Article

Fatty acid composition of certified organic, conventional and omega-3 eggs

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid composition of commercially available conventional, certified organic, and omega-3 eggs. Egg components were assessed, and the fatty acid composition of yolk lipids was determined by gas chromatography. Organic egg yolk contained a higher percentage of palmitic and stearic acids than did conventional yolk (P < 0.05) with no differences observed in the monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acid compositions. Compared with organic and conventional eggs, omega-3 egg yolk contained lower percentages of myristic and palmitic acids, and higher omega-3 fatty acids. In a sub-analysis of conventional egg types, the percent of stearic acid in “cage” egg yolk was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of “barn-laid” and “free-range” eggs. “Cage” eggs had a significantly lower percentage (P < 0.05) of arachidonic acid than had “barn-laid” eggs. Consumption of omega-3 eggs has the potential to confer health benefits through the increase in intake of omega-3 fatty acids. With regard to organic or conventional methods of production, the small differences in saturated fatty acids observed in the present study are unlikely to have any significant metabolic effect on the consumer.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The conventional eggs are produced by laying hens growing in the hen farms and fed with commercial diet [9,11], especially Molecules 2022, 27, 3008 2 of 12 some hormones may be added to compound feed so as to accelerate the growth of hens and yield more eggs [12,13]. Therefore, most people are willing to buy these organic eggs even with higher prices [14][15][16][17]. ...
... Previous studies show that the content of the nutritional elements such as fat, protein, cholesterol, lecithin, and amino acids in organic eggs were higher than those in conventional eggs [3,18,19]. Furthermore, the content of macro elements such as sodium and potassium [20,21], fatty acids such as palmitic acid and stearic acid [16] contained in organic eggs also covers a higher percentage than that of conventional eggs. Compared with organic eggs, conventional eggs have large egg weigh, more egg white, higher eggshells strength and moisture content, as well as more micronutrients (e.g., Mg, Ca, et al.) [11,13,15,22]. ...
... However, a small percentage of studies indicate the opposite or contradictory results. It should be noted that most of the studies focus on comparing the differences of the two kinds of eggs in terms of physical properties, chemical composition of macromolecular substances such as protein, lipid, cholesterol and lecithin [16,23,24]. Hence, it is worth focusing once again that the nutritional value of eggs also depends on the high and low content of small molecular substances such as glucose, amino acids and their composition patterns. ...
Article
Full-text available
The difference of nutrient composition between organic eggs and conventional eggs has always been a concern of people. In this study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique combined with multivariate statistical analyses was conducted to identify the metabolite different in egg yolk and egg white in order to reveal the nutritional components information between organic and conventional eggs. The results showed that the nutrient content and composition characteristics were different between organic and conventional eggs, among which the content of glucose, putrescine, amino acids and their derivatives were found higher in the organic eggs yolk, while phospholipids were demonstrated higher in conventional eggs yolk. Organic acid, alcohol, amine, choline and amino acids were higher in conventional eggs white, but glucose and lactate in organic egg were higher. Our study demonstrated that there are more nutritive components and higher nutritional value in organic eggs than conventional eggs, especially for the growth and development of infants and young children, and conventional eggs have more advantages in promoting lipid metabolism, preventing fatty liver, and reducing serum cholesterol. Eggs have important nutritional value to human body, and these two kinds of eggs can be selected according to the actual nutrient needs.
... Eggs from pastured hens are more nutritious than the conventional eggs at the supermarket. They are higher in vitamin A and E and omega-3 fatty acids and lower in cholesterol and saturated fat [41,44,45]. The advantages of simultaneous enrichment of eggs, milk, or meat with other nutrients, such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, and DHA, include better stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids during egg storage and cooking, high availability of such nutrients as vitamin E and carotenoids, absence of off-taste, and improved antioxidant and omega-3 status of people who consume these eggs. ...
... The advantages of simultaneous enrichment of eggs, milk, or meat with other nutrients, such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, and DHA, include better stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids during egg storage and cooking, high availability of such nutrients as vitamin E and carotenoids, absence of off-taste, and improved antioxidant and omega-3 status of people who consume these eggs. A review of the relevant scientific literature shows that designer eggs that are rich in omega-3 and antioxidants can be considered to be a new type of functional food [44,45], It is possible that by feeding animals with nutritious feeds, there is enrichment of eggs, milk, or meat [44,45]. This method can make the animal foods-eggs, milk, and meat-low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in omega-3 fatty acid, vitamins E and A, and selenium. ...
... The advantages of simultaneous enrichment of eggs, milk, or meat with other nutrients, such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, and DHA, include better stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids during egg storage and cooking, high availability of such nutrients as vitamin E and carotenoids, absence of off-taste, and improved antioxidant and omega-3 status of people who consume these eggs. A review of the relevant scientific literature shows that designer eggs that are rich in omega-3 and antioxidants can be considered to be a new type of functional food [44,45], It is possible that by feeding animals with nutritious feeds, there is enrichment of eggs, milk, or meat [44,45]. This method can make the animal foods-eggs, milk, and meat-low in saturated fat and cholesterol and high in omega-3 fatty acid, vitamins E and A, and selenium. ...
Chapter
The quality of foods that are produced is determined by environmental factors, such as soil quality, water content, microgravity, radiation, temperature, humidity, and harvesting time, which influence inheritance. In a recent biotechnological advancement, microgravity conditions have been demonstrated to have significant influence on the nutrient quality of foods. Use of microgravity conditions during germination of seeds can alter the nutrient quality or contents, leading to improvement in the quality of food production. The majority of these biotechnological and traditional methods act by influencing the epigenome. The epigenome is the surface of the genes made up of chemical compounds and proteins that can attach to DNA and direct such actions as turning the genes on or off, thereby controlling the production of proteins in particular cells. In many species of plants and animals, new phenotypes have been observed to occur rapidly in the last 100 years, owing to the rapid changes in the environment, causing epigenetic inheritance of a phenotype. Therefore genetic variations and epigenetic modulations in the plant cells appear to be the basic determinants of the nutrient contents of the fruits, leaves, and seeds of the plants consumed as foods. Hence these modulations may be useful for the development of functional foods. Similarly, the nutrient content of animal foods can be altered by feeding the mother or father for epigenetic variations and modulations that are being targeted for inclusion in foods in the functional food category. This comprehensive review further emphasizes the hypothesis previously proposed by R.B. Singh and provides additional information on the role of biotechnology and new epigenetic engineering techniques in the production of functional foods for human consumption from plants and animals for global functional food security.
... No evidence suggests that the fat profile of organic chicken is healthier than its conventional counterpart (Table 1). Samman et al. (2009) reported that egg weight and albumen were similar between conventional and organic eggs. Meanwhile, significant variation was displayed between conventional and organic eggs regarding the ratio of yolk and yolk fat. ...
... Components of Conventional and Organic Eggs(Samman et al., 2009) ...
... Composition of Conventional and Organic Egg Fatty Acids(Samman et al., 2009) ...
Chapter
The production of organic foods, one of the most important branches of ecological agriculture, has developed rapidly all over the world. In addition to paying attention to sustainable organicproductionmodesandprotectionoftheenvironment,peoplehaveastronginterestin the quality of organic food. Focusing on the nutrition and safety differences of organic and conventional food, a wide range of research in the world has compared conventional and organic agricultural systems. The field of food quality has drawn much attention regarding differences between conventional and organic foods. This chapter aims at assessing past research that focuses on the comparison of the nutrients and contaminants present between organically and conventionally produced agricultural foods.
... No evidence suggests that the fat profile of organic chicken is healthier than its conventional counterpart (Table 1). Samman et al. (2009) reported that egg weight and albumen were similar between conventional and organic eggs. Meanwhile, significant variation was displayed between conventional and organic eggs regarding the ratio of yolk and yolk fat. ...
... Components of Conventional and Organic Eggs(Samman et al., 2009) ...
... Composition of Conventional and Organic Egg Fatty Acids(Samman et al., 2009) ...
... A comprehensive literature search on techniques for verifying egg authenticity showed that there are already described procedures to discriminate organic eggs from conventional eggs. Techniques based on carotenoids profiling , 2013, fatty acid composition (Samman et al., 2009;Tres, O'Neill, & Van Ruth, 2011) or mineral content (Borges et al., 2015;Küçükyilmaz et al., 2012;Vincevica-Gaile, Gaga, & Klavins, 2013) were developed. However, the current risk is not only fraud with organic eggs. ...
... Each egg unit has a unique composition, which is distinctive due to the intrinsic metabolism of each hen that originated it (de Oliveira Mendes, Porto, Almeida, Fantini, & Sena, 2019). However, described factors that modify egg size and composition are: diet, hen's age, strain and other environmental factors (Samman et al., 2009). In this work, hen's age and strain could not be controlled because it was a consumer survey of products available in supermarkets and, as such, specific characteristics of the laying hens are not known (Samman et al., 2009). ...
... However, described factors that modify egg size and composition are: diet, hen's age, strain and other environmental factors (Samman et al., 2009). In this work, hen's age and strain could not be controlled because it was a consumer survey of products available in supermarkets and, as such, specific characteristics of the laying hens are not known (Samman et al., 2009). Diet was considered through the rearing system. ...
Article
EU regulation classifies egg production in four hen housing systems: organic, free range, barn and cages. However, there are no analytical methods for a complete detection of the housing systems declared on the eggs’ label. This work describes a new method for this task. A lipid extract was obtained, and eggs classified in the four housing systems by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. A total of 192 spectra were analysed. Eggs were classified by Support Vector Machine classification and Linear and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (LDA and QDA, respectively). The cholesterol concentration did not allow to classify correctly the four farming systems. However, the yolk lipid extract successfully classified the eggs of the hen housing system. Results showed 100% accuracy by UV-VIS-NIR spectrum of the yolk lipid extract with the QDA statistical analysis. These results indicate that this lipid extract is a promising tool for analytical verification of the farming system.
... Research shows that C18:1 and C18:2 fatty acids are most affected by feeding management, as opposed to SFAs (Cobos et al., 1995). In other studies of fatty acid composition of conventional eggs, the proportion of n-6 in eggs ranged from 15.0 to 23.8 %, while the proportion of n-3 ranged from 0.38 to 1.36 %, with the pertaining n-6/ n-3 ratio spanning from 11.03 to 62.63 (Petrović et al., 2012;Samman et al., 2009;Milinsk et al., 2003;Cherian et al., 2002;Škrtić et al., 2007;Woods and Fearon, 2009). The representation of n-6 determined in this study was similar to the n-6 representation reported by the abovementioned studies, while the proportion of n-3 was similar to the lower n-3 values reported by these studies. ...
... In this study, the latter ranged from 0.46 to 0.76 (Table 3), which is in agreement with valid recommendations (≥ 0.45;DOH, 1994). PUFA/SFA ratios of the conventionally produced eggs were similar, as reported by other researcher studies, and ranged from 0.45 to 0.68 (Cherian et al., 2002;Milinsk et al, 2003;Samman et al., 2009;Petrović et al., 2012;Škrtić et al., 2007). Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3, ALA) was the only fatty acid determined in eggs that belongs to the n-3 PUFA group. ...
... The levels of ALA obtained in this study (0.25 -0.50 %) (Fig. 3) were similar to those obtained in other studies, which reported the ALA representation of 0.15 to 0.38 % (Milinsk et al., 2003;Sahan et al., 2014;Škrtić et al., 2007;Kazmierska et al., 2005). In earlier studies on the conventionally produced eggs, DHA was either not detected (Sahan et al., 2014;Škrtić et al., 2007;Woods and Fearon, 2009) or detected in the range of 0.10 -0.85 % (Petrović et al., 2012;Samman et al., 2009;Imran et al., 2015;Milinsk et al., 2003;Cherian et al., 2002;Cherian, 2008). Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, AA) is essential for embryonic development and chicken growth (Sahan et al., 2014). ...
... For each tested ingredient in one product group, there was quite a high variation in the results, which could be due to the individual variability, hens age and different feeds used by different producers. Some other authors have drawn similar conclusions [56,57]. Another issue is the welfare of the animals from which eggs are obtained. ...
... Many experiments are confirming the possibility of increasing the n3 PUFA content in eggs [65]. There are also studies of marketed products where the nutrition claim corresponds to an increased amount of these valuable fatty acids [57]. Our research proves that controls on the compatibility of nutrition claims with the real level of the declared nutrients in eggs are necessary. ...
Preprint
All over the world birds’ eggs are an important and valuable component of the human diet. The study aimed to compare the content of lipid components and their nutritional value as well as iron and zinc levels in chicken and quail eggs commonly available on the market. In egg lipids, unsaturated acids were dominated, especially oleic acid, the content of which was about 40% of total fatty acids (TFA). Linoleic acid was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. Compared to other products of animal origin, eggs were characterized by favourable values of lipid quality indices, especially index of atherogenicity, thrombogenicity and hypocholesterolemic to hypercholesterolemic ratio. In the present study, no differences in the content of tested nutrients between eggs from different production methods (organic, free-range, barn, cages), as well as inter-breed differences were noticed. Cluster analysis showed that eggs enriched in n3 PUFA (according to producers’ declaration) differ from other groups of chicken eggs. However, only in eggs from one producer, the amount of EPA and DHA exceed 80 mg per 100 g, entitling to use the nutrition claim on the package. Quail eggs differed from chicken eggs in FA profile; they also had much higher iron and cholesterol levels.
... The aims of organic farming are to protect natural resources and animal welfare using appropriate ecological methods, and consumers accept organic foods as good-quality products (Samman et al. 2009, Radu-Rusu et al. 2014. Quality, nutritional value, and safety are the most important factors that affect the food preferences of the consumer; however, there are limited studies comparing organic and conventional foods in point of food composition. ...
... The results of this study, similar to those of previous studies, showed that palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in eggs (Hidalgo et al. 2008, Samman et al. 2009, Stanišić et al. 2015. SFA levels were similar in eggs produced by both organic and conventional production systems, which is in agreement with the results of Cherian et al. (2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, malondialdehyde and cholesterol in conventional and organic eggs obtained from hens of different ages (30 and 60 weeks). A total of 360 egg yolks were used in this study. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-3, and omega-6 levels were higher in the organic eggs from the 30-week-old hens. The monounsaturated fatty acid level was higher in the conventional eggs but was the same between the two age groups. Cholesterol and vitamin A levels were not influenced by either the rearing system or the age of the hens. The malondialdehyde, vitamin D2, and vitamin K2 were higher in the organic eggs; however, vitamin E was higher in the conventional eggs. The results showed that the rearing system and age, as well as the diet, had an impact on the composition of the egg. Total levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid, omega-3, and omega-6 are higher in organic eggs produced by younger hens.
... Considering the importance of eggs in the daily diet of people, many researchers investigated the factors that affect the chemical composition of eggs, such as trace minerals (Giannenas, Nisianakis, Gavriil, Kontopidis, & Kyriazakis, 2009), carotenoid content (Bunea et al., 2017) and fatty acids (Samman et al., 2009). It has been confirmed that nutrient profile of eggs can be modified by applying different husbandry systems (free range vs. indoor) and feeds (vegetable origin vs. animal origin) for hens (Campos et al., 2016;Giannenas et al., 2009;Samman et al., 2009), as well as by the hen breeds (Sun, Liu, Li, Xu, & Yang, 2017;Xiang, Jin, Gouda, Jin, & Ma, 2019). ...
... Considering the importance of eggs in the daily diet of people, many researchers investigated the factors that affect the chemical composition of eggs, such as trace minerals (Giannenas, Nisianakis, Gavriil, Kontopidis, & Kyriazakis, 2009), carotenoid content (Bunea et al., 2017) and fatty acids (Samman et al., 2009). It has been confirmed that nutrient profile of eggs can be modified by applying different husbandry systems (free range vs. indoor) and feeds (vegetable origin vs. animal origin) for hens (Campos et al., 2016;Giannenas et al., 2009;Samman et al., 2009), as well as by the hen breeds (Sun, Liu, Li, Xu, & Yang, 2017;Xiang, Jin, Gouda, Jin, & Ma, 2019). Currently in the market, there are various types of eggs available with different origins, different quality characteristics and thus with different retail prices. ...
Article
The present study focuses on the differentiation of Deqingyuan (n = 90), Taihe (n = 90) and crossbred (n = 90) black-boned silky fowl eggs based on chemometrics analysis of multi-element and lipidomics data. A total of 53 chemical elements were simultaneously quantified in the eggs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis of element data screened 30, 13 and 12 candidate discriminants for whole egg, egg yolk and egg white samples, respectively. Moreover, we utilized an LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics approach to profile lipids in the three types of egg yolks. In total, 1633 lipid species (including 43.78% glycerophospholipids, 25.66% glycerolipids, 16.66% fatty acyls, 6.86% sphingolipids, 4.10% sterol lipids, 1.53% polyketides, 1.10% prenol lipids and 0.31% saccharolipids) were consistently detected in all samples. A partial least squares discriminant analysis model was established based on the lipidomics data, which enables a 100% correct classification of the egg yolks. Using a cutoff of variable importance in projection value >1 and p value <.05, a panel of 22 potential lipid markers was discovered for the discrimination of Deqingyuan, Taihe and crossbred egg yolks. These results could facilitate a better understanding of the nutritional qualities of the evaluated eggs. Our method of combining chemical analysis with chemometrics offers a convenient and powerful tool to distinguish commercially-available eggs.
... Therefore, dietary supplements of foodstuffs such as eggs and meat are a clear alternative to increase the daily consumption of ω-3 to meet the recommended doses [16]. Foods that provide ω-6 fatty acids include soybean, palm, sunflower, and rapeseed oils, whereas foods that provide ω-3 fatty acids include certain nuts, and plant and fish oils [17][18][19][20]. Omega-9 fatty acids are not essential and are found in olive oil and animal fat [21]. ...
... Designer eggs offer balanced ratios of PUFA: SFA (1:1) or ω-6/ω-3 PUFA (1:1) and provide more than 600 mg of ω-3 PUFA [34]. The content of ω-3 fatty acids in eggs can be increased by supplementing the diets of laying hens with certain dietary supplements, such as groundnut oil, fish oil, safflower oil, linseed, fish meal, or algae [15][16][17][18]58]. Omega-3 fatty acids include EPA, DPA, DHA, and linolenic acid (LNA), whereas AA and LA are examples of ω-6 fatty acids. ...
Article
Simple Summary: In this review, we discuss previous studies, state-of-the-art technology, and the potential implications of utilizing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in poultry diets, as well as the application of these fatty acids in the poultry industry for improving poultry production and health. Essential roles are played by these fatty acids in development and metabolism, growth and productive performance, immune response and anti-oxidative properties, improving meat quality, bone growth and development, and improving fertility rates and semen quality. Abstract: Omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids are important components of cell membranes. They are essential for health and normal physiological functioning of humans. Not all fatty acids can be produced endogenously owing to the absence of certain desaturases; however, they are required in a ratio that is not naturally achieved by the standard diet of industrialized nations. Poultry products have become the primary source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), with one of the most effective solutions being to increase the accretion of PUFAs in chicken products via the adjustment of fatty acids in poultry diets. Several studies have reported the favorable effects of ω-3 PUFA on bone strength, bone mineral content and density, and semen quality. However, other studies concluded negative effects of LC-PUFA on meat quality and palatability, and acceptability by consumers. The present review discussed the practical application of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids in poultry diets, and studied the critical effects of these fatty acids on productive performance, blood biochemistry, immunity, carcass traits, bone traits, egg and meat quality, and semen quality in poultry. Future studies are required to determine how poultry products can be produced with higher contents
... The comparison between the total lipid amount in the organic eggs and conventional eggs are inconclusive. While the results found by Mizumoto et al. [16] indicated that there are reduced levels (8.3 × 9.16 g% egg), results from Hidalgo et al. [17] (10.1 × 9.5% egg) and Samman et al. [18] (4.45 × 4.43% yolk) found no relevant difference in the total lipids in organic eggs. Besides the little difference, the proportions of lipids in eggs are compatible with the food composition table, which indicates that conventional eggs have 10.7% (USDA). ...
... The results of the concentration of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) are also inconclusive. Chemical analysis of organic eggs from the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia [18] or the Italian market [17] showed higher SFA. In an experimental study, Mugnai et al. [19] showed the more significant difference in SFA levels during the four seasons in the year, such as 60 to 68 g and 82.1 to 85.7 g/kg yolk in organic eggs and in conventional husbandry system, respectively. ...
... Lipids, fatty acid and cholesterol: The comparison between the total lipid amount in the organic eggs and conventional eggs are inconclusive. While the results found by Mizumoto et al. [16] indicated that there are reduced levels (8.3 × 9.16 g% egg), results from Hidalgo et al. [17] (10.1 × 9.5% egg) and Samman et al. [18] (4.45 × 4.43% yolk) found no relevant difference in the total lipids in organic eggs. Besides the little difference, the proportions of lipids in eggs are compatible with the food composition table, which indicates that conventional eggs have 10.7% (USDA). ...
... The results of the concentration of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) are also inconclusive. Chemical analysis of organic eggs from the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia [18] or the Italian market [17] showed higher SFA. In an experimental study, Mugnai et al. [19] showed the more significant difference in SFA levels during the four seasons in the year, such as 60 to 68 g and 82.1 to 85.7 g/kg yolk in organic eggs and in conventional husbandry system, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is known there are many environmental benefits when food is grown in the organic system. However, there is little scientific evidence to identify the variations and the real benefits of the nutrient levels of organic food. Therefore this review aimed to clarify the nutritional characteristics of organic foods such as eggs, milk and meat and highlight the importance of its production in the world and in Brazil. The research showed difference between the profile of lipids on meats, eggs and dairy products obtained from both organic systems and conventional ones. For example, conjugated linolenic acid (CLA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can be higher in cheeses and meat, but not in eggs or chicken. The results for levels of protein, minerals or cholesterol from analyses are inconclusive. In conclusion, few studies show better nutritional value from organic eggs, milk or meat. However, we can claim that higher PUFA in meat and cheese give them a better quality as observed in the majority of the studies. The selected studies are organized and showed in tables with data of nutrients, food and characteristics of essay.
... This study showed significant increase in the levels of Mg, Ca, P, Zn, Se, and Fe at 21 st day following cooked quail eggs consumption when compared with their baseline levels. This might be as a result of high content of essential minerals in quail eggs [15,17]. The increased level of Zn collaborates with the findings that quail eggs are rich in Zn [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim:The present study was design todetermine the serum levels of selected minerals (Fe, Ca, Se, Mg, P and Zn)following the consumption of cooked quail eggs by apparently healthy students.Methods: This is an experimental study comprising 37 volunteered students, out of which are 20 females and 17 males within the age of 18±35years respectively. They were fed with three cooked quail eggs every morning for 21 days. 3ml of fasting blood were collected before the intake of cooked quail eggs for baseline, 10th day, and 21st day respectively. The serum levels ofFe, Ca, Se, Mg, P and Zn were determined using standard methods. Results:The result showed that the serum Zinc and magnesium levels increased significantly at 10th and 21st day compared with the baseline level (p=0.01). However, the levels of calcium, selenium, iron, inorganic phosphorus increased significantly at 21st day compared with their baseline (p=0.01)following consumption of cooked quail eggs.The mean serum levels of Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn and Se did not differ significantly between male and female subjects at baseline, 10th day and 21st day following cooked quail eggs consumption. (p>0.05).Conclusion:The implication of this finding suggest that regular consumption of cooked quail egg might serve as a good supplement for patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia. The increased levels of Ca, Mg and P found in this study showed that the population may benefit immensely by consuming cooked quail eggs as these minerals play important role in bone metabolism.
... On the other hand, Lešić et al. [43] found a higher content of PUFAs in eggs from older hens, but lower SFAs. From a healthy lifestyle point of view, it seems that the eggs from the second laying cycle are of better quality due to their lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices [46]; however, the hypocholesterolemic index and hypocholesterolaemic/hypercholesterolaemic ratio were higher. The peroxidability index was then higher in eggs from the first laying cycle, which reflects the higher PUFA content, because it was found by Dal Bosco et al. [47] that the higher value resulted in easier oxidation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared the fatty acid profile and some physical parameters of eggs from hens reared according to the organic system at the beginning of the first and second laying cycle. A total of 1080 eggs were analysed at the beginning of the first (from the 28th to 30th week of age) and the second (from the 78th to 80th week of age) laying cycle. It was found that the hen ages influenced the egg weight, egg surface area, yolk proportion, and eggshell colour. Albumen and eggshell proportion, albumen, yolk index, Haugh unit score, and eggshell strength were lower in eggs from older hens compared with those produced from younger layers. Monounsaturated fatty acids were found in higher amounts than saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg yolks of eggs from layers only at the beginning of the second laying cycle. The PUFAn-6/n-3 ratio, saturation, atherogenic, and thrombogenic indices were significantly lower in the egg yolks from older hens compared to younger layers. These findings (regarding the eggs from the older ones) prove that it is practical to utilize them in the organic farming system during a period of two years.
... Kandungan nutrisi protein telur puyuh organik 17,81 mg/100g, kolesterol 783,62 mg/100g, HDL 127, 39 mg/100g, LDL 133,5 mg/100mg ( Saraswati dkk., 2016 ). Telur organik juga mengandung asam lemak palmitat dan stearat yang tinggi dan sangat baik untuk dikonsumsi (Samman et al., 2009). Kandungan kolesterol dalam terlur organik dapat meningkatkan kadar glukosa dalam tubuh bila dikonsumsi. ...
Article
Periode kebuntingan pada hewan membutuhkan nutrisi yang banyak sebagai akibat dari pemenuhan gizi indukan dan embrio. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis pengaruh suplementasi telur puyuh organik terhadap kadar glukosa darah Rattus norvegicus L saat laktasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan 20 ekor Rattus norvegicus L betina terdiri atas 5 perlakuan dengan 4 kali ulangan. Perlakuan pada penelitian ini terdiri atas T0: Rattus norvegicus L kontrol; T1: Rattus norvegicus L diberi suplemen telur yang diproduksi puyuh yang diberi pakan komersial; T2: Rattus norvegicus L diberi suplemen telur yang diproduksi puyuh yang diberi pakan organik standar; T3: Rattus norvegicus L diberi suplemen telur yang diproduksi puyuh yang diberi pakan organik yang mengandung daun singkong, ikan kembung dan kunyit, dan T4: Rattus norvegicus L diberi suplemen telur yang diproduksi puyuh yang diberi pakan organic yang mengandung daun singkong, rumput laut, dan kunyit. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) . Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Analysis of Variance (Anova) pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi telur puyuh organik yang tidak memberikan pengaruh (P<0.05) terhadap kadar glukosa darah. Penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa kadar glukosa darah tikus putih pada periode laktasi setelah pemberian suplemen telur puyuh organik berada pada taraf normal sehingga suplemen telur puyuh organik baik dikonsumsi pada periode laktasi. Kata kunci : laktasi, telur, glukosa
... Laying hens have the ability to elongate and desaturate ALA, the predominant n-3 PUFA in flaxseed, to the functional EPA and DHA (Ehr et al., 2017). Jia et al. (2008) and Samman et al. (2009) reported that adding dietary flaxseed can increase n-3 PUFA, including ALA, EPA, and DHA contents in eggs. However, the most critical problem in ALA-rich flaxseed oil is the presence of antinutrients that may have an adverse influence on health (Beheshti Moghadam and Cherian, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the effect of dietary soluble flaxseed oil (SFO), as a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and various indices including laying performance, egg quality, nutrient composition of eggs, egg stability upon storage, and serum characteristics in laying hens. A total of 210 52-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were assigned to one of five experimental diets. A corn-soybean meal-based control diet was mixed without or with SFO to reach the concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 % in diets and fed for four weeks. Dietary SFO did not affect laying performance and egg quality. Increasing dietary SFO linearly increased the pH of yolk at 7, 14, and 28 days following storage at room temperature (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde contents in egg yolks were quadratically increased (P < 0.05) at 0, 7, and 21 days following storage as the inclusion levels of SFO increased in diets. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in total omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid, but not α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, was deposited in egg yolks at 2 and 4 weeks following the SFO feeding. Finally, dietary SFO did not affect serum parameters such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and nitric oxide. It is concluded that adding SFO into the diets of laying hens can be an efficient strategy to enrich the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid in eggs.
... To access the physical properties of the eggs, whole eggs were weighed and then cracked open, following which intact yolks were separated using an egg separator. The total weights of egg yolks (grams) and eggshells were also recorded, and their albumen weights were calculated by difference (Samman et al., 2009;Lordelo et al., 2017). ...
Article
In rural Nova Scotia (NS), many small family farms raise free-range hens that consume a varied diet that is different from that of conventionally-farmed hens in caged housing systems. However, it is not known how this varied diet impacts the quality of these eggs. The objective of the present study was to compare the chemical composition of free-range eggs obtained from a small family farm in rural NS to that of conventionally-farmed eggs purchased from a local grocery store. The values obtained from the present study were also compared to published values in the Canadian Nutrient File (CNF) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture FoodData Central database. The egg components and the amino acid compositions were evaluated, and protein concentrations were determined using the Kjeldahl method whereas the fatty acid profiles of the egg yolks were determined using gas chromatography. No difference (P = 0.3) in protein content was observed in free-range eggs (10.6 ± 1.1%) compared to conventionally-farmed eggs (9.7 ± 0.6%). Similar values were also observed for the physical properties of the two types of eggs measured except for the weights of the egg shells. Conversely, the amino acid cysteine, was in higher amounts (P = 0.05) 0.26 g/100 g in the CNF compared to the measured values of ~0.16 g/100 g. Notably, the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) was higher (P = 0.001) in the free-range eggs (45.6%) compared to (40.8%) the conventionally-farmed eggs. The cholesterol content of egg yolks was lower in free-range eggs (253.4 ± 0.01 mg/extra-large yolk or 14 mg cholesterol/g of yolk) vs. for conventionally-farmed eggs (263 ± 0.7 mg/extra-large yolk or 15.4 mg cholesterol/g of yolk), respectively. In terms of protein nutrition, free-range eggs may be a suitable alternative to conventionally-farmed eggs, moreover, the lower cholesterol content may be a favourable attribute for Canadian consumers who wish to purchase local free-range eggs.
... As consequence, OUT eggs had the highest content in palmitic and stearic acids. Our results are in accordance with those of Sammam and colleagues [28] who reported a highest content in stearic acid in organic eggs then in conventional cage system's eggs (8.77 vs. 8.37%), a higher concentration of palmitic acid too was measured in the organic eggs (25.5 vs. 25.1%), the reported differences were not significant. It has been known for decades that oleic acid is the most represented fatty acid in hen egg; our results are a further confirmation of this trait. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food function is nowadays not merely limited to nourishment supplying; consumers’ interest is oriented to food healthiness and nutritional value, animal welfare, environmental impact of animal productions, and products’ traceability. The objective of the present work is to compare physical parameters and fatty acids profiles of market eggs produced from hens housed in four different systems. In addition, the effects of the presence of an outdoor space allowance (IND = no outdoor space allowance, OUT = outdoor space allowance) on the same parameters have been investigated. Sixty-nine market eggs from four different production systems labelled as Alternative (ALT), Enriched Cage (ECA), Litter Floor (LIF), and Organic (ORG) have been analysed. Physical parameters and fatty acid concentrations were measured. An ANOVA analysis was performed with production system and outdoor space allowance as sources of variation, two Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were carried out with physical parameters and fatty acid parameters as variables. The effects of the complex interactions occurring among production system, hen welfare, and eggs quality have been analysed in marketed eggs leading to the conclusion that eggs from different production systems available on the market are characterized by differences in fatty acid profile and physical parameters. In physical parameters the differences among systems were influenced by the whole egg weight, albumen weight and yolk weight. In fatty acids parameters the determining variables are the content in polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid concentration, and n6/n3 ratio.
... Arihara (2014) mengusulkan beberapa strategi yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengembangkan bahan pangan fungsional atau produk pangan fungsional berbahan dasar daging, yang antara lain dapat dilakukan dengan memodifikasi komposisi karkas, memformulasikan kembali kandungan produk daging dengan menurunkan beberapa kandungannya seperti; reduksi kandungan lemak, kolesterol, kalori dan nitrat. Samman et al., (2009) dan Horiuchi et al., (2019 menyimpulkan bahwa designer eggs yang diperkaya dengan omega-3 dan antioksidan merupakan salah satu alternatif pangan fungsional dan dapat meningkatkan status omega-3 dan antioksidan bagi yang mengkonsumsinya. ...
... Therefore, some authors have also proposed the fatty acid profile as a chemical descriptor to address organic egg authentication by chemometric techniques, although factors such as the availability of other dietary sources when hens pasture and the animal metabolism might influence. For example, Samman et al. [20], who studied the fatty acid composition by GC-FID of certified organic, conventional, and omega-3 eggs, observed a higher percentage of palmitic and stearic acids in organic egg yolk than in the conventional one (P < 0.05), without differences in the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. Instead, omega-3 egg yolks showed lower myristic and palmitic acids, but higher omega-3 fatty acids. ...
Chapter
The European Union (EU) classifies hen eggs according to their production method: organic, free-range, barn, and cage. Nowadays, organic production benefits from fair competition and sustained consumer confidence. However, its high commercial prices make organic hen eggs vulnerable to mislabeling practices. Besides, another fraud-susceptible aspect in their production is the organic origin of feed for laying the hens. Traditionally, analytical strategies to guarantee food quality and uncover food adulteration have primarily relied on targeted analysis, where primary markers have to fulfill legal limits requirements. Nevertheless, the lack of primary markers allowing the discrimination between organic and conventional hen eggs has led to other strategies. Thus, both profiling and fingerprinting approaches combined with chemometrics are rising as promising approaches to address organic production authentication. Therefore, in this chapter, the role of targeted and non-targeted analytical separation and related techniques, in combination with chemometrics, for the characterization, classification, and authentication of organic hen eggs will be reviewed. The coverage of all the applications is beyond the present contribution scope, so it will focus on the most relevant applications published in the last years.
... The results of the concentration of Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) are also inconclusive. Chemical analysis of organic eggs from the metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia Samman et al.(2009) or the Italian market showed higher SFA. In an experimental study, Mugnai et al.(2014) Showed the more significant difference in SFA levels during the four seasons in the year, such as 60 to 68 g and 82.1 to 85.7 g/kg yolk in organic eggs and in conventional husbandry system, respectively. ...
... Flaxseed products efficiently deposit ALA to poultry products due to greater content and bioavailability (Fraeye et al., 2012). Eggs from unsupplemented laying hens may contain 93 mg ALA and 173 mg total omega-3 fatty acid (ALA, EPA, and DHA)/50 g egg while adding 15% dietary flaxseed can increase ALA and total omega-3 fatty acid contents to 358 mg and 468 mg/50 g egg, respectively (Samman et al., 2009). According to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, an omega-3 labelled egg should contain at least 300 mg of n-3 PUFA per reference amount (Canadian Food Inspection Agency, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Current study was conducted at Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 2019. The objective was to determine the role of flaxseed (FS) inclusion in diet on omega-3 fatty acid composition, production performance, quality of eggs and their sensory evaluation in laying hens. Lohmann Selected Leghorn Lite (LSL) (n=192) laying hens (age=31 weeks) were selected for the study. Birds were distributed into three groups. Experimental diets had three levels (0, 5 and 10%). Total duration of the study was 10 weeks including two weeks adaptation period. Gas chromatography technique was used for fatty acids analysis of eggs. Amount of omega-3 fatty acid in eggs improved with higher level of FS while linoleic acid (omega-6), decosahexanoic acid (DHA) and ecosapentanoic acid (EPA) contents were remained unchanged. Addition of FS decreased egg production and weights of eggs. Feed conversion ratio was better in birds fed with control diet than those fed with FS. Feed intake (FI) and egg quality parameters like yolk weight, yolk percentage, albumen weight, albumen percentage, shell weight, shell percentage and shell thickness remained unchanged with dietary treatments. However, higher level of FS produced fishy smell in eggs. It was summarized that incorporation of FS in layers diet improved omega-3 fatty acids contents in eggs but decreased egg production and weight.
... ferring to portions of eicosatrienoic acid and DHA.The portion of ALA in omega-3 eggs is higherthan the one reported byBotsoglou et al. (2012),Halle and Schöne (2013), as well as byMeynier et al. (2014). The results of the present research proved slightly higher portion of DHA in n-3 PUFA eggs than it was in the research of above-mentioned authors.Samman et al. (2009) determined 4.5% of ALA and 2.1% of DHA in the Austrian omega-3 eggs.Kralik et al. (2010) investigated the nutritive composition of eggs produced by two producers present on the Croatian market. They confirmed that omega-3 eggs contained 2.6-5.62 times higher portion of n-3 PUFA than conventional eggs. The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in conven ...
Article
Full-text available
Eggs are a foodstuff of animal origin that are widely consumed by human population. Quality of eggs depends on many factors, such as laying hens’ feed composition. Modification of laying hens’ diet by supplementing different fat sources affects the fatty acid profile in egg yolks. This paper presents the comparison of the fatty acid profile (FA) in fresh and boiled n-3 PUFA eggs. There is the question asked if the values referring to daily consumption of specific fatty acids in fresh eggs are credible. The portion of fatty acids in omega-3 fresh eggs is the following: SFA 30.76%, MUFA 41.97%, n-6 PUFA 22.24%, n-3 PUFA 4.96%, and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio is 4.51. Comparison of FA profile in fresh and thermally processed n-3 PUFA eggs (boiled for 10 min. at 95 °C) shows that there are differences in the content of specific FAs, but they are not statistically significant (P>0.05), except for myristoleic fatty acid (P
Article
Full-text available
Free-range eggs are ethically desirable but as with all high-value commercial products, the establishment of provenance can be problematic. Here, we compared a simple one-step isopropanol method to a two-step methyl-tert-butyl ether method for extracting lipid species in chicken egg yolks before LC-MS/MS analysis. The isopropanol method extracted 937 lipid species from 20 major lipid subclasses with high reproducibility (CV<30%). Machine learning techniques could differentiate conventional cage, barn, and free-range eggs using an external test dataset with an accuracy of 0.94, 0.82, and 0.82, respectively. Lipid species that differentiated cage eggs were predominantly phosphocholines and phosphoethanolamines whilst the free-range egg lipidomes were dominated by acylglycerides with up to three fatty acids. The lipid profiles were found to be characteristic of the cage, barns, and free-range eggs. The lipidomic analysis together with the statistical modeling approach thus provides an efficient tool for verifying the provenance of conventional chicken eggs.
Research
Full-text available
organik hayvansal ürünlerin yağ asitleri içeriği ve besin kalitesi
Article
Full-text available
This was study under taken as a first attempt to investigate the effect of new production system of commercial layer with special emphasis on organic technique. A total 360 one-day-old Isa Brown chicks were obtained from Evan hatchery-Erbil. The birds assigned into 18 indoor pens (2×2 m) for the first 18 weeks . Each pen represented a replicate with 20 chicks. At beginning, birds assigned to the same condition and fed their daily requirements according to Isa Brown guide (2018). The fed as commercial and organic feed. Birds were randomly divided into six treatment groups of three replicates. the treatments were as follows; first treatment (T1): as control birds fed their full requirements according to Isa Brown layers guid (2018), fed commercial feed, reared indoor house, second treatment (T2): birds fed organic feed full requirements according to Isa Brown layers (2018) reared indoor house, third treatment (T3): birds fed 75% of full requirements commercial feed + pasture indoor and outdoor, fourth treatment (T4): birds fed 75% full requirement organic feed + pasture indoor and outdoor, fifth treatment (T5): birds fed full requirements according to Isa Brown layers guide (2018) commercial feed + pasture indoor and outdoor housed, sixth treatment (T6): birds fed full requirements according to Isa Brown layers guide (2018) organic feed + pasture indoor and outdoor housed. At the beginning of week 19, birds had free access to pasture through a hole from indoor to the outdoor except control (T1) and (T2). The outdoor area measured 2 × 10 m (1 m2/bird) for each pen and separated by fence. The outdoor area designed to provide bird a natural behavior and covered with alfalfa(Medicagosativa).The results of this study indicates that commercial strain had higher (P<0.01) haugh unit (73.08),the highest Haugh unit was recorded in T1 72.89.Birds in T2 of commercial strain had higher (P< 0.01) total UFA content 71.42, total n-3 in T4 was 1.80. n-6 was higher in T2 21.48 comparing to the other treatments. Significant differences (p≤ 0.01) for amino acids in commercial eggs found among treatments and T6 content higher percentage of all amino acids. The overall means of profit from only eggs was 197,403 ID and for eggs with hen was 282,208 ID. Significant differences found among treatments for sensory evaluation of commercial eggs. T6 had higher (P<0.01) score of overall acceptances for both commercial eggs.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant and fatty acid composition of conventionally raised commercial, free-range commercial, and pasture-raised local eggs. Egg characteristics and antioxidants were assessed, and the fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pasture-raised egg yolk contained more retinol and significantly higher levels of carotenoids and α-tocopherol (p < 0.05) with no significant differences in total phenolic content. The percents of total ω-3 fatty acids were higher and ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios were lower in pasture-raised and free-range eggs (p < 0.05). Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers were identified in egg yolk. Pasture-raised eggs had significantly higher levels of BCFAs (p < 0.05). However, no differences in CLA isomers were detected. These results indicate that a beneficial profile of antioxidants and fatty acids is found in egg yolks from hens with pasture access.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to determine to what extent the food matrix could affect the release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during digestion and its incorporation into systemic circulation. In this aim, three DHA-enriched egg products having the same composition but different structure were developed: omelet, hard-boiled egg, and mousse. Then, nine pigs fitted with T-shape cannulas at duodenal level and a jugular venous catheter were fed with the DHA-enriched egg products, and duodenal effluents and plasma were collected throughout the postprandial period. Results highlighted an undeniable effect of the food matrix on digestion parameters and DHA bioavailability. The transit of DHA and protein through the duodenum was faster after the ingestion of the mousse than after the ingestion of the omelet and hard-boiled egg. While most of the DHA and protein ingested under the form of mousse had already passed through the duodenum 4.5 h after its ingestion, significantly higher quantities were still present in the case of the omelet and hard-boiled egg. In terms of bioavailability, the omelet was the most efficient vector for delivering DHA into systemic circulation. It supplied 56% and 120% more DHA than the hard-boiled egg and the mousse, respectively.
Chapter
Full-text available
Jaja kurze stanowią doskonałe źródło białka, tłuszczu oraz innych składników w diecie człowieka. Żółtko jaja kurzego jest bogatym źródłem wielonienasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych oraz cholesterolu. Badania wskazują dodatkowo na możliwość żywieniowej regulacji ich poziomu, szczególnie w zakresie cennych kwasów z grupy n3, oraz obniżenia owianego złą sława cholesterolu. Mając na uwadze rolę właściwego stosunku kwasów tłuszczowych z grupy n3:n6 wydaje się, że jaja pochodzące od niosek żywionych z dodatkiem substancji wpływających na poszerzenie wskazanej zależności może stanowić dodatkową wartość jaj konsumpcyjnych, jako komponentu zbilansowanej diety.
Book
Full-text available
Livestock production systems in West Africa are fundamental for food security and for sustaining rural economies. A review of the environment, its distribution, genetics, production systems, inputs, animal health, outputs, trade, policies, roles and constraints drives to a series of recommendations for the future
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Metabolomics, can be defined as little molecule -omics. Nowadays, the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of any disease with genome analysis and proteome analysis is not sufficient. Instead of these, a holistic assessment including metabolomic studies provides rational and accurate results. The application of metabolomics includes the identification of biomarkers, enzyme-substract interactions, drug-activity studies, metabolic pathway analysis and some other studies related with the system biology. Metabolomics is the cheap and correct separation, definition and measurement of all metabolites in cells, tissues or biological fluids in short amounts of time with high throughput technologies such as NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS. It is the quantitative measurement of the metabolic profile of the living being to characterize the genetics and the phenotypic response to nutritional status of it. Data comprehensive approach with the ability to collect high volume quantities, aims to improve our understanding of health and disease, nutrition and food role. The aim of this review; is to emphasize some potential applications of metabolomics in food and nutrition research, to investigate the effects of metabolomics on nutrition and to present scientific literature on these subjects. Keywords : Metabolomics, food, nutrition
Book
Full-text available
All rights reserved. No part of this publication can not be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form including photocopying, recording, other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 4 CONTENTS
Article
Full-text available
O mercado de produtos orgânicos vem aumentando a nível mundial, buscando satisfazer as necessidades e expectativas de consumidores que buscam e acreditam que este seja um tipo de alimento mais saudável. Muitas são as controvérsias encontradas nos estudos que avaliaram os aspectos físico-químicos, microbiológicos e a presença de resíduos nesse tipo de alimento quando de origem animal. A presente revisão avaliou as principais diferenças entre os alimentos de origem animal, como a carne, leite, mel, ovos e pescado, produzidos em sistemas orgânicos comparativamente aos produzidos em sistemas convencionais. As diferenças encontradas foram relacionadas aos aspectos físico-químicos porém não foram encontradas diferenças relevantes no relativo a presença de possíveis perigos químicos ou biológicos.
Book
Full-text available
Botanical origin and antibacterial activity of Hedysarum coronarium and Citrus honey against Pseudomonas aeroginosae, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia Messaouda BELAID *1, Arezki MOHAMMEDI 1, Salima KEBBOUCHE-GANA 1, Fatma ACHEUK 1,Nora CHAHBAR 1 AND Malika ABBAD-BENNOUR 2 1. Laboratory of Valorisation and conservation of biological resources (VALCOR). Faculty of Sciences, University M’Hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, Algeria 2. Faculty of Biological and Agricultural Sciences Mouloud Mammeri of Tizi Ouzou, Algeria *Corresponding author: belaidfo@yahoo.fr ABSTRACT Honey has always been regarded as a food which is advantageous for one’s health and as a product which has healing qualities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Hedysarum coronarium and Citrus honey against Pseudomonas aeroginosae, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. To test the antibacterial activity, the agar well diffusion methods was employed. For the palynological analysis, we used the methodology proposed by Louveaux et al (1978); a minimum of 1200 pollen grains was counted par sample. Commonly, monofloral honeys were made up of nectar belonging to a single plant in an extent of at least 45%. These were general guidelines but many pollen types were under represented (such Citrus honey) or over represented (for example Eucalyptus honey). The results showed that the Citrus honey exhibited the highest inhibition against Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosae comparatively of the Hedysarum coronarium honey. Keywords: Hedysarum coronarium Honey, Citrus honey, pollen analysis, antibacterial activity
Article
A balanced ratio of fatty acids n-6 to n-3 in chicken eggs is important for health and to help prevent and manage obesity and other diseases. Traditionally, fish oil or flax seed has been utilized as feed additives to decrease the ratio of n-6 to n-3(n-6:n-3) fatty acids in eggs. The hull of spina date seed(HSDS) is a common agricultural waste product in China, from which wood vinegar(HSDSWV) may be derived. This study evaluated HSDSWV as a sup-plement in hen feeds to improve the quality of eggs and decrease the ratio of fatty acids n-6:n-3. HSDSWV was ob-tained via carbonization, and refined. Six concentrations(nil to 0.5%) of HSDSWV were prepared and fed to 6 hen groups, respectively, for 50 d. The fatty acids of the hen’s egg yolks were analyzed by gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry(GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring(SIM) mode. The 0.2% HSDSWV resulted in the best egg yolk quality, with a lower percentage of linoleic acid(C18:2n6) and higher percentages of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid(C20:5n3) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid(C22:6n3), and thus a lower n-6:n-3 ratio compared with the other HSDSWV concentrations. In addition, the eggs contained higher levels of yolk fat and egg yolk than the controls did. In conclusion, to modify the fatty acid composition of hens’ eggs and obtain a balanced ratio of n-6:n-3, 0.2% HSDSWV may be considered suitable as a dietary supplement in hens’ feed.
Article
Background: The research deals with the addition of microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum as an alternative to fish oil in a feed-mixture for laying-hens and its effect on the deposition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ALA, EPA and DHA) in the lipids of egg yolks. In the study, 240 Tetra SL laying hens housed in enriched cages were used, divided into 6 groups, each in 5 repetitions. Groups E1, E3 and E5 were given 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of microalgae and groups E2, E4 and E6 were given feed mixtures with 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of fish oil. The mixtures were modified on the basis of 17% of the crude protein and 11.7 MJ ME/kg. Results: The results showed satisfactory disposal of n-3 PUFA in egg yolks of laying-hens fed mixtures with the addition of either fish oil or microalgae. Eggs of E1, E3 and E5 groups contained in 100 g 321.07 mg, 361.60 mg and 399.34 mg n-3 PUFA (P<0.001). Eggs of E2, E4 and E6 groups contained in 100 g 346.25 mg, 346.17 mg and 369.02 mg n-3 PUFA (P<0.001). By increasing the content of fish oil or microalgae in feed-mixtures for laying hens, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in egg yolk lipids (P<0.001) was decreased. Conclusion: Our results justified the usage of the microalgae Schizochytrium limacinum in the enrichment of table eggs with n-3 fatty acids as an alternative feed to the fish oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Chicken egg contains a number of biological substances which may play pivotal roles in human nutrition and health. Aim: This is a case control study designed to assess the effect of chicken egg consumption on antioxidant status and lipid profile levels in students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty (30) participants comprising of fifteen (15) male and female students aged between eighteen (18) and twenty six (26) years were randomly recruited for the study. Five milliliters (5mls) of baseline samples (after an overnight fast) were collected from participants at day 0 as baseline samples and levels of antioxidants (TAC and MDA) and lipid profile were evaluated. Subsequently, in addition to their normal diet, each of the participants received one (1) egg before meal daily for a period of 30 days. After an overnight fast, 5mls of post research (post test) samples was collected on day 31 and the levels of antioxidants and lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C) were re-evaluated using standard laboratory methods. Also, the body mass index (BMI) of the participants was determined. Results: the results showed that the consumption of one (1) chicken egg per day for a period of 30 days caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels; decrease in serum triglyceride (TG) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p<0.05) with no significant alterations in the mean serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (p>0.05) respectively after (day 31) egg consumption compared to baseline (day 0) values. Also, gender comparisons revealed no significant alterations in the mean TAC, MDA, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels (p>0.05) respectively while the mean serum TG level was significantly higher in female participants than in the males after egg consumption (p<0.05). Conclusion: this study revealed that the consumption of one chicken egg per day for a period of thirty days has beneficial effects on the antioxidant status and lipid profile levels in healthy individuals.
Article
Full-text available
Lactation period requires more nutrients and energy to meet the needs of lactating rats and pups. Increased energy and nutrient requirements during lactation have an effect on increasing metabolic rate as well. Lactation energy deficiency may affect the histology of the liver. This study was conducted to examine and analyze the effect organic quail eggs supplementation on hepatocytes diameter, hepatic lobules diameter, liver weight, and body weight in the lactating test animal. This study used 20 females Wistar rats consisted of 5 treatments with 4 replications. The treatment of this study consisted of T0: control rat; T1: rat supplemented with commercial quail eggs; T2: rat supplemented with standard organic quail eggs; T3: rat supplemented with organic quail eggs contained cassava leaves, mackerel, and turmeric powder; and T4: rat supplemented with organic quail eggs contained cassava leaves, seaweed, and turmeric powder. This research used Completely Randomized Design. The variables measured in this study were hepatocytes diameter, hepatic lobules diameter, liver weight, and body weight in the test animal. The obtained data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 5% significance level and continued with Duncan test with 5% significance level if there is a significant difference. The result of data analysis showed that supplementation of organic quail eggs give the significant difference in hepatocytes diameter and hepatic lobules diameter, but had no significant difference in liver weight and body weight so that it can be concluded that quail eggs supplementation in the lactation period affects rats’ liver histological structure.
Article
Full-text available
Eggs as a part of human diet dates to the prehistoric period. After the domestication of Gallus species, Gallus gallus domesticus and their eggs spread across the globe. Eggs proved to be one of the best and affordable sources of nutritionally important components in human diet, such as proteins, vitamins, lipids and some dietary significant elements. Progress in egg production methods, in European union, is recently mostly focused on the improvements in the field of welfare of laying hens, which is part of the plan set by European union council directive 1999/74/EC. Nowadays there are 4 main egg production systems divided by the way of keeping laying hens-Enriched cage, Free range, Barn and Organic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different hens housing systems on elemental (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ca, K, Zn), total protein and lipid composition of whole eggs, yolk and albumen. Elemental analysis was performed by ICP-OES, total lipid content by Kjehldahl method and total lipids by Soxhlet extraction. Differences in whole egg were found in 8 from 9 tested parameters-K, Mg, Ba, Fe, P, Zn, total lipids and proteins. Assessment of the differences were done by ANOVA and Tukey`s test. Production systems were also successfully differentiated by principal component analysis. It was found that eggs from alternative production systems did not exhibit higher nutritional value than eggs from conventional cage facilities. In the case of total protein, conventional eggs contained highest average amount. It was also evident, that impact on chemical composition is difficult to assign to production system in general, which was confirmed by alternative studies from this field, which in many cases considerably differs.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of dietary hybrid rye on eggs laid by Isa Brown laying hens and their quality, such as physical parameters and nutritional value (basic chemical composition, cholesterol content, fatty acid profile). A total of 72 Isa Brown hens aged 26 weeks were allocated to 3 groups fed with 0%, 15% and 25% levelsof hybrid rye in their diet up to week 50. At week 50, 72 eggs per group were collected for analysis. The 25% rye level had no significant effect on most of the examined physical parameters; however, a tendency to heavier eggs in this group was noted. An increased rye level resulted in lighter yolks with a lowered share of redness and yellowness compared to those obtained from hens fed a control diet. The administration of 25% of rye in the diet influenced the basic chemical composition of the yolks by increasing the water content and reducing the fat content, but with no significant effect on the contents of ash, chlorides and cholesterol. The sum of saturated fatty acids in yolks decreased along with the increase in dietary rye level while the sum of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. Moreover, a lowered ratio of ω-6: ω-3 fatty acids was found with dietary rye level increases.
Article
Metabonomic techniques have been used to observe differences in the small molecule profiles of chicken eggs, to work towards the detection, and thus prevention, of fraud regarding the misrepresentation of egg farming systems. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-Q-ToF-MS) was used to obtain profiles of the small molecules found in the yolks of eggs that were laid by hens in enriched cage systems, and in barn systems. Statistical analysis of these small molecule profiles, including the use of XCMS Online and multivariate statistics, was able to uncover differences between the yolks of cage and barn eggs. Several unidentified compounds were found to be present in significantly different abundances between cage and barn egg yolks and one of these compounds was tentatively identified, through the use of METLIN, as 1,2-dipalmitoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine.
Article
Full-text available
Son yıllarda hastalık - beslenme ilişkisinin toplümdaki farkındalığ ının artmasıyla daha temiz, besleyici ve kimyasal kalıntı içermeyen ğıda talebi ortaya çıkmıştır. Bü talebi karşılamak amacıyla yetiştirilmesin-de kimyasal ilaç, hormon ve ğü bre küllanımının olmadığ ı, ü rü nü n işlenmesi ve depolanması sü resince korüyücü, aroma, boya, antibiyotik vb. hiçbir kimyasal madde eklenmeyen, orğanik ğıda olarak isimlen-dirilmiş bir ğıda sınıfı ortaya çıkmıştır. Birçok tü ketici daha ğü venli ve sağ lıklı oldüklarını dü şü ndü kleri için daha yü ksek ü cret o demelerine rağ men orğanik ğıda tü ketmek istemektedirler. Örğanik ğıdaların besin içerikleri ü zerine yapılan araştırmalarda orğanik ğıdaların besleyicilik o zelliklerinin ğeleneksel yo ntemlere ğo re daha yü ksek oldüğ ünü ğo steren çalışmalar yanında bünün tam tersi sonüçlar da rapor edilmiştir. Bü çalışmada orğanik ve konvansiyonel yo ntemlerle ü retilmiş çeşitli bitkisel ve hayvansal ğıdaların fiziksel ve kimyasal kompozisyonlarının değ erlendirildiğ i araştırmalar derlenmiştir.
Article
Full-text available
Egg is a rich source of nutrients, such as high-quality protein (containing the ideal proportion of amino acids necessary for human body development) and a rich variety of vitamins and minerals. Liquid egg products have grown to a large extent in the food industry and beyond, which is an important reason to know their quality. For the analysis was used fresh pasteurized yolk and white wrapped bag in box. The fatty acids were determined by gas chromatographic method and amino acids by high performance liquid chromatography method. The results indicated that 34% of total fatty acids analyzed are saturated fatty acids, the main constituent being palmitic acid (25%) and 66% are unsaturated acids and the main constituent is oleic acid (37%). The rate of essential amino acids which are in pasteurized liquid white represents 46% from total analyzed amino acids and in the case of yolk the share is 44%. From obtained data for fatty acids content our limits are higher for polyunsaturated acids than those indicated by other researchers, and for monounsaturated acids are lower than data obtain by other authors. Regarding the essential amino acids content, the obtained data have higher values than the ones obtain by other authors. A possible explanation for the fluctuations in the profile of fatty acids and amino acids could be the feed distributed to the birds from which the eggs are obtained.
Article
Full-text available
Jaja se smatraju nutritivno cjelovitom namirnicom koja obogaćuje ljudsku prehranu, jer sadrže visokokvalitetne proteine, ugljikohidrate, lako probavljive masti i minerale, kao i vrijedne vitamine. Budući da u širokoj prodaji na našim prostorima, osim kokošjih, gotovo i nema jaja drugih vrsta peradi, a razlike se očituju u veličini, boji i težini jaja, kao i omjerima sastavnih dijelova (žumanjak, bjelanjak, ljuska) i hranjivih tvari (ugljikohidrati, proteini, masti, minerali), cilj ovog rada bio je usporediti sastav masnih kiselina, kemijski sastav te mikrobiološku ispravnost guščjih, pačjih, kokošjih i purećih jaja nabavljenih od istog malog domaćinstva. Srednja vrijednost aerobnih mezofilnih bakterija bila je 4,55±0,35 log CFU/g za guščja, 3,73±0,2 log CFU/g za pačja, 3,79±0,35 log CFU/g za kokošja te 4,16±0,3 log CFU/g za pureća jaja. Bakterije iz roda Salmonella i Listeria monocytogenes nisu dokazane ni u jednom uzorku jaja, dok su Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, kvasci i plijesni dokazani u broju <1 log CFU/g. Za sve skupine masnih kiselina (SFA, MUFA, PUFA) utvrđena je značajna razlika (p<0,05) s obzirom na vrstu peradi. Dokozaheksaenska n-3 masna kiselina (DHA) određena je samo u pačjim jajima (0,18±0,02%). Sve vrste masnih kiselina su se međusobno značajno razlikovale (p<0,05) u omjeru n-6 i n-3 sa najvećim određenim omjerom kod purećih jaja (60,61), a najnižim kod gušćjih jaja (3,90), koja su ujedno jedina u skladu sa zdravstvenim preporukama (3-5:1).
Article
Full-text available
Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar a relação das características das componentes dos ovos, provenientes de ovos de pesos semelhantes ou distintos, produzidos por matrizes da linhagem Ross de idades diferentes. No experimento I foram utilizados 2.340 ovos e 2.160 ovos para o experimento II. Em cada um dos experimentos, uma amostra de 50 ovos foi selecionada dentro do peso determinado para cada idade de matriz avaliando-se as seguintes características: peso do ovo (PESO), peso da casca (CASAB), peso da gema (GEAB), percentagem de gema em relação ao peso do ovo (GERE), peso da clara (CLAAB) e percentagem de clara em relação ao peso do ovo (CLARE). As duas primeiras componentes principais (CPs) foram responsáveis por 86,01% da variação total, sendo a CP1 responsável por 57,09% da variação. As características PESO, GERE e GEAB contribuíram positivamente para a CP1. Conforme resultados da Análise em Componentes Principais, foi aplicada a técnica de análise discriminante canónica, que separou os tratamentos considerando-se as características importantes na CP1.
Article
Full-text available
Organically produced chicken eggs have more nutritional and sensory properties, and they do not contain any harmful substances to the health of the consumer. Research has shown that, unlike what is expected, there is no significant difference between dry matter, lipid and fatty acids of eggs produced in cages and organic. It has been reported that sold the organic egg about two times fee according to the cage egg has only psychological and ethical motivation. The Council of the European Union considers it necessary for chickens to have access to green roughage materials as well as basal rations in the production of organic eggs. However, if this access is provided, the organically produced egg may respond to consumer expectations. The studies shows that the 4m2 outdoor area allocated per chicken according to Turkey's Organic Agriculture Legislation is not enough to meet these demands. This situation necessitate an increase in the outdoor area separated to the chickens so as to provide rotation with the various plants or the supply of additional green feed materials to the outdoor area. Thus, in addition to obtaining a product with functional food characteristics, a production mode in which animal welfare is increased by the decrease of pecking and cannibalism will be attained. In this review, it is mentioned what applications are increasing the chemical contents such as carotenoids, fatty acids and improving the sensory properties such as color, smell and taste in organic egg production.
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents partial results from an Italian study on consumer perception and knowledge of organic food and related behaviour. Uses the means-end chain model to link attributes of products to the needs of consumers. In order to provide insights into consumer motivation in purchasing organic products, 60 respondents were interviewed using ``hard’’ laddering approach to the measurement of means-end chains. The results (ladders) of these semiqualitative interviews are coded, aggregated and presented in a set of hierarchical structured value maps. Even if organic products are perceived as difficult to find and expensive, most consumers judge them positively. All consumers associate organic products with health at different levels of abstraction and want good, tasty and nourishing products, because pleasure and wellbeing are their most important values. Results show that differences exist between groups of consumers with respect to their frequency of use (experience) of organic products and level of information (expertise). Reports and discusses results on consumer cognitive structures at different level of experience.
Article
Full-text available
The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends
Article
Full-text available
Conventional techniques for the determination of fatty acid composition of lipids require solvent extraction, purification, hydrolysis, and derivatization procedures that are both lengthy and cumbersome. A 1-hr direct transesterification procedure carried out in methanol-benzene 4:1 with acetyl chloride circumvented all these steps and was applicable for analysis of both simple (triglycerides) and complex lipids (cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and sphingomyelin). Recoveries (greater than 95%) of standards unaffected by the presence of 5% water and 200 mg of silica suggested that the technique could be used for the quantitative analysis of total fatty acids as well as of fatty acids in classes of lipids separated on silica from biological samples. When compared to the Folch procedure, the technique led to a 20.1% increase in total fatty acids for plasma, 3.9% for feces, 7.4% for bile, and 9.7% for rat liver. We therefore conclude that this one-step direct transesterification procedure is superior to currently used methods, not only because of its simplicity and speed, but also because of its added precision.
Article
Full-text available
A trial was conducted to study the effects of strain, age, and diet on egg production, egg composition, and yolk fatty acid incorporation. Three strains (six pens of eight hens per strain), [DeKalb Delta (D); Babcock B 300 (B); and Hy-Line W-36 (H)], were subjected to a 10% flax diet + oats from 30 to 50 wk of age. At 50 wk, hens were divided into two groups and one half were kept on flax + oats diets (three pens) or assigned to a second diet of flax - oats (three pens) to 60 wk of age. Eggs were collected at 36 and 58 wk of age for fatty acid and lipid analysis. Strain had an early effect (30 to 50 wk) on egg production with B (85.3) exceeding the other two strains D (81.0) and H (79.1). Strain D had greater feed consumption and egg weight than either B or H. Flax - oats increased percentage shell compared to flax + oats. Strain effect was significant for percentage albumin, which was greatest for D (61.2%) vs H (59.5%) and B (59.4%). Strain D had significantly lower total and percentage yolk lipids than the other two strains. Strain B eggs had more C16:0, but less C18:0 and C18:1 than D and H. No significant effect of strain on C18:2, C18:3, and C22:6 deposition was observed. Percentage C18:0 and C18:1 in the yolk was significantly affected by strain, diet, and strain x diet interaction. Dietary flax + oats increased C18:0 and C18:1 in all strains except H. A significant diet by strain interaction effect occurred such that C18:3 increased in D yolk but decreased in B yolk when flax + oats were fed. Deposition of C18:3 was greater at 58 wk (5.61%) than at 36 wk (2.52%) of age across all strains. Results from these trials indicate that strain, diet, and age can affect yolk lipids and composition.
Article
Full-text available
Reduction in egg consumption has been widely recommended to lower blood cholesterol levels and prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiologic studies on egg consumption and risk of CHD are sparse. To examine the association between egg consumption and risk of CHD and stroke in men and women. Two prospective cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-1994) and the Nurses' Health Study (1980-1994). A total of 37851 men aged 40 to 75 years at study outset and 80082 women aged 34 to 59 years at study outset, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, or cancer. Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, and stroke corresponding to daily egg consumption as determined by a food-frequency questionnaire. We documented 866 incident cases of CHD and 258 incident cases of stroke in men during 8 years of follow-up and 939 incident cases of CHD and 563 incident cases of stroke in women during 14 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other potential CHD risk factors, we found no evidence of an overall significant association between egg consumption and risk of CHD or stroke in either men or women. The relative risks (RRs) of CHD across categories of intake were less than 1 per week (1.0), 1 per week (1.06), 2 to 4 per week (1.12), 5 to 6 per week (0.90), and > or =1 per day (1.08) (P for trend = .75) for men; and less than 1 per week (1.0), 1 per week (0.82), 2 to 4 per week (0.99), 5 to 6 per week (0.95), and > or =1 per day (0.82) (P for trend = .95) for women. In subgroup analyses, higher egg consumption appeared to be associated with increased risk of CHD only among diabetic subjects (RR of CHD comparing more than 1 egg per day with less than 1 egg per week among diabetic men, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.87; P for trend = .04], and among diabetic women, 1.49 [0.88-2.52; P for trend = .008]). These findings suggest that consumption of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women. The apparent increased risk of CHD associated with higher egg consumption among diabetic participants warrants further research.
Article
Full-text available
Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05).
Article
Full-text available
To test the hypotheses that among overweight and obese participants, a breakfast consisting of eggs, in comparison to an isocaloric equal-weight bagel-based breakfast, would induce greater satiety, reduce perceived cravings, and reduce subsequent short-term energy intake. Thirty women with BMI's of at least 25 kg/M2 between the ages of 25 to 60 y were recruited to participate in a randomized crossover design study in an outpatient clinic setting. Following an overnight fast, subjects consumed either an egg or bagel-based breakfast followed by lunch 3.5 h later, in random order two weeks apart. Food intake was weighed at breakfast and lunch and recorded via dietary recall up to 36 h post breakfast. Satiety was assessed using the Fullness Questionnaire and the State-Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, state version. During the pre-lunch period, participants had greater feelings of satiety after the egg breakfast, and consumed significantly less energy (kJ; 2405.6 +/- 550.0 vs 3091.3 +/- 445.5, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001), grams of protein (16.8 +/- 4.2 vs 22.3 +/- 3.4, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001), carbohydrate 83.1 +/- 20.2 vs 110.9 +/- 18.7, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001), and fat 19.4 +/- 5.1 vs 22.8 +/- 3.2, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001) for lunch. Energy intake following the egg breakfast remained lower for the entire day (p < 0.05) as well as for the next 36 hours (p < 0.001). Compared to an isocaloric, equal weight bagel-based breakfast, the egg-breakfast induced greater satiety and significantly reduced short-term food intake. The potential role of a routine egg breakfast in producing a sustained caloric deficit and consequent weight loss, should be determined.
Article
Full-text available
During a 12-mo longitudinal study, bulk-tank milk was collected each month from organic (n = 17) and conventional (n = 19) dairy farms in the United Kingdom. All milk samples were analyzed for fatty acid (FA) content, with the farming system type, herd production level, and nutritional factors affecting the FA composition investigated by use of mixed model analyses. Models were constructed for saturated fatty acids, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to monounsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 FA, total n-6 FA, conjugated linoleic acid, and vaccenic acid. The ratio of n-6:n-3 FA in both organic and conventional milk was also compared. Organic milk had a higher proportion of PUFA to monounsaturated fatty acids and of n-3 FA than conventional milk, and contained a consistently lower n-6:n-3 FA ratio (which is considered beneficial) compared with conventional milk. There was no difference between organic and conventional milk with respect to the proportion of conjugated linoleic acid or vaccenic acid. A number of factors other than farming system were identified which affected milk FA content including month of year, herd average milk yield, breed type, use of a total mixed ration, and access to fresh grazing. Thus, organic dairy farms in the United Kingdom produce milk with a higher PUFA content, particularly n-3 FA, throughout the year. However, knowledge of the effects of season, access to fresh grazing, or use of specific silage types could be used by producers to enhance the content of beneficial FA in milk.
Article
Full-text available
Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRD) significantly decrease body weight and independently improve plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). Increasing intake of dietary cholesterol from eggs in the context of a low-fat diet maintains the LDL cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C for both hyper- and hypo-responders to dietary cholesterol. In this study, 28 overweight/obese male subjects (BMI = 25-37 kg/m2) aged 40-70 y were recruited to evaluate the contribution of dietary cholesterol from eggs in a CRD. Subjects were counseled to consume a CRD (10-15% energy from carbohydrate) and they were randomly allocated to the EGG group [intake of 3 eggs per day (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol)] or SUB group [equivalent amount of egg substitute (0 dietary cholesterol) per day]. Energy intake decreased in both groups from 10,243 +/- 4040 to 7968 +/- 2401 kJ (P < 0.05) compared with baseline. All subjects irrespective of their assigned group had reduced body weight and waist circumference (P < 0.0001). Similarly, the plasma TG concentration was reduced from 1.34 +/- 0.66 to 0.83 +/- 0.30 mmol/L after 12 wk (P < 0.001) in all subjects. The plasma LDL-C concentration, as well as the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio, did not change during the intervention. In contrast, plasma HDL-C concentration increased in the EGG group from 1.23 +/- 0.39 to 1.47 +/- 0.38 mmol/L (P < 0.01), whereas HDL-C did not change in the SUB group. Plasma glucose concentrations in fasting subjects did not change. Eighteen subjects were classified as having the metabolic syndrome (MetS) at the beginning of the study, whereas 3 subjects had that classification at the end. These results suggest that including eggs in a CRD results in increased HDL-C while decreasing the risk factors associated with MetS.
Article
In 2000 to 2004 four experiments were performed with finishing lambs fed feeds produced under organic farming conditions. The protein sources were rape seed and other grain legumes. Conventional fed lambs were fed soya meal as protein source. Feeding of soya meal is not allowed under organic production conditions. We investigated the effect of different diets on the growth, meat and fat quality of finishing lambs. The growth of the lambs was better under conventional feeding conditions compared to organic farming. The meat quality was not different between both feeding systems. The influence on fat quality were related to the fatty acid composition of the feed. From the nutritional point of view no advantage for organic farming of lambs was measured according to the fat composition.
Article
Context Reduction in egg consumption has been widely recommended to lower blood cholesterol levels and prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiologic studies on egg consumption and risk of CHD are sparse. Objective To examine the association between egg consumption and risk of CHD and stroke in men and women. Design and Setting Two prospective cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-1994) and the Nurses' Health Study (1980-1994). Participants A total of 37,851 men aged 40 to 75 years at study outset and 80,082 women aged 34 to 59 years at study outset, free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, or cancer. Main Outcome Measures Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, and stroke corresponding to daily egg consumption as determined by a food-frequency questionnaire. Results We documented 866 incident cases of CHD and 258 incident cases of stroke in men during 8 years of follow-up and 939 incident cases of CHD and 563 incident cases of stroke in women during 14 years of follow-up. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other potential CHD risk factors, we found no evidence of an overall significant association between egg consumption and risk of CHD or stroke in either men or women. The relative risks (RRs) of CHD across categories of intake were less than 1 per week (1.0), 1 per week (1.06), 2 to 4 per week (1.12), 5 to 6 per week (0.90), and ≥1 per day (1.08) (P for trend=.75) for men; and less than 1 per week (1.0), 1 per week (0.82), 2 to 4 per week (0.99), 5 to 6 per week (0.95), and ≥1 per day (0.82) (P for trend=.95) for women. In subgroup analyses, higher egg consumption appeared to be associated with increased risk of CHD only among diabetic subjects (RR of CHD comparing more than 1 egg per day with less than 1 egg per week among diabetic men, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.87; P for trend=.04], and among diabetic women, 1.49 [0.88-2.52; P for trend=.008]). Conclusions These findings suggest that consumption of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women. The apparent increased risk of CHD associated with higher egg consumption among diabetic participants warrants further research.
Article
During one year's period bulk milk samples were collected monthly from three different types of farms: 1. conventional farming, indoor feeding with silages throughout the year. 2. conventional farming, grazing during summer season, 3. ecological farming, grazing during summer season. The milk protein, fat and ash contents were significantly lower in ecologically kept dairy cows. The highest percentage of saturated fatty acids was found in the indoor group, whereas the trans fatty acid and linolenic acid contents were significantly higher in the ecological group.
Article
A pilot survey was undertaken to identify dietitians’ and naturopaths’ attitudes to and advice about organic foods, and to ascertain whether nutrition education is required. A questionnaire, which was not validated, was mailed to 240 randomly selected private practice dietitians and naturopaths in Australia. The responses were analysed by chi-squared and independent two-samples t-test. Each group had a response rate of 50%. More dietitians (n = 52) than naturopaths (n = 18) (P < 0.01) indicated a lack of difference in protein (88% vs 30%), fat (83% vs 33% where n = 49 dietitians and 20 naturopaths) and carbohydrate (85% vs 38%, n = 50 dietitians and 23 naturopaths) between organic and conventional foods. Significantly more naturopaths (P < 0.01) than dietitians indicated that organic foods contained more vitamins (85% vs 32%, n = 51 naturopaths and 19 dietitians), minerals (82% vs 25%, n = 49 naturopaths and 15 dietitians) and phytochemicals (72% vs 32%, n = 43 naturopaths and 19 dietitians) compared with conventionally produced foods. The majority of naturopaths indicated that organic foods have a favourable effect on health (97%, n = 58) and differ in taste (82%, n = 49). Dietitians were less certain with n = 21 thinking there is an effect on health and n = 15 indicating that there is a difference in taste (P < 0.01). More naturopaths (77%, n = 46) than dietitians (31%, n = 18) indicated that they have sufficient knowledge of organic food. Naturopaths discuss the topic of organic food with their clients ‘sometimes’ (55%, n = 33) or ‘always’ (32%, n = 19) whereas the majority of dietitians ‘seldom’ (51%, n = 30) or ‘never’ (7%, n = 4) do so. Naturopaths recommend organic foods more often than dietitians (P < 0.001). The survey results suggest that evidence-based educational programs would be useful for both groups of health professionals.
Article
Chicken breast from nine products and from the following production regimes: conventional (chilled and frozen), organic and free range, were analysed for fatty acid composition of total lipids, preventative and chain breaking antioxidant contents and lipid oxidation during 5 days of sub-ambient storage following purchase. Total lipids were extracted with an optimal amount of a cold chloroform methanol solvent. Lipid compositions varied, but there were differences between conventional and organic products in their contents of total polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and n-6:n-3 ratio. Of the antioxidants, α-tocopherol content was inversely correlated with lipid oxidation. The antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase varied between products. Modelling with partial least squares regression showed no overall relationship between total antioxidants and lipid data, but certain individual antioxidants showed a relationship with specific lipid fractions.
Article
To study the differences among commercial eggs from four housing systems i.e. cage, barn, free range and organic, 41 physical and chemical parameters were evaluated on 28 fresh egg samples from the Italian market. The univariate statistic analysis evidenced that organic eggs had the highest whipping capacity and foam consistency but the lowest freshness (the highest air cell height) and albumen quality (the lowest Haugh Unit); cage eggs presented instead the lowest whipping capacity and the highest shell resistance to breaking. The multivariate technique discriminant partial least-squares regression was unable to correctly classify the eggs from the four housing systems but successfully differentiated cage eggs from alternative (organic + barn + free range) eggs. The variables with the most discriminant power were shell breaking resistance, overrun, protein content, and shell thickness.
Article
Organic milk production has increased rapidly in many European countries during the last decade but the merits of organic dairy products are still disputed. Little unbiased information exists regarding any essential differences in gross composition or other parameters of technological and/or nutritional interest. In order to gather more basic information regarding organic milk, raw milk samples from 31 organic dairy farms in Sweden were collected once a month during 1 year. The samples were analyzed for gross composition, somatic cells, fatty acids, urea, iodine and selenium. As a reference, milk composition data from similar conventional farms was obtained.The results show small or no differences in the investigated parameters between organic milk and the milk from the conventional farms or average values regarding gross composition of Swedish raw milk. The only significant differences found were in urea content and somatic cells, both of which were lower in organic milk. In addition, levels of selenium were lower in organic milk, which is of nutritional importance since dairy products are significant dietary sources of selenium in Scandinavian diets.
Article
The objective of this study is to compare the fatty acid composition of commercially available edible oils derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods. A total of 59 certified organic and 53 conventional oils were purchased from retail markets in Sydney, Australia. Organic and conventional products were matched for comparison according to the description of production methods, labelled total fat content, brand name (wherever possible), and country of origin. Total fat was extracted and the fatty acid composition of the oils was determined by gas chromatography. No consistent overall trend of difference in the fatty acid composition was observed between organic and conventional oils. Saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids were all significantly different between types of oil (P < 0.001 in all three), and each had significant interaction between type and production method (P = 0.002, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) indicating that organic and conventional oils differed in these components in an inconsistent fashion. Despite this, there were large differences particularly between MUFA and PUFA components in specific pairs of oils, especially in sunflower and mustard seed oils. The absence of an overall difference in the fatty acid composition of organic and conventional oils does not support the tenet that organic foods are of a higher nutritional quality than their conventional counterparts.
Article
Fatty acid composition and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations were measured to compare the milk fat composition in organic certified milk and dairy products with those produced by conventional systems. Significantly higher cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 (CLA), linolenic acid (LNA), trans-11 C18:1 (TVA) and α-tocopherol (TH) concentrations were measured in organic buffalo milk and mozzarella cheese. Similar results were obtained from the analysis of heat-treated cows milk and dairy products where all organic samples contained significantly higher CLA, TVA, LNA, TH and β-carotene concentrations than did conventional dairy foods. A negligible influence of milk processing on CLA and TVA yield was seen. Among the different parameters, the CLA/LA ratio value better characterised organic versus conventional milk fat and its use as a marker for the identification of organic dairy products is suggested. The influence of animal diet, and potential implications of milk fat composition, on nutritional quality of organic dairy products is considered.
Article
In recent years the demand for organically grown food has increased. In this study, organic (O, n=6) and conventionally (C, n=6) reared steers aged between 18 and 24 months were slaughtered during the month of September 2002. Four days post-slaughter, the Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was excised from the left side of each carcass. All muscles were vacuum packed and aged in a chill for a further seven days. Steaks were cut from each sample, and from these, lean meat was removed, blended and compositional analysis was carried out. O samples were significantly higher (P>0.05) in fat content and therefore were significantly (P>0.05) lower in moisture content than C samples. No significant differences were observed between C and O samples for protein, ash, β-carotene, α-tocopherol or retinol. There was also no significant difference in fatty acid content between C and O samples. Colour stability and fat oxidative stability of samples were also measured, while stored under retail conditions. Samples were packed using both modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and by overwrapping with cling film. MAP C samples had the best colour stability while overwrapped C samples had the best lipid stability. Therefore, colour and lipid stability of beef samples were influenced by sample composition and packaging format used, which resulted in C samples outperforming O samples with respect to shelf life stability.
Article
Effects of dietary eggs enriched with omega-3 fatty acids on lipid concentrations in plasma and lipoproteins and blood pressure were determined in 11 men and women in two groups. Group 1 consumed four omega-3 eggs per day during the first 4-wk period and four control eggs for the second 4-wk period. Group 2 ate the same number of eggs in the reverse order. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased by control eggs (P less than 0.01) but unchanged by omega-3 eggs. Mean plasma triglyceride concentration was decreased by omega-3 eggs but increased by control eggs. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly lowered by omega-3 eggs in group 1 whereas only systolic pressure was significantly decreased on omega-3 eggs in group 2. The control eggs did not change blood pressure. In conclusion, the omega-3 eggs may be more healthful than the control eggs.
Article
Changes in the fatty acid composition of egg-yolk fat of hens fed diets with increasing fish meal content are studied by total fatty acid analysis. The fatty acid composition of the major lipid fractions in egg-yolk fat after feeding a high-level fish meal diet was determined by a combination of thin layer chromatography (t.l.c.) and gas-liquid chromatography (g.l.c.) The changes produced show a fatty acid pattern similar to those of the diets themselves. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are deposited preferentially in the phospholipids, reaching the highest concentration in cephalin and lecithin.
Article
The Framingham Study has investigated the effect of host and environmental factors on the development of coronary heart disease since 1949. Serum cholesterol level was determined to the one of the risk factors for coronary heart disease. The nutrient intake, in a subsample of the study population, was determined in 1957. A review of this material has permitted an estimate of egg consumption on each of 912 subjects. The serum cholesterol distribution curves of the subjects according to tertile of egg intake were almost identical, and no relationship between egg intake and coronary heart disease incidence was found. It is concluded that within the range of egg intake of this population differences in egg consumption were unrelated to blood cholesterol level or to coronary heart disease incidence.
Article
This study was undertaken to examine the effects that consumption of eggs from hens fed diets containing flaxseed would have on plasma and platelet lipids of male volunteers. Feeding diets containing 0%, 10%, and 20% ground flaxseed to Leghorn pullets provided a marked progressive increase in n-3 fatty acid content as alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) (28, 261, and 527 mg/egg) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (51, 81, and 87 mg/egg) but no alteration in the cholesterol concentration of the egg yolk. Twenty-eight male volunteers, divided into three groups, were fed four eggs per day for 2 wk according to a cyclic Latin-square design. No statistically significant changes were observed in total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, or plasma triglyceride concentrations. Significant increases in total n-3 fatty acids and in DHA content (which rose from 1.5 to 2.0% by wt or 33% overall), and a significant decrease in ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were found in platelet phospholipids of subjects consuming eggs from flaxseed-fed hens. Health and Welfare Canada in 1990 set recommended intakes for dietary n-3 fatty acids and for the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids, which are not being met currently by the overall population. Eggs modified by the inclusion of flaxseed in the laying hens' diet could provide an important nutritional source of n-3 fatty acid.
Article
Serum cholesterol has been established as a modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease. Experimental feeding studies show that saturated fat and cholesterol increase serum cholesterol levels; thus, dietary recommendations for lowering the risk of heart disease proscribe the intake of both substances. Recommendations have also included limits on the intake of eggs because of their high cholesterol content. In free-living populations, diet reflects a pattern of associated choices. Increases in one food may lead to changes in the consumption of other foods that may modulate disease risk. Epidemiologic data are helpful in assessing the importance of foods and nutrients in the context in which they are actually consumed. We review epidemiologic data relating dietary cholesterol and eggs to coronary disease risk. Cholesterol intake was associated with a modest increase in the risk of coronary events. The true magnitude of the association is difficult to estimate because most studies fail to account for potential confounding by other features of the diet. When a full-range of confounding factors was considered, the association between cholesterol intake and heart disease risk was small (6% increase in risk for 200mg/1,000kcal/day difference in cholesterol intake). Several studies have examined egg intake and its relationship with coronary outcomes. All but one failed to consider the role of other potentially confounding dietary factors. When dietary confounders were considered, no association was seen between egg consumption at levels up to 1 + egg per day and the risk of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic men and women.
Article
To survey existing literature comparing nutrient content of organic and conventional crops using statistical methods to identify significant differences and trends in the data. Published comparative measurements of organic and conventional nutrient content were entered into a database for calculation. For each organic-to-conventional comparison, a percent difference was calculated: (organic - conventional)/conventional x 100. For nutrients where there was adequate data, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to identify significant differences in nutrient content as represented by the percent difference. Mean percent difference values were also calculated for each significant nutrient by study and by vegetable for the most frequently studied vegetables. The nutrient content of the daily vegetable intake was calculated for both an organic and conventional diet. Organic crops contained significantly more vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus and significantly less nitrates than conventional crops. There were nonsignificant trends showing less protein but of a better quality and a higher content of nutritionally significant minerals with lower amounts of some heavy metals in organic crops compared to conventional ones. There appear to be genuine differences in the nutrient content of organic and conventional crops.
Article
Consumer concern regarding possible adverse health effects of foods produced using intensive farming methods has led to considerable interest in the health benefits of organically-produced crops and animal products. There appears to be widespread perception amongst consumers that such methods result in foods of higher nutritional quality. The present review concludes that evidence that can support or refute such perception is not available in the scientific literature. A limited number of studies have compared the nutrient compositions of organically- and conventionally-produced crops, with a very small number of studies that have compared animal products (meat, milk and dairy products) produced under the two agricultural systems. Very few compositional differences have been reported, although there are reasonably consistent findings for higher nitrate and lower vitamin C contents of conventionally-produced vegetables, particularly leafy vegetables. Data concerning possible impacts on animal and human health of diets comprising organic or conventional produce are extremely sparse. Data from controlled studies in animal models, particularly within single species, are limited or poorly designed, and findings from these studies provide conflicting conclusions. There are no reports in the literature of controlled intervention studies in human subjects. Comparison of health outcomes in populations that habitually consume organically- or conventionally-produced foods are flawed by the large number of confounding factors that might contribute to any differences reported. If consumer perceptions regarding potential health benefits of organic foods are to be supported, more research of better quality is needed than that which is currently available.
Article
There have been many studies of what influences consumers in their decisions to purchase or consume organic foods, mainly concerned with fresh organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with people being positive about organic foods but often not purchasing them. This discrepancy seems to be explained by the fact that consumers do not consider "organically produced" to be an important purchase criterion, that organic foods are not perceived to surpass conventional foods regarding taste and shelf life (two qualities rated to be of great importance), and because of the perceived premium prices of organic foods. In two Swedish studies, health benefits were demonstrated to be more strongly related to attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental benefits. A new European Union (EU) project will investigate the influences on both fresh and processed organic foods and investigate the role of moral, ethical, and affective influences on choice across eight EU countries.
Article
Consumers of organically grown fruits and vegetables often believe that these products taste better than conventional produce. However, comparison of produce from supermarket shelves does not permit adequate assessment of this consumer perception, given potentially confounding cultivar and environmental effects. We used replicated side-by-side plots to produce organic and conventional vegetables for consumer sensory studies. In one test, red loose leaf lettuce, spinach, arugula, and mustard greens, grown organically and conventionally, were evaluated for overall liking as well as for intensity of flavor and bitterness. Another consumer test was conducted comparing organically and conventionally grown tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions. Overall, organically and conventionally grown vegetables did not show significant differences in consumer liking or consumer-perceived sensory quality. The only exception was in tomatoes where the conventionally produced tomato was rated as having significantly stronger flavor than the organically produced tomato. However, overall liking was the same for both organic and conventional samples. As conventional tomatoes also were scored marginally significantly higher in ripeness and a positive correlation was found between ratings of flavor intensity and ripeness, the flavor difference observed could not be simply ascribed to the contrasting growing conditions. Consumer panelists in both tests considered organic produce to be healthier (72%) and more environmentally friendly (51%) than conventional produce, while 28% considered organic produce to have better taste. Covariance analysis indicated that consumer demographics affected sensory comparisons of organic and conventional lettuce and cucumbers. Future study is needed to substantiate the influence of segmentation of consumers on their preference for organic food.
Energy use in organic food systems. Natural Resources Management and Environment Department, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
  • J Ziesemer
Ziesemer, J. (2007). Energy use in organic food systems. Natural Resources Management and Environment Department, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docs/eims/upload/ 233069/energy-use-oa.pdf Accessed 28.03.08.
Fatty acid composition of dairy products derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods
  • A Wong
  • Z I Ahmad
  • J Phuyal
  • S Samman
Wong, A., Ahmad, Z. I., Phuyal, J., & Samman, S. (2006). Fatty acid composition of dairy products derived from certified organic and conventional agricultural methods. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 15(Suppl. 3), S139.