Genetic analysis of Raf1, Mdm2, c-Myc, Cdc25a and Cdc25b proto-oncogenes in 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine- and 1,3-butadiene-induced lymphomas in B6C3F1 mice
Division of Cell Biology, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, S 581-85 Linköping, SwedenMutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (Impact Factor: 3.68). 08/2000; 452(1):19-26. DOI: 10.1016/S0027-5107(00)00031-2
We have previously identified activation of ras proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes including p53, p16INK4a and p15INK4b in 2′,3′-dideoxycytidine (ddC)- and/or 1,3-butadiene (BD)-induced lymphomas derived from B6C3F1 (C57BL/6xC3H/He) mice, indicating that alterations of ras signaling pathway, p53 and pRb growth control pathways are important in the development of these chemically induced lymphomas. However, there is still a subset of tumors that displayed no changes in these genes. Thus, we investigated whether the Raf1, Mdm2, c-Myc, Cdc25a and Cdc25b proto-oncogenes, which are implicated in the ras or p53 or pRb pathways, are alternative oncogenic target genes. Analyses of gross genomic alterations by Southern blots failed to reveal rearrangement or amplification in any of the tumors examined. Frequent point mutations on the substrate binding domain of the Raf1 gene has been reported in 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced murine lymphomas and lung tumors, along with a conspicuous lack of ras mutations [U. Naumann, I. Eisenmann-Tappe, U.R. Rapp, The role of raf kinases in development and growth of tumors, Recent Results Cancer Res., 143 (1997) 237–244]. To investigate whether Raf1 mutation is involved in our set of tumor especially those without ras mutations, the PCR-based single-strand conformation analyses (SSCA) and direct DNA sequencing were employed. No mutations but four genetic polymorphisms between C57BL/6 and C3H/He were found, with two of them reported as point mutations previously (op. cit.). The polymorphisms were utilized for allelic loss study of Raf1 locus. Losses of heterozygosity were found in six of 31 BD-induced lymphomas. These results indicate that genetic alterations of c-Myc, Cdc25, Raf1 and Mdm2 proto-oncogenes may not be involved in the development of ddC- and BD-induced lymphomas and the inactivation of tumor suppressor gene(s) located close to Raf1 gene might be important in the development of a subset of BD-induced lymphomas.
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ABSTRACT: Lung fibroblasts from BD-exposed mice have been analysed for the occurrence of micronuclei. Primary cultures set up 24h after the end of exposure were treated with cytochalasin B and micronuclei scored in binucleate cells. A three-fold statistically significant increase of micronucleated cells was detected after exposure to 500ppm, the lowest tested concentration. A linear dose effect relationship was observed between 500 and 1300ppm. Immunofluorescent staining of kinetochore proteins was applied to distinguish between acentric micronuclei produced by chromosome breaks and micronuclei containing a centromeric region, most likely induced by chromosome loss. A statistically significant increase of both types of MN in 1300ppm-exposed females and a significant increase in centromeric MN in 500ppm-exposed males were detected. These data demonstrate that an intermediate of BD metabolism with a potential for clastogenic and aneugenic effects is active in lung cells after inhalation exposure. These effects can play a role in the initiation and promotion of BD-induced lung tumours.
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ABSTRACT: 1,3-Butadiene’s (BD’s) major electrophilic metabolites 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2-dihydroxy-3,4-epoxybutane (EBD), and 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) are responsible for both its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. EB, EBD, and DEB are DNA reactive, forming a variety of adducts. All three metabolites are genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, with relative mutagenic potencies of DEB >> EB > EBD. DEB also effectively produces gene deletions and chromosome aberrations. BD’s greater mutagenicity and carcinogenicity in mice over rats as well as its failure to induce chromosome-level mutations in vivo in rats appear to be due to greater production of DEB in mice. Concentrations of EB and DEB in vivo in humans are even lower than in rats. Although most studies of BD-exposed humans have failed to find increases in gene mutations, one group has reported positive findings. Reasons for these discordant results are examined. BD-related chromosome aberrations have never been demonstrated in humans except for the possible production of micronuclei in lymphocytes of workers exposed to extremely high levels of BD in the workplace. The relative potencies of the BD metabolites, their relative abundance in the different species, and the kinds of mutations they can induce are major considerations in BD’s overall genotoxicity profile.
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