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Remote sensing and numerical modeling of suspended sediment in Laguna de terminos, Campeche, Mexico

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It is necessary to understand the complex physical processes at work in coastal lagoons in order to manage them effectively. Improved methods of data collection and analysis must be found to provide synoptic, timely hydrodynamic information because of the sheer size of some lagoons and the difficulty of acquiring in situ data (particularly in the tropics). This paper summarizes research to model salinity and suspended sediment distributions in Laguna de Terminos, Mexico, using 1) a coupled hydrodynamic and dispersion model and 2) analysis of two Landsat Thematic Mapper images collected on 25 November 1984 and 24 April 1987. Atmospherically corrected chromaticity data derived from Thematic Mapper data were significantly correlated with modeled total suspended sediment concentrations for the two dates. Comparison between numerically modeled and remotely sensed suspended sediment maps at 1.5× 1.5 km resolution yielded a covariation map useful for identifying areas of discrepancy between the remotely sensed data and model output.
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... Estimation models combined with data assimilation are another type of popular physics-driven methods for the quantitative estimation of water quality (Jensen et al., 1989;Kõuts et al., 2007;Mano et al., 2015;Pleskachevsky et al., 2005). Benefiting from numerous available remote sensing images, many numerical models originally designed for specific applications have been subsequently utilized to produce new capabilities (Jiao et al., 2021). ...
... Benefiting from numerous available remote sensing images, many numerical models originally designed for specific applications have been subsequently utilized to produce new capabilities (Jiao et al., 2021). For example, Jensen et al. (1989) mapped the SPM concentration distribution to help understand and manage complex physical processes in coastal lagoons by integrating numerical simulation and remote sensing retrieval results. Likewise, Kõuts et al. (2007) evaluated the water quality of Pakri Bay, the southern Gulf of Finland, using satellite RS and three numerical simulation models, including the hydrodynamic model, particle transport model, and benthic macro algae growth model. ...
... Through the calibration of turbulence, convection, and other parameters, it activates the long-term and large-scale physical simulation of water quality on a three-dimensional scale. In addition, other physics and hydrodynamic models also provide opportunities to supplement remote sensing data that can respond to discrete states at different points in time (Chen et al., 2004;Jensen et al., 1989;Kõuts et al., 2007;Pleskachevsky et al., 2005). The FVCOM and 3D-COHERENS, which were originally designed for coastal sea areas, have illustrated the potential for environmental monitoring of water quality in inland waters (Mano et al., 2015). ...
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... With a contribution of about 76 % to the river inputs in the lagoon (Fichez et al., 2016;Jensen et al., 1989), the Palizada River delivers most of the new nitrogen input as nitrate and ammonium. High concentrations of nitrogen were also measured in the Puerto Real Inlet, suggesting a second nitrogen source from coastal seawater. ...
Thesis
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... The few published studies dealing with hydrodynamic modeling in Té rminos Lagoon (Contreras Ruiz Esparza et al., 2014;Jensen et al., 1989;Kjerfve et al., 1988) converge to describe a general circulation pattern from east to west, with a net westward transport of the water masses entering the lagoon through the Puerto Real Inlet and exiting through the Carmen Inlet during the dry season, and a dominant net export of water through both inlets during the wet period. Tidal effects combined with freshwater inputs tend to bend the southwestward current into a cyclonic circulation inside the lagoon -with a vortex core located in the northeastern part -while predominant winds from the east (67% from 458 to 1358) tend to drive the river plumes toward the Carmen Inlet (Contreras Ruiz Esparza et al., 2014). ...
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The Te´rminos Lagoon is a 2000-km2 wide coastal lagoon linked to the largest river catchment in Mesoamerica. Economic development, together with its ecological importance, led the Mexican government to pronounce the Te´rminos Lagoon and its surrounding wetlands as a Federal protected area for flora and fauna in 1994. It is characterized by small temperature fluctuations, but with two distinct seasons (wet and dry) that control the biological, geochemical, and physical processes and components. This paper presents a review of the available information about the Te´rminos Lagoon. The review shows that the diversity of benthic communities is structured by the balance between marine and riverine inputs and that this structuration strongly influences the benthic metabolism and its coupling with the biogeochemistry of the water column. The paper also presents many specific drivers and recommendations for a long-term environmental survey strategy in the context of the expected Global Change in the Central American region.
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The 2009–2010 period was marked by an episode of intense drought known as the El Niño Modoki event. Sampling of the Términos Lagoon (Mexico) was carried out in November 2009 in order to understand the influence of these particular environmental conditions on organic matter fluxes within the lagoon's pelagic ecosystem and, more specifically, on the relationship between phyto- and bacterioplankton communities. The measurements presented here concern biogeochemical parameters (nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic matter [POM], and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]), phytoplankton (biomass and photosynthesis), and bacteria (diversity and abundance, including PAH degradation bacteria and ectoenzymatic activities). During the studied period, the water column of the Términos Lagoon functioned globally as a sink and, more precisely, as a nitrogen assimilator. This was due to the high production of particulate and dissolved organic matter (DOM), even though exportation of autochthonous matter to the Gulf of Mexico was weak. We found that bottom-up control accounted for a large portion of the variability of phytoplankton productivity. Nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry mostly accounted for the heterogeneity in phytoplankton and free-living prokaryote distribution in the lagoon. In the eastern part, we found a clear decoupling between areas enriched in dissolved inorganic nitrogen near the Puerto Real coastal inlet and areas enriched in phosphate (PO4) near the Candelaria estuary. Such a decoupling limited the potential for primary production, resulting in an accumulation of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON, respectively) near the river mouths. In the western part of the lagoon, maximal phytoplankton development resulted from bacterial activity transforming particulate organic phosphorus (PP) and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) to available PO4 and the coupling between Palizada River inputs of nitrate (NO3) and PP. The Chumpan River contributed only marginally to PO4 inputs due to its very low contribution to overall river inputs. The highest dissolved total PAH concentrations were measured in the El Carmen Inlet, suggesting that the anthropogenic pollution of the zone is probably related to the oil-platform exploitation activities in the shallow waters of the southern of the Gulf of Mexico. We also found that a complex array of biogeochemical and phytoplanktonic parameters were the driving force behind the geographical distribution of bacterial community structure and activities. Finally, we showed that nutrients brought by the Palizada River supported an abundant bacterial community of PAH degraders, which are of significance in this important oil-production zone.
... The approach of combining satellite remote sensing with numerical modeling has been widely discussed by many researchers. A number of satellite and airborne remote sensing instruments, such as the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) [10,11], the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) [6,12], the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) [13,14], the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) [15,16], the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) [17,18], Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) onboard the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) [19] and the Medium-resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) [20,21] have been widely used to infer suspended sediment concentration in inland rivers and coastal waters. In most cases, these satellite-derived SSC fields are subsequently integrated into a numerical model for modeling the suspended sediment transport and outcomes. ...
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