Article

Hand anthropometry survey for the Jordanian population

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of an anthropometric study of the hand from a sample of 120 female and 115 male adults from four major cities in Jordan. The mean, standard deviation, and various percentiles are summarized in tables and, for each dimension, a comparison is made between genders, using t-tests. Comparisons between Jordanians and other populations (Bangladeshis, Nigerians, Vietnamese Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, United Kingdom residents, Americans, and Mexicans) are also made, using published data on the latter. The results showed many significant differences between Jordanians and the other populations, but it was difficult to draw broad generalizations. The results of this study are expected to influence the design or selection of hand tools imported into Jordan from industrialized countries and to provide the impetus for more anthropometric studies on Jordanians that relate to the design of equipment for work and other activities.Relevance to industryThis study provides data on hand anthropometry that would be useful for the design of hand tools for Jordanians, and also for selecting appropriately sized tools to be imported from the industrialized countries for use in the Jordanian industrial workplace.

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... Various scientists have stressed on planning instruments and tools by considering anthropometric measurements of users (Dewangan et al., 2010;Vergara et al., 2018;Meen et al., 2013). Some accessible hand anthropometric examinations outside of Bangladesh are hand anthropometry of Jordanian populace (Mandahawi et al., 2008;Mohammad, 2005), Filipino manufacturing workers (Del Prado-Lu, 2007), United Kingdom females (Davies et al., 1980a), Mexicans (Imrhan and Contreras, 2005), northern Colombians (Oviedo-Trespalacios et al., 2017), Indian females (Nag et al., 2003), Hong Kong based Chinese females (Courtney, 1984), dentistry understudies in Turkey (Cakit et al., 2014), male workers of Haryana state (Chandra et al., 2011), Americans of Vietnamese birthplace (Imrhan et al., 1993), Thai female mechanical laborers (Saengchaiya and Bunterngchit, 2004), fire-fighter workers (Hsiao et al., 2015), Piano professionals (Wagner, 1988), Colombian gardening workers (García-C� aceres et al., 2012), Hamadan populations (Shabnai et al., 2018), Korean population (Jee and Yun, 2016), Czech Republic population (Bures et al., 2015), Colombian Caribbean college students (Massiris et al., 2015), and Iranian male workers (Mirmohammadi et al., 2016). In previous studies, authors have overviewed the hand anthropometry of cultivation laborers in western Nigeria (Okunribido, 2000), eastern India (Kar et al., 2003), central India (Gite and Yadav, 1989), India (Karunanithi et al., 2001), Indonesia (Wibowo et al., 2013), and Eastern Nigeria (Obi, 2016). ...
... After critical review, the researchers found that 27 different hand dimensions per sample were necessary to design and modify agricultural hand tools and equipment (Mandahawi et al., 2008;Kar et al., 2003;Obi, 2016). Therefore, 27 hand measurements were measured for the design modification of agricultural hand tools and other manual equipment considered in this research. ...
... Tables 7-10 show the t-test result (t-values), and percentage difference among the Bangladeshi (present examination), and populaces of different areas. Tables 7 and 8 show the comparison of hand measurements of males of India (Kar et al., 2003), Nigeria (Obi, 2016), Iran (Mirmohammadi et al., 2016), Turkey (Cakit et al., 2014), Jordan (Mandahawi et al., 2008), and Vietnam (Imrhan et al., 1993). Tables 9 and 10 show the comparison of hand measurements of females from India (Kar et al., 2003), Nigeria (Obi, 2016), Colombia (García-C� aceres et al., 2012), Thailand (Saengchaiya and Bunterngchit, 2004), Jordan (Mandahawi et al., 2008), and Vietnam (Imrhan et al., 1993). ...
Article
The target of this investigation was to represent an anthropometric dataset of hand dimensions from agricultural farm workers in two different areas of Bangladesh. A total of 200 farm workers (110 males and 90 females) age between 15 and 52 years-old were included as voluntary participants from two regions of Bangladesh. 27 hand dimensions were measured, recorded, and analysed from the sample populations. The mean, standard deviation, and different percentile esteems of collected data were also estimated and recorded. Moreover, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-statistical tests were performed for making the anthropometric comparison among different populaces. Results showed that all the hand dimensions of the males were higher than that recorded for the female participants of Bangladesh. In addition, the outcomes showed noteworthy contrasts in hand measurements among Bangladeshi people and other considered populaces. The result of this examination is expected to influence the design of agricultural hand tools, machinery, and equipment in Bangladesh from industrialized countries. It will also generate the interest of more anthropometric studies in Bangladesh that are related to the design of hand tools or equipment for work or other activities.
... The 34 dimensions of the right hand were measured in this study, comprising 13 lengths, 8 widths, 6 depths, and 7 circumferences ( Figure 2). The NASA anthropometric source book (NASA, 1978) and some main studies on hand anthropometry (Imrhan et al., 1993;Imrhan et al., 2009;Jee & Yun, 2016;Mandahawi et al., 2008) were selected as the guide to define and measure hand dimensions. Grip strength and three types of pinch strengths including tip, key, and palmar were measured according to the recommendations of American Society of Hand Therapists (ASHT) and Mathiowetz et al. (Fess, 1981;Mathiowetz et al., 1985). ...
... Overall, the hand of our participants is wider and thicker than the corresponding nationalities, but they are about the same length. et al., 2017) Korea (N = 167) (Jee & Yun, 2016) Turkey (N = 92) (Cakit et al., 2014) Nigeria (N = 200) (Obi, 2016) Bangladeshis in the USA (N = 50) (Imrhan et al., 2009) Jordan (N = 115) (Mandahawi et al., 2008) Vietnam (N = 25) (Imrhan et al., 1993) Center of Iran (N = 529) (Mirmohammadi et al., 2016) M ± SD ...
... This study (N = 558) North Colombia (N = 120) (Oviedo-Trespalacios et al., 2017) Korea (N = 167) (Jee & Yun, 2016) Turkey (N = 92) (Cakit et al., 2014) Nigeria (N = 200) (Obi, 2016) Bangladeshis in the USA (N = 50) (Imrhan et al., 2009) Jordan (N = 115) (Mandahawi et al., 2008) Vietnam (N = 25) (Imrhan et al., 1993) Center of Iran (N = 529) (Mirmohammadi et al., 2016) M ± SD ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the hand anthropometric dimensions and strengths of three different occupations. A cross‐sectional study was designed to measure 34 hand dimensions and 4 hand strengths of 558 participants consisted of office workers, vehicle mechanics, and farmers. A digital caliper, a hand dynamometer, and a pinch meter were used to collect data. Percentile values for each measurement were tabulated at the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile levels. The analysis of variance, t test, and Cohen's d were performed to assess the differences in anthropometric variables between groups of workers. The findings demonstrated statistically significant differences in the mean size and strength of the hands across three occupations. Office workers' hands were significantly smaller than those of car mechanics and farmers, particularly in terms of hand depths and widths. Car mechanics' hand circumferences were bigger than those of farmers. Office workers produced the weakest hand strengths. Wrist breadth of workers showed the highest correlation with hand strengths. Compared to other studies, the hands of Iranian workers were wider and thicker, but the length of their hands was similar. Given the significant variances in hand anthropometry between occupational categories, these differences should be incorporated into the design and selection of hand‐related products such as gloves and hand tools for each group of workers.
... There exist several anthropometry databases such as the anthropometries of: hand in Jordanian population (4), elderly in Australia (5), Taiwanese women (6), Thai population (7),Portuguese workers (8), Turkish population (9), Bahraini school children (10), north eastern Indian female farm workers (11), and Sri Lankan university students (12). ...
... Compared to those results, Iranian men are taller than other Asian men. The result of WsMarms and co-workers' research also showed that the average height in the mid-western United States population was 174 cm (4,19). ...
... The apparel industry can be considered as a very dramatic phenomenon due to changes in the size of the human body dimensions. For example, the current small (S), medium (M), and large (L) sizes could for mass production in the future; these will certainly evolve (4). No significant correlation was found between the educational level and anthropometric dimensions and more studies are recommended(r = -0.80). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To assess a dimensional fit between human and his equipment or environment, creating an anthropometric data bank is essential. Anthropometry has an important role in industrial management and ergonomic design. This information must be collected regularly in every population. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to collect the results of anthropometrical measurements of a statistically-valid population of males and females, in Bandar Abbas city, Hormozgan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, we used a static and direct method. Cluster sampling method was used to select the subjects. Participants were 1600 randomly-selected Iranian male (n = 568) and female (n = 1031) workers of five hospitals in Bandar Abbas. Thirty seven static dimensions were measured in the individuals aged 20 - 60. For anthropometric measurement, tape, goniometer, caliper, segmometer, headboard, and weighing scales were used. Results: For females, the average height was 158 cm, sitting height 82 cm, and knee height 48 cm; for males the average height was173 cm, sitting height 92 cm and knee height 52 cm. The average weight was 77 kg for males and 59 kg for females. There were significant differences between males and females regarding sitting and standing height, weight, and other dimensions (P < 0.000). Conclusions: The gathered data from 1600 Iranian workers in this study will hopefully be applied in the ergonomic design of workstations, tools, equipment, layout designs and interventions, uniquely well-suited for Iranian workers. The use of anthropometric data in designing a product can reduce human errors and improve public health and quality of products and efficient use of workplaces.
... However, in several circumstances, the operation of hand-operated products can induce upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis [1]. To minimize the musculoskeletal disorders and the other adverse health effects in hand, the products should be compatible with the physical characteristics of the users [2], [3]. One of the physical characteristics that should be considered during product design process of the hand-operated products is the anthropometry. ...
... According to these facts, the hand anthropometry data of the young adult females should be important in minimizing the adverse health effects on the female workers due to the operation of the hand-operated products in the industry. Various hand anthropometric data of several countries such as Bangladesh [2], Hong Kong [10], Jordan [3], Nigeria [11], and Vietnam [12] are already available. They provide the measurement results of many hand dimensions, which relevant to the design of hand-operated tools and other manual devices. ...
... The measurements conducted on 24 hand dimensions using a 20 cm electronic digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm, a 40 cm caliper with an accuracy 0.05 mm, and a measuring tape with an accuracy of 0.1 mm. The measured dimensions and the definition of each dimension were taken from previous research papers by Davies et al. [20], Courtney [10], and Imrhan et al. [12] which are compiled by Mandahawi et al. [3]. The definitions of the measured hand dimensions are summarized in Table 2. ...
... Furthermore, the recommended dimensions were not always applied due to different constraints. For example, in the anthropometric study of the hand of the Jordanian population, Mandahawi et al. (2008) measured 24 dimensions from 120 females and 115 males, while García-Cáceres et al. (2012) used 33 hand dimensions in the design of manual tools for Colombian floriculture. ...
... An overview of the proposed approach. (Churchill et al., 1978), (International Organization for Standardization, 2017), (Greiner, 1991), (Jee and Yun, 2016), (García-Cáceres et al., 2012), (Cakit et al., 2014), (Dewangan et al., 2008), (GARRETT, 1971), (Imrhan et al., 1993), (Imrhan et al., 2009), (Kar et al., 2003), (Mandahawi et al., 2008), (Nag et al., 2003), (Nag et al., 2003), (Okunribido, 2000), ( Stephanidis, 2014), (Chandra et al., 2011), (Garrett, 1971 (Kar et al., 2003), (Mandahawi et al., 2008) (Nag et al., 2003) (Okunribido, 2000) (Stephanidis, 2014) (Chandra et al., 2011) ( Garrett, 1971) (Robinette and Annis, 1986), (Wagner, 1988b), (Yu et al., 2013), (Hertzberg, 1912), (Klamklay et al., 2008), (Prado-León et al., 2001), (Bures et al., 2016), (Bayraktar and Ö zşahin, 2018), (Kanchan and Krishan, 2011), (Chuan et al., 2010b) (Greiner, 1991) (Garrett, 1971) (Robinette and Annis, 1986) (continued on next page) summarizes these landmarks and dimensions, and the references regarding each of them. To keep the consistency across different measurement methods, some dimensions, such as the breadths and lengths, were measured on a projection plane of the hand as Fig. 3. ...
... An overview of the proposed approach. (Churchill et al., 1978), (International Organization for Standardization, 2017), (Greiner, 1991), (Jee and Yun, 2016), (García-Cáceres et al., 2012), (Cakit et al., 2014), (Dewangan et al., 2008), (GARRETT, 1971), (Imrhan et al., 1993), (Imrhan et al., 2009), (Kar et al., 2003), (Mandahawi et al., 2008), (Nag et al., 2003), (Nag et al., 2003), (Okunribido, 2000), ( Stephanidis, 2014), (Chandra et al., 2011), (Garrett, 1971 (Kar et al., 2003), (Mandahawi et al., 2008) (Nag et al., 2003) (Okunribido, 2000) (Stephanidis, 2014) (Chandra et al., 2011) ( Garrett, 1971) (Robinette and Annis, 1986), (Wagner, 1988b), (Yu et al., 2013), (Hertzberg, 1912), (Klamklay et al., 2008), (Prado-León et al., 2001), (Bures et al., 2016), (Bayraktar and Ö zşahin, 2018), (Kanchan and Krishan, 2011), (Chuan et al., 2010b) (Greiner, 1991) (Garrett, 1971) (Robinette and Annis, 1986) (continued on next page) summarizes these landmarks and dimensions, and the references regarding each of them. To keep the consistency across different measurement methods, some dimensions, such as the breadths and lengths, were measured on a projection plane of the hand as Fig. 3. ...
Article
Hand anthropometry is one of the fundamentals of ergonomic research and product design. Many studies have been conducted to analyze the hand dimensions among different populations, however, the definitions and the numbers of those dimensions were usually selected based on the experience of the researchers and the available equipment. Few studies explored the importance of each hand dimension regarding the 3D shape of the hand. In this paper, we aim to identify the dominant dimensions that influence the hand shape variability while considering the stability of the measurements in practice. A novel four-step research method was proposed where in the first step, based on literature study, we defined 58 landmarks and 53 dimensions for the exploration. In the second step, 80,000 virtual hand models, each had the associated 53 dimensions, were augmented by changing the weights of Principle Components (PCs) of a statistical shape model (SSM). Deep neural networks (DNNs) were used to establish the inverse relationships from the dimensions to the weight of each PC of the hand SSM. Using the structured sparsity learning method, we identified 21 dominant dimensions that represent 90% of the variance of the hand shape. In the third step, two different manual measuring methods were used to evaluate the stability of the measurements in practice. Finally, we selected 16 dominant dimensions with lower measurement variance by synthesizing the findings in Step 2 and 3. It was concluded that the recognized 21 dominant dimensions can be treated as the reference dimensions for anthropometric study and using the selected 16 dominant dimensions with lower measurement variance, ergonomists are able to generate a 3D hand model based on simple measurement tools with an accuracy of 5.9 mm. Though the accuracy is limited, the efforts are minimum, and the results can be used as an indicator in the early stage of research/design.
... These dimensions were selected because they are helpful for the development of the design related to the agricultural sector, such as working places, hand tools, and manual equipment. In previous studies, these had been measured among the elderly population [8,16,17] and were also measured in agricultural workers in different countries, in India [11,18], Nigeria [4], Indonesia [5], and Jordan [19]. According to ISO 7250, each measurement was defined as basic human body measurements for technological design part 1: Body measurement definitions and landmarks [20]. ...
... Most agricultural machinery, tools, and equipment come from industrialized countries capable of producing them. These tools are designed based on their own anthropometric dimensions, rather than those of the importing countries [12,19]. Obi [4] mentioned that differences in all anthropometric dimensions of different nationalities emphasize the usefulness of this study in the design context of agricultural tools and implements. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural workers usually perform most occupational operations manually. Mismatch between farmers’ anthropometric dimensions and tools or equipment are known to be contributing factors related discomfort, fatigue, injuries, and biomechanical stress to the users, especially for older farmers. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 197 male and 284 female older farmers in Nong Suea District, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. The convenience sampling method was used to select the subjects. Thirty-three anthropometric dimensions were measured. The mean; standard deviations; coefficients of variation; independent t-test; and 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were determined. The results revealed differences between dimensions for men and women, indicating that men showed prominent results. Moreover, there was a comparison between some dimensions with the results of other counties. The findings of this study provide values of anthropometric data in the aging population of Thailand. Implementing anthropometric data to reduce the mismatch between the aging workers and their work performance is crucial for designing farm tools and designing a safe variety of products and a healthy environment for the elderly.
... Kamarul et al. [17] have compiled grip strength data from Malaysian males (n=212). Mandahawi et al. [18] have compiled grip strength data from Jordanian males (n=115) and females (n=120); the subjects were mainly carpenters, vehicle drivers, electrical technician, and others. Recently, Cakit et al. [19] have compiled grip strength data from Turkish male (n=92) and female (n=73) students studying at dentistry faculty. ...
... Several studies have been carried out on hand grip strength in different countries. Grip strength was used to compare with South Indian (n=128 male) [15], French (n=55 male) [16], Malaysian (n=212 male) [17], Jordanian (n=115 male) [18], Turkish (n=92 male) [19] (Table 5). Based on the results of the T-tests for the significance between American and other populations, there were significant differences between U.S. males and males from other countries, excluding the nations of Jordan, Malaysia, and Turkey (Table 6). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hand grip strength is broadly used for performing tasks involving equipment in production and processing activities. Most professionals in this field rely on grip strength to perform their tasks. There were three main aims of this study: i) determining various hand grip strength measurements for the group of hand tool users, ii) investigating the effects of height, weight, age, hand dominance, body mass index, previous Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD) diagnosis, and hand tool usage experience on hand grip strength, and iii) comparing the obtained results with existing data for other populations. The study groups comprised 71 healthy male facility workers. The values of subjects’ ages was observed between 26 and 74 years. The data were statistically analyzed to assess the normality of data and the percentile values of grip strength. The results of this study demonstrate that there were no significance differences noted between dominant and non-dominant hands. However, there were highly significant differences between the CTD group and the other group. Hand grip strength for the dominant hand was positively correlated to height, weight, and body mass index, and negatively correlated to age and tool usage experience. Hand dominance, height, weight, body mass index, age and tool usage experience should be considered when establishing normal values for grip strength.
... Con respecto a las diferencias absolutas en FPM por género, los hallazgos del presente trabajo concuerdan con la mayoría de los estudios encontrados en la literatura (19,(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35), en los cuales la FPM es significativamente mayor en hombres. Solo se encontró un estudio en el que no hay diferencia significativa en este aspecto (36). ...
... La medición de la FPM, es útil para evaluar cambios funcionales en el compartimiento muscular. La razón para el uso de la FPM en la determinación de malnutrición yace en el hecho de que los cambios musculares pueden ser evidentes antes de que ocurran modificaciones en la antropometría y los valores de laboratorio (5,31), pero infortunadamente pocos trabajos han estudiado el valor de la FPM en la predicción de consecuencias clínicas derivadas de la malnutrición (11). ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Introducción: La fuerza de prensión manual (FPM) ha sido ampliamente utilizada como un test para evaluar la función muscular desde finales del siglo XIX. A partir de la década de los 80 se empezó a estudiar su relación con el estado nutricional, especialmente en el medio hospitalario. Actualmente el test se considera un marcador sensible del estado nutricional en este ámbito. El objetivo de este estudio es examinar la correlación entre la FPM y algunas variables antropométricas y de la condición física, para determinar su utilidad como herramienta complementaria en la valoración y diagnóstico nutricional a nivel ambulatorio. Materiales y Métodos: Se evaluaron 92 estudiantes beneficiarios de un subsidio de alimentación (46 hombres y 46 mujeres) en edades entre los 17 y los 34 años, a los cuales se les determinó el peso, estatura, 4 pliegues de grasa subcutánea, circunferencia de la cintura, test de banco de Harvard y FPM. Resultados y Discusión: Se encontró una correlación positiva entre la FPM y el índice de masa corporal alterado (r = 0,84) y con el porcentaje de grasa elevado (r = 1,0) en los hombres. En las mujeres las correlaciones no fueron concluyentes (r = 0,07,-0,4). No se encontró correlación estadística al analizar
... The elderly should be prioritized with regards occupational health and safety in the home. Mismatches between human anthropometric dimensions and workspace, tools/equipment, and devices dimensions are known to be a leading factor in increased discomfort, accidents, biomechanical stresses, fatigue, and musculoskeletal injuries (Mandahawi et al., 2008). It can lead to various accidents such as slipping, tripping, and falling in an already susceptible elderly population. ...
... These differences are likely attributable to multiple influencing factors such as culture, social development, nutrition and living behaviors. What is apparent is that when there is a mismatch between physical operability requirements and the physical capacity of the elderly, musculoskeletal disorders can developed (Mandahawi et al., 2008). For this reason, the rationale for this study is realized as findings can be applied to "better living" designs for an intended Thai elderly clientele. ...
Article
Home environments are the most common injury locations of the elderly. This study aimed to determine measures of anthropometric norms among study subjects and correspondingly translate into recommendations for elderly home design in Thailand. Two-hundred and forty elderly subjects from Prom Buri district, Sing Buri province, Thailand, were targeted for study inclusion by cross-sectional survey using a convenience sampling strategy. Data analysis involving descriptive statistics, independent t-test and percentile values were applied to 32 body dimensions measured. A demographic profile of the study participants showed that the most of the participants were female (57.5%), with mean age of 68.9 years (SD = 6.4). The results revealed that the most of anthropometry dimensions for males are larger than for females. These findings serve up anthropometric values with design implications for elderly people. Data from which home and living facility designs can be applied in creating elderly-friendly environments. Increasingly, home and living designs take into account targeted demographic populations making use of anthropometric data, and should no less be applied to insuring features like comfort, safety, and health are equally considered for the elderly.
... Consequently, muscle strength is impaired in overweight or obese persons and this impairment may be as a result of both sedentary lifestyle and low physical fitness. In addition, poor muscle strength is found to be associated with low body weight and poor nutritional status and most studies conducted before now have attempted to associate HGS with anthropometric variables to predict the outcome of the former (Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki & Sarder, 2008). Several factors including gender, age, body height, body weight, body mass index (BMI) and handedness have been shown to affect HGS performance (Deepak, Laxmikant & Rasika, 2014;Liao, 2014). ...
... It is worth noting that body weight, body height, hand length, forearm length, forearm, hand and wrist circumferences and other anthropometrics are significantly different between the young and the old individuals. Several studies (Das & Dutta, 2015;Deepak et al., 2014;Mandahawi et al., 2008) have been extensively conducted to bring forth the relationship of various anthropometric variables and HGS in adult population. Unfortunately, there is insufficient data of such in younger individuals especially among Nigerian population. ...
Article
Full-text available
Study aim: This study investigated the interdependence of anthropometrics with handgrip strength (HGS) among Nigerian primary school pupils. Materials and methods: A total of 200 primary school pupils participated in this study. Electronic handgrip dynamometer was used to measure HGS in kg, body height and body weight were measured with a wall–mounted stadiometer in meters and bathroom weighing scale in kg respectively. In addition, forearm circumference was measured at the largest part of the forearm and maximum hand width was taken for hand circumference. The relationship between HGS and anthropometric parameters was analyzed using Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation. Results: The outcome of this study showed that age correlated disproportionately but significantly (p < 0.05) with HGS. Also, body weight, BMI and handedness were found to associate proportionately and significantly with HGS. However, hand and forearm circumferences were observed to relate positively but insignificantly (p>0.05) with HGS. Conclusion: This study therefore concluded that the most important determinants of HGS among Nigerian primary school pupils are body weight, BMI and handedness and thus, could be considered as markers of nutritional and health status, as well as physical fitness of these individuals.
... Hand anthropometry is a relevant topic that has been studied from different approaches. From an ergonomic perspective, hand dimensions of specific populations are characterized in order to optimize manual tools, equipment, gloves, or other hand spaces or device dimensions ( Cakit, Durgun, Cetik, & Yoldas, 2014;García-Cáceres, Felknor, Córdoba, Caballero, & Barrero, 2012;Imrhan, Sarder, & Mandahawi, 2009;Kwon, Jung, You, & Kim, 2009;Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, & Sarder, 2008;Obi, 2016;Okunribido, 2000). Results from these analyses are especially relevant for tool designers and manufacturers, as they can use them to create devices fitted to workers and users of different populations and percentiles, thereby improving work efficiency, comfort, and safety. ...
... In any case, for each application, the appropriate dimensions should be considered from the dorsal, palmar, or both aspects of the hand. Studies in the literature usually report the aspect considered by using illustrations ( Cakit et al., 2014;García & Duan, 2008) or by reporting the hand posture while measuring ( Mandahawi et al., 2008). The palmar aspect is frequently used to define hand lengths, both in forensic ( Agnihotri et al., 2008;Sen et al., 2014) and in ergonomic studies ( Cakit et al., 2014;García-Cáceres et al., 2012;Imrhan et al., 2009). ...
Article
Most hand anthropometric studies are performed on the palmar aspect, while dimensions of the dorsal aspect are also useful in ergonomics and hand modeling. A survey of hand anthropometrics for a Spanish population (69 females, 70 males) is presented. Landmarks were selected to compare lengths from the dorsal and palmar aspects and to be useful for hand modeling and ergonomics design. Ninety-nine dimensions of fingers and thumb of the right hand (41 lengths, 32 depths, 26 breadths) were collected, including thumb breadths and depths. Descriptive statistics of all the dimensions are presented. Lengths were measured from both dorsal and palmar aspects and paired lengths compared through t-tests. Significant differences were found in almost all the lengths, showing that databases should explicitly state the aspect (dorsal or palmar) where dimensions have been measured. The data provided are useful for designing tools and hand protections and developing hand models more accurately.
... Muscular power can be negatively affected in overweight or obese individuals, as a result of both sedentary lifestyle and high physical inactivity. Poor muscle strength has been found to be associated with low body weight and poor nutritional status, and many previous studies have attempted to correlate HGS with anthropometrics to predict the outcome of the former (Mandahawi et al., 2008). Furthermore, the amount of fat-free muscle has been highly correlated with grip strength in teenagers (Henneberg et al., 2001). ...
... It reveals that the mean age of the workers is 42.36 years with a standard deviation of 12.019. This result shows that the workers are above youthful age in line with the findings of [10,11,12,13,14]. Table 5-10 shows the comparison between the anthropometry of the gari-frying workers in south west of Nigeria and that of several female populations available in literature. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The imperative of anthropometry in designing to fit cannot be overemphasized. Of essence is the variability of measurements among population for which data is collected. In this paper anthropometric data were collected for the design of gari-frying facility such that work system would be designed to fit the gari-frying population in the Southwestern states of Nigeria comprising Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Ekiti. Twenty-seven body dimensions were measured among 120 gari-frying processors. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS package to determine the mean, standard deviation, minimum value, maximum value and percentiles (2nd, 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th and 98th) of the different anthropometric parameters. One sample t-test was conducted to determine the variation within the population. The 50th percentiles of some of the anthropometric parameters were compared with those from other populations in literature. The correlation between the worker's age and the body anthropometry was also investigated. The mean weight, height, shoulder height (sitting), eye height (standing) and eye height (sitting) are 63.37kg, 1.57m, 0.55m, 1.45m and 0.67m respectively. Results show a high correlation with other populations and a statistically significant difference in variability of data within the population in all the body dimensions measured. Hence, it is recommended that considerable allowance should be taken during workplace design so as to accommodate the lower percentiles.
... 31% of all injuries affect upper extremity and 1/3 of these end up with an anatomic or a functional loss of the hand. (3,4,5,6). Besides all these clinical significances the hand helps draw a roadmap for gender and height prediction of people. ...
Article
This study aims to get various anthropometric measurements of dominant hands of students from vocational high school of health and classifies them according to Krogman Hand Index to form a database 141 students (49 male, 92 female) who were healthy anatomically and had no other known disease attending to vocational high school of health of Baskent University were recruited. Right hand was dominant for all of the students. The length and width of the right hand of the students were taken after their height and weight were measured. The results were recorded as mm. The findings were classified according to Krogman index with the formula hand width / hand lengt X 100. For males right hand length and width was 183.9±0.88mm; and 87.54±0.70mm; respectively, with hand index being 47.58 and classified as brachyeri according to Krogman hand index. For females, right hand length and width was 169.75±2.01 and 77.63±1.21mm respectively with hand index being 45.72 and classified as mesocheri according to Krogman hand index. Measurements of body and body parts display variability due to age, gender, genetic and environmental factors across populations. Therefore; such data used in gender discrimination, identification and special ergonomic structures need to be population spesific. © 2018, Yuzuncu Yil Universitesi Tip Fakultesi. All rights reserved.
... These tools must be compatible as per the physical traits of the user. Mismatches of tool dimension and user physical characteristics are the main concerned factors in reducing the worker's efficiency and can cause injuries and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) [Mandahawi et al., 2008]. So a number of researchers have reported the significance of relevancy of anthropometric data in tool and equipment design [Graves, 1992;Kar et al. 2003;Okunribido, 2000]. ...
... While fingertip external dimensions have been significantly documented based on large sample of populations (Greiner, 1991;Wu et al., 2003;Imrhan et al., 2006;Mandahawi et al., 2008;Cakit et al., 2014;Shimawaki and Sakai, 2007;Yoshida et al., 2006;Wang et al., 2012), its internal dimensions were only documented based on a few subjects (Serina et al., 1997;Harih and Tada, 2015). This lack of a large database of internal geometry dimensions compromises the right positioning of the bony phalanx into the fingertip pulp during the development of fingertip models that are not based medical images. ...
Article
Modeling human-object interactions is a necessary step in the ergonomic assessment of products. Fingertip finite element models can help investigating these interactions, if they are built based on realistic geometrical data and material properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the fingertip geometry and its mechanical response under compression, and to identify the parameters of a hyperelastic material property associated to the fingertip soft tissues. Fingertip compression tests in an MRI device were performed on 5 subjects at either 2 or 4 N and at 15° or 50°. The MRI images allowed to document both the internal and external fingertip dimensions and to build 5 subject-specific finite element models. Simulations reproducing the fingertip compression tests were run to obtain the material property parameters of the soft tissues. Results indicated that two ellipses in the sagittal and longitudinal plane could describe the external fingertip geometry. The internal geometries indicated an averaged maximal thickness of soft tissues of 6.4 ± 0.8 mm and a 4 ± 1 mm height for the phalanx bone. The averaged deflections under loading went from 1.8 ± 0.3 mm at 2 N, 50° to 3.1 ± 0.2 mm at 4 N, 15°. Finally, the following set of parameters for a second order hyperelastic law to model the fingertip soft tissues was proposed: C01=0.59 ± 0.09 kPa and C20 = 2.65 ± 0.88 kPa. These data should facilitate further efforts on fingertip finite element modeling.
... It has been demonstrated that limb proportions can vary as a result of multiple variables during growth: temperature (Serrat, 2013;Serrat, King, & Lovejoy, 2008), variable blood flow (Lampl, Kuzawa, & Jeanty, 2003), nutrition (Bogin, Smith, Orden, Varela Silva, & Loucky, 2002), or other environmental stresses (Pomeroy et al., 2012). Furthermore, although hand morphology is highly constrained within humans due to functionality (Alm ecija, Smaers, & Jungers, 2015;Voracek and Offenmuller, 2007;Xiaohui et al., 2014), there is morphological variation that is unrelated to sex or body size differences (Ashizawa, Kumakura, Kusumoto, & Narasaki, 1997;Chandra, Chandna, & Deswal, 2011;Dizmen, 2012;Garrett, 1970;Giles and Vallandigham, 1991;Imrhan, 2000;Imrhan and Contera, 2005;Imrhan, Nguyen, & Nguyen, 1993;Imrhan, Sarder, & Mandahawi, 2009;Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, & Sarder, 2008;Numan, Idris, Zirahei, Amaza, & Dalori, 2013). Further, morphological integration of the hands and feet means that some variation in hand size and shape may be due to covariance between these two regions (Rolian, 2009). ...
Article
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Objectives The current study assessed whether ecogeographical patterns seen in hand proportions correlate with heat loss directly. Using a brief severe cold immersion experiment on the hand, the influence of hand and digit dimensions on heat loss was evaluated. Materials and methods A sample of 113 living individuals were tested. Two‐dimensional and three‐dimensional scanning techniques were used to assess hand and digit dimensions. Thermal imaging analysis was used to quantify heat loss during a 3‐min ice‐water immersion of the hands. Results When body size was accounted for, hand width and digit length relative to total hand length were significant predictors of heat loss from the hand. Discussion The current study provides empirical evidence to support the link between thermodynamic principles relating to surface area‐to‐volume ratio, and ecogeographical patterns associated with temperature.
... The right hand was chosen as being representative in the present study because previous studies have pointed out that there are barely any differences between right and left hand dimensions (Mandahawi et al., 2008). Metacarpal (MCi) and finger (Fi) lengths were measured for each digit (with i = 1 for thumbs; 2 for index fingers; 3 for middle fingers; 4 for ring fingers and 5 for little fingers) from the palmar side (Fig. 2). ...
Article
Hand length and width have traditionally been considered key metrics for glove-sizing systems. Morphological differences in palm and finger shapes should also be considered for more accurate glove fitting. In this paper, finger and palm lengths of the five hand digits of 139 subjects from a Mediterranean population were measured. Hierarchical clusters and analysis of variance were applied to identify morphological differences. Three palm shapes and three finger shapes were identified, depending on the predominance of the dimensions of the peripheral digits. It is recommended that at least three different shapes, which combine some of the most frequent cross combinations of palm and hand shapes, should be considered to complement traditional glove sizes. These results provide new insights into improving the fitting of current glove-sizing systems and, consequently, glove safety and efficiency. Relevance to industry: This work classifies palm and hand shapes from metacarpal and digit lengths to improve the fitting of current glove-sizing systems and, therefore, glove safety and efficiency.
... Despite lengthy and costly data collection techniques, anthropometric literature is quite rich, appearing in numerous publications. For example, anthropometry of Bangladeshi men , anthropometry of Singaporean and Indonesian populations (Chuan et al., 2010), anthropometry of Sri Lankan university students (Thariq et al., 2010), anthropometry of northeastern Indian male agricultural workers (Dewangan et al., 2010), anthropometry of the Malaysian population (Mohamad et al., 2010), hand anthropometry of a Bangladeshi adult population living in the USA (Imrhan et al., 2009), anthropometrics of Sweden for product and workplace design (Hanson et al., 2009), anthropometry of Bahraini school children (Mokdad and Al-Ansari, 2009), anthropometry of the Turkish population (Ali and Arslan, 2009), anthropometry of the USA population (McDowell, 2008), anthropometry of the Thai population (Klamklay et al., 2008), the hand anthropometry of Jordanians (Mandahawi et al., 2008), anthropometry of elderly Chinese from the Beijing area (Hu et al., 2007), anthropometrics on Filipino manufacturing workers (Del Prado-Lu, 2007). ...
... Hand anthropometric data are of use to design the size and shape of a handheld or hand-wearable device for proper fit, comfort, and motion economy. Comprehensive, in-depth hand anthropometric surveys have been reported by Greiner (1991) for the U.S. Army personnel (n = 2,307, 84 dimensions); M. Kwon, Choi, Chung, and Yang (2005) for Korean civilians (n = 265, 63 dimensions); Chandra, Chandna, and Deswal (2011) for the industrial workers of India (n = 878, 37 dimensions); and Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, and Sarder (2008) for Jordanian civilians (n = 236, 24 dimensions). Examples of hand anthropometric data application to ergonomic design include a glove design study by Choi, Lee, Kang, and Kim (2006) and O. Kwon, Jung, You, and Kim (2009); a spoon for children by Liu, Tseng, Wu, and Liu (2008); and a grip design of vacuum cleaner by Lee, Jung, and You (2008) for better fit, comfort, and motion economy. ...
Article
This study aimed to compare a three-dimensional (3D) semiautomatic measurement protocol (3D-SAMP) that measures hand dimensions using a plaster hand and a 3D scanner with the conventional direct measurement protocol (DMP). An experiment was conducted to measure 52 dimensions of one hand by 20 measurers with three repetitions. The locations of landmarks attached to the plaster hand were automatically identified and then measurements of the hand dimensions were automatically extracted in the 3D-SAMP. Significant measurement differences with a range of 2.1 to 4.4 mm between the 3D-SAMP and the DMP were observed in 13 out of the 52 dimensions, and the 3D-SAMP showed better reliability than the DMP in terms of intra- and intermeasurer variability. The 3D-SAMP was found significantly faster and easier in hand measurement than the DMP (11.1 ± 3.5 min for 3D-SAMP and 17.8 ± 4.5 min for DMP; 5.2 ± 0.8 for 3D-SAMP and 4.3 ± 0.8 for DMP using a 7-point scale with 1 for very dissatisfied and 7 for very satisfied for ease of measurement) when fabrication (about 1 hr 10 min) and scanning (3 min) of a plaster hand were not considered. The proposed 3D-SAMP is applicable only to plaster hands available in hand measurement.
... They are absolutely necessary in designing the industrial machines handles or any daily life equipment at work or leisure activities. Ergonomic as a concept is the measurement, analysis, evaluation, and design of system involving human machine task environment interaction for the purpose of enhancing performance, safety and health (Grandjean, 1988;Imrhan, 1996;Mandahawi et al., 2008a). In order to enhance this interaction, knowledge about: human body dimensions, physical strength, limitations, and capabilities are required. ...
... Nag et al. (2003) described data for 51 hand dimensions from 95 Indian women in their study of ergonomic hand tool design. Mandahawi et al. (2008) collected data on 24 hand dimensions relevant to tool design for 115 men and 120 women from four Jordanian cities and compared this data with those of other populations. Research on this topic includes the work done by Kar et al. (2003), Meagher (19871989, Schmidtke (1984 and Norris and Wilson (1997). ...
Article
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Anthropometric data plays a significant role in the effective and accurate design of various devices and machines. The inclusion of anthropometric data helps ensure that devices or machines are safe, userfriendly and highly productive and efficient. In this study, 56 hand dimensions based on 266 Saudi Arabian inter-university adult males aged 20-26 years are described in terms of statistics, bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models for predicting hand anthropometric dimensions. All hand dimensions were measured using the correct instruments and techniques. The statistics reported are the minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, percentiles (1st, 5th, 50th, 95th and 99th), normality, skewness and kurtosis. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression models are tabulated. The 56 hand dimensions of Saudi adult males are presented for use by the designers of hand tools and equipment. Most hand dimensions are positively correlated at a 0.01/0.05 level of significance. Thirteen multiple regression models were developed for estimating hand length from other hand dimensions with coefficient determination factors ranging from 0.881 to 0.962. In addition, multiple regression equations for estimating hand dimensions from hand length and breadth/fist circumference were developed. The information in this paper will be useful for ergonomic design and the modifications of hand tools, personal protective equipment, workstations and interface systems imported into Saudi Arabia to reduce human error and improve public health.
... In the application of this method, the anthropometrical comprehension of the human hand must be considered first and the anthropometric diversity of the corresponding target population must be reflected in the design. Existing studies have extracted various anthropometric dimensions germane to hands and provided descriptive statistics, percentile values, and distributions for the major dimensions in various ethnicities (Greiner, 1991;Imrhan, Nguyen, & Nguyen, 1993;Ismaila, 2009;Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, & Sarder, 2008;Nag, Nag, & Desai, 2003;Saengchaiya & Bunterngchit, 2004). Additionally, manufacturers have reflected the consideration of accommodation level germane to some representative hand dimensions, such as hand length and width, in their hand tool design. ...
Conference Paper
Hand tools designed without the anthropometric perspective lead to lower performance and safety. This study suggests a statistical hand shape classification with Korean anthropometric data. A total of 321 anthropometric data were used for this study. To investigate hand types, 27 anthropometric hand variables normalized by the stature of each participant and factor analysis and cluster analysis were conducted. As a result, three major factors were deduced: factors of hand breadth, palm length, and finger length. Additionally, four hand types were determined: (a) a spacious hand with short fingers, (b) a hand with short palm with above average fingers, (c) a long palm and fingers, and (d) a narrow hand and short fingers. In the male population, the spacious hand with short fingers type was dominant while the narrow hand and short fingers type was dominant in the female population. These results are expected to be preliminarily utilized in design for the Korean population.
... Hsiao et al. (2015), and Yu et al. (2013), conducted studies on hand anthropometry to improve the glove fit and sizing system. However, the current glove-sizing system still can barely address the differences in hand and finger dimensional proportions amongst people of different sexes, races, ages and occupations (Gnaneswaran and Bishu, 2011;Hu et al., 2007;Mandahawi et al., 2008). For dress shirts, neck size, and sleeve length, as well as different fits, such as slim, athletic, regular and full, are available to accommodate the wide variations of body shapes and proportions. ...
Article
Active and sports fashion in the high-end market focuses on fit, superior comfort and functional performance for various end-uses. However, the engineering design of sports gloves in relation to hand anthropometry measurements remains unclear. In this study, two types of ready-to-wear sport gloves, namely, war-gaming glove and hiking glove were purchased from the market. The glove dimensions, fabrication properties and the effect of glove fit on hand and finger dexterity were investigated. Thirty female individuals (20–29 years old) participated a series of hand performance tests and subjective perception rating assessments towards the gloves. Results indicated that the active range of motion of fingers, finger tactile sensitivity, gripping strength and ability to handle pegs and marbles decreased with the use of gloves compared with bare hands. The perceptions of comfort and ease of hand motions decreased with the increased of wear time. The glove fit in terms of finger length dimensions was significantly correlated with hand grip force. The glove fit in hand, wrist and finger circumference dimensions had significant impact on the ability to handle small objects. It is suggested that hand length, hand circumference, finger circumference and the ratio of finger length to palm length should be considered in the design and development of gloves to improve hand performance and comfort.
... It is associated with the physical characteristics of humans in different situations, especially with measurements of body size, shape, strength, and working capacity (Pheasant, 2003;Nowak, 1996). In the related literature, anthropometry is mentioned as a very consequential division of ergonomics because misalliances between human anthropometric dimensions and equipment dimensions may lead to inconvenience, plunging productivity, accidents, biomechanical stress, fatigue, injuries, and cumulative traumas (Mandahawi et al., 2008;Kar et al., 2003;Okunribido 2000). Jung et al. (2000) expressed that operator's anthropometry, task geometry, and design factors would be central components for an optimal ergonomic product design. ...
Article
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Product classification using anthropometric measurements leads to ergonomic product design and user satisfaction. We propose an effective artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to classify ergonomic products with multi-criteria anthropometric measurements and tune the AIA parameters with a full factorial experimental design approach. We demonstrate the applicability and efficacy of the proposed algorithm by considering the anthropometric measurements of the hand, developing an ergonomic computer mouse, and classifying consumers into three categories. The resulting classifications are compared with expert opinions to facilitate the conformity of the computer mouse to user requirements.
... Se cumplió con la finalidad de determinar las características antropométricas en mano dominante y no dominante para la población de género femenino que utilicen una herramienta manual logrando así obtener la relación entre la fuerza máxima de agarre datos que en la región no se habían obtenido con anterioridad. Por último es importante destacar que Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, & Sarde (2008), mencionan que el desajuste entre las dimensiones antropométricas de mano y los equipos están contribuyendo como factor en la disminución de la productividad, el malestar, los accidentes, las tensiones biomecánicas, fatiga, lesiones y trastornos traumáticos acumulativos asociados con el uso indebido y el esfuerzo acumulado de la muñeca y la mano, incluyen la osteoartritis, luxaciones o subluxaciones, sinovitis, las cepas de ligamentos, los ganglios, tenosinovitis, dedo en gatillo, tensiones musculares intrínsecos y el síndrome del túnel carpiano los cuales se producen en personas que realizan trabajo manual repetitivo. Los datos obtenidos servirán como una importante fuente de información al momento de diseñar herramientas manuales para mujeres en donde el realizar el debido seguimiento a las necesidades ergonómicas en el rubro laboral se pueden evitar lesiones musculo-esqueléticas y otras enfermedades, resultando de gran utilidad para el bienestar de los trabajadores. ...
Article
Full-text available
Actualmente debido a la globalización y la apertura comercial mundial la infraestructura logística resulta una herramienta de gran importancia para los distintos países puesto que les brinda la oportunidad de aumentar su capacidad de competencia en el mercado global. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es presentar los beneficios derivados de una buena infraestructura logística y su repercusión en el desarrollo económico de los países. La metodología utilizada en el presente artículo es un estudio bibliométrico en el cual se analizaron diversos artículos obtenidos de bases de datos de CONRICyT, tales como Elsevier, EBSCO y Springer, asimismo se recopilo información de libros clásicos de autores representativos del tema en cuestión que ampliaron el conocimiento en la materia. Al realizar el correspondiente estudio bibliométrico se encontró entre otras cosas que al implementar la logística adecuadamente una economía puede volverse más eficiente en términos de costos y tiempos.
... Recent trends in globalization and free trade agreements have forced the majority of industrialized developing countries to open their doors to exporting tools and equipment from industrialized countries. However, most of these tools have been designed based upon the anthropometric data of the industrialized countries rather than those of the importing country [23]. ...
... An ongoing study is analyzing whether and to what extent stone tool shape and physical properties can have an influence on the electrophysiological reactions. Concerning hand variation, it must be stressed that there are differences in hand morphology in distinct geographic groups (Barut et al., 2014;Davies, Abada, Benson, Courtney, & Minto, 1980;Gnaneswaran & Bishu, 2011;Okunribido, 2000) or distinct social/occupational classes (Imrhan, Sarder, & Mandahawi, 2009;Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, & Sarder, 2008;Stanford, Allen, & Antón, 2011). It could be interesting, therefore, to evaluate distinct behavioral reactions in samples with particular finger, hand, or arm proportions, most of all taking into account extreme or special cases. ...
Article
Objectives: Tool use requires integration among sensorial, biomechanical, and cognitive factors. Taking into account the importance of tool use in human evolution, changes associated with the genus Homo are to be expected in all these three aspects. Haptics is based on both tactile and proprioceptive feedbacks, and it is associated with emotional reactions. Previous analyses have suggested a difference between males and females, and during haptic exploration of different typologies of stone tools. Here, we analyze the correlation between electrodermal reactions during stone tool handling and hand morphology to provide evidence of possible allometric factors shared by males and females. Methods: Electrodermal analysis was used to investigate some specific parameters involved in these reactions, such as changes in the level of attention and arousal. We analyzed the responses of 46 right-handed adults to 20 distinct stone tools while blindfolded. Results: Females have smaller hands and a wider range of electrodermal reactions. Within males and females, hand diameters and general hand size do not correlate with the degree of electrodermal level and response. Conclusions: Sex differences in electrodemal reaction during stone tool handling are apparently not due to the effect of hand size or proportions. Differences between males and females are better interpreted as real sex differences, either due to a biological or cultural influences. Hand size does not influence the degree of arousal or attention during tool exploration, suggesting that other factors trigger individual reactions. These results add to a general cognitive approach on hand-tool evolution and tool sensing.
... Se cumplió con la finalidad de determinar las características antropométricas en mano dominante y no dominante para la población de género femenino que utilicen una herramienta manual logrando así obtener la relación entre la fuerza máxima de agarre datos que en la región no se habían obtenido con anterioridad. Por último es importante destacar que Mandahawi, Imrhan, Al-Shobaki, & Sarde (2008), mencionan que el desajuste entre las dimensiones antropométricas de mano y los equipos están contribuyendo como factor en la disminución de la productividad, el malestar, los accidentes, las tensiones biomecánicas, fatiga, lesiones y trastornos traumáticos acumulativos asociados con el uso indebido y el esfuerzo acumulado de la muñeca y la mano, incluyen la osteoartritis, luxaciones o subluxaciones, sinovitis, las cepas de ligamentos, los ganglios, tenosinovitis, dedo en gatillo, tensiones musculares intrínsecos y el síndrome del túnel carpiano los cuales se producen en personas que realizan trabajo manual repetitivo. Los datos obtenidos servirán como una importante fuente de información al momento de diseñar herramientas manuales para mujeres en donde el realizar el debido seguimiento a las necesidades ergonómicas en el rubro laboral se pueden evitar lesiones musculo-esqueléticas y otras enfermedades, resultando de gran utilidad para el bienestar de los trabajadores. ...
Article
Full-text available
Las Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas (Pymes) representan alrededor del 98.5% del total de empresas en México según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), aportando el 52% al Producto Interno Bruto del país, esta investigación busca conocer los apoyos que el gobierno mexicano brinda a las Pymes, explorar las diversas opciones que tienen las personas en nuestro país para el emprendedurismo y apertura de nuevos negocios, centrándonos en las Empresas de Base Tecnológica que desarrollan nuevas tecnologías, productos de calidad e innovación, generando empleos, a la vez que integran investigadores académicos y universitarios en sus actividades, permitiendo a la empresa tener una vinculación con la universidad y con el gobierno para obtener recursos, realizar proyectos, programas o fuentes de financiamiento, conformando el modelo de la triple hélice que busca que esos tres agentes integren sus funciones para desarrollar productos o servicios de calidad, la metodología de este trabajo será un análisis bibliográfico de los diferentes proyectos de gobierno que apoyan empresas innovadoras en México.
... The resulting effects from mismatches between human anthropometric dimensions and equipment are known to be a contributing factor in decreased productivity, discomfort, accidents, biomechanical stresses, fatigue, injuries, and cumulative trauma to the users. 31 These findings support the conclusion of previous studies, which showed that using agricultural tools or equipment were risky factors of MSDs. 30,[32][33][34] Thus, agricultural tools should be designed and improved, taking into consideration the need to reduce workrelated injuries among users. ...
Article
Background Agriculture is one of the most hazardous jobs in terms of occupational illness, especially musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This paper is a cross-sectional study designed to identify agricultural risk factors related to MSDs among older farmers. Methods A convenience sampling method was used to select 481 older farmers from the Nong Suea district in Pathum Thani province. A three-part questionnaire generated data that included demographics, work conditions, and environment, and self-reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for MSDs. Results The results indicated the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in the past 7 days and 12 months were 87.9% and 88.9%, respectively. The three body parts with highest prevalence rates of MSDs were lower extremities (65.4%), lower back (42.6%), and shoulders (29.9%). Factors significantly associated with reporting MSDs during the past 12 months (p value <.05) were women (adjusted odds ratio = 2.52: 95% CI; 1.19–5.36), using agricultural tools (adjusted odds ratio = 4.40: 95% CI; 1.18–13.79), prolonged static postures (adjusted odds ratio = 3.81: 95% CI; 1.05–13.82), and lifting >10 kg (adjusted odds ratio = 2.87: 95% CI; 1.22–6.82). Conclusions Study results revealed older farmers had high prevalence of MSDs and various related risk factors. Occupational ergonomic issues for promoting safety awareness of agricultural risk factors among elderly farmers should be considered.
... It has been noted that the anthropometric body dimensions of different populations from different countries can significantly vary with each other [9]. Because of this, it necessitates that each population has its own anthropometric measurements database. ...
Article
In order to improve the passengers' flying comfort, the aircraft cabin features should be ergonomically developed and designed. The key element for design ergonomics is the anthropometric measurements of the target users, which are vital in ensuring a good fit between their body characteristics and the resultant product or system design. Based on this notion, this study aims to establish the database for the measurement of body dimensions of the Malaysian population that is useful in design process of most cabin features. A total of 100 volunteers have participated in this study and their body dimensions are measured using standard measurement tools during a few conducted data collection sessions. Several standard anthropometric measurements of the Malaysian population for sitting and standing body postures have been derived from the descriptive statistics of the collected measurement data. They include stature, standing eye height, standing shoulder height, standing elbow height, standing hip breadth, standing shoulder breadth, sitting shoulder height, sitting elbow height, sitting eye height, sitting buttock-popliteal length and also sitting buttock-knee length. Furthermore, based on the comparison analysis with the referenced Malaysian anthropometric database, it can be concluded that the body characteristics of the Malaysian population are changing with time and the body measurements are expected to further increase in future. This means that the design sizing of the aircraft cabin features might need to be adjusted accordingly to be able to provide a comfortable flying experience for the future Malaysian passengers.
... Recent trends in globalization and free trade agreements have forced the majority of industrialized developing countries to open their doors to exporting tools and equipment from industrialized countries. However, most of these tools have been designed based upon the anthropometric data of the industrialized countries rather than those of the importing country [23]. ...
... utilização em posição sentada e as tarefas realizadas serem atividades sedentárias, os estudantes correm riscos significativos de desenvolver doenças osteomusculares (Kahya, 2019), além de prejudicar a digitação, escrita e leitura (Fidelis, et al., 2018), repercutindo em mais uma variável de distração, desinteresse e estresse. A incompatibilidade entre as medidas antropométricas humanas e as dimensões de móveis podem diminuir a produtividade e causar desconforto, acidentes, fadiga, lesões e traumas cumulativos (Mandahawi, et al., 2008). Em síntese, um conjunto de aspectos negativos associados ao mobiliário podem influenciar o desempenho educacional dos estudantes. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Uma vez que no ambiente educacional as carteiras são elementos que podem influenciar na saúde e desempenho escolar dos discentes, o objetivo deste estudo foi construir uma escala para avaliar o grau de adequação destas, em uma Instituição de Ensino Superior, aos seus discentes. Análise Fatorial e Teoria de Resposta ao Item foram utilizadas para aferir questões sobre assento, encosto, prancheta, porta-materiais, entre outros. Com base no padrão de resposta dos indivíduos entrevistados, uma métrica de sete níveis foi construída, variando de 'Totalmente Desadequado' a 'Totalmente Adequado'. A carteira analisada, embora atendesse alguns aspectos definidos por norma, teve 89% dos alunos posicionados em regiões da escala consideras 'não-adequadas'. Por fim, conclui-se que a carteira utilizada não é a mais adequada as limitações, capacidade e necessidade dos seus discentes.
... Recent trends in globalization and free trade agreements have forced the majority of industrialized developing countries to open their doors to exporting tools and equipment from industrialized countries. However, most of these tools have been designed based upon the anthropometric data of the industrialized countries rather than those of the importing country [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was aimed to distinguish the effects of work type on hand dimensions and investigate the relationship between anthropometric dimensions and occupation. Methods: The participants included 91 males in two groups, namely 51 manual labor and 40 office employees. The anthropometric data of 12 hand anthropometric dimensions were collected. A simple random method was applied to identify samples. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: All the measurements unless manual workers grip diameter were significantly greater than office personnel. The hand perimeter had the greatest value among the 12 measured dimensions while the thickness of the side little finger was the smallest one. In four dimensions, namely width of four fingers together from the central hinge; diameter of thumb to face; diameter of the index finger to face; hand thickness from index finger revealed the availability of a significant difference between manual labor jobs and office workers. Moreover, no significant relation was observed between weight and stature with hand dimension, which represents the correlation between occupation and the four dimensions. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a significant difference between occupational groups in terms of the four dimensions. Therefore, it is suggested that tool designers should consider this finding in their designing process.
... A study pointed out the hand anthropometric diemnsion of the Jordanian population. In this research the percentage differences were found out among the hand dimensions of Jordanian people and population of other countries like American, Mexican, Bangladeshi and others (Mandahawi 2008). Anthropometric dimensions and characteristics of the hands on the basis of sex and literary among Jordanian population were evaluated in a certain study (Mohammad 2005). ...
Conference Paper
This study represents hand anthropometric dataset of Bangladeshi female population. One hundred and ten females of Dhaka and Chittagong regions participated in the survey. Their age varies from 18 to 45 years. Standard deviation, mean and percentile values were calculated from the dataset of fifteen anthropometric dimensions. Various anthropometric comparisons were estimated among Bangladeshi female people and other populace. It was investigated that there is significant contrast in hand anthropometric dimensions of Bangladeshi female people with other considered female population. The target of the work is to improve existing design or provide new design of handmade tools, equipment and machineries according to the hand anthropometry of the female people of our country to mitigate their troubles while using those for various activities. It will also enhance the interest to among people to establish more anthropometric works in our country to improve the existing design of handmade tools and equipment.
... A study pointed out the hand anthropometric diemnsion of the Jordanian population. In this research the percentage differences were found out among the hand dimensions of Jordanian people and population of other countries like American, Mexican, Bangladeshi and others (Mandahawi 2008). Anthropometric dimensions and characteristics of the hands on the basis of sex and literary among Jordanian population were evaluated in a certain study (Mohammad 2005). ...
Conference Paper
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This study represents hand anthropometric dataset of Bangladeshi female population. One hundred and ten females of Dhaka and Chittagong regions participated in the survey. Their age varies from 18 to 45 years. Standard deviation, mean and percentile values were calculated from the dataset of fifteen anthropometric dimensions. Various anthropometric comparisons were estimated among Bangladeshi female people and other populace. It was investigated that there is significant contrast in hand anthropometric dimensions of Bangladeshi female people with other considered female population. The target of the work is to improve existing design or provide new design of handmade tools, equipment and machineries according to the hand anthropometry of the female people of our country to mitigate their troubles while using those for various activities. It will also enhance the interest to among people to establish more anthropometric works in our country to improve the existing design of handmade tools and equipment.
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The purpose of this study is to represent a large-scale Chinese hand anthropometric survey. A total of 937 adults (468 males and 469 females) age between 22 and 60 years-old were involved to be measured from six main areas of China. 3D scanning technology was adopted to capture duplicated models of both left and right hands in the splayed and closed postures respectively. 10 hand dimensions were extracted from the 3D scans. Statistics including mean, standard deviation, and various percentiles were calculated. T-tests were conducted to compare the differences between left and right hands. Moreover, the differences between males and females were analyzed. The results indicate that right hands are generally thicker, broader, and shorter than left hands. Also, males have larger hand measurements than females, as expected. This study provides ergonomic indication for hand related products design.
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Disposable PE gloves are in great demand in the catering industry, and although their use accuracy is not high, disposable PE gloves of inconsistent size will still cause great discomfort to consumers. Therefore, how to adjust the current disposable PE glove production size system is the guarantee for the better development of the industry. In this study, the photo measurement method was used to measure the size and contour of the adult hand. Through cluster analysis and variance analysis, three types of disposable PE gloves size systems were determined. This size system provides one type of gloves for women, and two types of gloves for men with a height of 180cm as the dividing line.
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Background and Aim: In order to make a dimensional proportion between human and equipment or environment, anthropometric data bank is essential. Anthropometry has an important role in industrial management and ergonomic design. This information is needed to be collected regularly in every society. The purpose of this study was to determine clavicle length to height ratio according to gender in adults, between ages 20-30 in Kerman. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical stud, cluster sampling method was used to select the subjects. Participants were 800 Iranian people in Kerman (400 males and 400 females) who were selected randomly. Length of right and left Clavicle, shoulder width, length of right and left upper extremity, as well as height and weight of the participants were measured. For anthropometric measurements, metallic and plastic tape, goniometer, caliper and actually weighing scales were used. Results: The results showed that there was a significant relationship between the length of clavicle and height, shoulder width, and length of right and left upper extremities. According to our results, left Clavicle is longer than right one in both men and women. Both right and left Clavicles are longer in men compared to women. (P<0.05) Conclusion: Usage of anthropometric data in designing a product can reduce human errors and improve public health and qualification of products and efficient use of workplaces. In addition, by using a single bone such as clavicle, we can determine gender, age or the relationship between bone length and body weight. It is also helpful in forensics, biomedical engineering, ergonomics and surgery. Cite this article as: Seyed Hassan Eftekhar vaghefi, Leila Elyasi, hakimeh Akbari, Alireza Rashidzade, Azita zeiai, Shahrzad Eftekhar vaghefi. Determination of clavicle bone length to height ratio in 20-30 year-old men and women in Kerman. J Rehab Med. 2014; 3(1): 8-14.
Article
Background: Hand anthropometry is useful for designing manual systems such as hand tools, controls, and gloves. There are limited published data on the hand dimensions of Iranian male and female adults. Objective: This study was undertaken to measure the hand anthropometric dimensions in Iranian adults to compare data between two genders and also with the corresponding data from other nationalities. Methods: A total of 34 dimensions of the right hand were measured in 217 male and 128 female adults using a digital caliper and tape. The mean, standard deviation, and the main percentiles are summarized in a table and the mean of each dimension is compared by independent t-tests between genders. Hand dimensions are compared between Iranian and other nationalities such as North Colombian, Korean, Turkish, Nigerian, Bangladeshi, Jordanian, and Vietnamese using the published data. Results: Females had significantly smaller hand dimensions than males in all dimensions ranged from 4.21%to 18.16%, with the largest differences in hand breadths. Compared with other nationalities, the Iranian male and female adults had wider (greater breadth and circumferences) hands with shorter fingers. Conclusions: The results showed significant differences of hand anthropometry between Iranian and other nationalities which should be included in the design and selection of hand tools for Iranian population.
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There is a growing demand for functional rehabilitation orthotics that can effectively assist in patient recovery from motor impairments after stroke. The hand in particular is a complex system that has proven difficult to mimic with current exoskeleton technologies. This paper presents data-driven design parameters to increase the functionality and improve the assistance profile of the ArmAssist-2.0 hand module. Improvements from the previous model include adjustable linkages to fulfill the largest population of users, new joint locations to more accurately represent biomechanics of the hand, and a more impairment-appropriate torque profile to assist in hand opening, adjustable through interchangeable springs. In most passive hand orthoses, assistance forces tend to decrease as the hand and thumb extend, opposite the needs of a typical patient hand. This project utilizes a variable spring moment arm about the revolute axes to match common patient impairment more accurately. The revised assistance profile for the hand maintains a nearly linear relationship. Results conclude that the final assembled device fits comfortably in the hand with noticeable improvements in joint locations, adjustability, and the force profile for the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint. An issue arises with the extension of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint due to the nature of rapidly changing moment arms and multiple springs in series. The issue and possible solutions are discussed.
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This paper designs a novel measurement procedure that relates the size of the hand and the size of the ball. This procedure was devised in order to determine the "Hand Coverage Index of Porras, Oliver, Sosa" (H.C.I.P.O.S.) on the ball. Using three measurements obtained from the dominant hand of athletes with the hand on its maximum aperture taken on a flat plane, we calculated their coordinates in space, and their applications on the sphere of the ball. Subsequently, through a formula, and taking into account the central value of the measurement of the circumference of the ball and the corresponding sport category, we will be able to know the Hand Coverage Index of the athlete over the ball, or the surface of the ball that an athlete is able to cover with his fully open hand with respect to the the sphere of the ball of his sport category. © 2018, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid y CV Ciencias del Deporte. All rights reserved.
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Forensic anthropologists and pathologists have solved various mysteries like identifying victims and documenting crimes. They have identified the remains of decomposed, partially skeletonized and burned victims. For identifications, parameters like sex, stature, age, and ancestry are the foremost essential components. A present cross-sectional study was carried out on 206 Ladakhi subjects (129 males and 77 females) aged between 14 to 19 years by random sampling method. Classifications were done on the basis of standards given by Martin & Saller, (1957) and Vallois, (1965). The hand parameters showed significant sexual dimorphism in adolescent boys and girls at (p<0.001) of the Ladakhi population. The analysis showed that hand parameters in adolescent girls are found to be more reliable and applicable for stature estimation than in boys. Regression equations showed that multiple regressions are better in predicting the stature than the linear regression in Ladakhi adolescents. The present study revealed that like other body dimensions like long bone length, cephalofacial dimensions, foot dimensions, etc., hand dimensions can also be applied for stature reconstruction when the only hand is available for forensic examinations.
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Accidents happen in agriculture as a culmination of multiple factors, and injury rates in agriculture are one of the highest among different occupations. This chapter elucidates accident definition, causes and models, economic consequences, and injury severity and statistical indices. Prevention of accidents in agriculture can go a long way to save lives and to make the workplace safer and productive. Data on occupational injuries include the organization, the injured person, the working conditions, the nature and extent of the damage, absence from work and the circumstances of the injury. There have been variations across countries in defining conditions to record an accident officially, one of the criteria being either a fatality or absence 2 to 4 no. of days from work. For reporting the severity of the injury, the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been explained. The scenario of farm accidents in the United States, Canada, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Ireland, Gambia, Ethiopia, Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Bangladesh and India are included herewith. The reported fatality rates in agriculture in these countries vary from 10.9 to 30.6 per 100,000 persons per year. The economic burden of these injuries amounts to hundreds of billions of dollars. Injuries occur from farm machines, namely tractor and tractor operated equipment, combines, threshers, and fodder cutters, as well as hand tools and animal-drawn equipment. Equipping tractors with ROPS and designing workplaces to match with the user's body dimensions and strength characteristics can prevent injuries. The personal protective gadgets and safe feeding chutes in threshers and chaff cutters mitigate risks of accidents and injuries.
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The present article studies the anthropometric variables of the hand for a sample of 100 working adults whose ages were between 18 and 60 years, located in the State of Sonora, Mexico. In total, 26 anthropometric measures and the maximum grip strength in the dominant and non-dominant hand were considered. A descriptive statistical analysis was carried out for the measurements taken; In addition, a statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlation between the anthropometric characteristics and the maximum grip strength in the dominant hand. It was found that the age group with the strongest grip was 30-39 years with a value of 51.77 kg in the dominant hand.
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The appropriate design of tools, equipment and accessories for human body sizes, while meeting the social, cultural, economic and psychological needs of people, provides maximum benefit. This is crucial for students who spend most of their time using school furniture. The aim of the study is to investigate the mismatch between school furniture dimensions and students’ anthropometric measures. Nine anthropometric measures were taken of 225 students (68 female and 157 male) from nine departments of an engineering faculty using a specially designed measurement tool. The mismatch percentages between the existing classroom furniture dimensions and the anthropometric measures were determined using some well-known criterion equations. The results indicated a considerable mismatch: 44.45% for seat height, 100% for seat depth, and 21.28% for desk height. Two types of proposed classroom furniture achieved much higher percentage matches. The match percentages were above 70% for four dimensions for type A and above 95%, except for seat height and width of backrest, for all of the dimensions for both types. Relevance to industry This study helps in establishing and motivating necessary further studies in classroom ergonomics in university settings.
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Use of hand anthropometric data can help in the proper designing of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. In present study different hand dimensions of right and left hand of the agricultural workers (Male: 200; Female: 204) have been collected from West Bengal state, Eastern India. Eight hand dimensions have been identified which were considered more useful for designing agrcultural hand tools. It has noted that there were significant differences (P<0.001) in hand measurements between right and left hands as well as between male and female agricultural workers. However, the percentage of differences in the measurements between right and left hands was small (0.10% to 3.49%) than those between men and women (7.1% to 11.96%) Percentile values (5th, 50th, 95th) of the anthropometric dimensions were computed separately for men and women. The agricultural hand tools can be designed for male and female workers separately using these percentile values. However, it was the common practice of the worker to use the same hand tools by the both sexes. Therefore, percentile values for the hand dimensions were also computed considering the men and women as a single group. The hand dimensions of the subjects of present study were compared with the farmers of central part of India. Some proportions of hand dimensions were also computed.
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The aim of this study was to collect isometric muscle strength data and anthropometric dimensions from a sample of the Chinese population. These basic data are important for workplace, task, and equipment design. The study involved collecting data from a sample of 146 male and 47 female subjects in the city of Ningbo in China. Five measures of muscle strength were collected: left and right hand grip, arm lift, shoulder lift, and torso pull strengths. The mean female strengths were about 50% lower than the male values. There were several significant positive correlations between anthropometric measures and isometric strength. Comparisons between the results of this study and those from Chinese and USA studies available in the literature are provided.
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Eighteen anthropometric measurements were taken in standing and sitting positions, from 387 subjects between 15 and 17 years old. “Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS)” was used to estimate anthropometric measurements as an alternative to stepwise regression analysis. Six outputs (shoulder width, hip width, knee height, buttock-popliteal height, popliteal height, and height) were selected for estimation purpose. The results showed that the number of inputs required estimating outputs varied with sex difference. ANFIS perform better than stepwise regression method for both sex groups, as revealed by the standard deviations averaged over the six outputs: SANFIS=0.776, SRegression=0.855 for boys and, SANFIS=0.883, SRegression=1.027 for girls.Relevance to industryMore recently, as industry and marketing reach around the globe, body size has become a matter of practical interest to designers and engineers. In ergonomics anthropometric data are widely used to specify the physical dimension of workspaces, equipment, furniture and clothing. This is especially true for school children, which spend most of their time sitting at their chairs and desks and ought to be able to adopt comfortable body postures.
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This study investigates the optimum grip span relative to an individual's hand anthropometry (ROGS) for an isometric power grip exertion. Maximum voluntary isometric grip force (MVGF), muscular activity (EMG) and subjective rating (SR) were used as criteria. Two complementary experiments were conducted. In both experiments, nine different widths of span, separated with 0.5 cm intervals, were tested across 12 subjects. The span size was a function of one's modified thumb crotch length (TCLm). In the first experiment, the grip spans were tested as a function of MVGF and SR. The results of this experiment indicate TCLm-2 as the ROGS. The SR was also supportive of this result. In the second experiment, EMG at a constant force (30% MVGF) was evaluated as a function of the grip span. The EMG based efficiency coefficients indicate TCLm-2.5 as the optimum span, resulting in the least muscular activity. Based on the analysis of MVGF, EMG and SR, the ROGS is in the interval, TCLm-2.5⩽ROGS⩽TCLm-2, indicating a precise location of optimum grip span as a function of one's TCLm. This result suggests that hand-powered tools with two-handles should be designed for adjustability as a function of TCLm.Relevance to industryExcessive grip force exertion is one of the most important factors contributing to the occurrence of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders, in addition to reducing workers’ productivity. This study suggests a new tool design criterion for minimizing unnecessary effort and increasing productivity.
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Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) of the upper extremities are one of the major ergonomics areas of research. Pinching is a common risk factor associated with the development of hand/wrist CTDs. The capacity standards of peak pinch strength for various postures are needed to design the tasks in harmony with the workers. This paper describes the formulation, building and comparison of pinch strength prediction models that were obtained using two approaches: Statistical and artificial neural networks (ANN). Statistical and ANN models were developed to predict the peak chuck pinch strength as a function of different combinations of five elbow and seven shoulder flexion angles, and several anthropometric and physiological variables. The two modeling approaches were compared. The results indicate ANN models to provide more accurate predictions over the standard statistical models.
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An anthropometric survey measuring 18 dimensions of the right hand in 37 female rural farm workers living in Ibadan, western Nigeria was conducted. The means, standard deviations and percentile values are reported for these. The means of the collected data are compared with those for females from the UK, from Hong Kong and from America, using data from other published studies. The results suggest that the Nigerian female hand is wider and thicker, but shorter than that of their foreign counterparts. Such differences have implications for design and evaluation of hand tools for the Nigerian female population.
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Data on the physical dimension of the hand of Indian women are scanty. This information is necessary to ascertain human-machine compatibility in the design of manual systems for the bare and gloved hand, such as design and sizing of hand tools, controls, knobs and other applications in different kinds of precision and power grips. The present study was undertaken to generate hand anthropometric data of 95 women, working in informal industries (beedi, agarbatti and garment making). Fifty one hand measurements of the right hand (lengths, breadths, circumferences, depths, spreads and clearances of hand and fingers) were taken, using anthropometric sliding and spreading calipers, measuring tape and handgrip strength dynamometer. The data were statistically analyzed to determine the normality of data and the percentile values of different hand dimensions, and simple and multiple regression analysis were done to determine better predictors of hand length and grip strength. The hand breadths, circumferences and depths were approximately normally distributed, with some deviation in case of the finger lengths. Hand length was significantly correlated with the fist, wrist and finger circumferences. The fist and wrist circumferences, in combination, were better predictors of hand length. The hand lengths, breadths and depths, including finger joints of the Indian women studied were smaller than those of American, British and West Indian women. The hand circumferences of the Indian women were also smaller than the American women. Grip strengths of Indian women (20.36 +/- 3.24 kg) were less than those of American, British and West Indian women. Grip strength was found to be statistically significant with hand dimensions, such as hand height perpendicular to wrist crease (digit 5), proximal interphalangeal joint breadth (digit 3) and hand spread across wedge 1. The women who are forced to frequently use cutters, strippers and other tools, which are not optimally designed to their hand dimensions and strength range, might have higher prevalence of clinical symptoms and disorders of the hand. In view of the human hand-tool interface requirements, the present data on Indian women would be useful for ergo-design applications of hand tools and devices.
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In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal drawn equipment and tractor or power operated machinery are extensively used for various farm operations. These equipment are operated and controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the design of farm equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. So far the anthropometric data of industrial workers were used for the farm workers and only limited data of farm workers are available for use in farm machinery design. Forty six body dimensions were identified and anthropometric dimensions of male and female agricultural workers were measured and analysed. The commonality of both the sexes in the design of farm implements and machinery was assessed. Mathematical modelling of the body dimensions was done and the relationship between standing height and other body dimensions were established.
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An anthropometric study of a sample of 40 male adults of Bangladesh origin (mean age = 41.3yr), living in the United States at present but who spent most of their lives in Bangladesh was conducted. Twenty-four dimensions were measured on the right hand together with a few other arm dimensions, body weight, and age. A standard digital sliding caliper was used to measure the hand dimensions; to 0.01 mm. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, 1st, 5th, 50th, and 90th, 95th and 99th percentiles) are given for each dimension. Comparisons are made with published data from other populations (Vietnamese and Mexicans). T-tests revealed that the size of the male Bangladesh hand was smaller than the male Mexican hand in most dimensions but bore few differences from the male Vietnamese hand. These results have implications for the design of gloves, industrial hand tools and other manual devices.
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A survey was conducted to collect the anthropometric dimensions of male farmers in the north eastern region of India in age group of 20–30 years. Thirty-three anthropometric dimensions were measured from 280 male farmers belonging to 7 states of the region. Range, mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 5th, 50th and 95th percentile for each anthropometric dimension were calculated for the entire region. Variation in body dimensions of farm youth among 7 states of the region were studied by comparing the mean values of body dimensions for each state of the region. Further, the anthropometric dimensions of farm youths of the north eastern region were compared with those of the northern, central, eastern, southern and western regions of India and it was found that the farm youth of the north eastern region had most of the body dimensions lower than those from other regions except southern and eastern regions of India. The anthropometric dimensions of youth of the north eastern region of India were also compared with those of China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, Germany, Britain and the USA. It was found that all the dimensions were lower than those from other parts of the world.
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Biomechanical principles indicate that the risk of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) can be mitigated by designing tools to reduce manual effort. Specifically, research suggests that handle design should be based on anthropometric considerations. A laboratory study was designed to evaluate the effects of handle diameter on manual effort during a simulated industrial task. Three handle diameters were studied: (1) a handle matched to inside grip diameter, (2) a handle 1.0 cm smaller than inside grip diameter, and (3) a handle 1.0 cm larger than inside grip diameter. The task was performed against three levels of resistance. Applied grip force and surface electromyography (EMG) of select forearm muscles were recorded. The results indicate that grip strength was maximized by the smaller handle. Grip strength was also greater with the matched handle than with the larger handle. There were no differences in grip force exerted with different handles during the experiment. However, because the smaller handle provided the greatest capacity for exerting grip force, effort was reduced when the smaller handle was used. Forearm muscle activity was also reduced when the smaller handle was used. The study indicates handles 1.0 cm smaller than the user's inside grip diameter may reduce effort and the potential for injury.
Article
Twenty-four dimensions of the right hand were measured in 30 female and 41 male Americans of Vietnamese origin. The mean, standard deviation, range; and 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values of each measurement are tabulated. The means of the female measurements are also compared with the means of the corresponding measurements in females from Hong Kong, United Kingdom, United States, and Japan - using data from other published studies.
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Studies of grip strength typically examine maximum force during a single repetition, but this type of exertion is relatively rare in the workplace, where tasks frequently involve repeated forceful dynamic grasping or prolonged static holding. This study examined grip strength and endurance in three experiments: single-repetition, 10-repetition, and 30-second static hold. The relationships between anthropometric variation and grip performance were assessed for 51 individuals, aged 18–33. Measurements of the forearm and hand were found to be better predictors of grip strength than were height and weight. The ability to predict strength was most accurate for the single-repetition, and then declined with increasing duration of the experiment. Compared to univariate measurements, multivariate analysis (principal components) slightly improved the ability to predict absolute grip force. In contrast to strength, anthropometric variation was completely unassociated with relative grip endurance (percent change in force production). While larger males produced greater average grip force than did females, no significant differences existed between the genders in measures of relative endurance. The dominant hand was significantly stronger than the opposite hand, but also fatigued more rapidly. This trend was more pronounced in females than in males.Relevance to industryGrip strength and relative endurance may both contribute to the risk of work-related accidents and cumulative musculoskeletal injury. Because grip force and endurance are unrelated, ergonomists should consider which factor is most important and appropriate for their design and research goals.
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The Industrially Developing Countries (IDC) today, to a great extent, depend on Industrialized Countries (IC) for the supply of most industrial goods. An attempt has been made to ascertain the degree of design incompatibility experienced by users of these imported goods due to differences in the body sizes of people in producer and user countries. A comparative study of variations in body sizes is made from data available in literature and from anthropometric surveys. The results reveal differences in almost every part of the human body. The need for reliable anthropometric data in respect of IDC is stressed. Urgent measures are required to introduce changes in equipment, particularly for the benefit of users in IDC.
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This study conducted anthropometric measurements among 1805 Filipino workers in 31 manufacturing industries. Anthropometric data were measured for standing, sitting, hand and foot dimensions, breadth and circumference of the various body parts, and grip strength. The workplace assessment survey was also done among respondents coming from the subject population to look into the common work and health problems that may be associated with ergonomic hazards at work. The data gathered can be applied for the ergonomic design of workstations, personal protective equipment, tools, interface systems, and furniture that aid in providing a safer, more productive, and user-friendly workplace for the Filipino working population. This is the first ever comprehensive anthropometric measurement of Filipino manufacturing workers in the country which is seen as a significant contribution to the Filipino labor force who are increasingly employed by both domestic and foreign multinationals.
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This paper outlines the importance of ergonomics in engineering design. It describes some of the cost benefits and principles underlying the application of ergonomics. The practical impact of the latter has become increasingly important in the light of European directives which are likely to have a substantial impact on the way engineers design. Three ergonomics case studies are described, the first two illustrate ways of identifying costs of poor ergonomics and the cost benefits of redesign using ergonomics principles. The third illustrates work which led to engineers redesigning assembly line workstations and ergonomics becoming an important part of manufacturing design. The background to this was concern about an increase in cases of Upper Limb Disorders (ULDs) and recognition that ergonomic advice was needed to find the source of problems and help in finding design options. Ergonomists were brought in and helped in identifying problems with workstations and tools. Final designs were developed by the company's own engineers based on the ergonomic study and reduced incidence of ULDs has been reported. Photographs showing examples before and after redesign can be found in the Health and Safety Executive's notes of guidance published in 1990, and some issues surrounding the nature of the detailed design solutions are discussed here. The impact of the ergonomics contribution resulted in engineers being trained in ergonomics so that it could be implemented on a routine basis throughout the site.
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Human laterality is considered to be one of the most important issues in human factors engineering. In this context, hand anthropometric data can help in the proper designing of hand tools for better efficiency and less human fatigue. In the present study hand dimensions of right- and left-handed individuals were collected based on Jordanian subjects. Results indicated that there were significant differences in hand measurements between right- and left-handed individuals as well as between males and females subjects. Percentile values for right-handed, left-handed, males and females subjects were also calculated. It was found that the hand tools should be designed separately to fit left and right handers. Further, where precise control is needed, hand tools should be designed separately to fit the hand of males and females.Relevance to IndustryHand anthropometric data have indicated differences between right- and left-handed individual and between males and females. This finding should affect the hand tool design. Accordingly, designers of the hand tool for Middle East market in general and for Jordan markets in particular should take these findings into consideration.
Article
In this paper, handles for two commonly used hand tools, the chisel and the off-set pliers, are designed using ergonomic principles. These were sized for both males and females falling in the 5th percentile, 50th percentile and 95th percentile groupings. The stresses developed in the ergonomically designed chisel handle while in use were analysed to verify the validity of the design. This chisel handle was then manufactured, and preliminary evaluation using electromyography was conducted. In these tests, the stresses exerted on the flexor and extensor muscles of the arm were measured and compared with those obtained during the use of a conventional handle. Under similar working conditions, results clearly showed that the ergonomically designed handle allows higher working efficiency than existing handles.
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The major goal of this investigation was to collect statistically-based anthropometry describing the kinematics of the human hand and to model this anthropometry as a function of external hand measurements, so that it may be predicted noninvasively. Joint centres were anatomically estimated as the centre of curvature of the head of the bone proximal to the given joint. Joint centres determined using Reuleaux's method for PIP and DIP were within 1.4 mm of this anatomical estimate. Models using bone length as the independent variable explain more than 97% of the variability in the anatomically estimated joint centre position along the mid-line of the bone. Models for estimating the lengths of the kinematic segments using external hand length as the independent variable account for between 49 and 99% of the variability in segment length. Models for estimating the axial location of the finger MCP and thumb CMC joints with respect to the distal wrist crease using external hand length as the independent variable account for between 82 and 96% of the variability in these locations. Models for estimating the radio-ulnar location of the finger MCP and thumb CMC joints with respect to the long axis of the third metacarpal using external hand breadth as the independent variable account for between 30 and 74% of the variability in these locations.
Article
The maximal force from each of the fingers II-V (FF) and the resultant force between the jaws of the tool (RF), due to contribution from all fingers, were measured using a pair of modified pairs. The RF was measured at 21 handle separations and the FF was measured at seven handle separations for each finger. A traditional grip type was compared with a 'reversed' grip where the little finger was closest to the head of the tool. Sixteen subjects (8 females and 8 males) participated in the study. Both the RF and FF varied according to the distance between the handles. For both grip types, the highest RF was obtained at a handle separation of 50-60 mm for females and 55-65 mm for males. For wide handle separations, the RF was reduced by 10% (cm increase in handle separation). The force-producing ability of the hand was influenced by the grip type and the highest RF was obtained when using the traditional grip. An interaction was found between the fingers, i.e., the maximal force of one finger depended not only on its own grip span, but also on the grip spans of the other fingers. About 35% of the sex difference in hand strength was due to hand size differences.
Article
Incorrect hand tool designs can cause a variety of cumulative trauma disorders. Design elements of size, shape, texture, purpose, ease of operation, shock absorption, and weight must be properly applied in the design process to fulfill the physical safety needs of consumers and working people and to prevent the appearance of pathologic changes in the tissues of the hand and wrist.
Article
Recent studies of the anthropometry and selected biomechanical characteristics of hands are summarized. These include: (1) conventional anthropometry of male and female hands, (2) the anthropometry of the relaxed hand, (3) comparison of certain engineering anthropometric and performance parameters between bare and pressure-gloved hands, and (4) the ability to retain grips on selected handles under high dynamic loads. The utility of these data for human factors engineering is discussed.
Article
An anthropometric study of the hand dimensions of Hong Kong Chinese female workers was carried out using 100 subjects. Twenty-three hand dimensions were measured and compared with data from the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States of America. The Hong Kong Chinese had overall smaller hands than the United Kingdom and the United States of America females and larger hands than Japanese females. Comparisons were also made between the Hong Kong Chinese and United Kingdom females on the basis of age and ethnic group. In every case where a significant difference occurred the Hong Kong females had shorter, narrower hands with longer fingers than all other groups.
Article
An anthropometric study of Hong Kong Chinese female hands was carried out using 100 subjects. The 24 hand measurements that were taken were those thought to be of special importance for the design of machinery and machine guards. The dimensions were checked against three internationally used machine-guarding standards, namely the British Standard BS3402:1971, the ILO recommendations (CIS Information Sheet No. 10, December 1964) and the German Standard DIN 31001, Part 1,1976. It was found that Hong Kong female workers were protected by the British Standard but some caution should be exercised when applying standards based on European hand dimensions to other populations.
Article
An anthropometric study of female workers' hand dimensions was carried out using 92 subjects. Three ethnic groups, Western Europeans. Indian and West Indian were identified arid compared. There were no significant differences between European and Indian groups. There were significant differences between West Indian and Indian and West Indian and European groups.Fifty-one West Europeans, 21 Indians (from the Punjab) and 20 West Indians were included in the study.
Article
This paper deals with the problem of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) through investigations of both biomechanical and epidemiological data on seventeen high risk jobs. Biomechanical data were collected from continuous recording of prehension muscular efforts and wrist angular flexion-extension positions for each hand. In order to characterize both static and dynamic behaviours of signals, nine angle and four force indices were built for each hand. The epidemiological data evaluated the probability to contract the CTS (prevalence) on the dominant hand, the non-dominant hand, and both hands simultaneously. Biomechanical and epidemiological data were evaluated using multiple correspondence factor analysis which may consider heterogeneous variables to clarify non-linear relations in a very large data set. The CTS occurred twice more frequently on the two hands together (average 20%) than on the dominant hand alone. Such a result confirmed the outcome of other studies that non-occupational factors could be more important than occupational factors. The prevalence for both hands was highly correlated with the frequency of flexion and use of high forces. High or low flexions appeared to be a greater risk factor than high or low extensions.
Article
This paper examines the effects of two glove conditions and selected handle and task characteristics on tightening (clockwise) torques on cylindrical handles in simulated oil rig tasks. Ten males exerted MVC torques with the right hand on nine handles with different length-diameter combinations (3.8, 7.6, and 12.7 cm in length with 3.8, 6.7, and 8.4 cm in diameter) with dry and grease-smeared gloves in two orientations. The results showed a 50% reduction of torque when using grease-smeared glove compared to dry glove; a 15% increase with the long handle compared to the short one; a 25% increase with the medium diameter handle compared to the small one; and a 12% increase with the horizontally oriented handle compared with the vertical one. There were important interaction effects also.
Article
In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design.
Article
This study describes a method for sizing mittens based upon an analysis of the user populations and the hand measurements of these users. New anatomically designed military mittens were developed according to the users' requirements and ergonomic and physiological requirements of dexterity and heat balance. A statistical study of anthropometrical hand measures of the intended users lead to the choice of hand length and hand circumference as the basis for a new sizing system. The mittens were tested in two sizes in large wear trials. These two sizes fitted well to the test group - i e, young conscripts. If the whole adult population is considered, probably two more sizes would be needed.
Article
A questionnaire was mailed to various federal and state agencies in the United States to determine the frequency, severity and annual cost of handtool-related injuries in industry and to identify problem areas with regard to tool type, accident type, nature of injury, parts of body affected, type of industry and characteristics of the injured worker. The responses of various state and regional agencies were tabulated and analysed. This paper summarises the findings.
Article
In medico-legal autopsies, establishing personal identity of the victims is often required. Estimation of stature from extremities and their parts plays an important role in identifying the dead in forensic examinations. The study examines the relationship between stature and dimensions of hands and feet among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh -- a North Indian endogamous group. The purpose for understanding these examinations was the paucity in the literature of studies that allow the reconstruction of stature from various dimensions of hands and feet amongst Rajputs. Hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 246 subjects comprising 123 males and 123 females ranging in age from 17 to 20 years were taken independently on left and right side of each individual. Statistical analyses indicated that the bilateral variation was insignificant for all the measurements except hand breadth in both the sexes (P<0.01). Sex differences were found to be highly significant for all the measurements (P<0.01). Linear and multiple regression equations for stature estimation were calculated using the above mentioned variables. The correlation coefficients between stature and all the measurements of hands and feet were found to be positive and statistically significant. The highest correlation coefficient between stature and foot length and lowest SEE (standard error of estimate) indicate that the foot length provides highest reliability and accuracy in estimating stature of an unknown individual. The regression equations were checked for their accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual stature.
Hand anthropometry in a sample of Mexicans in the US Mexico border region
  • S N Imrhan
  • M G Contreras
Imrhan, S.N., Contreras, M.G., 2005. Hand anthropometry in a sample of Mexicans in the US Mexico border region. In: Proceedings of the XIX Annual Occupational Ergonomics and Safety Conference, Las Vegas, NE, pp. 589-593.
Designing Safety into Products Making Ergonomics Evaluation a Part of the Design Process
  • B J Norris
  • J R Wilson
Norris, B.J., Wilson, J.R., 1997. Designing Safety into Products Making Ergonomics Evaluation a Part of the Design Process. The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
Ergonomics and equipment design. NATO conference series, Series III: ergonomic data for equipment design
  • Schmidtke
Schmidtke, H., 1984. Ergonomics and equipment design. NATO conference series, Series III: ergonomic data for equipment design. Human Factors 25, 19-23.
Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand
  • B Bucholz
  • T J Armstrong
  • S A Goldstein
Bucholz, B., Armstrong, T.J., Goldstein, S.A., 1992. Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand. Ergonomics 35, 261-273.
Hand anthropometry of Indian woman
  • A Nag
  • P K Nag
  • H Desia
Nag, A., Nag, P.K., Desia, H., 2003. Hand anthropometry of Indian woman. Indian Journal of Medical Research 117, 260-269.
Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand
  • Bucholz