Article

Optimum autonomous wind–power system sizing for remote consumers, using long-term wind speed data

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Abstract

The usage of autonomous power-systems is one of the most successful ways to treat the electrification requirements of numerous isolated consumers, not only in Greece but also worldwide. Such an autonomous system comprises a micro-wind converter and a battery storage device, along with the corresponding electronic equipment. Considering the high wind potential of several regions in our country, an integrated study is carried out, based on long-term wind-potential experimental measurements, in order to determine the optimum configuration of a stand-alone wind power system. The proposed solution “guarantees” zero load rejections for all the 4-year period examined. For this purpose, two separate calculation approximations are developed, presenting almost similar results. Of course, the application of the “WINDREMOTE II” numerical code based on detailed measurements, gives almost analytical results concerning the energy autonomy and the operational status of the autonomous system components. Finally, by introducing preliminary financial aspects, it is possible to determine the optimum system dimensions on a minimum first-installation cost.

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... On the other hand, United Nations estimate that almost two billion people have no direct access to electrical networks. Hence, their only electrification possibility should be based on autonomous stand-alone systems (Kaldellis, 2002b andKaldellis et al., 2003b). Otherwise one should invest on expensive (Tanrioven, 2005) grid-extensions, whenever possible. ...
... On the other hand, the country is strongly depended on imported oil and natural gas, which represent almost the 75% of the domestic energy consumption (RAE, 2006). Besides, in Greece, due to its geographical distribution, several thousands of remote consumers exist (Jensen, 2000 andKaldellis 2002b), located on the numerous small and medium-sized islands scattered throughout the Aegean and Ionian Archipelagos, as well as in rural areas of mainland, i.e. country houses, shelters, telecommunication stations etc. All these isolated consumers have no direct access to reliable electrical networks and cover their electrification needs using small diesel-generator sets. ...
... The proposed by the authors (Kaldellis, 2002b, Kaldellis et al., 2003 stand-alone system (figures (1) and (2)) comprises either a small wind converter supplying -via a UPS (optional) of similar nominal power-the AC load of the system or a small photovoltaic generator of "z" panels properly connected to meet the consumption load demand via a charge controller and an inverter. A low cost small internal combustion engine, able to cover the consumption peak load demand, may be added to the proposed system as a back up electricity production system. ...
... This paper addresses the generation expansion planning involving wind-turbine generators (WTG), photovoltaic (PV), diesel generators, and energy storage (ES) for small standalone power systems to meet the restriction of fuel emissions [1,2]. Many works have addressed the generation expansion planning in small standalone power systems [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Existing methodologies fall into three categories: reliability, optimization-, and enumeration-based methods. ...
... Diaf et al. estimated the appropriate dimensions of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system that guaranteed the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer with the lowest levelized cost of energy (LCE) [17]. Kaldellis assessed the smallest capacity of the wind turbine using its nominal power, capacity factor and mean power coefficient [18]. Recently, Luna-Rubio et al. briefly reviewed sizing methodologies and hybrid energy metrics (such as reliability and net present value) that have been developed in recent years [19]. ...
... (c) The load and power generated by renewables are uncertain. Traditional approaches yield only deterministic solutions [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][13][14][15][16][17][18] because probability operations are very complex. Although some works concerned the uncertainties in renewable energies, their treatments were simplified [10][11][12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV) powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs) of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.
... On the other hand, United Nations estimate (Jensen, 2000) that almost two billion people have no direct access to electrical networks. Hence, their only electrification possibility should be based on autonomous stand-alone systems (Kaldellis, 2002b;Kaldellis et al., 2003). Otherwise one should invest on expensive (Tanrioven, 2005) grid-extensions, whenever possible. ...
... Based on previous works by the authors (Kaldellis, 2002b;Kaldellis et al., 2003;Kaldellis and Vlachos, 2005) a representative small wind-diesel-battery stand-alone power system (up to 15 kW) able to meet the electricity requirements of remote consumers consists of ( Fig. 2): ...
... This system should be capable of facing a remote consumer's electricity demand (e.g. a four-to six-membered family), with rational first installation and long-term operational cost. The specific remote consumer investigated is basically a rural household profile (not an average load taken from typical users) selected among several profiles provided by the Hellenic Statistical Agency (Kaldellis, 2002b), see also (Lazou and Papatsoris, 2000;Notton et al., 1998). In order to minimize the electricity requirements of the remote consumer special emphasis is laid on the efficient and rational use of the available energy resources. ...
Article
More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind–diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind–diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind–diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters—such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost—on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind–diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions.
... On the other hand, all these islands are located in regions with an abundant and reliable solar energy supply for the entire year, while their majority also possesses remarkable wind potential (2) , figure [1]. In an attempt to minimize the oil dependency and improve the life-quality of isolated consumers, the idea of creating a combined photovoltaic-wind-diesel hybrid system (3,4) with or without the existence of an additional energy storage device (5) is investigated. ...
... More specifically, the supplementary availability (see for example figure [2]) of solar and wind energy significantly reduces the inevitable diesel engine operation and the energy storage requirements. Finally, the present study takes into account the existing information concerning the initial and the maintenance and operation cost of similar small size power stations (4) , in view of the remarkable Greek State subsidization for similar renewable energy applications. ...
... Similarly, the exit power of the selected micro-wind converter is a function of the available wind speed "V", the ambient conditions (mainly air density) and the operational characteristics of the machine, figure [4]. ...
... Besides, in Greece, due to its geographical distribution, exist several thousands of remote consumers [3,4], located on the numerous small and medium-sized islands scattered throughout the Aegean and Ionian Archipelagos, as well as in rural areas of mainland, i.e. country houses, shelters, telecommunication stations etc. All these isolated consumers have no direct access to reliable electrical networks, covering their electrification needs using small diesel-generator sets. ...
... In this frame, the present study investigates the possibility of using either a wind power [3,5,6] or a photovoltaic [7][8][9] driven stand-alone system to meet the electricity demand of all these remote consumers. Thus, the primary target of the present study is to estimate the dimensions of either a wind power or a photovoltaic stand-alone system that guarantees the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. ...
... The proposed by the authors [3,7] stand-alone system (Figs. 1 and 2) comprises either a small wind converter feeding -via a UPS of similar nominal power-the AC load of the system or a small photovoltaic generator of 'z' panels properly connected to meet via a charge controller and an inverter the consumption load demand. In case that the electricity demand is inferior to the corresponding wind turbine or photovoltaic generator production, the energy surplus is stored to a battery row via the battery charge controller. ...
Article
Wind power and photovoltaic driven stand-alone systems have turned into one of the most promising ways to handle the electrification requirements of numerous isolated consumers worldwide. In this context, the primary target of the present work is to estimate the appropriate dimensions of either a wind power or a photovoltaic stand-alone system that guarantees the energy autonomy of several typical remote consumers located in representative Greek territories. For all regions examined, long-term wind speed and solar radiation measurements as well as formal meteorological data are utilized. Accordingly, special emphasis is put on the detailed energy balance analysis of the proposed systems on an hourly basis, including also the battery bank depth of discharge time evolution. Finally, comparison is made between the wind and the solar based systems investigated, proving that in most Greek regions either a wind or photovoltaic driven stand-alone system is able to cover the electrification needs of remote consumers, at a moderate first installation cost, without any additional energy input.
... In order to meet the electricity demand of remote consumers the following piece of information is necessary: i. The electricity demand of the consumer: Three representative weekly electricity consumption profiles are selected [5] , on an hourly basis, being also depended on the year period analyzed (winter, summer, other). ...
... The wind speed of the area: In this case, detailed wind speed measurements for at least one year are used. The proposed analysis can handle much longer time periods; however a three-year period is assumed sufficient [5] to choose wind power plant locations and sizes. ...
... For the estimation of the appropriate configuration that guarantees the energy autonomy of a remote consumer located in a specific area, under given wind and solar potential conditions, a new algorithm "WT-PV" is devised, using the experience obtained from the already presented [3,5] "WINDREMOTE" and "FOTOV" algorithms. In this context the proposed algorithm uses the following steps: ...
... • wind-diesel systems (Kaldellis, 2002;Kaldellis and Kavadias, 2007;McGowan et al., 1988) • wind-hydro installations Castronuovo and Lopes, 2004;Anagnostopoulos and Papantonis, 2007) ...
... The sizing procedure is an important task, as the size of the WT and most importantly the size of the ESS -which presents high variable cost owing to the required replacement of the batteries during the service lifetime of the WT -may be significantly lower if an optimization procedure is applied. In order to prove the importance of a wind-based stand-alone power system sizing, a representative case study will be presented based on Kaldellis' (Kaldellis, 2002) results. The case study concerns the electricity demand fulfillment of a typical remote consumer (4-6 member families) by the exploitation of the available wind energy potential of the area. ...
... • long period meteorological data (Kaldellis, 2002;Koutroulis et al., 2006), which requires at least a full year's meteorological data to be available; ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the reader to the definition and special features of wind-based stand-alone hybrid energy systems. The introduction emphasizes on the basic characteristics of stand-alone and hybrid energy systems including also representative application examples in different sectors. After a short reference to the historic development of wind stand-alone systems, the contribution of wind energy in distributed generation is analyzed. Furthermore, a short description of the energy storage systems’ available is carried out as an essential part of hybrid energy systems. The most common commercial system configurations of stand-alone systems are discussed in detail through case studies’ results which help the reader to obtain a comprehensive view of the opportunities provided by the different combinations. Finally, an overview of wind-based hybrid energy systems optimization techniques is presented, along with the most widely adopted optimization process indicators and a short reference to the most well-known free software tools which have been extensively used for design and optimize hybrid energy systems.
... • wind-diesel systems [33][34][35] • wind-hydro installations [36][37][38][39] • wind-biomass-based installations [40,41] • wind-hydrogen/fuel cell hybrid energy systems [42,43]. ...
... The sizing procedure is an important task, as the size of the wind turbine and most importantly the size of the storage systemwhich presents high variable cost owing to the required replacement of the batteries during the service life of the wind turbinemay be significantly lower if an optimization procedure is applied. In order to prove the importance of a wind-based stand-alone system sizing, a representative case study will be presented based on Kaldellis' [33] results. The case study concerns the electricity demand fulfillment of a typical remote consumer (4-6 member families) by the exploitation of the available wind potential of the area. ...
... • long period meteorological data [33,73], which requires at least a full year's meteorological data to be available; • yearly average monthly method [74], in which monthly average values of the required meteorological parameters are used; ...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the definition and special futures of wind-based, stand-alone, hybrid energy systems. 'Introduction' emphasizes the basic characteristics of stand-alone and hybrid energy systems also including representative application examples in different sectors. After a short reference to the historical development of stand-alone wind systems, the contribution of wind energy in distributed generation is analyzed. The most common commercial system configurations of stand-alone systems are discussed in detail including case study results, which will help the reader to have a comprehensive view of the opportunities presented by the different combinations. Furthermore, a short description of the available energy storage systems is presented along with a brief reference to the most well-known free software tools that have been used extensively for hybrid energy system design and optimization.
... Wind and solar driven stand-alone systems may suggest reliable electrification solutions for numerous isolated remote consumers [1][2][3][4]. Nevertheless, due to the requirement of such systems for considerable energy storage capacity, diesel electrical generators are either used to replace the specific systems or to comprise one of the system main components (winddiesel and PV-diesel systems) [5][6][7]. ...
... inverter efficiency, AC/DC rectifier performance, battery cell (Q-U;θ) curve etc. • The electricity consumption profile of a typical remote consumer [3,4], being also dependent on the year period analyzed [16][17][18] (i.e., winter, summer, other), Figure 3. In particular, the annual peak load "N p " of the remote consumer does not exceed 3.5 kW while the respective annual energy consumption "E y " reaches approximately 4.75MWh. ...
Conference Paper
Wind and solar driven stand-alone systems may suggest attractive electrification solutions for numerous isolated remote consumers. Nevertheless, due to the requirement of such systems for considerable energy storage capacity, diesel electrical generators are used instead. To minimize oil dependence, the idea of creating a combined wind - photovoltaic based hybrid system with the employment of an appropriate energy storage device is investigated. In this context, the main target of this paper is to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system, able to meet the energy requirements of existing remote consumers, under the restriction of reasonable first installation cost.
... Wind and solar driven stand-alone systems may suggest reliable electrification solutions for numerous isolated remote consumers [1][2][3][4]. Nevertheless, due to the requirement of such systems for considerable energy storage capacity, diesel electrical generators are either used to replace the specific systems or to comprise one of the system main components (winddiesel and PV-diesel systems) [5][6][7]. ...
... inverter efficiency, AC/DC rectifier performance, battery cell (Q-U;θ) curve etc. • The electricity consumption profile of a typical remote consumer [3,4], being also dependent on the year period analyzed [16][17][18] (i.e., winter, summer, other), Figure 3. In particular, the annual peak load "N p " of the remote consumer does not exceed 3.5 kW while the respective annual energy consumption "E y " reaches approximately 4.75MWh. ...
Article
Wind and solar driven stand-alone systems may suggest attractive electrification solutions for numerous isolated remote consumers. Nevertheless, due to the requirement of such systems for considerable energy storage capacity, diesel electrical generators are used instead. To minimize oil dependence, the idea of creating a combined wind -photovoltaic based hybrid system with the employment of an appropriate energy storage device is investigated. In this context, the main target of this paper is to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system, able to meet the energy requirements of existing remote consumers, under the restriction of reasonable first installation cost.
... By looking first at the relevant technical literature on the general topic of sizing and management of micro-grids and/or off-grid hybrid systems, it is apparent that it is extremely vast. Among others, a great impulse to the study of hybrid renewable energy systems was given by the team of Prof. J.K. Kaldellis of TEI of Piraeus (Greece), who established a robust approach for the energy mix selection in small grids like those of Greek islands (Kaldellis et al., 2009a(Kaldellis et al., , 2012, as a function of many parameters like, for example, long term wind data (Kaldellis, 2002), wind potential classes (Kaldellis and Vlachos, 2006) or minimum long-term electricity production cost . ...
... The selected parameters for the economic analysis are finally summarized in Table 3 (Kaldellis, 2002; Fotovoltaico sul web). ...
Article
Hybrid energy systems are an interesting solution for the electrification of remote, off-grid users, which usually are obligated to satisfy their electricity demand by means of quite old technologies, like for example diesel generators. An energy mix including also renewable energy sources (such as wind and PV) would lead to a reduction of supply costs and is therefore being increasingly appreciated. In the present study, a sizing strategy was developed based on a long-term energy production cost analysis, able to predict the optimum configuration of a hybrid PV-wind-diesel stand-alone system. With respect to conventional practical design approaches already available in the literature, a more realistic description of the problem was here provided, since the present analysis relies in the use of actual machines data, realistic system constraints and cost functions, which led to the identification of some trends that are usually neglected by the optimization processes using continuous variables for the power outputs of renewable energy sources. The approach was tested on an isolated mountain chalet in Italian Alps. The hybrid system was optimized based on the maximum long-term saving with respect to a conventional diesel engine configuration. The results for this case study showed that the optimal solution was not that including the maximum allowed contribution from renewables, highlighting the existence of an optimized energy mix between the three sources. Accumulation batteries were also able to induce a reduction of both the fuel consumption and the engine transitory usage. According to the present results, a properly sized hybrid system could provide notable money and pollution savings for a remote consumer with respect to a diesel-only configuration.
... Wind driven stand-alone systems have long served as a reliable energy solution [1], able to satisfy the electrification needs of numerous remote consumers around the entire globe [2], especially in cases where the local wind energy potential is of high quality. On the contrary, where local conditions are not as favorable, over-sizing of the wind turbine and excessive energy storage capacity required often lead to the employment of low purchase cost diesel generators [3][4][5] that however induce considerable maintenance and operation (M&O) costs. ...
... minimum cost) solutions. Overall, three are the governing parameters that influence the final outcome of the sizing procedure, i.e. the rated power of the wind turbine "N WT ", the lead acid battery bank maximum capacity "Q max " and finally the PV array rated power "N PV ", while for the execution of the algorithm for a given time period (e.g. a year's time) information such as detailed meteorological data, operational characteristics of the main system devices, the electricity consumption profile of a typical remote consumer [1,11] (currently "N peak " of the remote consumer does not exceed 3.5 kW while the respective annual energy consumption "E y " reaches approximately 4.75MWh, Fig. 1b) and the optimum tilt angle of PV panels for the areas investigated [12] are also essential. ...
... Many studies of dimensioning of the photovoltaic and hybrid systems were published these last year's [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In this context, we present the possibility of employing a photovoltaic system [18][19][20][21][22], satisfying the electricity demand at a typical house in the province of Adrar. The comparison is made between various configurations using the HOMER software. ...
... The computational algorithm presented in the current work is a revised version of the previous developed by the SEA&ENVIPRO Lab algorithms regarding stand-alone electrification systems. The first algorithm was developed at the beginning of the previous decade by the name WIDREMOTE which was revised to version II that was also the final version of the specific program (Kaldellis andTsesmelis 2000, Kaldellis, 2002). The algorithm could estimate the optimum size of stand-alone windbased installations for a specific load demand profile based on a time-step simulation. ...
... Considering the above, the specific research aims to provide a profound evaluation of different ESSs for the support of hybrid RES-based configurations in autonomous electrical networks, with emphasis currently given on the promising hydrogen technologies [9]. At the same time, by acknowledging also the fact that there are several thousands of remote consumers in the Greek territory that cannot appreciate connection to a firm electrical grid (located on the numerous small and medium-sized islands scattered throughout the Aegean and Ionian Archipelagos as well as in rural areas of mainland, i.e. country houses, shelters, telecommunication stations), application of hybrid RES-based installations incorporating different ESSs shall be examined at the remote consumer level as well [10][11][12]. ...
... Fig. 1 illustrates the classification of current renewable DG technologies. From the past few decades, several researchers have made a significant effort for achieving autonomous RES optimization [3,4]. Initially, several researchers have proposed many deterministic methods for solving the problem of hybrid system sizing. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Achieving maximum potential benefits through appropriate allocation of distributed generation (DG) in electrical distribution systems is yet a challenging issue. Since the inappropriate allocation of DG adversely affects the distribution system. The present paper introduces a novel metaheuristic optimization method for solving the allocation of renewable energy sources (RES) in a practical distribution system. The algorithm has been effectively implemented on a practical Indian 28-bus distribution system to allocate wind turbines (WT) and solar photo-voltaic (SPV) arrays to achieve technical benefits of power loss minimization and bus voltage profile improvement. The simulation results obtained by the present method are compared with existing literature and it is found to be better.
... winter, summer, other). The load profile used (see Fig.2) is basically a rural household profile (not an average load taken from typical users) selected [13,14] among several profiles provided by the Hellenic Statistical Agency. More precisely, the numerical load values vary between 30W (refrigerator load) and 3300W. ...
... Wind and Solar Energy Applications [25][26][27][28] Feasibility studies on Energy Investments [29,30] Hybrid Energy Systems [31][32][33][34] Energy Storage Systems [35,36] Energy Saving [37] Cogeneration Systems [38] RES based Desalination [39] Environmental Impact of Power Stations [40,41] The SEALAB is also carrying extensive research in the area of Environmental Protection Technologies. In fact SEALAB has participated in the following projects: ...
... At the same time, there are several remote areas across the globe that rely on electricity grids of small-scale (micro-grids), normally employing oil-fired power generation solutions (Kaldellis and Zafirakis 2007). On the other hand, in many of these regions one may encounter medium to high-quality RES potential that encourages installation of solutions such as wind power and photovoltaics (Kaldellis 2002;Kaldellis, Zafirakis, and Kondili 2010). A descriptive example of such a region is the Aegean Sea (Figure 1), located at the eastern part of the Greek mainland. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To confront problems concerning large-scale integration of renewable energy sources, introduction of energy storage constantly gains ground. Benefits stemming from the adoption of energy storage include exploitation of otherwise rejected energy, increased reliability of energy supply and improved operation of a given power system overall. In this regard, contribution of such systems in achieving large-scale integration of wind energy into island grids is currently considered. More precisely, fuel cells and hydrogen storage (FC–HS) are investigated, in comparison with conventional batteries. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm is developed to study the energy performance of different FC–HS configurations used to recover wind energy curtailments. The developed algorithm is then applied to a representative Aegean island of medium–high quality wind potential. Results obtained indicate that FC–HS may become attractive in comparison with conventional batteries, only in the case that the use of hydrogen surplus to cover other energy flows is also put forward.
... Kaldellis [8], [9] has performed an extensive research in the utilisation of the wind potential of the Aegean Sea. In 2002, Kaldellis, [10], he used long-term (i.e. 4 years) wind speed data obtained from the Greek Public Power Corporation, for Kithnos, a relatively small island located in the southwest of the Aegean Sea in order to suggest the usage of a stand-alone wind power system for covering the energy requirements of the island. The analysis of the wind data showed that the island was characterised by strong winds, which reach an annual mean value of 7 m/s at 10 m height in several locations. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current paper presents an investigation of the wind power potential of Koronos village, a remote location in the northeastern part of Naxos Island, Greece, using real data collected from a measurement mast. The obtained wind characteristics were statistically analyzed using the Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. The results from this investigation showed that the selected site falls under Class 7 of the international system of wind classification as the mean annual wind speed recorded in the area was 7.4 m/s and the corresponding annual mean power density was estimated to be 420 W/m 2 . Furthermore, the prevailing wind directions characterizing the area were the northeastern and the north-northeastern. From the statistical analysis of these results, it was revealed that the Weibull model fitted the actual data better. This remark was further enhanced by the evaluation of the performance of these two distributions.
... Kaldellis [8], [9] has performed an extensive research in the utilisation of the wind potential of the Aegean Sea. In 2002, Kaldellis, [10], he used long-term (i.e. 4 years) wind speed data obtained from the Greek Public Power Corporation, for Kithnos, a relatively small island located in the southwest of the Aegean Sea in order to suggest the usage of a stand-alone wind power system for covering the energy requirements of the island. The analysis of the wind data showed that the island was characterised by strong winds, which reach an annual mean value of 7 m/s at 10 m height in several locations. ...
Article
Full-text available
A remote location in the northeastern part of Naxos Island, Greece, has been investigated with respect to wind power potential, using real data collected from a measurement mast. The obtained wind characteristics were statistically analyzed using the Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. The results from this investigation showed that the selected site falls under Class 7 of the international system of wind classification as the mean annual wind speed recorded in the area was 7.4 m/s and the corresponding annual mean power density was estimated to be 420 W/m 2 . Furthermore, the prevailing wind directions characterizing the area were the northeastern and the north-northeastern. From the statistical analysis of these results, it was revealed that the Weibull model fitted the actual data better. This remark was further enhanced by the evaluation of the performance of these two distributions. Finally, the expected energy production from two potentially installed wind turbines of 1 MW and 2.5 MW has been determined, based on the available wind potential. The resulting annual energy production is 4 GWh e and 8 GWh e for the wind turbine of 1 MW and 2.5 MW respectively.
... Coastal areas of Pakistan are very thinly populated except the city of Karachi and Gawadar. Wind energy development will open the possibilities of the stand alone systems for dispersed population [34,35]. Connection of this population to national grid will be expensive as compared to wind stand alone systems [36]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a review on why Pakistan needs wind power. Future demand of the energy in Pakistan is predicted by using the population growth rate and per capita energy consumption of the last few years. Wind potential of Pakistan is compared with the other sources used for power generation along with the benefits of wind power generation for government and utilities. A brief introduction of wind role in future smart grid and techniques to implement it. Installation of wind power plants as an environmental obligation, obstacles to development of wind power and their solutions are discussed. INDEX TERMS— Wind energy, Pakistan, Smart grid, Demand side management.
... In order to gain good insights into the energy storage systems suitable for HAWE applications, this paper first reviews and compares the typical energy storage systems suitable for low-to-medium scale (e.g. up to 10 MW) renewable (wind-based) energy applications, such as flywheels [11], compressed air (hydropneumatic accumulators) [12,13], batteries [14,15] and ultracapacitors (supercapacitors) [16,17]. The design (sizing) of energy storage system starts with an analysis of the HAWE system power profile (see e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
As the ground-based wind-turbine systems have steadily reached their performance peak due to turbine blade size limitations, generator size constraints, high investment costs, and relatively unpredictable nature of near-surface winds, the possibility of harnessing the energy of steady, high-altitude/high-speed winds has become increasingly attractive within the last decade. However, due to the intermittent nature of power production of a considered high-altitude wind energy system utilizing an airborne module tethered to a ground station, sufficiently large energy storage is required in order to provide steady power supply to the electrical power grid. This paper focuses on the sizing of typical low-to-medium scale energy storage systems (up to 10 MW), such as those based on flywheels, compressed air, batteries and ultracapacitors, considering the intermittent power production cycle, airborne module altitude range and ground-station generator power ratings. The assessment results are summarized in terms of investment/running costs, storage system size, and durability, thus providing practical guidelines for the selection of appropriate energy storage system.
... Wind energy has long been recognized as a potential source of renewable energy. In the past few decades, wind-power technology has achieved an outstanding maturity status, while an astonishing improvement has taken place in the battery construction and electronic equipment sectors [2]. Meanwhile, wind turbine capacity has also increased from the classical 250 W to 5 MW. ...
Article
A shrouded wind turbine system has a number of potential advantages over the conventional wind turbine. A novel power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) that surrounds a Sistan wind turbine was designed to improve the wind rotor performance by increasing the on-coming wind speed and guiding it to an optimum flow angle before it interacts with the rotor blades. The integration of the PAGV into the 3-in-1 wind, solar and rain water harvester on high-rise buildings has been illustrated. A particular concern related to public safety is minimized when the wind turbine is contained inside the PAGV and noise pollution can be reduced due to the enclosure. Besides, the design of the PAGV that blends into the building architecture can be aesthetic as well. Moreover, a mesh can be mounted around the PAGV to prevent the bird-strike problem. From the wind tunnel testing measurements where the wind turbine is under free-running condition (only rotor inertia and bearing friction were applied), the wind rotor rotational speed (with the PAGV) was increased by 75.16%. Meanwhile, a computational fluid dynamics (Cm) simulation shows that the rotor torque was increased by 2.88 times with the introduction of the PAGV. Through a semi-empirical method, the power output increment of the rotor with the PAGV was 5.8 times at the wind speed of 3 m/s. Also, the flow vector visualization (CFD) shows that a larger area of upstream flow was induced through the rotor with the PAGV.
... The deployment of wind turbine technology around the world has increased considerably in the past few decades. 17,29,37 Wind power output from a wind turbine is dependent on wind conditions that vary with time depending on regional weather patterns and type of landscape. 40 This, in turn, affects the operation of the utility system, such as regulation/loading following, schedule planning or unit commitment. ...
Article
Wind resource maps of annual-averaged wind speeds, typically used in the siting of wind turbines and wind farms, can grossly underpredict the actual wind energy potential in areas with highly transient or gusty winds. The goal of the present study is to quantify the additional energy capable of being harvested by a small vertical axis wind turbine using control strategies that exploit the excess energy in wind gusts. A transient-response numerical model is utilized with input from actual wind data acquired by cup-vane and sonic anemometers located in both an urban and suburban area. The total energy captured by the turbine during the year 2013, along with its overall efficiency, was determined for two different control strategies: constant rotational speed (ω) controller and ideal tip speed ratio (TSR) controller. For the case of the constant ω controller, the turbine achieves maximum efficiency when it is operated at an optimal overspeed setting, ω opt. Results indicate that ω opt can be estimated from the turbulence intensity of the wind. For the case of the ideal TSR controller, turbine efficiency was observed a plateau to a maximum value when the nondimensional turbine response parameter ζ dropped below a critical value ζc. This is as expected since turbines with fast response times (ζ < ζc) are capable of instantaneously tracking fluctuations in the wind and thus effectively capturing the high energy content contained within each wind gust. The value of ζc exhibits a dependence on the characteristic gust time scale. Over the course of the year, the turbine in conjunction with the constant ω controller, operating at ω opt, was capable of harvesting six times the energy of a naive controller operating a fixed ω based on the annual-averaged mean wind speed. The same turbine operating in conjunction with an ideal TSR controller, however, was successful in harvesting nearly thirteen times the energy of that with the naive controller. This may have significant implications on the viability of small turbines in relatively gusty urban/suburban areas, even when the annual-averaged wind speed is below a threshold typically considered practical for harvesting wind energy.
... Many studies of dimensioning of the photovoltaic and hybrid systems were published these last year's [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In this context, we present the possibility of employing a photovoltaic system [18][19][20][21][22], satisfying the electricity demand at a typical house in the province of Adrar. The comparison is made between various configurations using the HOMER software. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyze long-term data of solar radiation, spanning a period of 23 years, of the town of Adrar located in the western south of Algeria to evaluate technical-economic feasibility of using a photovoltaic system. The aim is to answer at load demand of a typical residential house with the annual electric energy demand of 8000kWh, an average calculated according to a study made by the Algerian government and to limit carbon emissions. Simulation results using the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software is proposed. The optimization modeling demonstrates that 100% of power demand can be supplied by a PV configuration composed of 8kW PV system together with battery storage of 37.5h of autonomy. The PV penetration is 146%, the cost of generating energy from the considered PV system has been found to be 0.46 $/kWh. It is shown that with the proposed photovoltaic system, approximately 11 tons/year of the carbon emissions entering the atmosphere can be reduced for one house only.
... During the last decade, research was undertaken on the wind characteristics and wind power potential in many countries around the world (Tarkowski & Uliasz-Misiak, 2003). Examples include Tunisia (Zghal et al., 2011), eastern Mediterranean (Sahin et al., 2005), Turkey (Gokcek et al., 2007a;Ucar & Balo, 2009b) Nigeria (Ngala et al., 2006), Iran (Keyhani et al., 2010), Columbia (Jimenez et al., 2011), Egypt (Shata & Hanitsch, 2006), Kuwait (Al-Nassar et al., 2007), coastal areas of Jiwani, Pakistan (Lehri et al., 2013) and Greece (Kaldellis, 2002) among others. ...
Article
Full-text available
A study was carried out to analyse the potential of wind energy in the generation of electricity for a smart city which is located in the South-East Coastal Zone of Mauritius. A flat land area of 10 square km situated about 3.5 km from the smart city was chosen for the placement of a wind farm. The viability of the location was assessed by analyzing ten years (Jan 2005 to Dec 2014) of mean hourly wind speed measured at a height of 10 m above ground level (m.a.g.l). The speed data was filtered according to the AWS (1997) guidelines and computed at 60 m.a.g.l using the power law formula. At this height, the average wind speeds was approximately 6.5 m/s, which was considered cost effective, as per the European Wind Energy Union guidelines for the harvesting of wind power. Estimated yearly power generated by a wind farm consisting of 40 wind turbines, each of rating capacity 275 kW, placed at a hub height of 60 m were made. The study resulted in an investment proposal for a 11 MW wind farm project in Mauritius.
... In power systems, data could be gathered from different sources such as renewables like solar and wind energies or other portions of energy technologies such as gas and fuel. In this regard, there are several applications of big data in energy domain that could be surveyed as renewables data use in biomass energy (Paro andFadigas, 2011), marine energy (MacGillivray et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2010), wind energy (Billinton and Gao, 2008;Kaldellis, 2002), and energy consumption (Kung and Wang, 2015), or may consider energy-demand response such as power demand (Liu et al., 2013), and storage capacity (Goyena et al., 2009), or could be analyzed as electric vehicles (EVs) (Jiang et al., 2016) such as driving pattern , energy management Su and Chow (2012), energy efficiency (Midlam-Mohler et al., 2009), driving range (Lee and Wu, 2015;Rahimi-Eichi et al., 2015), battery capacity (Shor, 1994), data quality (Zhang et al., 2015), and EV state (Soares et al., 2015). Also, there are other challenges in storage and analysis of data, visualization, sharing, etc. (Boyd and Crawford, 2011). ...
Chapter
There are different definitions of big data, and among them, the most common definition refers to three or five characteristics, called volume, velocity, variety, value, and veracity from (Laney, 2001). Volume could include terabyte, petabyte, exabyte, and zettabyte. Velocity describes how fast the data are retrieved and processed “Batch or streaming.” Variety describes structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data (Laney, 2001; Zikopoulos and Eaton, 2011). Veracity explains the integrity and disorderliness of data, while value refers to how good is the “value” we derive from analyzing data? (Zicari et al., 2016).
... Much of this literature also relies on simulations and scenario building, and these have been conducted, for example, for the islands of Wand-an [42], Guadalupe [43], Corsica [44], Reunion Island [45], and a remote island in Hong Kong [35]. Islands in the Aegean Sea in particular have been the focus of numerous analyses of energy autonomy, including the Greek islands of Karpahtos [46], Ikaria [46,47], Agathonisi [48,49], Agios Efstratios [49], Anafi [49], Erikousa [49], Megisti [49], Othonoi [49], Andros [50], Naxos [51], Skiros [51], Skyros [41,52], Kithos [46,47,50,53], Kea [50], Rhodes [54], and Sifnos [55]. Energy autonomy has also been studied at the city level. ...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomy is often cited as a key aspect of energy systems. Previous academic literature on energy autonomy has predominantly approached it from a technological perspective, and conceptualized it as self-sufficiency of energy production. In addition to self-sufficiency, autonomous energy users and communities often aim to create energy systems that treat different stakeholders as equals, with a balanced distribution of costs and benefits. This paper has two aims. First, it aims to clarify the concept of 'energy autonomy'. Second, it aims to provide an overview of existing literature addressing energy autonomy, identifying relevant publications and publication outlets, as well as main research themes and activities. The results, based on a systematic review of 71 peer-reviewed academic articles, show that energy autonomy research has increased in the last twenty years. The results also show how existing literature has understood, and used, the concept of energy autonomy in varying ways. Furthermore, the paper reveals how motivations, technologies, and scales differ in energy autonomy projects. While the aim of reaching energy autonomy is often motivated by economic and/or social reasons, these aspects are nevertheless rarely discussed in academic literature as the predominant focus tends to be on technological issues and self-sufficiency. The paper concludes with energy policy implications and avenues for future research.
... In power systems, data could be gathered from different sources such as renewables like solar and wind energies or other portions of energy technologies such as gas and fuel. In this regard, there are several applications of big data in energy domain that could be surveyed as renewables data use in biomass energy (Paro andFadigas, 2011), marine energy (MacGillivray et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2010), wind energy (Billinton and Gao, 2008;Kaldellis, 2002), and energy consumption (Kung and Wang, 2015), or may consider energy-demand response such as power demand (Liu et al., 2013), and storage capacity (Goyena et al., 2009), or could be analyzed as electric vehicles (EVs) (Jiang et al., 2016) such as driving pattern , energy management Su and Chow (2012), energy efficiency (Midlam-Mohler et al., 2009), driving range (Lee and Wu, 2015;Rahimi-Eichi et al., 2015), battery capacity (Shor, 1994), data quality (Zhang et al., 2015), and EV state (Soares et al., 2015). ...
... DC appliances are proven to offer better energy efficiency than AC appliances. DC appliances are widely used in camping sites and inside creative automobiles [6,7]. The cost-effectiveness and high energy efficiency of DC appliances also placed them in pole position to replace AC appliances in domestic applications [8,9,10]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The environmental impact of electrical energy production causing climate change phenomena such as global warming, drought, famine, extreme change in weather pattern is visible around the world. The negative impact is generally attributed to the burning of fossil fuels (solid-, gas- and liquid-fuels). Humankind over-reliance on these natural resources has greatly depleted these resources as a result pushing the price higher and creating energy security problems for countries not endowed with these natural resources. Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biofuel, geothermal, and biomass are used to mitigate the effects of excessive fossil fuels combustion as a primary energy source to produce electricity. Wind energy resource can be harnessed to provide or supplement the electricity need of domestic electricity users located very far from the utility grid where economics of grid extension is not economically viable. Main constraint in deploying renewable energy system especially for small-scale electricity users is the initial high capital that is needed pushing up the levelised cost of electricity and extending the payback periods. Optimisation of the system configuration design, available renewable resource usage and efficient use of the electricity generated is considered in this paper as solution providing better cost effective system. A wind regime of a remote area is correlated with the wind turbine used to carry out the analysis in this paper. Homer software as a modelling and simulation tool is used to evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of an optimised standalone wind energy system that can fully supply electricity need of a remote household making use of energy efficient appliances. Parameter sensitivity analysis of most stochastic variables in the electric wind energy power system designed is carried out.
... The first of these analyses focused on designing optimal autonomous systems. This included both the design of autonomous mini-scale wind-power systems with battery storage [5] (Kithnos island) as well as the optimal sizing of off-grid solar PV systems for the island of Rhodes [6]. In a later article, this research group assessed the development of hybrid independent systems that utilise wind with diesel gensets and battery storage [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Several Mediterranean islands are not connected to the main electricity grid yet meaning that independent local grids cater for their power requirements, mainly using imported fossil fuels whose resources scarcity, especially during the high-demand summer months, is a significant challenge. Seasonal variability in power demand, fuel price volatility, as well as a growing tourism development, impose some additional complexity. The present study analyses specific island grids of the Aegean Sea. Selected islands are analysed as case studies over a 20-year period (2016e2036). The developed energy modelling exercise uses a Harmony Search Algorithm in its core. It investigates whether the deployment of renewable energy sources could lead to a sustainable system, decrease the current burden from the government budget, and support local resources. In doing so we examine whether an increased share of RES, battery storage, and their combination could reduce islands’ reliance on imports and potentially eliminate the current heavily subsidised status quo. The results show that a 30% increase of the consumption will require increases in installed power capacities by 40e70%, in the best case scenario. The latter involves significantly lower per-kWh cost, between 17% and 36% of the current values, due to the large share of RES.
... The required storage capacity 15 and choice of suitable battery technology is typically based on the analysis of time-varying load profiles [24]. A 16 comprehensive statistical analysis of long-term available wind energy, presented in [25], has been used for the optimization 17 of energy storage capacity within a standalone wind energy system. On the other hand, the short-term intermittence of 18 available wind power in an isolated small-scale high-altitude wind energy system [26] has been analyzed and used for 19 energy storage system dimensioning aimed at achieving steady energy delivery to the power grid. ...
Article
This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of thus modified drilling rig diesel generator power-plant can be reduced by about 12% compared to current practice in the field relying on human operator-based decision making, which would also result in proportional reduction of carbon-dioxide emissions. Finally, the analysis has also shown that the return-of-investment period for the considered battery energy storage system might be between one and two years depending on the power-plant utilization (duty) ratio.
... This platform processes nearly 1 TB of data every day and has become a leader in accurate generation prediction and flexible control of renewable energy. Likewise, researchers from other countries have conducted considerable research on wind farm location and autogeneration control by processing meteorological and geographical data uti- lizing big data technologies [12,13]. The trend of applying Internet technologies in energy production facilitates the integration of data from all wind farms operating in the same area, which resolves many issues with the conventional method of separately forecasting data from a single wind farm, and enhances the accuracy of renewable energy prediction [14]. ...
... Kaldellis et al. have done a lot of work on estimating wind energy penetration in autonomous electrical networks [14e16]. Optimum size and maximum wind energy penetration limit of Greek were evaluated and an integrated study is carried out based on long-term windpotential experimental measurement [14]. Another integrated methodology is developed to estimate the maximum wind penetration in the Aegean Archipelago area with investigating many types of wind potential [15]. ...
... Many studies of dimensioning of the photovoltaic and hybrid systems were published these last year's [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In this context, we present the possibility of employing a photovoltaic system [18][19][20][21][22], satisfying the electricity demand at a typical house in the province of Adrar. The comparison is made between various configurations using the HOMER software. ...
... Many studies of dimensioning of the photovoltaic and hybrid systems were published these last year's [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. In this context, we present the possibility of employing a photovoltaic system [18][19][20][21][22], satisfying the electricity demand at a typical house in the province of Adrar. The comparison is made between various configurations using the HOMER software. ...
... Even though the majority of the wind energy capacity presently installed worldwide is provided by large wind farms comprised of horizontal axis wind turbines [1], increasing interest is received by smaller rotors in view of a delocalized power production [2]. Typical examples of such installations are represented by turbine integration in smart energy grids [3] or wind energy use to satisfy the demand of off-grid communities [4] or remote users [5]. Installed capacity comprised of smaller turbines, both on-and off-grid, is growing particularly in the U.S. [6] with similar trends notable in other developed countries. ...
Chapter
Recent experiments and theoretical models showed that the aerodynamic performance of H-Darrieus wind turbines can even be enhanced in case of moderate skew angles, which are typical of installations in the urban environment. In this study, a design procedure oriented to the maximization of the annual energy yield in skewed flow, instead of the maximum rated power, was carried out. 14400 test cases of H-Darrieus rotors were simulated with a numerical code based on a Blade Element Momentum approach, including an in-house model to account for the skewed flow, and compared on the basis of their energy-yield capabilities for different annual wind distributions. The analysis highlighted that the optimal design configurations in skewed flow significantly differ from the corresponding ones in case of aligned flow and also that a design oriented to the maximum energy-yield in skewed flow can make H-Darrieus rotors competitive for urban installations in comparison to HAWTs.
... Wind energy harvesting has increased rapidly in the past few decades due to considerable advancements in wind turbine technology [1,22,24]. The U.S. Department of Energy predicts that wind energy will provide about 20% of the electricity in the U.S. by the year of 2030 [25]. ...
Article
The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of various design parameters on the performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) subjected to realistic unsteady wind conditions. Thirteen turbine design configurations are examined to determine if an optimal VAWT has applications in an urban/suburban environment. The four design parameters of interest include the height-to-diameter aspect ratio (0.83≤H/D≤1.34), blade airfoil shape (NACA 0012, 0015, 0018), turbine solidity (12≤S≤25%), and turbine moment of inertia. The height and diameter of the turbine varied between 1.89 and 2.54 m, depending on the aspect ratio. The turbine moment of inertia was calculated using a computer-aided design drawing of the turbine, along with the realistic material properties of blades, shafts, and supports. The energy generated by each VAWT design configuration is simulated using a full year of actual wind speed data collected in 2009 at 9 different locations around Oklahoma City spanning an area of approximately 500 km². The wind data were acquired from the top of traffic light posts at a height of about 9 m above the ground. In all cases, an active control strategy is used that allows the turbine to continuously adjust its rotational speed in response to the fluctuating wind. The results suggest that, for the case of operation in unsteady winds, the optimal power coefficient (Cp) versus tip speed ratio curve is not necessarily the one exhibiting the highest peak Cp value but rather the broadest shape. Of the thirteen configurations examined, the optimal wind turbine design capable of harvesting the most energy from the gusty winds was found to have an aspect ratio of H/D=1.2, a solidity of S=12%, and a blade shape using the NACA 0015 airfoil. This design also displayed the lowest moment of inertia. However, when the effects of mass were removed, this design still performed the best. The site-to-site variation in terms of energy captured relative to the available energy in the gusty winds was only about 5% on average and increased slightly with turbine moment of inertia. Four of the suburban sites studied were deemed to be economically viable locations for a small-scale VAWT. The results further indicate that, at one of these sites, the levelized cost of energy associated with the top performing turbine designs examined in the study was about 10% less than the national electricity price, meaning that wind energy provides a cheaper alternative to fossil fuel at this location. It is surmised that VAWTs could economically harvest wind energy in the urban center as well if the turbines were located higher than 9 m, such as on the rooftops of commercial/residential buildings.
... The deployment of wind turbine technology around the world has increased considerably in the past few decades. 17,29,37 Wind power output from a wind turbine is dependent on wind conditions that vary with time depending on regional weather patterns and type of landscape. 40 This, in turn, affects the operation of the utility system, such as regulation/loading following, schedule planning or unit commitment. ...
Article
Wind forecasting plays an important role in the economic benefit and system reliability of wind turbine power generation. The goal of the present study is to investigate different forecasting methods that can be used to improve the amount of energy captured by a small-scale vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) operating in a gusty wind environment typical of an urban/suburban area. Four forecasting methods are studied in the present research: Persistence Method, Modified Persistence Method, Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The forecasting models are used to predict the wind conditions and optimal rotational speed of VAWTs located in Oklahoma City for data collected in 2009. In all cases, a constant rotational speed controller was used with a forecasting horizon of 1 day. The results indicate that a 5% increase in accuracy of the wind forecast could increase the total amount of energy captured by the VAWT by as much as 13%. The results also indicate that the use of a tuned speed adjustment factor (AF) in the modified persistence method improves the overall performance of the VAWT by as much as 6% compared to the persistence method. The value of AF was found to be site-independent and linearly proportional to the annual average wind speed. For the ARMA model, there exists an optimal amount of training data and forecasting horizon that results in minimal error when the forecasting data are compared to the actual data. For each of the sites investigated, the modified persistence method appears to slightly outperform the persistence, ARMA, and WRF models. In all cases, the forecasting models allow the VAWT to capture approximately 78%–85% of the optimal amount of energy that could be generated assuming the actual wind data were known in advance. The economic viability of the VAWT is also examined by comparing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) for the VAWT with the national electricity unit price. The LCOE of the system is competitive with the national electricity unit price at the sites where the annual average wind speed is 4.3 m/s or greater.
... Besides, they also updated the underlying architecture for better data collection and used big data processing technologies to meet their high-performance computing needs. Furthermore, Kaldellis [111] proposed an optimum autonomous wind power system sizing for remote consumers by using long-term wind speed data. Aiming to improve the life quality level of remote consumers, they used the proposed autonomous wind power systems to address the electricity demand requirements, especially in high windpotential locations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy is one of the most important parts in human life. As a significant application of energy, smart grid is a complicated interconnected power grid that involves sensors, deployment strategies, smart meters, and real-time data processing. It continuously generates data with large volume, high velocity, and diverse variety. In this paper, we first give a brief introduction on big data, smart grid, and big data application in the smart grid scenario. Then, recent studies and developments are summarized in the context of integrated architecture and key enabling technologies. Meanwhile, security issues are specifically addressed. Finally, we introduce several typical big data applications and point out future challenges in the energy domain.
Article
Full-text available
A feasibility study is presented on mid-size onshore wind farms in Greece, taking into consideration two metrics for the evaluation of the profitability of the pertinent investment, namely the net present value, and the internal rate of return. An operationally complete wind park of ten 3.2 MW turbines is considered, incorporating all required power conversion/transmission, and transportation infrastructure that an owner would have to construct. Actual wind speed data are employed from 285 weather stations installed throughout the country and covering a period of 1 to 12 years. The costs of installation, operation, and financing are explicitly accounted for over a standard lifecycle of twenty years. Given the regulated wholesale price for renewable electrical power, the proximity of many sites to ports, and the relatively uniform cost of investing, it is the wind potential that remains the governing factor affecting the financial viability of the wind park. Accordingly, the most profitable areas are the Aegean islands, the south-central mainland coastline, east Peloponnese, and south Attica. Most other regions of mainland Greece are found to be either marginally profitable or to generate a net loss given the current wholesale prices, wind turbine technology and investment costs.
Article
The smart power systems are based upon information and communication technologies, which lead to a deluge of data originating from various sources. To address these challenges concerning accumulated voluminous data, big data analysis in smart power systems is inevitable. This article comprehensively surveys the literature related to the big data issues in smart power systems. The background and motivation of the big data paradigm in smart power systems are first provided, and then the major issues related to the architectures, the key technologies, and standardizations of big data analytics in smart power systems are analyzed. Also, the potential applications of big data in smart power systems based upon the state-of-the-art research are highlighted. Finally, the future issues and challenges of the big data issues in modern power systems are discussed.
Article
Due to environment-friendliness, renewable energy like solar power and wind power is more and more introduced to energy systems all over the world. Simultaneously, high penetrations of wind and solar generation also have brought severe curtailment of wind and solar. How to alleviate curtailment of wind and solar is a crucial problem in evaluating accommodation capability of renewable energy, which reflects the extent of utilization of renewable energy and economic benefits. The uncertainty of renewable energy brings challenges to precisely describe renewable generation, which leads to difficulty in designing effective mechanisms for accommodation capability of renewable energy. Existing work suffers from high computation overhead from frequently updated data, and low precision of describing renewable energy, which leads to less effective policies for renewable energy accommodation and underestimated accommodation capability. To make the most of renewable energy, an algorithm AccCap-DRL based on deep reinforcement learning is proposed. AccCap-DRL partitions a distribution into segments by time intervals, employs WGAN to describe distributions of renewable energy data, and employs DDPG to obtain approximate policies for renewable energy accommodation in different scenarios. Simulation results from real power generation and users’ demand data show high effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, and high efficiency of evaluating accommodation capability.
Article
Solar and wind energies are the need of the hour worldwide and their high penetration in electricity power grid cause sensible amount of problems (stick to the grid code of respective country) due to randomness and uncertain generation pattern. Therefore reinforcement of intermittent renewable energy sources requires due attention to achieve optimum economical as well as operational benefit. This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization method for proper location and size selection of multiple solar and wind generation units in distribution network. Multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique (MOPSO) is adopted to generate potential solutions by trade-off between payback year, reduction of power loss and voltage stability level of the network. The strategic planning method has been tested on a typical Indian rural distribution network. It is shown that the proposed method offers the workable solution to get the desired result.
Chapter
In the current article, fundamental directions for the estimation of energy production of wind turbines are provided. To that end, synthesis of wind potential analysis principles with the main operational characteristics of typical wind turbines is currently undertaken, with special emphasis given on the critical factors which affect the wind energy output of a wind turbine. Topics analyzed in this context include the basics of converting wind power to useful wind energy, the assessment of wind potential for energy generation purposes, wind turbine power curves, wind energy production estimation, the main parameters affecting wind energy production, the impact of technical availability on the productive operation of wind turbines and finally a short discussion on the challenge of dispatchability.
Chapter
In this first introductory chapter of the Wind Energy Volume, a short description of the wind power generation concept and its main attributes is provided, emphasizing on the main pros and cons of wind energy. At the same time, a synopsis of the chapters included in the Wind Energy Volume is presented, while finally, the chapter concludes with some insight on the current state and future prospects of wind energy as one of the most important power generation sources.
Article
In this introductory chapter of the volume on 'Wind Energy', a short description of the wind power generation concept and its main attributes is provided, emphasizing on the pros and cons of wind energy. At the same time, a synopsis of the chapters included in the wind energy volume is presented, and finally, the chapter concludes with some insight into the current state and future prospects of wind energy as one of the most important power generation sources.
Chapter
Greek islands are located in regions where there is an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during winter. In these islands there are many isolated consumers who can solve electricity demand problem by using a State funded (≥50%) integrated autonomous photovoltaic (PV) system. This chapter discusses the optimum size of a stand-alone photovoltaic station based on experimental measurements. In addition, an initial cost analysis is carried out, in order to select the appropriate combination of PV panels number and battery size that “guarantees” no load rejections all over the year, with a minimum investment cost. The results obtained by the numerical code FOTOV-III are based on detailed experimental measurements for solar radiation and ambient temperature, whereas the components of the PV generator have been selected after an extensive market survey.
Article
The possibility to create a combined wind–hydro energy station in a medium size island of the Aegean Archipelago is investigated on a techno-economic basis. The proposed solution may be used to face the extremely high electricity production cost in these regions, taking also advantage of the excellent local wind potential. Additionally, a parametrical analysis is performed on a techno-economic basis in order to select the appropriate number of wind turbines and the optimum size of water reservoirs. The calculation results obtained, based on real measurements and on experimental data, validate the proposed solution. More precisely, the electricity demand of the remote system is covered in any case, the imported fuel is minimized, the renewable energy sources penetration exceeds 90%, and the negative environmental effects are remarkably reduced.
Article
The influence of the governing techno-economic parameters on the economic behaviour of commercial wind parks is investigated. For this purpose, a complete cost–benefit analysis model, properly adapted for the Greek market, is developed in order to calculate the pay-back period and the economic efficiency of similar investments in the energy production sector. Moreover, the impact of various parameters — such as capital cost, return on investment index, local inflation rate index, electricity price escalation rate, installation capacity factor, M&O cost, turn-on key cost of the power plant, size of wind turbines used — on the economic viability and attractiveness is extensively investigated, using a well-elaborated simple “expert system” type numerical code. Finally, the prediction results are summarised in a representative sensitivity analysis map, including the most reasonable economic scenarios. Taking into account the analytical results of the proposed study along with the existence of high wind potential regions in Greece, a remarkable growth of the wind energy sector is expected in the near future, leading to considerable investment profits and offering a strong position (share) of the liberalised local power market.
Long-term evaluation of wind potential in Greece, with emphasis on calm spell prediction, S-58
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Optimum stand-alone wind power system
  • J K Kaldellis
  • M Tsesmelis
Autonomous energy systems for remote islands based on renewable energy sources. Presented at 1999 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition
  • J Kaldellis
  • Thiakoulis Tr
  • D Vlachou
Storage System evaluation for wind-power installations. International Conference Wind Power for the 21st Century
  • K A Kavadias
  • J K Kaldellis
Validation of aerodynamic behaviour of commercial wind-turbines
  • J K Kaldellis
  • L Arrianas
  • P Konstantinou
  • D Vlachou
Presentation and energy production analysis of commercial wind turbines. Presented at 1999 European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition
  • D Vlachou
  • G Messaritakis
  • J Kaldellis
Economic viability of small size wind turbine installations: the interaction between the local wind potential and the operational characteristics of the wind turbine
  • J Kaldellis
  • D Vlachou
Validation of autonomous wind-energy solution, for remote consumers, including financial aspects
  • M Tsesmelis
  • J K Kaldellis