Average polymerization degree of cellulose reflects the average length of the cellulose chains, polymerization degree is higher, the cellulose molecule chain is longer, and the paper is more durable. In contrast, polymerization degree is lower, the cellulose molecule chain is shorter, and the paper is less durable. Therefore, the polymerization degree of paper can reflect the level of paper ... [Show full abstract] degradation. The papers were individually treated by four kinds of oxidation decontamination material, and were aged by dry heat means, then the papers were characterized by means of measuring the polymerization degree of the papers. The results showed that polymerization degrees of the papers was decreased, the paper treated by KMnO4-H2C2O4 in particular, its polymerization degree decreased the most, it indicated that oxidative decontaminations had the large destructive action on paper relics. Therefore, oxidative decontamination would be cautionly used in the cleaning the stains of paper relics.