Article

"You can't say you can't play??": Intervening in the process of social exclusion in the kindergarten classroom

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Abstract

Interventions aimed at decreasing social exclusion in school or early childhood classrooms are typically targeted at changing the behavior of the rejected or isolated child, and do nothing to address the exclusionary behavior of the peer group. We suggest an alternative approach, wherein the classroom climate is altered to discourage social exclusion. Drawing on the work of Vivian Paley, an intervention study was conducted to assess the effect of implementing a rule that disallows overt exclusion among classmates. The year-long intervention was conducted in six kindergarten classes, with four additional classes serving as a control group. Observations and teacher reports did not differ between Target and Control classes, but significant intervention effects were found in two areas: Children in Target classes reported via sociometric assessment that they liked each other significantly more at the end of the year than did children in Control classes, yet reported higher levels of social dissatisfaction than did Control children. Suggestions for future tests of this type of intervention are made, and ideas are offered for early childhood educators considering the use of a non-exclusion classroom rule.

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... Additionally, the bulk of research in the area of belonging and inclusion has been conducted with adolescents, with little systematic attention paid to how young children perceive or enact these constructs as they begin their schooling experiences (Ladd 1990;Harrist and Bradley 2003;Bulkeley and Fabian 2006;DeNicolo 2019). However, belonging and inclusion are certainly relevant to the well-being of the young child, and arguably, set the stage for future enactments and experiences of belonging and inclusion throughout their schooling trajectories. ...
... It is important to note the ways in which belonging is conceptualized in educational studies can be quite varied (Libbey 2004). For example, the few studies looking at younger grades often define belonging in terms of negotiating friendships and relationships in social activities and spaces (Ladd 1990;Harrist and Bradley 2003;Bulkeley and Fabian 2006;DeNicolo 2019). Belonging is often closely linked or associated with related concepts such as students' sense of connectedness in their school community (Osterman 2000;Jimerson, Campos, and Greif 2003;Libbey 2007;Whiting, Everson, and Feinauer 2018) or a feeling of membership at school as 'students' sense of being accepted, valued, included and encouraged by others' (Goodenow 1993, 25). ...
... Schools are organized with certain logics and focus on needs and values as they relate to assumptions about who children and youth are, and should be (Ainscow 1991;Florian 2019). Attention to diversities therefore becomes critical as schools organize a culture of inclusion despite a potential for negative attitudes and ideas between groups (Harrist and Bradley 2003;Ainscow and Sandill 2010). It is imperative that schools and teachers develop skills to attend to the real needs of children and youth and build an inclusive school and classroom culture (Harrist and Bradley 2003;Ainscow and Sandill 2010;Alesech and Nayar 2019;Casesa 2019;DeNicolo 2019;Sukbunpant, Arthur-Kelly, and Dempsey 2013). ...
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This mixed-methods study was designed to measure and elaborate constructs of faculty online readiness from pre- COVID-19 pandemic literature. Bringing together the validation of a scale to measure these constructs and insights from a focus group, findings suggest that the negative connotations of risk-taking and making mistakes while learning to teach online seem to have been mitigated by a combination of affective factors such as humility, empathy, and even optimism. Teacher educators explained that transitioning online in a context of a crisis contorts normal longitudinal perceptions of preparation and readiness. This new sense of temporality was connected to unexpected benefits of bringing them into partnership with their students. However, quantitative and qualitative results are interpreted to show that assessing students’ equitable access to online learning and managing the demands of scholarship and university-based and academic community service duties are areas in need of attention from professional development designers and policy makers.
... Research has shown that children often observe prosocial rules in kindergarten as they spontaneously share materials and help others (Malti, Gummerum, & Buchmann, 2007). But exclusion of peers from a game or violations of the sharing rule are also common when there are conflicts over resource allocation in kindergarten (Cobb-Moore, Danby, & Farrell, 2008;Harrist & Bradley, 2003). In such circumstances, children may consider upholding personal ownership rights over resources, rather than upholding equality among peers. ...
... In order to prevent social exclusion or the unequal distribution of resources, it is important to understand the reasons underlying peer rejections or violations of the sharing rule (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Children are excluded for a range of reasons, including being socially withdrawn, being disruptive, being uncooperative, performing hyperactive behaviors, and lacking efficient problem-solving or prosocial skills (Ledingham & Schwartzman, 1984;Putallaz & Gottman, 1981). ...
... instances of nonsharing behavior), and discuss with the children about the feelings of being rejected and the issues of fairness. Harrist and Bradley (2003) suggest that teachers should play with children in a group, demonstrate prosocial strategies for entering a game, and act as a good model to accept new participants' requests to enter a game. It is also important for teachers to help children develop friendships among peers, so that every child can have friends to play with and support them when they face unfair treatment from others, and have opportunities to join in games and interact with peers. ...
Article
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... Additionally, the bulk of research in the area of belonging and inclusion has been conducted with adolescents, with little systematic attention paid to how young children perceive or enact these constructs as they begin their schooling experiences (Bulkeley and Fabian 2006, DeNicolo 2019, Harrist and Bradley 2003, Ladd 1990). However, belonging and inclusion are certainly relevant to the well-being of the young child, and arguably, set the stage for future enactments and experiences of belonging and inclusion throughout their schooling trajectories. ...
... It is important to note the ways in which belonging is conceptualized in educational studies can be quite varied (Libbey 2004). For example, the few studies looking at younger grades often define belonging in terms of negotiating friendships and relationships in social activities and spaces (DeNicolo 2019, Buckley and Fabian 2006, Harrist and Bradley 2003, Ladd 1990). Belonging is often closely linked or associated with related concepts such as students' sense of connectedness in their school community (Libbey 2007, Osterman 2000, Jimerson, Campos, and Greif 2003, Whiting, Everson, and Feinauer 2018 or a feeling of membership at school as 'students' sense of being accepted, valued, included and encouraged by others' (Goodenow 1993, 25). ...
... Attention to diversities therefore becomes critical as schools organize a culture of inclusion despite a potential for negative attitudes and ideas between groups (Ainscow andSandill 2010, Harris andBradley 2003). It is imperative that schools and teachers develop skills to attend to the real needs of children and youth and build an inclusive school and classroom culture (Ainscow and Sandill 2010, Alesech and Nayar 2019, Casesa 2019, DeNicolo 2019, Harris and Bradley 2003. ...
Article
Full-text available
Little systematic attention has been paid toward belonging for young children, particularly in contexts of diversity that are regularly part of school settings. Two-Way immersion (TWI) programs provide one educational context ideally suited for exploring the constructs of belonging and inclusion in linguistically and culturally diverse settings. This study explores how kindergarteners articulate a sense of belonging in a socio-linguistically diverse international Two-Way immersion school. Focus groups were conducted with kindergarteners about what they would need to fit in and belong. Findings reveal that these kindergarteners recognize the utility of language but do not segregate peers by language group. Language proficiencies were articulated as a procedure for being able to ‘do school.’ They appear to experience language diversity as a ‘de facto’ context and something to manage procedurally. Comments on friendship-making also express the importance of conforming to concrete social interpersonal norms; friendship as compliance to social norms and procedures of asking someone to be your friend and being nice. A consideration of inclusion as the negotiation of belonging in this diverse context allows us to consider the specific ideas and solutions of these kindergarteners as a shared project of belonging in which they all work to enact inclusion. (250)
... First, awareness of clinically significant anxiety could be increased in families, schools, and other professionals who serve children and adolescents to facilitate the early identification of young people suffering with anxiety and limit the extent that this anxiety may compromise healthy development by facilitating prevention and early treatment. Second, the overt forms of peer mistreatment (i.e., peer exclusion) that are most often detrimental to healthy development in withdrawn children could be targeted for prevention and intervention [27]. Third, patterns of cognition characteristic of social anxiety and its maintenance [4] could be investigated in socially withdrawn children and adolescents, and these cognitive patterns could also become the targets of prevention and intervention efforts for withdrawn children and adolescents. ...
... This may address the psychosocial needs and mental health of at-risk children and adolescents that are currently overlooked. Second, these children and adolescents' peer relations (e.g., peer exclusion) could become a target of intervention [27], alongside efforts to ameliorate individual social and emotional competence. Third, interventions could be timed just prior to the beginning of the new school year to take advantage of the natural rhythms of this ecological transition to maximize children's and adolescents' chances for a fresh start when they have encountered peer difficulties [16]. ...
Article
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This commentary features a review of two recently reformulated models of the development of child and adolescent: (1) social withdrawal by Rubin and Chronis-Tuscano 2021, and (2) social anxiety by Spence and Rapee 2016. The articles that present these reformulated models now cover advances made during the prior 12 to 18 years of research, including increased knowledge of genetic vulnerability to anxiety and longitudinal patterns of development, and acknowledgement of multiple pathways towards and away from the development of social withdrawal or social anxiety (i.e., equifinality, multifinality). However, these reformulated models also contain several blind spots. The model of social withdrawal development would be improved by explicitly referring to peer treatment (not only attitudinal peer rejection), especially peer exclusion; and incorporating the potential development of clinically significant anxiety in childhood (not only adolescence) and delays in developmental milestones in adulthood. The model of social anxiety development would be improved by featuring social withdrawal as a proximal affective-behavioral profile (rather than a temperament) and drawing upon the literature on social withdrawal and its links to peer relations. Overall, there is a continuing lack of integration be-tween developmental and clinical research and models of the development of social withdrawal and social anxiety.
... This eight-to 10-session curriculum emphasizes creating a peer group context and classroom climate where a rule is introduced and used to teach avoidance of social exclusion. A year-long evaluation study showed mixed results, with no changes between intervention and control classrooms in teacher-reported rates of social rejection and social exclusion between fall and spring ( Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Althout the intervention had a large effect on children in intervention classrooms, who reported liking their peers much more after the program than children in control classrooms ( p < .03, ...
... η 2 = 0.17), it also had a large effect on the intervention group's increased dissatisfaction with their peer relationships at school ( p < .02, η 2 = 0.21) ( Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
Article
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Relational aggression (RA) is a nonphysical form of aggression whereby the perpetrator's goal is to inflict or threaten damage to relationships, including harm to the target child's social standing or reputation. This form of aggression may result in long-term psychological harm to victims. This article defines RA, summarizes its development, and highlights some recent prevention and intervention strategies to address RA in early childhood and elementary school settings. Studies span across urban, suburban, and rural schools, along with various ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups. Although most interventions are universal in scope, designed to prevent the onset of RA, some target specific groups at risk of developing RA, such as girls. Of the 13 programs reviewed, 12 are classroom-based prevention programs, with the length of implementation ranging from six weeks to three years. Several longitudinal studies are presented (covering at least two academic years). Results indicate that although most interventions decrease relationally aggressive behaviors and increase prosocial behaviors, effect sizes of interventions vary. Whole-school antibullying programs do not appear to be effective. Suggestions for incorporating new interventions are given, along with implications for school social work practice, education policy, and intervention research.
... In fact, when it happens in schools social exclusion impacts students' social life and school adjustment negatively (Buhs & Ladd, 2001) and is also a risk factor for psychological distress (Beeri & Lev-Wiesel, 2012). One way to ameliorate the negative impact of experiences like social exclusion in schools is through raising awareness about the issue via intervention or training programs (e.g., Harrist & Bradley, 2003;Leff et al., 2010). In the current paper, we present such a training program that is carried out by a Dutch nonprofit organization in schools across the Netherlands. ...
... Given how social RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT SOCIAL EXCLUSION 27 exclusion can be hard to recognize and underestimated (O'Reilly et al., 2014;Robinson & Schabram, 2017), we think knowing more about the negative impact and one's part in inducing this negativity in others are essential. In fact, previous work shows committing inclusive behaviors in classrooms can have positive effects in terms reduced rates of peer rejection (Waasdorp et al., 2012) and more liking amongst peers (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
Preprint
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Social exclusion has a myriad of negative effects on students’ psychological and social well-being. One way to combat such negative effects is to raise awareness about social exclusion in schools. Here, we describe and evaluate a training program that was carried out across schools in the Netherlands. The program relies on basic experiential learning principles and a well-established social exclusion paradigm to make participants experience and discuss social exclusion. We had three goals in the current paper: (1) discussing previous work supporting the feasibility of such programs, (2) presenting a secondary analysis of the data generated by the program, and finally (3) testing a core assumption of Temporal Need-threat Model of Ostracism (Williams, 2009). The analyses are based on 14,065 participants (ages 12 to 19) and a subset of those who evaluated the program later (n = 386). Our review of the literature supports the feasibility of the program in raising awareness about social exclusion. The results of the secondary data analyses further corroborate this finding and, importantly, offer preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the program. Lastly, stressing a core assumption of the ostracism model, the results indicated that the experience of ostracism was not substantially altered by the characteristics of the participants such as age and gender.
... (1) the Early Childhood Friendship Project (Ostrov et al., 2009), which is a classroom-based prevention program designed to reduce physical and relational aggression and victimization for 3-5 year olds; (2) the You Can't Say You Can't Play Program (Harrist & Bradley, 2003), which helps kindergarten teachers enhance classroom climate by enforcing a non-exclusion rule ("You can't say you can't play with us"); (3) the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) Program (Shure, 2001), which is a long-standing curriculum-based universal prevention program comprised of 80 twenty minute sessions for kindergarten and primary school age youth that was recently evaluated for its impact on relationally aggressive behaviors (Boyle & Hassett-Walker, 2008); (4) The Walk Away, Ignore, Talk, Seek Help (WITS) Program (Leadbeater, Hoglund, & Woods, 2003 ), which is a Canadian-based school-wide prevention program that attempts to have schools, families, and communities work together to implement strategies to prevent relational victimization; (5) Making Choices: Social Problem-Solving Skills for Children (Fraser, Day, Galinsky, Hodges, & Smokowski, 2004;Fraser et al., 2005), which is an indicated intervention addressing social information processing deficits in 3 rd through 6 th grade aggressive students; (6) The Friend to Friend (F2F) Program (Leff et al., 2007;Leff, Gullan, et al., 2009), which is a culturally-adapted social problem-solving and relational and physical aggression reduction group intervention for 3 rd through 5 th grade urban African American relationally aggressive girls; (7) Aggression Prevention Program (SAPP), a universal prevention program for girls that uses a small-group format (e.g., groups of girls complete the ten session program together) and was developed to decrease 5 th grade girls' levels of social aggression while improving their empathy and social problem-solving skills (Cappella & Weinstein, 2006); and (9) Sisters of Nia (Belgrave et al., 2004), which is a small-group intervention program addressing gender roles, ethnic identity, and social interactions among early adolescent African American girls. Although each of these programs could be considered highly promising, there are still a number of limitations to many of the programs. ...
... For example, a school serving young children (i.e., preschoolers and kindergarteners), would want a program that addresses the direct relationally aggressive behaviors (social exclusion and ignoring others) that are typical at this age. Some programs that do this include the "You Can't Say You Can't Play" Program (Harrist & Bradley, 2003), which helps teachers apply a rule to encourage all students to play together, and the Early Childhood Friendship Project (Ostrov et al., 2009), which uses puppets to help engage young children in learning early prosocial behaviors and understanding the harm of relational and physical aggression. In contrast, it may be more appropriate to take a social cognitive retraining approach (Crick & Dodge, 1994) if the target population is school age youth (3 rd -6 th graders) because youth at this age have the cognitive skills to understand and practice the important social cognitive steps involved in problem-solving (Crick & Dodge, 1994). ...
Chapter
There has been increased attention paid to the reduction of aggressive behaviors among youth since the Columbine High School massacre in 1999, an incident which reportedly occurred in response to the perpetrators’ victimization by peers (Larkin, 2009). The shocking display of extreme physical violence at Columbine influenced American researchers to focus on daily incidents of peer bullying and the implications of being an ongoing victim of peer bullying or abuse (Safran, 2007). More recently, harassment and bullying through nonphysical means (e.g., cyberbullying, relational aggression) has received media attention given the rash of suicides by youth who were being victimized by these forms of aggression. Although the media focus on nonphysical forms of aggression has only recently sparked the interest of the general public and lawmakers, research on these forms of aggression, particularly relational forms of aggression, is not a new phenomenon.
... At this point, the writers note that the term 'inclusion' has been represented in the preschool literature from a number of perspectives, and these perspectives focus on (at least) three themes: First, and perhaps most frequently cited, is the mainstreaming of children with special educational needs (SEN) into normal preschool settings (see Nutbrown and Clough 2004;Odom 2000;Odom et al. 2002). Second, and often tied to the development of comprehensive preschool opportunities for all children is the social inclusion of children, especially children from educationally 'disadvantaged' and diverse backgrounds, to overcome societal processes of exclusion (Brandsma 2003;Harrist and Bradley 2003;Social Inclusion and Early Childhood Development 2009;Sylva 2010). Third, and less frequently explored, is gender-based inclusion where particular social contexts have been characterised by the integration or separation of boys and girls (extensively researched by Martin 2003, 2007;Goble et al. 2012;Martin 2000; also see Fanger, Frankel, and Hazen 2012). ...
... Multiple observations per classroom ensured that a range of cognitive/learning times were observed, and allowed for a representative sample of activities to be observed. It should be noted, though, that structured and semi-structured activities set-up for the children's engagement varied from visit to visit, so no assessment of reliability of activity engagement could be calculated (this methodological approach was also used in Goble et al. 2012;Harrist and Bradley 2003). The average number of children per class was 20.7; ranging from nine to 30. ...
Article
This study describes the social contexts in which four-year-olds undertake practitioner-assigned cognitive/learning tasks within preschools and the different experiences these contexts provide for children. Data was collected in 34 preschool settings in South East England, using a phenomenographic mapping of activities and social groupings during learning activities. The data was subject to frequency-based analyses. Results identified distinct social pedagogic contexts wherein children interacted with practitioners or with peers; these contexts were differentiated by group size and composition, activity, type of interaction with practitioner and peers, level of cognitive challenge and genderisation of activity. The results revealed that while children engaged in cognitive/learning activities within both practitioner- and child-oriented pedagogic worlds the nature of the activities within these social contexts emphasised interactive inclusion and interactive exclusion respectively.
... A child is truly accepted into the group when the other children include him or her in their stories and dramatisations" (Paley, 1990: 19). At the same time however, if play is not considered, well-planned, purposeful, it can also be a very exclusive practice (Paley, 1993;Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
... They described it in terms of mutual cooperation, through the experience of the children and as the mission of the festival. The results are consistent also with other studies (Paley, 1991(Paley, , 1993Harrist & Bradley, 2003;Marjanovič Umek & Zupančič, 2006;Miller & Almon, 2009;Rogers, 2011) which leads us to a conclusion that mentors and volunteers recognise play as an important connecting activity that is suitable for co-creation involving the broadest possible group of different individuals. But we should not overlook the messages of those who are less positive in their accounts or who even observed the opposite at the festival (e.g. ...
Article
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Despite the fact that the integration model of education was introduced in Slovenia 17 years ago, the inclusion of persons with special needs into education and community remains a major challenge. In order to improve their opportunities, the largest special school in Ljubljana has for ten years organised an international festival Play with me, with the main aim of supporting inclusion of people with special needs with the rest of the population. The organisers aim to create opportunities for all to take part together in various play, sport and artistic activities. The paper presents the findings of a study in which the inclusive practices of the festival were researched and evaluated. The study was aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of the role a special school can play in the creation of a more inclusive society. Data were gathered using an online questionnaire targeting the mentors and volunteers who accompanied participants at the festival. 132 mentors and 64 volunteers responded. The quantitative non-experimental empirical analysis of the data has indicated that the respondents recognised the inclusive nature of the festival. The festival proves that inclusion is a multifaceted phenomenon which can be supported by various activities and endeavours.
... There have been some interventions in classrooms of young children focused on instilling prosocial behavior and inclusive play (e.g., ''You can't say you can't play;' ' Harrist & Bradley, 2003) and improving teachers' ability to handle bullying (e.g., Bernese programme against victimization; Alsaker, 2004). Harrist and Bradley (2003) found that implementing inclusive play increased children's selfreported acceptance and liking of others, although children were dissatisfied with not being able to choose who they played; furthermore, the intervention did not lead to changes in outcomes based on teacher reports, observations, or sociometric ratings. ...
... There have been some interventions in classrooms of young children focused on instilling prosocial behavior and inclusive play (e.g., ''You can't say you can't play;' ' Harrist & Bradley, 2003) and improving teachers' ability to handle bullying (e.g., Bernese programme against victimization; Alsaker, 2004). Harrist and Bradley (2003) found that implementing inclusive play increased children's selfreported acceptance and liking of others, although children were dissatisfied with not being able to choose who they played; furthermore, the intervention did not lead to changes in outcomes based on teacher reports, observations, or sociometric ratings. Alsaker's (2004) evaluation of the Bernese programme in kindergarten classrooms revealed that teachers reported decreased physical and indirect victimization, but not bullying. ...
Article
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Bullying is a pervasive problem that impacts children and youth in schools involved as perpetrators, victims, and bystanders. This paper synthesizes findings from the empirical literature, including meta-analyses, to examine the evidence for bullying prevention and intervention approaches with attention to developmental levels (preschool, elementary school, middle school, high school). Approaches and their evidence are described using a multi-tiered framework of universal prevention and more targeted and indicated prevention for the roles in bullying (perpetrators, victims, bystanders). The role of school mental health providers in comprehensive bullying prevention and intervention efforts is explicated. Challenges in the field and future directions for research, including the need for more methodologically rigorous studies assessing fidelity and using appropriate measurement, attending to the role of technology in bullying, and evaluating targeted and indicated interventions with bullying perpetrators and victims, are provided.
... An intervention centered around You Can't Say You Can't Play was evaluated by Harrist and Bradley (2003), though results were mixed, suggesting more research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of this type of classroom-wide program. Specifically, the results of what the authors describe as a "pilot study" showed that children in intervention classrooms reported that they liked to play with each other more than the children in control classrooms (i.e., the classrooms not receiving the intervention) did; however, no significant differences were found between the two groups in teacher reports or observations. ...
... Also, unexpectedly, children in the intervention classrooms reported higher "social dissatisfaction" scores when compared to control classrooms. The authors note that the small sample size, short duration of the intervention, and lack of assessment of the fidelity to the intervention design are all important methodological considerations (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
... ECEC settings are the initial context in which children with immigrant and ethnic minority backgrounds face the differences between the home culture and the culture of the majority (Tobin and Kurban 2010). Hence, ECEC settings can be the right time to develop interventions to decrease exclusion and increase inclusion (Harrist and Bradley 2003). ECEC settings are places where children learn socialisation, and teachers at this level should also be able to make social inclusion interventions part of their curriculum (Harrist and Bradley 2003). ...
... Hence, ECEC settings can be the right time to develop interventions to decrease exclusion and increase inclusion (Harrist and Bradley 2003). ECEC settings are places where children learn socialisation, and teachers at this level should also be able to make social inclusion interventions part of their curriculum (Harrist and Bradley 2003). Through shared activities in a preschool classroom, high levels of cooperative play and early childhood friendship may promote social inclusion among minority and majority children. ...
Article
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The aim of this review was to systematically examine interventions in preschools that promote social inclusion of children with immigrant and ethnic minority backgrounds. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. By a comprehensive literature search of relevant peer-reviewed articles in three databases, seven studies were selected as eligible in line with the a priori defined inclusion criteria. Data across included studies were synthesised using thematic analysis. Four prominent themes emerged from the studies: (a) a strength-based approach, not a deficit-based one; (b) involvement of family and the larger community; (c) importance of cultural brokerage; and (d) importance of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice, discrimination and improve social relations. The review highlights the paucity of interventions that promote the social inclusion of immigrant and ethnic background children in preschools. It also suggests that parent and community-based interventions can positively increase social inclusion amongst immigrant and native children. Additional well-designed interventions are needed to better understand and identify effective interventions targeting social inclusion of preschool-age children with immigrant and ethnic minority backgrounds.
... Similarly, Hendrix et al. [10] developed an interactive tabletop game aimed at helping shy children gain confidence through role-playing, by assuming leading roles in their social interactions with others. Different from this body of work, we understand social exclusion as a group phenomenon [9], and thus focus on the remaining school community (and their stereotyping and discrimination practices) as much as on the child at risk of social exclusion. Next to that, we take a broader look on the root causes of social exclusion, accounting for a wide range of factors of diversity, from children's cognitive and social abilities, to their ethnic, cultural and socio-economic background (see [Error! Reference source not found.] ...
Conference Paper
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Gamification, the use of game design elements, such as points, levels, badges and achievements, in non-game contexts is a promising approach for encouraging desired behaviors. In this paper we describe our design process and early evaluation of a prototype that sensed children's social interactions (i.e., physical proximity) in the playground, and attempted to encourage pro-social behaviors through motivational feedback on a public display. We illustrate how we came to realize the potentially detrimental effect of gamification on children's intrinsic motivation and depth of reflection, and how we attempted to circumvent this through encouraging empathic understanding on children regarding the consequences of their behaviors on others.
... Positive experiences of play and physical education lessons can also enhance children's mental health by building up their confidence, self esteem and resilience (Bernstein, Phillips & Silverman, 2011). It is also through play, both in the community and at school, that children develop friendships and a sense of belonging to a peer group (Coolahan, Fantuzzo, Mendez & McDermott, 2000;Harrist & Bradley, 2003). The insightful Rumbold report (Department of Education and Science, 1990) recorded that children need talk, play and first-hand experiences because these are powerful in the child's development and learning. ...
Article
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Abstract Play is essential to development because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional wellbeing of children and youth. The right to play is a child's first claim on the community. Play is nature's training for life. No community can infringe that right without doing deep and enduring harm to the minds and bodies of its citizens. Play also offers an ideal opportunity for parents to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and parents, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. Play is integral to the academic environment. It ensures that the school setting attends to the social and emotional development of children as well as their cognitive development. Physical education and play are two areas that are alarmingly neglected in the public school system. Positive experiences of play and physical activity can also enhance children and young people's mental health by building up their confidence, self esteem and resilience. It is also through play, both in the community and at school, that children develop friendships and a sense of belonging to a peer group.
... Most classwide interventions are implemented by the classroom teacher, but others can also be responsible for organizing and/or conducting the interventions. Harrist and Bradley (2003) conducted a study in which 10 kindergarten classes participated in a classwide intervention to decrease isolation and exclusion for students with less-developed social skills. Four of the 10 classes were assigned as a control group. ...
... The sociocultural trend toward the adoption of inclusive policies is supported by research indicating that when typically developing children have direct experiences with diversity, they are more likely to accept individual differences (Diamond & Carpenter, 2000;Diamond, Hestenes, Carpenter, & Innes, 1997). Similarly, research has shown that positive social interactions are possible within inclusive settings when interventions are aimed at minimizing the social exclusion of children with disabilities (Brown, Odom, & Conroy, 2001;Harrist & Bradley, 2003;Tsao et al., 2008). Furthermore, children with severe disabilities in inclusive settings have exhibited greater improvements in language and social skills compared with their peers in segregated classes (Rafferty, Piscitelli, & Boettcher, 2003). ...
Article
Inclusive education provides learning opportunities for children with disabilities in regular settings with other children. Despite the prevalence of inclusive education, few qualitative studies have adequately explored young children’s perspectives on inclusion. This paper reviews the findings of a preliminary qualitative study where play-based interviews were conducted with 12 typically developing children enrolled in one of two childcare lab schools. Study methods provided an opportunity to assess play-based interview techniques where young children were asked to describe their views on inclusive education. The findings demonstrate that play-based methods allow young children of various ages to identify complex issues related to inclusion. The authors call for additional research that examines research methods in early childhood settings on multi-faceted issues regarding educational policies and practices as a way to attenuate young children’s lack of participation in curriculum development.
... For instance, there is evidence that social inclusion concerns are very salient for young children; in one study of 125 kindergarten children, the reports of five-year-olds revealed that they worried about peer relationships more than any other concern (Ladd, 1990). Other studies looking at the causes of social exclusion in childhood indicate that children who possess individual characteristics that are "different" are often rejected (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
... 이 같은 내편으로 만들기는 선행연구들 (강인설, 정계숙, 2008;Jo, 1989) 과 마찬가지로 그 상대가 고정되어 있지 않고 수시로 바뀌므로 동맹과 배척의 관계지도도 계 속해서 바뀌었다. 이와 같은 '내편으로 만들기' 전략은 이대균과 임자영 (2009) (이대균, 임자영, 2009;Gadamer, 1960;Harrist & Bradley, 2003) ...
Article
This study, based on understanding the play features of the participants, explores early children's peer-relation strategies of maintaining and altering play frame and understanding the meaning of the strategies. Free play of 5-year-old children's was observed. The child-care center was visited 1 or 2 days a week, from March to October, 2012. The data collected were based from field notes, interviews with participants, their workbooks and more. The participants used strategies such as 'refusing', 'incapacitating', 'interpreting in a way to sympathize', and 'changing the rules of play' to maintain the play, whilst 'tell-on', 'being on the same side', 'accepting 3rd party' features were used to alter play frame. Participants using these various play-frame strategies experienced life implications of 'dialectic of exclusion and selection' and 'quiver of boundary'. This study, specifying efforts of the children to maintain and alter the play frame, will provide an understanding of perception of "social exclusion" to children, which has been viewed negatively in the past. It will also benefit on-site teachers in helping them understand peer-relationship within children and provide a more in-depth intervention for peer-relationship issues.
... Most of these programs refer to universal preventive interventions targeting all students and giving emphasis to the peer group and classroom climate. For instance, "Friendly Childhood Friendship Project" , "You can't stay you can't play" (Harrist & Bradley, 2003), and "I Can Problem Solve" (Boyle & Hassett-Walker, 2008) are curriculum based, universal prevention programs designed for kindergarten and elementary-aged children, while the "Second Step" (Van Schoiack-Edstrom, Frey, & Beland, 2002) is a classroom-based program that has been found to improve adolescents' social competence. On the other hand, multisetting programs (i.e., schools, families, and communities) have been also designed. ...
... After a 6 -week period, relational aggression and victimization decreased, whereas prosocial behavior increased. In slightly older children, Harris and Bradley (2003) implemented a specifi c rule in a kindergarten class: " You can ' t say you can ' t play. " This rule appeared to have a positive effect on the whole class, not just the children who are typically excluded. ...
... Therefore, as part of the social-emotional learning curriculum, the teacher also delivered instructional content regarding children demonstrating kindness to others who are different (e.g., by reading and discussing a story about a child who does not fit in), and had children practice inclusive, empathetic behavior by saying "I put myself in your shoes". Teachers helped children generalize inclusive behavior to their day-to-day interactions by introducing social norms in the classroom such as "you can't say you can't play", an approach empirically supported to reduce social exclusion in young children (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Some content in the socialemotional learning curriculum also directly taught children to be aware of their prejudices and biases. ...
Article
We present the preliminary evaluation of a comprehensive, multi-component and multi-agent 2-year classroom intervention to enhance children's relationships with their peers and teachers among early elementary school students in Spain. The intervention contained universal components directed to the whole class plus targeted components for children with peer problems. Using a quasi-experimental design, 229 children (in 10 classrooms) formed a comparison group whose teachers engaged in their typical practices, followed the next year by 214 children (in 9 classrooms) who received the intervention. Children completed a sociometric procedure, and reported their self-perceptions of peer functioning and their relationship quality with teachers at the beginning of 1st grade (pretest) and the end of 2nd grade (posttest; 93% retention). After statistical control of pretest functioning, by posttest those in the intervention group received fewer negative sociometric nominations, perceived themselves to receive fewer negative sociometric nominations and to have greater overall peer acceptance, and reported their teachers to have greater warmth and organization, compared to children in the comparison group. However, intervention group children also received fewer positive sociometric nominations (as well as perceived themselves to receive fewer positive nominations) than comparison group children. Target children, selected for being disliked by peers, received accentuated benefits from the intervention on the outcome variables of fewer negative nominations received and greater teacher warmth. Implications for practice are discussed.
... Las intervenciones tienen que tener muy en cuenta el gran papel que juega el grupo de iguales en el origen y mantenimiento del rechazo, debiendo focalizarse en aula (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
Article
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El GREI (Grupo interuniversitario de investigación del Rechazo Entre Iguales en contextos escolares) lleva varios años tratando de formular una respuesta global con el objetivo de favorecer la integración social y escolar del alumnado en situación de rechazo, desarrollando en las aulas un clima de convivencia, aceptación y apoyo a todos los niños y niñas. En el presente artículo se presenta la fundamentación, objetivos, características, componentes y resultados iniciales de este modelo de intervención que se caracteriza por ser multinivel, multicomponente y multiagente, y por combinar una intervención de caracter general, esto es, dirigida a todo el alumnado participante, y una intervención específica centrada en niños y niñas objeto de rechazo por parte de sus compañeros. Participan alumnos, compañeros, profesores y padres. Los componentes esenciales son la formación y acompañamiento del profesorado y de las familias, y los programas: gestión social del aula, aprendizaje cooperativo, desarrollo socioemocional, aprendizaje de la amistad, los padres como facilitadores de las amistades de los hijos y cooperación familia-­escuela. Aunque los resultados son aún preliminares, parecen apuntar con claridad hacia la mejora en los procesos relacionales del aula y, especificamente, a la prevención del rechazo entre iguales. Palabras clave: convivencia, formación del profesorado y familia, educación primaria, amistad, rechazo entre iguales.
... The PG intervention (received in FL + PG and FL + FD + PG conditions) involved implementation of a curriculum developed and piloted by the last author [28]. The intervention was based on the book, You Can't Say, 'You Can't Play!' (YCSYCP, [29]), which promotes teaching children to accept each other by disallowing rejection at school. ...
Article
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This cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at overweight and obese children compared three treatments. Two psychoeducation interventions for parents and children were conducted: Family Lifestyle (FL) focused on food and physical activity; Family Dynamics (FD) added parenting and healthy emotion management. A third Peer Group (PG) intervention taught social acceptance to children. Crossing interventions yielded four conditions: FL, FL + PG, FL + FD, and FL + FD + PG—compared with the control. Longitudinal BMI data were collected to determine if family- and peer-based psychosocial components enhanced the Family Lifestyle approach. Participants were 1st graders with BMI%ile >75 (n = 538: 278 boys, 260 girls). Schools were randomly assigned to condition after stratifying for community size and percent American Indian. Anthropometric data were collected pre- and post-intervention in 1st grade and annually through 4th grade. Using a two-level random intercept growth model, intervention status predicted differences in growth in BMI or BMI-M% over three years. Children with obesity who received the FL + FD + PG intervention had lower BMI gains compared to controls for both raw BMI (B = −0.05) and BMI-M% (B = −2.36). Interventions to simultaneously improve parent, child, and peer-group behaviors related to physical and socioemotional health offer promise for long-term positive impact on child obesity.
... For example, Friend to Friend (late elementary and early middle school, Leff et al., 2007Leff et al., , 2009) and the WITS (Walk Away, Ignore, Talk, Seek help) program (primary grades, Leadbeater, Hoglund, & Woods, 2003) use ecological interventions (friendship groups in the case of Friend to Friend; school and community in the case of WITS) coupled with cognitive and behavioral skills instruction to reduce relational aggression/victimization. Another comprehensive program, the Early Childhood Friendship Project (Ostrov et al., 2008), has yielded promising results, whereas an approach with a more limited scope to early childhood intervention has found no demonstrable impact (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program (Committee for Children, 2001) is a universal school-wide program that explicitly addresses relational aggression such as malicious gossip and social exclusion, and is informed by both social ecological and cognitive-behavioral theories (Frey et al., 2005; Frey, Hirschstein, Edstrom, & Snell, 2009). ...
Article
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Relational forms of aggression are known to increase during the middle school years. To date, the majority of efficacy studies of elementary school-based programs have focused on the reduction of physical and direct verbal aggression, to the exclusion of effects on relational aggression. Steps to Respect: A Bullying Prevention Program is one exception, which explicitly addresses relational forms of aggression such as malicious gossip and social exclusion. The current study assessed the short-term efficacy of Steps to Respect on reducing observed malicious gossip on the playground. Beliefs about aggressive norms and friends' social support were examined as moderators of program impact. Participants were 544 students from six schools in the Pacific Northwest. Mixed hierarchical modeling was used to test hypotheses. Results provide support for the effects of universal prevention programs on reducing relational aggression, and highlight the need to consider how aggression norms and supportive friends may impact victim responses and continued victimization.
... This may be an important way to support anxious solitary girls' adjustment to middle school and overall psychosocial health during the early adolescent period. Nonetheless, such interventions should also include a focus on preventing peer exclusion [45] given its robust relations with anxious solitude over the middle childhood to early adolescent period. ...
Article
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Guided by a Transactional Model of anxious solitude development, we tested friend and maternal influences on continuity and change in youth anxious solitude from 3rd through 7th grade, as well as the influence of youth anxious solitude on decreased friendship participation and in-creased maternal overcontrol over time. Participants were 230 American youth (57% girls) se-lected for longitudinal study from a public-school screening sample (N = 688). Peers reported on anxious solitude, both peers and youth reported on reciprocated friendship, and youth reported on their mother’s overcontrol annually. Stability and incremental change in youth, friend, and maternal factors were tested in an autoregressive cross-lagged panel analytic model. Having few mu-tual friendships predicted incremental increase in youth anxious solitude in mid-elementary school, then youth anxious solitude predicted the loss of friendships after the middle school transition. Additionally, youth anxious solitude in third grade evoked increased maternal overcontrol in fourth grade, but the reverse direction of effect was not supported. Youth’s participation in few friendships also evoked mothers’ overcontrol, which exacerbated their child’s loss of friendships in elementary school. Taken together, having few mutual friends contributed to youth anxious solitude and maternal overcontrol, and subsequently these factors further exacerbated youth’s loss of friendships.
... Several victimization-focused interventions (e.g., You can't say you can't play; Harrist & Bradley, 2003;Leff et al., 2010) actively seek to change the school environment. Similarly, a number of alcohol and drug interventions have targeted the school climate and generally been equally effective for both boys and girls (Oelsner et al., 2011;Sznitman, Dunlop, Nalkur, Khurana, & Romer, 2011). ...
Article
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The current study examined the impact of supportive social relationships (i.e., teacher support, adult support, school relatedness) and peer victimization on middle school students’ substance use. Over three thousand middle school students from an ethnically diverse school district reported on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, supportive social relationships, and instances in which they were the victim of aggressive behavior. Mixed-effects logit regression analyses revealed complementary patterns of results across types of substances. Students who perceived high levels of social support were less likely to report alcohol and drug use initiation, particularly at low levels of peer victimization. Gender moderated the negative effect of peer victimization, with highly victimized boys most likely to report alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. For the most part, gender did not interact with supportive social relationships in relation to substance use. Results indicated a complex interplay between social influences and moderating variables in predicting early onset alcohol and other drug use, one that researchers should consider when studying adolescents’ decisions to use.
... Consequently, future research could examine the factors that promote children to develop interpersonal trust consistency. Further, by understanding those factors that contribute to the coherence of trust and normative group function interventions designed to enhance children's social skills, inclusion, and school adjustment similar to those developed by Harrist and Bradley (2003) could be refined to include promoting trust and trustworthiness consistency. For example, adapting Harrist and Bradley's procedure, young children could be read stories and engage in role plays highlighting the consequences of trust in various social agents and social situations. ...
Article
Young children's interpersonal trust consistency was examined as a predictor of future school adjustment. One hundred and ninety two (95 male and 97 female, Mage = 6 years 2 months, SDage = 6 months) children from school years 1 and 2 in the United Kingdom were tested twice over one year. Children completed measures of peer trust and school adjustment and teachers completed the Short-Form Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment. Longitudinal quadratic relationships emerged between consistency of children's peer trust beliefs and peer-reported trustworthiness and school adjustment and these varied according to social group, facet of trust, and indicator of school adjustment. The findings support the conclusion that interpersonal trust consistency, especially for secret-keeping, predicts aspects of young children's school adjustment.
... Benzer şekilde, sosyal etkileşim yetersizliğinin, akranlar tarafından dışlanma kaygısı oluşturduğu, dışlanma kaygısının da çocuklarda sosyal yalnızlık yaşanmasına neden olabileceği (Coplan vd,, 2007;Galanaki, 2004) belirtilmekte olup; akran dışlanması sonucu yalnızlık yaşayan çocukların, orta çocukluk dönemi boyunca depresif belirtiler açısından risk altında olduğuna ilişkin araştırma bulguları da alan literatürde mevcuttur (Hay, Payne, & Chadwick, 2004). Bu açıdan bakıldığında, sosyal beceri yetersizliğinden dolayı akranlar tarafından reddedilme, çocukların yaşayabileceği en zor duygusal ve sosyal deneyim olarak değerlendirilebilir (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Yaşamın en önemli dönemlerinden biri olan erken çocukluk yıllarında akranlar tarafından dışlanma deneyimi, bir çocuğun gelecek yaşantısını da olumsuz yönde etkileyecektir. ...
Chapter
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Erken Çocukluk Dönemi Sosyal Beceri Eğitimi bölümünde çocuğun sosyal-duygusal davranışlarının önemli bir parçası olan sosyal beceri kavramının tanımı ve kapsamı sunulmaktadır.
... Second, in attempting to solve the problem, they focus on improving the skills of the child at risk of social exclusion. Yet, as Harrist [11] argues, social exclusion is a group phenomenon and any interventions, technological or educational, should focus on peers as much as on the child at risk. ...
Conference Paper
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With an increasing interest in the social inclusion of children in schools, HCI researchers have proposed technologies that support children at risk of social exclusion in their interactions with peers. However, much of this work has focused on the child at risk of social exclusion, disregarding the fact that social exclusion is a group-phenomenon that often originates in children&$#$39;s negative stereotyping. In this paper we argue for persuasive sociometric technologies, ones that sense children&$#$39;s social interactions in real-time, and provide persuasive, just-in-time recommendations to children with the goal of challenging their perceptions of diversity and motivating pro-social behaviors. We report on two studies that aimed at inquiring into children&$#$39;s practices of social exclusion in school communities as well as whether and how persuasive technologies can stimulate pro-social behaviors and a sense of empathy among them.
... If true, this is a serious concern, given our evidence of children's painful experiences with severe obesity and findings such as increased risk of suicide among populations of severely obese adults (e.g., Chen et al., 2012). The theme that emerged in our data about severely obese children being rejected, made fun of, teased, picked on, and disliked suggests that interventions aimed at change in the peer group's behavior (e.g., Harrist & Bradley, 2003) might be necessary to improve severely obese children's quality of life; these changes might ultimately improve their physical health, as well (see Swindle et al., 2014). Interventions that facilitate friendship formation might also be effective, given that some studies (e.g., Reiter-Purtill, Ridel, Jordan, & Zeller, 2010) have found that an obese child's having just one friend in a class can buffer the negative effect of poor treatment by peers. ...
Article
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This study examines inter- and intrapersonal problems associated with being overweight among one thousand one hundred sixty-four 6- to 7-year-olds (49% boys) in 29 rural schools. Socioemotional data include child self-reports, peer sociometrics, and teacher reports. Results support the hypothesis that children with weight problems struggle socially and emotionally, and extend current understanding of child obesity by demonstrating that problems appear early, are evident in a community sample, can be identified using standard sociometric methods, and are worse among children with severe obesity. Sociometric status difference between levels of obesity were also found. Although obese children were neglected by peers, severely obese children were rejected.
... Further, our findings underscore the importance of considering age-related changes in children's construals of their exclusionary actions. Related to this point, it is abundantly clear that a " one-size-fits-all " model of social exclusion does not adequately explain children's actual experiences of leaving others out of the peer group, perhaps accounting for the limited success of some interventions based on blanket injunctions against this behavior (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). In this respect, we argue that research on social exclusion could benefit from a fuller recognition of this variability and complexity in young peoples' subjective construals of their own experiences, thus setting the stage for programs that may help young people to more critically and deliberatively weigh their multiple and varying goals and concerns. ...
... Reddedilme yaşayan çocuklar için bu durum yetişkinlerden farklı olarak sosyal ve duygusal açıdan oldukça zorlayıcı olmakta, çocuklarda yalnızlık, akademik başarısızlık ve davranış bozuklukları gibi sorunlara sebep olabilmektedir (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Creasey ve McInnis'e (2001, akt. ...
Article
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While people like social acceptance, they do not like social rejection. Unlike grownups, social rejection can be quite challenging for children in terms of social and psychological aspects and may cause problems such as loneliness, academic failure, and behaviour disorders. Studies show that students rejected by their friends can demonstrate undesirable classroom behaviours more frequently. While some of these behaviours such as speaking between the activities, not attending the courses for some time, or being careless can be seen in the non-problematic behaviours category because they do not prevent learning or teaching, behaviours such as walking around, making noise, disturbing friends, and insulting friends are seen as moderate level undesirable behaviours and can affect learning-teaching atmosphere in a negative way. Therefore, in situations like these, teachers’ approach to socially rejected students is of great importance.The purpose of this study is to investigate general classroom behaviours of students who experience social rejection, the effects of these undesirable behaviours on the classroom atmosphere, and the methods teachers use for these students. This qualitative study was conducted in two schools located in the city of Hatay, in the 2014-2015 education year. The data were collected via interviews from 13 teachers (five male and eight female) and observations on four (two female, two male) students. The data collected from semi-structured interviews were analysed using content analysis techniques.Analysis of the data obtained from the teachers’ interviews demonstrated two themes regarding the socially rejected students’ classroom behaviours: “participation in the lesson” and “psycho-social environment”. Findings show that frequently demonstrated behaviours of the students who experience social rejection included trying to answer questions they do not know, walking around aimlessly, not doing homework, asking questions unrelated to the lesson, and making other people do homework for them, taking no responsibilities, trying to attract attention, teasing friends, being silent, using physical violence, violating the rules, sitting alone, sitting next to other students without permission, and scribbling on others’ homework. As for the teachers’ approach to these students, they used such techniques as ignoring, warning, giving responsibilities, rewarding/acknowledging, meeting one to one, talking with the parents more frequently than the techniques such as giving a break, tranquilizing, providing psychological counselling or directing to RAM. Findings show that teachers should be trained about the approaches and intervention methods for students who experience social rejection, and the schools should organize intervention programs for the students who are socially rejected. Özetİnsanlar, sosyal kabulden hoşlanırken, sosyal reddedilmeyi sevmezler. Reddedilme yaşayan çocuklar için bu durum, günlük yaşamlarında olduğu kadar okul yaşamlarında da bir takım sorunlara yol açabilmektedir. Araştırmalar, arkadaşları tarafından reddedilen öğrencilerin sınıf içi istenmeyen davranışları daha çok sergileyebildiklerini göstermektedir. Sınıftaki öğrenme-öğretme sürecinin aksamaması bakımından öğretmenlerin sosyal reddedilme yaşayan öğrencilere yaklaşımları ve bu öğrencilerin gösterdikleri problem davranışlarla başa çıkma stratejileri oldukça önemlidir. Bu öğrencilere yönelik uygun müdahale yaklaşımlarının belirlenmesi için de öncelikle bu öğrencilerin tipik davranış biçimlerinin anlaşılması gerekmektedir.Bu çalışmanın amacı sosyal reddedilme yaşayan öğrencilerin sınıftaki genel davranışlarının, sınıf için istenmeyen davranışlarının, sınıf içi öğrenme-öğretme atmosferine etkilerinin ve öğretmenlerin bu öğrencilere yönelik kullandıkları yöntemlerin incelenmesidir. Nitel bir çalışma olan bu araştırma 2014- 2015 Öğretim yılında, Hatay ilinde bulunan bir ilkokul ve ortaokulda yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu görüşme yapmak üzere belirlenen 13 öğretmen ve gözlem yapmak üzere belirlenen 4 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme ve gözlem formları kullanılarak toplanan veriler, içerik analizleri ile çözümlenmiştir.Bulgulara göre sosyal reddedilme yaşayan öğrencilerin derse katılımlarıyla ilgili sık görülen davranışları yanıtını bilmediği soruları yanıtlamaya çalışma, amaçsız dolaşma, ders dışı ilgisiz konuşma, ödev yapmama, dersle ilgisiz sorular sorma, ders dışı yanıtlar verme, ödevleri başkasına yaptırma şeklinde iken; sınıftaki psiko-sosyal çevreyle ilgili sık sergiledikleri davranışlar ise sorumluluk almama, dikkat çekmeye çalışma, arkadaşlarına sataşma, kendini öne çıkarmaya çalışma, sessiz olma, fiziksel şiddet, kurallara uymama, düşük ses tonu ile konuşma, çekingen olma, yalnız oturma, izinsiz başkalarının yanına oturma, bireysel çalışmak isteme ve başkasının ödevini karalamadır. Bu öğrencilerin öğrenme çevresini olumsuz etkileyen davranışları sınıfın dikkatini dağıtma, dersin akışını ve öğrenme ortamını engelleme, diğer öğrencilere olumsuz örnek olma, diğer öğrencilerin dinlemesine engel olma, sınıfın huzurunu bozma, öğretmen ve diğer öğrenciler arasında gerginliğe neden olmadır. Öğretmenlerin bu öğrencilere yönelik görmezden gelme, uyarma, sorumluluk verme, ödüllendirme/takdir etme, bireysel görüşme, veliyle görüşme gibi yöntemleri daha ağırlıklı olarak kullandıkları, fakat mola verme, sakinleştirme, psikolojik danışmana ve RAM’a yönlendirme yapmayı daha az kullandıkları belirlenmiştir.Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre öneriler geliştirilmiştir. Sosyal reddedilme yaşayan öğrencilere yaklaşım ve müdahale yöntemleri konusunda öğretmenlere eğitim verilmesi gereklidir. Okullarda sosyal reddedilme yaşayan öğrencilere yönelik önleme ve müdahale programları düzenlenmelidir.
... For example, affective interventions aim to nurture children's positive attitudes about peers who are different (e.g., those with disabilities) by creating inclusive classrooms, promoting awareness through pictures and books, and encouraging interactions (Brown et al., 2001). Interventions including storytime and discussion about prosocial behavior and inclusive play have been found to increase children's self-reported acceptance and liking of others (Favazza & Odom, 1997; Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
Article
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Because victimization results from the dynamic interplay between the victim and his or her parents, peers, and teachers, responding to this problem should involve both direct and indirect interventions. This paper describes and reviews empirically supported direct interventions with victims, as well as indirect interventions with parents, peers, and school staff. Although the primary focus is on bullying, research on related forms of peer victimization, such as rejection, are included, as these have been subject to more empirical study. The review concludes that there is empirical support for direct and indirect interventions for specific problems associated with rejection, though research studies on interventions for victims of bullying are lacking. In addition, comprehensive primary prevention approaches for reducing bullying have shown promise, but there is a lack of empirically supported secondary prevention efforts that focus on increasing social support for children who, despite primary prevention efforts, continue to suffer the consequences of peer victimization.
... For example, teachers can create, review, and reinforce expectations for peer respect and inclusiveness. One study found that by declaring "you can't say you can't play" as a classroom rule, or including language in a classroom charter about respectful treatment of others, teachers were able to shape more favorable class-wide peer sociometric ratings (Harrist and Bradley, 2003;Bacete et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Establishing a positive peer climate in elementary school classrooms is an important goal for educators because peer dynamics are thought to affect academic learning. Thus, it is important to (a) understand the relationship between children's peer dynamics and academic functioning, and (b) identify teacher practices that influence both peer processes and academic outcomes. In this pilot study, we explored whether specific teacher strategies that promote positive behaviors in children and positive peer dynamics influence children's better academic enablers, as well as whether they do so indirectly via improving peer sociometric ratings. Such teacher strategies may be particularly relevant for supporting children who demonstrate impairment in both social and academic domains, such as children at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we also examined whether these relationships differ for children with elevated ADHD symptoms and peer problems (i.e., target students), relative to classmates (i.e., non-target students). Participants were 194 children in the classrooms of 12 teachers (grades K-4) who participated in an open-trial pilot study of the school-based version of the Making Socially Accepting Inclusive Classrooms (MOSAIC) program. In the fall and spring of a school year, we assessed children's sociometric ratings received from peers, and academic enabler skills as rated by teachers. Throughout one academic year, we obtained assessments of teachers' use of MOSAIC strategies (observed and self-reported). Results showed that, after accounting for fall academic enablers, the teacher strategy of CARE time (involving one-on-one interaction with the student to build the teacher-student relationship) was positively associated with spring academic enablers. However, findings did not support the hypothesized indirect effect of peer sociometric ratings on the relationship between teacher strategy use and academic enablers, or the moderated indirect effect by target student status. Implications for future research and classroom interventions are discussed.
... Dieses proaktive Vorgehen zum Spielbeginn ist möglicherweise auch erfolgreicher als eine verbale Ermahnung im Sinne der Regieanweisung von aussen, um ein Kind in ein laufendes Spiel zu integrieren. Sehr entscheidend sind in Bezug auf Inklusion die Regeln, die Kindergarten-Lehrpersonen aufstellen und durchsetzen: So zeigte eine Intervention mit der Regel «du darfst nicht sagen, du darfst nicht mitspielen» positive Effekte(Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Das «entspannte Feld» ist ein Merkmal des Spiels(Hauser, 2013). ...
Chapter
Kinder spielen und lernen im Spiel – warum ist die Spielbegleitung durch Erwachsene, insbesondere durch Lehrpersonen, bedeutsam? Diese Frage steht im Zentrum dieses Beitrages. Die Bedeutsamkeit der Spielbegleitung wird in Bezug auf zwei Aspekte untersucht: Zum einen kann die Spielbegleitung das Lernen der Kinder im Spiel fördern. Zum andern ist die Spielbegleitung auch nötig, um die Teilhabe der Kinder mit unterschiedlichen Vorerfahrungen am Spiel zu fördern und sicherzustellen, dass alle Kinder vom Lernpotenzial des Spiels profitieren.
... However, this contradicts another view that suggests that students misbehave in classrooms because of some personal attributes such as being aggressive or lacking appropriate social skills. This view led some researchers to form some intervention programs to deal with these negative attributes of students (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). ...
Article
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Teacher education programs are often accused of failing to prepare preservice teachers for real life classroom situations. In the case of research on classroom management, the focal point is often classroom teachers and their educational and behavioral goals rather than students' experiences. This study aims to explore the perspectives of preservice teachers on their attitudes and behaviors in the university classrooms. For this purpose, 40 preservice teachers, who studied in the Early Childhood Education department at a state university in Turkey, were selected. The interview was chosen as the data collection method. The interview questions were based on the questions that Cothran, Kulinna and Garrahy (2003) used in their study with the secondary physical education students. The collected data were analyzed by the constant comparison method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and common themes were constructed through the analytic induction method (LeCompte & Preissle, 1993). In this study, the findings indicated that incompatible behaviors served different functions in teacher education classrooms. The preservice teachers perceived punitive teacher responses to students' negative behaviors as compelling, ineffective and mostly humiliating practices. The preservice teachers provided three main elements that affect their attitudes, behaviors and experiences in a teacher education classroom. These elements were related to students, teachers, and the context of the classroom. The preservice teachers perceived their positive or negative behaviors mostly as reactions to the behavior of the teacher and the classroom environment.
... Evidence supports the utility of teachers setting norms for inclusive behaviors. For example, research suggests that declaring "you can't say you can't play" as a classroom rule, or including language in a classroom charter about respectful treatment of others, promotes favorable sociometric ratings (Harrist & Bradley, 2003). Similar to the way in which teachers reinforce children's displays of positive academic enabler behaviors, teachers can also reinforce children who are showing inclusive behavior, to encourage the recipients, as well as observing peers, to display more of such behavior. ...
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Establishing a positive peer climate in the elementary school classroom is an important goal for educators. This pilot study examined if children’s liking and disliking of their classroom peers are predicted by teachers’ use of practices designed to address child disruptive behaviors that are off-putting to peers, and practices designed to enhance peer inclusivity. Whereas teacher practices to foster good peer relationships are useful for all students, they are particularly important for those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, as these children are often poorly regarded by classmates. Thus, we explored the moderating effect of child ADHD symptom status. Participants were 194 children (grades K-4) in the classrooms of 12 teachers. The teachers were helping our study team revise the Making Socially Accepting Inclusive Classrooms (MOSAIC) program for use in general education classrooms. The MOSAIC program contains a set of teacher strategies to encourage students’ increased liking and decreased disliking of one another, which was measured by sociometric ratings. Teachers’ use of MOSAIC strategies was observed and self-reported over a school year. Results indicated that teacher practices designed to improve children’s classroom behaviors, as well as practices that encouraged peers to be more inclusive, each predicted children receiving better sociometric ratings at the end of the year after accounting for ratings at the beginning of the year. Some practices appeared uniquely efficacious for children with elevated ADHD symptoms, whereas others were useful for all children but had accentuated benefits for typical children. Implications for practitioners are discussed.
... Another possible limitation to this study was that the rule was implemented, not by the classroom teacher, but by a research assistant who visited the class on a weekly basis. In fact, Harrist and Bradley (2003) recommended that future research assess teacher's commitment to implementing the rule (treatment fidelity). They noted that only limited anecdotal information was obtained regarding teacher attitude about the rule and their commitment to implementation. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' perceptions about the use of play to promote social, emo-tional, and cognitive skills to support planning for a school program aimed at increasing inclusive play for young children. This research was inspired by Vivian Gussin Paley's book, You Can't Say You Can't Play (1992). Par-ticipants included undergraduate students and graduate education students in the Teacher Education Program at a small liberal arts college, as well as practicing elementary school teachers. The results indicated that graduate students and practicing teachers had a more accurate understanding about the developmental benefits of incor-porating play into the classroom and a greater willingness to embrace the "you can't say you can't play" rule to promote inclusive play and acceptance. Implications for designing a preventative program for inclusive play in young children are discussed.
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Our paper is based on a research project Origins of Exclusion in Early Childhood: Development and interactive accumulation of risks of social and academic exclusion from preschool to primary education. The purpose of the longitudinal research is to investigate children's early peer relations and the dropout from peer networks in kindergarten and first grade. The purpose of the longitudinal research is to investigate children's early peer relations and the dropout from peer networks in kindergarten and first grade. Earlier results in this project and in the pilot-study pointed out that children's peer relation problems are very common and easily accumulative. The children could be harassed, rejected, victimized or withdrawn or have all these problems. The children who had problems in their peer relations could be divided into four categories: children who had no problems, children whose problems varied during follow-up years, children whose problems decreased or they had only one problem, children whose problems increased or constantly had multiple problems in their peer relations. (Laine & Neitola 2002; Laine, Salonen, Lepola & Neitola 2004.) Children's social behavior and personality traits were examined by the assessments of teachers' and parents evaluated their interaction with peers in play situations. Teachers rated social behaviour of children with multiple problems in peer relations more negative than other children's behaviour. Our results give support to earlier discoveries about the social behavior of at-risk C li c k t o b u y. t r a c k er-s of t w a r e. c o m 2 children (see e.g. Ladd & Kocherderfer-Ladd 1998) and its connection to social status and acceptance in the peer group (see e.g. Bierman & Welsh 1997.) Behavioral troubles seem to extend with increasing peer relations problems and age and these problems come out as externalized and internalized behavior difficulties. Also parents are aware of their children's troubles with peer interaction.
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A replication of a preventive early childhood intervention study for reducing relational and physical aggression and peer victimization was conducted (Ostrov et al., 2009). The present study expanded on the original 6-week program, and the revised Early Childhood Friendship Project (ECFP) 8-week program consisted of developmentally appropriate puppet shows, active participatory activities, passive activities, and in vivo reinforcement periods. Both teacher and observer reports were obtained at pretest and posttest for relational and physical bullying, as well as relational and physical peer victimization, for each participating child. The initial sample (N = 141; age M = 45.53 months; age SD = 7.29) included 80 children randomly assigned to the intervention group (six classrooms) and 61 children randomly assigned to the control group (six classrooms). The present study found that the ECFP reduced relational bullying in the intervention group relative to the control group and reduced relational and physical victimization for girls in the intervention group relative to the control group. The importance of early intervention and implications for educators and clinicians are discussed.
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A study was conducted to determine whether a sandplay therapy program conducted with children at a childcare center had an effect on the aggression and the peer interactions for participants for whom externalizing behavioral problems were in evidence. Twenty children aged 4–5 years who had externalizing behavioral problems were assigned to one of two groups based on their age and gender with ten children in the experimental group and ten children in the control group. The experimental group received 30 min of sandplay therapy twice a week at their childcare center, for a total of 16 sessions. The control group did not receive any therapy or placebo treatment. Mann-Whitney tests were conducted to confirm the homogeneity between the two groups prior to the initiation of the program. Results indicated that the sandplay therapy program was effective in reducing aggression and negative peer interactions. The usefulness of sandplay therapy programs conducted in childcare centers is presented and discussed.
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McCall (2009) suggests that there is a new appreciation of the importance of research and evidence influencing mental health practice. This is particularly important given interventions often used in schools and in mental health clinics have not been evidence-based in the past (Waddell & Godderis, 2005). When a program is considered evidence-based, it was developed based on scientifically supported theory. The design of the program is described in detail. Outcomes are reported including outcomes over time. The original study to determine whether or not the program works was conducted in a scientific manner, and there is some positive outcome (Sherman, 2010). The requirements to use strong and proven programs have increased. Practitioners want to know what works to help children and adolescents.
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Abstract— Peer rejection has gained much attention in recent years, due to repeated findings that negative peer experiences in childhood predict adjustment difficulties in adolescence and adulthood. The dominant conceptualization within developmental psychology has overwhelmingly focused on deficits within rejected children that contribute to their difficulties and has neglected contextual factors in the peer group setting that may also influence peer rejection. This article reviews growing evidence that the social context in which peer interactions occur does affect children’s liking or disliking of peers and argues that a complete model of peer rejection will be obtained only through understanding influences of social contexts. Implications for improving existing peer-rejection interventions and for public policy are discussed.
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This study examined the effects of contact, books, and discussions on the attitudes of kindergarten-age children toward people with disabilities. Children in the high-contact group participated in a program designed to promote acceptance of people with disabilities; the low-contact group had incidental contact with children with disabilities; the no-contact group had neither direct nor indirect contact with children with disabilities. At pretest, all participants had low levels of acceptance of people with disabilities. At posttest, significant gains in levels of acceptance were found only in the high-contact group. The program appears to be an effective strategy for promoting acceptance of people with disabilities.
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One of the primary determinants of successful intervention programs for children with autism is the degree to which the programs are implemented with precision and consistency; that is, fidelity. One strategy for increasing the fidelity of program implementation is to match the intervention procedures to contextual variables in the classroom. One of the critical contextual variables in a classroom is the teaching staff. By considering how the staff currently interacts with students and provides instruction, it is possible to design services that closely match current practices in the classroom and, consequently, possibly increase the probability that the intervention plan will be implemented with fidelity. This article suggests contextual variables to be considered, methods for assessing them, and strategies for intervening based upon the result of the assessment.
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Behavioral observations and sociometric ratings were assessed in separate 3- and 4-year-old child care classes across a two year period. A cross sequential design included three cohorts. Cohort A was observed at age 4, Cohort B at ages 3 and 4 and Cohort C was observed at age 3 yielding two separate cross sectional comparisons and a longitudinal comparison across ages 3 and 4. Social network analyses were used to determine the relation between behavioral measures of social interactions and sociometric ratings, developmental changes in the degree of organization of the social networks in each class, and the degree to which gender was an organizing principle in the social structure of both age groups. In general, correspondence between the behavioral observations and sociometric ratings increased with age and the social structure showed greater cohesion in the 4-year-old class. Gender was an organizing principle in the social structure of the 4-year-old class and became more apparent across time in the 3-year-old class. Implications of the findings for the assessment of sociometric status and for intervention are discussed.
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Children's friendships represent mutual dyadic relationships that differ from peer relations, which have lesser affective ties. This meta-analytic review fit categorical models (L. V. Hedges, 1982) to examine the behavioral and affective manifestations of children's friendships as evinced by comparisons of friends and nonfriends. Analysis of our broadband categories revealed that friendships, compared with nonfriend relations, are characterized by more intense social activity, more frequent conflict resolution, and more effective task performance. Also, relationships between friends are marked by reciprocal and intimate properties of affiliation. At the level of narrowband categories, friendship relations afford a context for social and emotional growth. These behavioral and affective manifestations of friendship are moderated by the age level of participants, the strength of the relationship, and the methodology of the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Sex biases in children's sociometric preferences were examined developmentally using rating-scale data from 195 girls and 191 boys in kindergarten through the third grade (Study 1) and from 91 girls and 88 boys in the third through sixth grades (Study 2). Results of both studies indicated that children at each grade level rated opposite-sex classmates significantly lower than same-sex classmates. Furthermore, there was a significant linear trend for children's sex biases to increase with age, with this trend being particularly pronounced in the younger grades (i.e., kindergarten to Grade 3). Specifically, children received significantly lower ratings from opposite-sex peers in Grade 3 than they received in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. Results are discussed in terms of future research in the area of sociometric assessment.
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92 7–9-year-old children (47 girls) were observed while attempting to join 2 relatively unfamiliar same- or opposite-sex peers who were playing a board game. Female guests were less obtrusive than male guests in their entry approaches, whereas male guests were more active and assertive. Guests were less behaviorally constrained when approaching same- than opposite-sex hosts. Female hosts were more attentive to the guests than male hosts, who tended to ignore the newcomers. Successful guests received initiations from the hosts, responded contingently to host initiations, and performed activity-related behavior. Since female hosts initiated more behavior to the guests than male hosts, and female guests were more contingently responsive than male guests, girls entering female groups were the most successful. These findings support the thesis that peer group entry processes and outcomes are affected by the personal characteristics and contexts of both the entering children and their hosts.
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Extended previous research by examining the relation between children's entry behavior and sociometric status under more naturalistic conditions. First, 3rd, and 5th graders (N = 72) of high, low, and average status were observed during recess. Observers coded Ss' entry and noninteractive behaviors, peers' responses, and the size of groups with whom Ss interacted. Low-status Ss engaged in more passive entry attempts and less sustained group interaction than high-status Ss, and were accepted less and ignored more. Compared with 5th graders, 1st graders attempted entry proportionately more, were alone more, joined smaller groups, and sustained interaction with groups a smaller proportion of time. Group size influenced both the choice of entry bids and the group's response to an entering peer.
Chapter
Childhood peer rejection has received a great deal of attention in developmental psychopathology and intervention research over the past 10 years. Interest in this phenomenon stems from evidence that childhood peer rejection is related to a variety of negative outcomes in adolescence and adulthood (Kupersmidt, Coie, & Dodge, 1990; Parker & Asher, 1987). Although we have a good understanding of both the outcomes of childhood peer rejection as well as the behaviors that lead children to be rejected by their peers (Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt, 1990), much less attention has been focused on the experience of childhood peer rejection and how children cope with being rejected by their peers. We know that rejected children in general are subjected to more aversive interpersonal interactions in school than nonrejected children (Boivin, Cote, & Dion, 1991; Perry, Kusel, & Perry, 1989), and we know that at least some rejected children report experiencing significant amounts of distress with regard to their low peer status (Asher, Hymel, & Renshaw, 1984; Asher, Parkhurst, Hymel, & Williams, 1990; Asher & Wheeler, 1985; Parkhurst & Asher, 1992). Thus, the experience of peer rejection appears to be a stressful one; however, there are currently no studies in the literature that conceptualize peer rejection in a stress and coping framework. There are probably several reasons for this.
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The correlates of rejection and the subtypes of rejected individuals have received considerable attention. This article shifts the focus to the responses to rejection made by those who are rejected. More specifically, it examines boys who were pejoratively labeled by their peers in junior high school. These boys were observed and interviewed during seventh grade and eighth grade as they responded in a variety of ways to their status of being rejected. Like other ethnographic research on rejection, this study found very high categorical stability for those who were rejected. Thus, even though the boys' responses included a variety of changes, most were ineffective in altering their status. One individual, however, did manage to change his status through rather extraordinary responses. His success resulted from negating the categorical identity imposed on him by his peers, rather than simply imitating his accepted peers.
Chapter
Problematic peer relations or social skills difficulties are associated with a variety of childhood disorders, including autism (Schreibman & Charlop, 1989), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (Whalen, 1989), conduct disorders (Kazdin, 1989), learning disabilities (Stone & LaGreca, 1990), and childhood depression (Helsel & Matson, 1984). Perhaps as a result, clinicians have developed and evaluated numerous social skills programs for alleviating problems that children have in interacting with peers (for reviews, see Dodge, 1989; Schneider, 1992).
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This research was designed to identify patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Seventh- and eighth-grade middle-school students (N = 450) were administered positive and negative sociometric nominations, peer behavioral assessment items, a loneliness and social dissatisfaction questionnaire, and a newly developed interpersonal concerns questionnaire. Results indicated that most rejected students were aggressive or submissive, but it was the combination of aggressiveness or submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior that was associated with peer rejection. With regard to students' affective experiences, submissive-rejected students, when compared with average-status students, were found to report higher levels of loneliness and worry about their relations with others. Aggressive-rejected students did not differ on these dimensions from average-status students.
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Facial attractiveness has been shown to influence teacher perceptions and attitudes toward children. This study investigated the classroom interactions of teacher-perceived attractive and unattractive children. Positive, negative, and neutral interactions were recorded prior to obtaining the teachers’ ratings of attractiveness. The results indicated that attractive children exhibited more positive interactions than did unattractive children. Attractive girls exhibited less negative interactions than their unattractive peers; however, these results were not demonstrated for boys. The effects were observed after three quarters of the year and indicated that perceived facial attractiveness may be more influential than had previously been suggested.
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Young children's peer-related social competence has been viewed as a critical developmental competency during early childhood. Nevertheless, a number of young children, particularly young children who have disabilities or who are at risk for disabilities, have peer interaction difficulties. During the last several decades, various intervention strategies for improving young children's peer interactions have been developed, refined, and evaluated in early childhood programs. This article presents a conceptual framework based on an intervention hierarchy for assisting interventionists in deciding how to promote the peer interactions of young children with peer-related social competence difficulties in natural environments. We discuss making developmentally appropriate and inclusive early childhood programs the foundation for improved peer interactions. Several illustrative and empirically validated intervention strategies for these children are presented and recommendations are made regarding flexible employment of the hierarchy to individualize peer interaction interventions.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between preschoolers' peer behavior and status over a school year by exploring whether early behaviors predicted changes in peer status or vice versa. Children's playground behaviors and peer status were assessed at 3 times during the school year (fall, winter, and spring). Analysis of the behavioral antecedents of status produced some findings that were consistent with those reported for grade school samples. Higher levels of cooperative play at the outset of the school year predicted gains in peer acceptance by the end of the year. Arguing forecasted increases in peer rejection at both the middle and end of the school year. In contrast, early peer status was not found to be predictive of changes in preschoolers' later social or nonsocial behavior. These findings are interpreted in light of past research on children's peer behavior and status.
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Research on early school transitions is important because the reputations children establish at the outset of grade school may follow them through many years of formal schooling. The purpose of this study was to explore the transition from preschool to kindergarten and to identify factors that predict children's social and school adjustment in new school environments. A sample of 58 children was identified prior to their entrance into kindergarten, and parent and school data were collected at 3 times of measurement: late preschool, early kindergarten, and late kindergarten. Children's prior behavior and the kindergarten peer context were among the factors found to predict posttransition social adjustment. Children who were cooperative "players" in preschool were seen as more sociable by kindergarten teachers, and children who pursued more extensive positive contacts with preschool classmates tended to become well liked by their kindergarten classmates. In contrast, children who spent more time in aggressive behaviors and who had a broader pattern of negative peer contacts in preschool were more likely to be rejected by peers and to be seen as hostile-aggressive by teachers in kindergarten. Both experiential antecedents and concomitant features of the transition context emerged as predictors of school adjustment. Time spent in interactions with younger peers in preschool was negatively related to positive school attitudes throughout kindergarten, and the duration of children's preschool attendance and range of experiences with peers in other community contexts was negatively related to anxious behavior in the classroom and absences from school. Children who retained a larger proportion of their nonschool friendships during the transition had more favorable attitudes at the beginning of kindergarten, and those who attended class with a larger proportion of familiar peers tended to view school more positively and were less anxious at the outset of the school year.
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Children experiencing difficulties in their peer relations have typically been identified using external sources of information, such as teacher referrals or ratings, sociometric measures, and/or behavioral observations. There is a need to supplement these assessment procedures with self-report measures that assess the degree to which the children themselves feel satisfaction with their peer relationships. In this study, a 16-item self-report measure of loneliness and social dissatisfaction was developed. In surveying 506 third- through sixth-grade children, the measure was found to be internally reliable. More than 10% of children reported feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction, and children's feelings of loneliness were significantly related to their sociometric status. The relationship of loneliness and sociometric status to school achievement was also examined.
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4 fourth-grade boys, each different social status types-rejected, popular, neglected, and average-met in play groups once a week for 6 weeks. 5 groups were of boys from the same classroom, and 5 of the boys were from 4 different schools. Within 3 sessions, social status in the groups was highly correlated with school-based status for boys from both familiar and unfamiliar groups. Observations of behavior coded from videotapes revealed significant distinctive patterns of social interaction for the social status types. Rejected boys were extremely active and aversive, but no more physically aversive than average boys, although group members perceived rejected boys as starting fights. Popular boys engaged in more norm setting and were more prosocial in the unfamiliar groups. Although neglected boys were the least interactive and aversive, they were more visible and active in the unfamiliar group and seemed most affected by the new social context. The findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between behaviors associated with the emergence of social status in contrast to those associated with the maintenance of social status.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of stable mutual friendship to self-reports of loneliness in preschoolers who had been nominated as rejected or nonrejected by their peers. Ninety-four 4- and 5-year-olds were classified into five peer status groups: controversial, neglected, average, popular, and rejected. In addition, the children were classified as having a stable mutual friendship, an unstable mutual friendship, or without mutual friends. Children in the rejected group rated themselves as lonelier than their neglected, popular, and average peers. However, rejected children who had a stable mutual friendship reported levels of loneliness that were similar to those of their nonrejected peers and less loneliness than those rejected children who lacked stable friendship. Loneliness in preschoolers is discussed in terms of the quality of their friendships and peer experience as well as their desire to be sociable.
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Children have been employed as behavior therapists in intervention programs with peers. Peer mediated interventions are described as those having an indirect influence no the behavior of target children and those having a more direct influence. Research examining peer mediation of a direct nature is presented and evaluated. The experimental studies reviewed are divided into three major areas: (1) peers as tutors; (2) peers as reinforcing agents; and (3) peers as facilitators of generalization. Conclusions, clinical applications, and future directions follow.
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This study examined the effects of several procedures on the social and supportive interactions of two preschoolers with handicaps and their socially competent peers. An alternating individual and group-oriented reinforcement contingency produced equal increases in the target children's interactions with peers. However, neither procedure generated consistent levels of supportive peer behaviors. Following a baseline phase where social and supportive interactions decreased to lower levels, two socially competent children were taught to deliver high levels of supportive prompts to their peers during a dramatic play activity (e.g., “Ask [target child] to come and join our picnic”). Results indicated that peers complied with these statements by increasing the frequency of social behaviors directed to the target children. A final interdependent group contingency condition maintained both social and supportive interactions at high levels. These results are discussed with regard to the efficacy of group-oriented contingencies.
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Compared the predictive accuracy of teacher-based behavioral categories (i.e., teacher assessment of aggressiveness and hyperactivity) and peer-based sociometric categories (i.e., peer acceptance and rejection) on a sample of 178 kindergarten boys. Accuracy of prediction was compared on outcomes such as behavior problems (assessed by teachers and peers), peer rejection, self-reported delinquency, self-perceptions, and academic performance in Grades 3 and/or 4. IQ scores and sociofamilial adversity served as control cariables. Behavioral categories differed on homotypic and several heterotypic outcomes. Overall, behavioral categories were better predictors of teacher-rated and self-rated outcomes than sociometric categories. Suggestions aimed at increasing the level of accuracy of predictive measures with young children are discussed.
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Cluster analysis was used to identify subtypes among 98 peer-rejected 5–7-year-old boys. Repeated sociometric nominations obtained over a 1-year interval permitted examination of the relation between rejection subtype and sociometric stability. Results revealed that 48% of these rejected boys were aggressive, impulsive, disruptive, and noncooperative as well as not involved in mutual liking. A smaller number (13%) were socially shy, perceived themselves to be negatively regarded by their peers, and were uninvolved in mutual liking. Two other subtypes, accounting for 39% of these boys, did not seem especially deviant. These behavioral characteristics generally typified the four rejection subtypes 1 year later. 66% of the nonaggressive subtypes changed sociometric classification (i.e., became average or popular) after a year, whereas only 42% of the aggressive-rejected children did so, suggesting that peer rejection that involves aggression is more stable than rejection that does not.
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Conduct disorder typically develops in a context of multiple determinants. Parent and child characteristics, the dynamics of the interaction between the parent and child, and how that interaction is impacted by economic, cultural, and social circumstances of the family are determinants in the development of a conduct disorder. Critical factors for successful preventive intervention for conduct disorder include early identification of children at risk, intervention in multiple contexts, teaching developmentally appropriate skills, and longitudinal intervention with continued maintenance and transition support. This article discusses the issues and challenges inherent in prevention research, including challenges in recruiting and working with parents who are stressed by the effects of poverty, designing appropriate interventions for young children, and using outcome measures that reflect developmental continuities, subject attrition, and fidelity of treatment.
Article
Examined the relationship of teacher preference (TP) to children's sociometric status in the classroom. In Study 1, 160 prekindergarten through 5th-grade children completed play rating and friendship nomination sociometric measures, and teachers rated social behavior (SB) and completed a TP measure for each S. Study 2 assessed the SBs of 85 2nd- through 5th-grade Ss for whom there was either concordance or discordance in teacher and peer preference. Findings suggest that discordance in teacher and peer perceptions of Ss' likeability is associated with differential perceptions of Ss' SBs. The use of a TP measure in combination with sociometric measures might provide a more valid and relaible procedure for assessing social adjustment than peer sociometric measures alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviewed the literature to evaluate the success of peer-mediated interventions in promoting social skills of children and adolescents with behavioral disorders. 21 articles employing peer-mediated interventions were analyzed on their experimental, procedural, and generalization components. Results indicate that (1) peer-mediated approaches have demonstrated success in producing immediate positive treatment effects, (2) typologies of peer-mediated treatments have been identified, and (3) peer-mediated approaches, in general, have contributed to the effectiveness of generalization technology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Identified 13 rejected and 13 popular 3rd- and 4th-grade boys using sociometric nomination measures. Playground observations and interview assessments of social problem solving were administered during the winter and spring. Rejected Ss both exhibited and received more aversive behavior than popular Ss. Although no status differences in the overall rate of interaction were found, rejected Ss exhibited more onlooker behavior and solitary play than the popular ones. No differences in the frequency of alternative solutions to hypothetical social problems were found between status groups. The solutions of rejected Ss were, however, less effective and more aggressive than those of populars. Chosen solutions of rejected Ss were also more likely to be ineffective and aggressive than those of populars. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Analyses of the Preschool Socioaffective Profile (PSP) using 608 preschoolers revealed high internal consistency, interrater reliability, and stability for the 8 10-item scales and identified 3 coherent factors representing externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and social competence. Boys scored higher than girls on externalizing measures, but not on internalizing measures, which were largely orthogonal. PSP scores were correlated with Child Behavior Checklist teacher ratings, and each scale was found to differentiate a clinical sample from the complete sample. Using a typological approach, the anxious–withdrawn group was found to be the least interactive with peers; the angry–aggressive group, the most interactive and most rejected; and the competent group, highest in sociometric status. Finally, substantial coherence was reported between laboratory observations of mother–child interaction and PSP classification. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the hypothesis that the less competitive orientation of Mexican-American children is related to their lower school achievement. 230 Anglo-American and Mexican-American children attending kindergarten, Grades 1–2, 4, and 6 of a semirural low-income school were administered individual measures of competition, individualism, field independence, and school achievement (California Achievement Tests, Cooperative Primary Tests, and the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills). Results indicate significant effects of culture, sex, and age, but competition and individualism were not significantly correlated with each other and were not consistently related to field independence and school achievement. Results support the general conclusion that the less competitive social orientation of Mexican-American children as measured by experimental games is not necessarily a disadvantage with regard to school achievement. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Identifies patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Seventh- and 8th-grade middle-school students ( N = 450) were administered positive and negative sociometric nominations, peer behavioral assessment items, a loneliness and social dissatisfaction questionnaire, and a newly developed interpersonal concerns questionnaire. Results indicated that most rejected students were aggressive or submissive, but it was the combination of aggressiveness or submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior that was associated with peer rejection. With regard to students' affective experiences, submissive–rejected students, when compared with average-status students, were found to report higher levels of loneliness and worry about their relations with others. Aggressive–rejected students did not differ on these dimensions from average-status students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Peer preferences (determined by both positive and negative sociometric choices) and perceptions of African-American and White children attending either majority White or majority African-American classrooms were examined. Results indicate that classroom racial minority status (i.e., being in a classroom in which most classmates are of a different race) is associated with peer rejection of girls but not of boys. Correlates of peer preferences differed for children in majority White vs African-American classes, providing support for the subjective culture hypothesis. Implications of these findings for girls' peer relations and for educational practices regarding classroom racial proportions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Outlines a heuristic framework for understanding the behavior of academic change agents within natural laws of behavior, and conceptualizing treatment integrity as generalization. After examination of basic premises about change agents and the ecology of academic interventions, empirical examples are provided that illustrate current problems in promoting intervention fidelity. The structure for understanding the ecological control of change agent behavior is presented; including a review of relevant ecological concepts for change agents, a conceptualization of the different levels of change agents and their interrelationships, and the relevance of current technical models of generalization for understanding the behavior of those who attempt to change behavior of children. Factors related to change agents that need to be considered in academic intervention are summarized and recommendations for future research are made. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)