not positively moderate the relationship of customer satisfaction with revisit intentions of customers at fast food restaurants. This study emphasizes the importance of revisit intention as a vital behavioral reaction in fast food restaurants. This study reveals revisit intention’s positive association with food quality, restaurant service quality, physical environment quality, and customer satisfaction based on stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) theory. Furthermore, it is identified that social conformity theory does not hold its assumption when consumers experience quality and they are satisfied because word of mouth does not moderate the relationship of customer satisfaction with revisit intention of customer.
... Barber & Scarcelli (2010) and Vos et al. (2019) found no differences between male and female participants with respect to perceived cleanliness. Similarly, Zemke, Neal, Shoemaker & Kirsch (2015) and Lockyer (2003) reported no significant differences between male and female on perceived cleanliness, although female participants were more concerned about cleanliness in both studies. Mortimer & Clarke (2011) and dell'Olio, Ibeas & Cecin (2011) also found that cleanliness was more important for female than for male. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cleanliness is one of the key determinants of overall customer satisfaction in train stations. Customers’ perception of cleanliness is not limited to cleaning only but depends on multiple predictors. A better understanding of these predictors may contribute to the optimisation of perceived cleanliness in train stations. The current study was designed to examine how objective predictors (measures of cleaning quality), subjective predictors (e.g., customers’ perception of lighting, scent, staff), and demographic variables relate to perceived cleanliness in train stations. Data on cleaning quality were gathered by trained cleaning inspectors and data on subjective predictors of cleanliness were obtained through surveys collected at 25 train stations in the Netherlands (N = 19.206). Data were examined using correlation and regression analysis. Positive and significant correlates of perceived cleanliness in train stations were found, including: perception of scent, lighting, colour, and staff. In regression analysis, customers’ perception of scent and lighting appeared to be powerful predictors of perceived cleanliness. These findings underline that customers’ perception of cleanliness is not only influenced by cleaning quality, but also by other predictors, such as scent, lighting, colour, and staff behaviour.
... In contrast, a dirty carpet or dirt in an entrance is perceived as unwelcoming and non-hospitable. In many cases, the cleanliness is the first thing that guests notice while entering a new and unknown space or place (Berry et al. 2006;Lockyer 2003). The cleanliness can be perceived in a lobby, entrance hall, building exterior, toilet, or kitchenette (Barber and Scarcelli 2010). ...
Article
This study investigates how spaces and places with no human interaction convey a sense of hospitality – a phenomenon we term space-to-face (S2F) hospitality. By problematizing the traditional conceptualizations of hospitality that emphasize the role of human interaction, this study aims to highlight the spatial aspects of hospitality. Physical environment has commonly been investigated only as one dimension of hospitality. However, spaces and places where there is nothing but the physical environment to convey a sense of hospitality are becoming increasingly common. For instance, railway or bus stations with ticket machines have no human interaction but a space and a place to convey a sense of being welcome or unwelcome. Using a participant-generated photography, this study was built on empirical data from 46 participants, who provided 234 photos and associated descriptions of perceived hospitality in spaces and places. As a result, we found six dimensions under macro and micro layers that capture S2F hospitality: domesticity, cleanliness, safety and security, restrictedness, intactness, and functionality. As a contribution, this study broadens the views on hospitality, and explores the concept of S2F hospitality that is relevant to for all types of spaces and places.
... In addition to affecting housing, used car prices have been shown to be affected by the presence of malodors as well (Matt et al., 2008). Malodors can also influence consumer satisfaction in the hospitality industry, particularly as it pertains to hotels and lodging (Lockyer, 2003;Ren et al., 2015). As well, the perceived quality of both nursing homes and hospital facilities are increased when malodors are controlled (Rantz et al., 1998). ...
Article
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Seventy-one percent of US households purchase air care products. Air care products span a diverse range of forms, including scented aerosol sprays, pump sprays, diffusers, gels, candles, and plug-ins. These products are used to eliminate indoor malodors and to provide pleasant scent experiences. The use of air care products can lead to significant benefits as studies have shown that indoor malodor can cause adverse effects, negatively impacting quality of life, hygiene, and the monetary value of homes and cars, while disproportionately affecting lower income populations. Additionally, studies have also shown that scent can have positive benefits related to mood, stress reduction, and memory enhancement among others. Despite the positive benefits associated with air care products, negative consumer perceptions regarding the safety of air care products can be a barrier to their use. During the inaugural Air Care Summit, held on 18 May 2018 in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, multidisciplinary experts including industry stakeholders, academics, and scientific and medical experts were invited to share and assess the existing data related to air care products, focusing on ingredient and product safety and the benefits of malodor removal and scent. At the Summit’s completion, a panel of independent experts representing the fields of pulmonary medicine, medical and clinical toxicology, pediatric toxicology, basic science toxicology, occupational dermatology and experimental psychology convened to review the data presented, identify potential knowledge gaps, and suggest future research directions to further assess the safety and benefits of air care products.
... Given that customer loyalty is largely based on customer satisfaction, RRC is an important factor that cannot be ignored. This finding was consistent with Barber and Scarcelli (2009), Barlan-Espino (2017), Liu (2017), Lockyer (2003), and Yoo (2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Competition in the Canadian restaurant industry is unyielding. Restaurant cleanliness is one of the most important aspects when a customer evaluates restaurant quality and return intention. In particular, restaurant restroom cleanliness (RRC) is often considered the central factor that leads to overall perception of cleanliness. This study examined how RRC affects restaurant customers. Restroom appearance had the greatest impact on cleanliness followed by personal hygiene items. In addition, RRC impacted customer satisfaction and did not vary based on customer segmentation. However, older restaurant patrons were more likely to report RRC issues than younger patrons. The research demonstrates that RRC is an essential element to the success and viability of a food service operation and is an important aspect of academic research in foodservice operations. Future directions for both industry and academic research in this area are discussed.
... Social media analysis can at least partially replace the traditional questionnaire strategy since it can exploit feedback already posted to social media. Whilst survey research has revealed that cleanliness is probably the single most important factor in hotel satisfaction and can analyse this issue in more detail (Lockyer, 2003;Zemke, Neal, Shoemaker, & Kirsch, K. (2015)), social media analysis has the potential to give even more fine-grained information through access to much larger samples of feedback. ...
Chapter
Sentiment analysis software is a key component of tourism big data research for its ability to detect positive and negative opinions in text. This supports large-scale analyses of the key affective dimension of reviews and social web posts about tourism venues and experiences. Sentiment analysis is fast and reasonably accurate, enabling patterns to be mined from large numbers of texts that would not be evident to experts reading those texts, such as differences between genders or venues in the aspects of destinations that are liked. This chapter reviews the main sentiment analysis approaches with a focus on practical descriptions of how the methods work and how they can be applied. The chapter also illustrates the value of sentiment analysis for tourism research.
... There is limited research that suggests, among the factors that influence the service encounter, cleanliness is vital (Lockyer, 2003;Scarcelli, 2007). The overall cleanliness of the dining room, the employees' appearance (Ryu and Jang, 2008) and the condition of the servers' station can suggest similar conditions that happen in the kitchen. ...
Article
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The rapid emergence of restaurants in the country has leaded the foodservice establishment to grow theme restaurants in competitive market to stay relevant with the trend. Therefore, this study aims to identify the atmospheric factors that influence the young customers’ revisit intention into theme restaurants. Quantitative data taken from 200 young customers were analyzed, then, 146 valid questionnaires were returned and the result indicates a statistical relationship between cleanliness and respondents’ revisit intention. Thus, restaurateurs need to understand the importance of physical interiors and their influence on overall guest’s revisit intentions as a guideline and future references. Keywords: restaurant attributes; restaurateur; theme; young customers eISSN 2514-7528 © 2018. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
... LODGSERV is a 26 lodging specific items designed to measure consumer's expectation in the lodging industry. However, the application of LODGSERV is quite limited and not as popular among hospitality tourism researchers as it was used only in a limited number of studies (Heung and Wong, 1997;Mok and Paton, 1999;Lockyer, 2003). DINESERV is a 29-item index that was proposed to measure service quality in restaurants (Stevens et. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to delve upon customer satisfaction and service quality within small- and medium-sized hotels (SMSHs) by using a modified SERVQUAL model. Design/methodology/approach Data for the study were collected from a sample of 253 guests of varying nationalities who stayed at SMSHs of one-to-three-star ratings in the UAE. Moreover, 15 face-to-face interviews were conducted. The influence of the five dimensions of the SERVQUAL model on visitors’ satisfaction was explored using structural equation modelling. Findings The results indicated that three out of the five dimensions of SERVQUAL, namely, tangible, responsiveness and assurance, have significant positive impact on visitors’ satisfaction of the SMSHs Industry. The remaining two dimensions of SERVQUAL, reliability and empathy, have no significant impact on visitors’ satisfaction. Originality/value This study provides a major contribution in that it offers the potential to examine a vastly under researched area of customer satisfaction and service quality of SMSHs in a developing country.
... Cleanliness is considered as one of the main considerations in accommodation selection (Lockyer, 2002). Lockyer (2003) further analyzed this factor and found that the cleanliness in the bathroom and toilet and kitchen is most important for guests where the females demonstrated more importance of these features than males. According to Moreno et al. (2008), staff and cleanliness, kitchen, outside areas and primary services determine the overall image of a particular accommodation facility. ...
Article
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Abstract Within immense competitive business market, Apparel Industry is one of the giants that apply various strategies to marketing. Among them, visual merchandising refers as a main concept that attempts to influence impulse purchasing behavior of consumers through creative and aesthetic aspects for the store environment. Literature suggests the emotional state of the consumers is stimulating the purchase intention. Hence the objective of the paper is to identify the impact of Visual Merchandising Strategies (VMS) on Consumer Purchase Intention (CPI) and mediating impact of Consumer Emotional State (CES) between VMS and CPI. Both primary and secondary data were collected and survey method was adopted to collect primary data from a sample of 200 respondents which was drawn from Colombo and Kandy Districts. VMS was evaluated by store exterior and interior factors while CES was measured using Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance (PAD) scale and CPI was assessed by dimensions in literature. According to findings, Pearson correlation and the simple linear analysis have proved that there is a significant weak positive relationship between VMS and CPI while the relationships between VMS and CES as well as CES and CPI have been recorded to be strong positive. Baron and Kenny approach has observed that there is a partial mediation of CES on the relationship between VMS and CPI while Sobel test confirmed the significant mediation. Descriptive statistics justified that consumers consider various factors other than VMS when make purchase decision in Fast Fashion Apparel Industry. Improve noticeable VMS which stimulate the pleasure and arousal of consumers can be recommended as Managerial Implications to the retailers in the industry Keywords: Consumer Emotional states, Fast Fashion Apparel, Purchase Intention, Visual Merchandising
... Cleanliness is considered as one of the main considerations in accommodation selection (Lockyer, 2002). Lockyer (2003) further analyzed this factor and found that the cleanliness in the bathroom and toilet and kitchen is most important for guests where the females demonstrated more importance of these features than males. According to Moreno et al. (2008), staff and cleanliness, kitchen, outside areas and primary services determine the overall image of a particular accommodation facility. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated the holidaying behaviours of International Students in New Zealand. A total of 132 international students was contacted to collect data on structured questionnaire consisting 27 questions including 2 open ended questions. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis were used to analyse quantitative data and textual data was analysed manually with the help of Microsoft Excel worksheet. Results outlined the students’ travel characteristics in terms of travel frequency, length of trip, and per day expenditure indicating that; an average of 2.49 times travel frequency per year, an average of 134.88 NZ$ per trip expenditure, and an average length of 4.33 days per trip. In terms of transportation and accommodation preferences, car transportation and youth hostel accommodation were the most popular among students. Safety and mental refreshment were the main expectations from a trip. The factor analysis yield two factors with regard to motives and expectations of a travel; ‘fundamental preferences’ and ‘associated preferences’.
... In addition, [20] raises the difference in perspectives when thinking about hotel evaluation between a hotel owner's beliefs and customers' experience. Previous studies have measured customer satisfaction and provided models though survey [21], case studies and interviews [22] or content analysis [1]. ...
... Work productivity has not been explored among hotel housekeepers. This study is needed because the hospitality industry is entirely dependent upon these workers' output for customer loyalty, industry ratings, and economic growth (Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000;Lockyer, 2003). ...
Article
This study explored the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work and work productivity among hotel housekeepers. A community-based approach was used to recruit 23 hotel housekeepers who completed the ERI and Work Performance Questionnaires. Work productivity was determined by combining self-report absenteeism and presenteeism. More than 40% of the participants reported high ERI (ERI >1). Also, 59.1% reported low work productivity. Interestingly, despite the individualized high reports of ERI and low work productivity, correlation analysis showed that high ERI was correlated with high presenteeism and work productivity as a whole. This is the first study to explore work productivity among this worker group. Despite the small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the study, this study points to the need for organization-based interventions to not only improve employee health but also their work productivity.
... In addition, several prior studies have examined the role of quality in individuals' intention to book a hotel [41][42][43]. Specifically, the quality of hotels contains evaluation of room cleanliness, convenience of location, value for money and friendliness of employees [44,45]. Based upon assessing quality of hotels, consumers could perceive their value by figuring out the quality [41,46]. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the rapid development of information technology in hotel booking context, it is no doubt that many hotels consequently enhance the needs of integrating information technologies into their overall business operations. In this study, we developed a research model which consists of perceived value, trust toward a third party online booking site, and trust toward hotels, and tested it by using partial least square techniques. Survey data were collected from 307 individuals who have prior experiences on making a reservation using third-party online booking sites. Based upon our findings, we found that the perceived value, which was affected by both price and quality, was positively related to individuals' intention to book. We also found that both trust toward third-party online booking sites and trust toward hotels, which was influenced by online review, have positive impacts on individuals' intention to book. The implications of these findings for both research and practice are discussed.
... The results indicated that there was no significant difference in all expectation scores among guests of three different hotel categories: economy, mid-price, and luxury. Lockyer (2003) refined the LODGSERV model to include more specific items on cleanliness of the hotel lobby, guest room and bathroom. ...
Article
Experience economy is not about people buying products and services. Instead, they buy experiences that lead to strong emotions and reactions. Although service quality and customer satisfaction concepts have been under study for many years, they are still in the focus of scientific and practical research. However, there is a small number of studies that aim to measure and research customers’ emotional experience in restaurants. The main purpose of the present study is to analyse previous researches regarding these concepts, and to develop an instrument DINEXPE for measuring customers’ emotional experience in restaurants. For this purpose, measurement instrument with 35 variables was created and data was analysed using statistical methods. The sample consists of 195 restaurant customers who visited Lovran gastronomic festival (Opatija Riviera, Croatia) in April 2018. The research findings can be useful to restaurant managers to better understand their guests in designing service quality that meets guests’ expectations.
Purpose This study aims to empirically assess restaurant surfaces’ cleanliness and compare them to customers’ perceptions about the cleanliness of surfaces when dining in a restaurant. Design/methodology/approach This study used two methods to collect data. The first was a survey method to gauge customers’ perceptions and an empirical test to measure cleanliness using an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter. Two data sets were collected to compare customers’ perceptions and actual cleanliness measurements. One data set surveyed respondents as to their perceptions of high- and low-touch restaurant surfaces among 19 areas of the dining room and 15 surfaces from the restroom, and their perceived cleanliness or dirtiness of those same surfaces. The second one conducted empirical measurements of the cleanliness of these surfaces using an ATP meter, which were then compared to customers’ perceptions. Findings Although all surfaces had higher ATP readings than a 30 relative light units’ threshold, there were significant differences in ATP readings among surfaces. Results showed a fair amount of consistency between the consumers’ perceptions of cleanliness and the actual results of ATP readings for the cleanest areas, but very little consistency in customers’ perceptions and experimental measurements for the dirtiest areas. Practical implications This study empirically demonstrated the need for improved cleaning techniques and the importance of proper training for foodservice employees. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, results of this study suggest an additional responsibility on managers and staff to ensure clean environments and the imperative to address the concerns of their customers. Originality/value Based on an extensive literature review, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no prior studies have compared consumers’ cleanliness perceptions with empirical measurements of cleanliness in restaurant settings using an ATP meter. The results of this study provide restaurant managers a better understanding of customers’ perceptions of cleanliness. It also provides restaurant managers and staff information to develop more effective cleaning procedures. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, perceptions of cleanliness and measures of actual cleanliness are more important than they have been in the past.
Article
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Research background: In the developed countries, the services sector, which also includes the accommodation services, is a significant source of the gross national product. Tourism can be perceived as an important determinant of countries' economies, so attention paid to the needs of clients is at least necessary and beneficial. Purpose of the article: The aim of the study is to assess the quality of services provided and the perception of the hotel from the point of view of the accommodated clients. This objective was fulfilled by determining the effect of selected indicators of perception of the quality of provided services (location, personnel evaluation, cleanliness, equipment, comfort, price/quality ratio of provided services, free Wi-Fi connection) on the indicator determining the perception of the hotel (polarity of sentiment). Methods: In the analysis of the above, 22,000 text-reviews of 117 five-star hotels of the Visegrad Group countries were evaluated. The hotel reviews were obtained from Tripadvisor.com and indicator rankings from Booking.com. The analysis made use of the regression analysis methods – influence (regulatory models – Ridge, Lasso, Elastic net, and multiple linear regression – OLS). Findings & Value added: It has been found out that hotel equipment and cleanliness have the greatest effect on the polarity of sentiment. As could be expected, the trend has an upward tendency – that is, as quality increases, so does the sentiment polarity – the perception of hotel facilities. Overall, the analysed sentiment variables can be considered positive, as was confirmed by the positive coefficients of the coherence analysis (Spearman-ρ; Pearson-r), as well as the upward trend in the predictions under the regression analysis. Hotels should be strategically customer-oriented and, as the analyses show, pay the greatest attention to equipment and cleanliness. The services of accommodation facilities are dominant in terms of satisfaction with the destination in general, so in the long run, they should be given due attention. These findings are particularly beneficial for hotel services provided in the Visegrad Group countries, as no research studies have yet been carried out on customer evaluation of the quality of accommodation facilities using the presented methods.
Article
Social media marketing has focused on content strategy for understanding the factors which distinguish “highly liked” content apart. This conceptual paper sought to provide a theory-based perspective to explore and delineate what determines the favorability of hotel social media content. Several propositions are discussed regarding how to leverage schema-based theoretical mechanisms underlying consumers’ preferences toward hotel social media content. A model of Schema Congruency in Hotel Social Media Content is proposed as a means in which hotel brands can create hotel social media content likely to receive positive responses from consumers.
Presentation
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Understanding customers feedback, management interaction and proactivity has been major sources of success for businesses. Notwithstanding, investigating the effects of entrepreneur´s proactivity, customers’ reviews and management responses on business performance enhancement within the rural tourism industry is still a rather novel approach.
Thesis
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In the tourism industry, most customer feedback and searches for relevant information take place online. Besides that, information generated by market alone is not enough, as it does not ensure that it will be used or well used. Therefore, it is important to improve understanding of the business consequences of customers’ online comments, market intelligence, businesses’ online visibility, and management response. The empirical context for these studies that this thesis comprises is the hospitality industry. For this study, the authors collected information about the establishment (customer comments, management responses, night prices, visibility data (advertising expenditures) on the infomediary website, web presence expertise, number of lodgings, capacity, and rental type) from a leading rural tourism infomediary website, related to French rural tourism establishments (RTE). A complementary survey provided information about the lodging establishments’ performance (reputation and profitability) and the market intelligence. This study assesses the effect of customers’ reviews content and volume, market intelligence, and management responses volume on business performance enhancement within the rural tourism industry, and whether market intelligence moderates positively the way that customer reviews volume and management responses volume affect business performance. In addition, this study helps clarify customers' RTE position following their positive experience, reported by their positive online reviews, and to assess the impact of business strategy factors and entrepreneurial behavior factors on positive perceptions of experienced services. The findings support aspects of previous research, but also provide new insights, on the one hand, by exploring customer online reviews, market intelligence, and management response, revealing how these factors affect the performance of rural accommodation establishments and, on the other hand, exploring strategic business factors and entrepreneurial behavior factors, revealing how they affect the positive perceptions of services experienced by customers. The results reveal that tourists’ positive global service quality perceptions (GSQP), as reflected in their comments, depend on their dual perceptions of the lodging (LP) and the surroundings (SP). In turn, positive GSQP, market intelligence, and visibility on an infomediary website positively affect business performance. These findings have implications for tourism scholars as well as tourism entrepreneurs, public administrations and tourist accommodation platforms. Specifically, those who, to maximize business performance, track factors that affect tourism service ratings, proactively generate market intelligence and respond to customers, strategically define their business variables, and know how their customers position their business. These studies identify a "virtuous circle" through the eWOM generated by the clients of rural tourism accommodation, enabling business results, which improves the ability to increase the number of customers and, consequently, the number of messages generated. As it seems logical, the entrepreneur has a key role to transform this source of market information into a continuous improvement of the competitiveness of his offer (relative product quality). The entrepreneurs who show the most interest in the market (Market Intelligence) are those who, thanks to eWOM, take advantage of the business opportunities that arise. If the business succeeds (and the entrepreneur is motivated), new growth opportunities will open with the opening of new accommodation, adding more customers and messages to the business. https://www.educacion.es/teseo/mostrarRef.do?ref=1846527 https://gredos.usal.es/handle/10366/143814
Purpose In an effort to better understand value-oriented general attendees, the purpose of this paper is to propose and empirically test a comprehensive model to examine the effect of three factors of service quality in exhibitions (i.e. service product, service environment and service delivery) on satisfaction through three factors of perceived value (i.e. emotional value, economic value and social value). Design/methodology/approach A confirmatory factor analysis was performed to determine key factors in exhibition service quality, perceived value and satisfaction. A structural equation modeling was conducted to analyze the causal relationships among the factors. Findings The empirical results indicated that service product and service environment were significantly and positively associated with all factors of perceived value, which in turn significantly influenced satisfaction. Service delivery, however, was associated only with emotional value. On the other hand, all three factors of perceived value significantly influenced general attendees’ satisfaction. The findings indicated perceived value as an important mediator between exhibition service quality and general attendees’ satisfaction. Originality/value Clearly identifying specific trajectories from service quality to satisfaction through distinct perceived values can be a stepping stone to establishing effective and efficient marketing strategies for general attendees and customizing for their needs. The distinct and clear associations between service quality and perceived value can help exhibition organizers and practitioners understand the process of determining general attendees’ overall satisfaction.
Article
A sample of the business travel market is analyzed to determine whether the importance placed on particular hotel product attributes varies by travel situation. Multiple discriminant analysis is used to see whether certain attributes are able to correctly discriminate among five travel situations.
Article
Most major hotel chains have developed programs that reward travelers for repeat visits. These programs, often called frequent guest programs, have been controversial promotional techniques primarily because of their cost. The study reported here examines a sample of business travelers to see if the characteristics of those who belong to frequent guest programs are different from those who do not belong to the programs.Key Words:promotion, frequent guest programs, market ing.
Article
In their quest for improved quality, hospitality industry managers often face two major obstacles: (1) They do not know what aspects the guest considers to be important when evaluating the hotel experience, and (2) they do not have reliable and valid instruments for measuring quality perceptions. The objective of this study was to examine both of these obstacles. By employing LISREL analysis to two alternative models of hotel guest satisfaction, we found that the majority of variation in overall satisfaction can be explained by the intangible and tangible dimensions of three departments of the hotel: reception, the housekeeping department, and the food and beverage department. Further, tangible aspects of the housekeeping department and intangible aspects of reception were found to have the strongest effect on overall satisfaction. This calls for a more focused approach to service quality management than the total quality management literature generally recommends. Managers are advised to concentrate attention and resources on the aspects that have the highest importance for obtaining overall satisfaction. Because of the small amount of research in this area, the study must be regarded as preliminary and exploratory. Recommendations for further research are presented.
Article
When a five-star hotel in Singapore took a look at its guests, it found two entirely different but important market segments. The major difference between them—purpose of visit
This paper (the first in a series of four) presents the findings of a study of the views of UK hotel managers. They were asked to give their assessment of their customers' perceptions of the importance of particular attributes when selecting a hotel and judging the quality of the service provided. A detailed review of the methodology employed and the sample selection is presented. Characteristics of the sample are explored, followed by the results of the attributional analysis. A discussion of the findings reveals the relative unimportance of some leisure and security attributes while the importance of service provider related attributes predominates. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The American business traveller is a very important customer in the lodging industry. Because of this it is essential that the lodging industry understands the expectations and demographic make-up of this group of individuals. Presents the responses of 433 American business travellers obtained from a national survey. Divides the respondents into two categories: the frequent business traveller who was away from home on at least ten overnight business trips, and the infrequent business traveller who was away from home overnight less than ten times (at least once). Gives a demographic profile of the total sample of business travellers, frequent business travellers and infrequent business travellers. Compares the same three groups with regard to how important a total of 56 services and amenities that may be provided by a lodge are in selecting lodging accommodation.
This paper (the second in a series of four) presents the findings of a study of the views of UK hotel customers when identifying the perceived importance of hotel selection and quality assessment attributes. A brief review of the methodology is presented together with an analysis of customer preferences and characteristics. As the first article in the series concentrated upon the important attributes, this paper focuses on the interjacent and relatively unimportant attributes. A discussion of the findings reveals that customers view leisure, entertainment and children-related services as relatively unimportant. The results confirm the importance of competence and the characteristics and performance of the service provider. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Older travelers require and prefer certain amenities over those preferred by younger travelers—and this study sets forth what those are
Article
Hotel services quality was examined in relation to the services quality model suggested by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry to describe the quality gaps in service delivery and the service experience. Previous works by Gronroos and Nightingale were utilized to establish parameters for fit to the model. Rather than another attempt to define service quality, the issue was approached from the null perspective, the perspective that quality can be measured more effectively and more efficiently by its non-existence, i.e. the gaps in service quality. These findings could have considerable impact for hotel service marketers. We recommend replication and extension by the hospitality research community.
Article
Consumer preferences as to use of hotel can be determined by a number of factors. This paper argues that these factors can be categorized into three, and that determinant factors include tangible features of the hotel. Applying a simple Fishbein multi-attribute model to a sample of 145 guests in a western Canadian city indicated that the availability of a restaurant, convenient parking, interior decor and exterior aesthetics were factors that led to hotel selection by guests.
Researching Tourism Satisfaction Client perceptions of hotels, a multi-attribute approach. Tourism Management
  • C Ryan
  • Routledge
  • London
  • F Saleh
  • C Ryan
Ryan, C., 1995. Researching Tourism Satisfaction. Routledge, London. Saleh, F., Ryan, C., 1992. Client perceptions of hotels, a multi-attribute approach. Tourism Management June, 163–168.
R U ready for AI? American Demographics
  • S Hample
Hample, S., 1996. R U ready for AI? American Demographics May, 60.
A New Zealand investigation into the factors influencing consumers’ selection of business hotel accommodation
  • Lockyer
Lockyer, T., 2000. A New Zealand investigation into the factors influencing consumers' selection of business hotel accommodation. Australian Journal of Hospitality Management 7 (2), 11–24.
Naturally Intelligent Systems How hotels attributes deliver the promised benefits
  • M Caudill
  • C Butler
  • Bradford Book
  • London
  • L Dube
  • L M Renaghan
Caudill, M., Butler, C., 1990. Naturally Intelligent Systems. A Bradford Book, London. Dube, L., Renaghan, L.M., 1999. How hotels attributes deliver the promised benefits. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 40 (5), 89–95.
How hotels attributes deliver the promised benefits
  • Dube
Marketplace lodging needs of mature travellers
  • Ananth
An attributional approach to hotel selection. Part 1
  • Callan
Hotel guest satisfaction among business travellers
  • Gunderson