Negative-reinforcement drinking motives mediate the relation between anxiety sensitivity and increased drinking behavior

ArticleinPersonality and Individual Differences 31(2):157-171 · July 2001with 288 Reads
Abstract
We examined whether certain “risky” drinking motives mediate the previously established relation between elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and increased drinking behavior in college student drinkers (n=109 women, 73 men). Specifically, we administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Revised Drinking Motives Questionnaire, and a quantity-frequency measure of typical drinking levels. Participants were parceled according to high (n=30), moderate (n=29), and low (n=34) AS levels. As expected, high AS participants reported a higher typical weekly drinking frequency than the low and moderate AS students regardless of gender. Similarly, high AS participants (particularly high AS men) reported a higher yearly excessive drinking frequency than low AS students. Only the negative reinforcement motives of Coping and Conformity were found to independently mediate the relations between AS and increased drinking behavior in the total sample. High AS women's greater drinking behavior was largely explained by their elevated Coping Motives, while heightened Conformity Motives explained the increased drinking behavior of high AS men. Finally, associations between AS and increased drinking behavior in university students were largely attributable to the “social concerns” component of the ASI. We discuss the observed relations with respect to the psychological functions of drinking behavior that may portend the development of alcohol problems in young adult high AS men and women.

Do you want to read the rest of this article?

Request full-text
Request Full-text Paper PDF
  • ... While cross-sectional research consistently links AS to alcohol use (e.g., Stewart, Peterson, & Pihl, 1995;Stewart, Zvolensky, & Eifert, 2001), prospective research examining whether AS is a risk factor for alcohol misuse has not consistently supported this relationship. In young adolescents, baseline levels of AS are unrelated to the number of drinks consumed per occasion and to binge drinking at follow up (Jurk et al., 2015;Malmberg et al., 2013), suggesting AS is not a risk factor for alcohol misuse. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a dispositional tendency to respond to one's anxiety sensations with fear. Longstanding theoretical accounts implicate AS in alcohol misuse; however, the relationship between AS and alcohol misuse remains unclear. We addressed this by testing whether AS is a risk factor for, and/or complication of, alcohol misuse by conducting a rigorous meta-analysis using random effect models. Our literature search yielded 15 studies (N = 9459). Studies were included if they used a longitudinal design, assessed AS and alcohol misuse at baseline, and assessed alcohol misuse and/or AS at follow-up. Results failed to support AS as a risk factor for, or complication of, alcohol misuse. Researchers are encouraged to test if the link between AS and alcohol misuse emerges under specific conditions (e.g., elevated state anxiety).
  • ... Si- milarly, the relationship between adult traumata (e.g., partner violence, sexual coercion, etc.) and drug/alcohol problems is mediated by drug use coping motives (Asberg and Renk, 2012;Fossos et al., 2011;Kaysen et al., 2007;Øverup et al., 2015;Ullman et al., 2005). Finally, the re- lationship between adult psychiatric states (including depression and anxiety) and alcohol/drug problems is mediated by drug use coping motives (Dvorak et al., 2014;Gonzalez et al., 2011;Holahan et al., 2001;McDevitt-Murphy et al., 2015;Mooney et al., 2008;O'Hare and Sherrer, 2011;Peirce et al., 1994;Reardon et al., 2002;Schuckit et al., 2006;Simpson et al., 2014;Stewart et al., 2001;Yeater et al., 2010;Young-Wolff et al., 2009). These studies suggest drug use coping mo- tives are a crucial psychological mechanism driving substance depen- dence in vulnerable groups. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background: In adults, it has been shown that the relationship between childhood abuse and substance misuse problems is mediated by the belief that substance use helps cope with negative affective states. By contrast, in adolescents, it is unknown whether drug use coping motives play this same mediating role. Methods: Secondary analysis of 1149 school attending adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa (average age = 16.24 years, range = 13–23; 60% female). Questionnaire measures obtained during a single test session (among a larger battery) assessed childhood trauma (CTQ), alcohol (AUDIT) and drug problems (DUDIT), and coping orientation (A-COPE) which contained three items assessing drug use to cope with negative affect. Results: The three types of childhood abuse measured by the CTQ – emotional, physical and sexual – were positively associated with greater alcohol/drug problems, and drug use coping motives. Drug use coping motives mediated the relationships between childhood abuse types and alcohol/drug problems, and these mediational pathways remained significant when gender and other subscales of the A-COPE were included as covariates. Conclusions: These data are preliminary insofar as drug use coping motives were assessed with a non-validated subscale of the A-COPE. Nevertheless, drug use to cope with negative affect mediated the relationship between all three types of childhood abuse (emotional, physical, sexual) and alcohol/drug problems in school attending adolescents. The implication is that drug prevention programs for this risk group should seek to mitigate drug use coping.
  • ... Consistent with the aforementioned treatments, research commonly suggests that schemas characterised by rigidity and self-judgement are associated with poorer psychoe- motional functioning than are schemas characterised by acceptance, self-validation, flexibility, and openness to emotional experience (Norman & Furnes, 2016). For example, alexithymic trait severity-difficulties in identi- fying and describing emotional content-correlates posi- tively with beliefs that emotional expression is socially harmful, negative expectations about the effects of emo- tional arousal, and general endorsement of maladaptive emotional schemas (Devine, Stewart, & Watt, 1999;Edwards, Micek, Mottarella, & Wupperman, 2017;Müller, Bühner, Ziegler, & Sahin, 2008;Quinton & Wagner, 2005;Sánchez, Larrieux, Rovira, & Ball, 2013;Stewart, Zvolensky, & Eifert, 2001;Zahradnik, Stewart, Marshall, Schell, & Jaycox, 2009;Zeitlin & McNally, 1993). Emotion-regulation difficulties, such as overreli- ance on suppression and avoidance-based regulation strat- egies, are similarly associated with negative expectations about the effects of emotional arousal and expression (Krause, Mendelson, & Lynch, 2003;Quinton & Wagner, 2005;Simpson, Jakupcak, & Luterek, 2006;Stewart et al., 2001). ...
    ... For example, alexithymic trait severity-difficulties in identi- fying and describing emotional content-correlates posi- tively with beliefs that emotional expression is socially harmful, negative expectations about the effects of emo- tional arousal, and general endorsement of maladaptive emotional schemas (Devine, Stewart, & Watt, 1999;Edwards, Micek, Mottarella, & Wupperman, 2017;Müller, Bühner, Ziegler, & Sahin, 2008;Quinton & Wagner, 2005;Sánchez, Larrieux, Rovira, & Ball, 2013;Stewart, Zvolensky, & Eifert, 2001;Zahradnik, Stewart, Marshall, Schell, & Jaycox, 2009;Zeitlin & McNally, 1993). Emotion-regulation difficulties, such as overreli- ance on suppression and avoidance-based regulation strat- egies, are similarly associated with negative expectations about the effects of emotional arousal and expression (Krause, Mendelson, & Lynch, 2003;Quinton & Wagner, 2005;Simpson, Jakupcak, & Luterek, 2006;Stewart et al., 2001). Furthermore, habitual engagement in dysregulated behaviours is associated with endorsement of emotions as uncontrollable, dangerous, and intolerable (Corstorphine, 2006;Manser et al., 2012;Stewart et al., 2001). ...
    ... Emotion-regulation difficulties, such as overreli- ance on suppression and avoidance-based regulation strat- egies, are similarly associated with negative expectations about the effects of emotional arousal and expression (Krause, Mendelson, & Lynch, 2003;Quinton & Wagner, 2005;Simpson, Jakupcak, & Luterek, 2006;Stewart et al., 2001). Furthermore, habitual engagement in dysregulated behaviours is associated with endorsement of emotions as uncontrollable, dangerous, and intolerable (Corstorphine, 2006;Manser et al., 2012;Stewart et al., 2001). ...
    Article
    Background In recent years, the field of emotion research has seen a marked increase in theories and studies of emotional schemas—core beliefs about emotions and emotional experiences. This review serves to organise this growing body of literature, particularly as it relates to clinical practice. Methods The review focuses specifically on literature relevant to emotional schema conceptualisation, aetiology and development, and relation to psychoemotional functioning. Pervasive limitations of past research are highlighted and areas needing further empirical attention are identified. Results Growing evidence attests to the potential clinical implications of emotional schemas. However empirical advancement in this area is impeded by limited theoretical and operational integration across research. Conclusions Through strategic research, the field could begin to build a more universal theoretical framework of emotional schemas. This would greatly improve our ability to research, understand, and therapeutically target a construct that may underlie a broad range of psychopathology.
  • The diagnostic prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in Indian individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has important implications for clinical decision making and for cross-cultural psychiatry research. Here, we present a systematic review of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders in Indian patients with AUDs. We find rates of comorbid mood disorders ranging from 6 to 65% (estimated overall effect from a linear random effects model of 18.0%, 95% CI [5.6, 45.1]) and rates of comorbid anxiety disorders ranging from 0 to 30% (estimated overall effect of 2.4%, 95% CI [0.9, 5.8]) in Indian populations. These findings are placed in the context of estimated population prevalence of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders in US adults with AUDs who have recently sought treatment of 40.7 (95% CI [32.6, 48.7]) and 33.4% (95% CI [25.2, 41.6]), respectively. Potential causes of these differences include differences in diagnosis, in cultural norms around alcohol use and the acceptance of mental health care, and in the types of studies being compared. The findings highlight the importance of systematic assessments of treatment outcomes in local clinical populations as a complement to an understanding of the medical literature from other cultural contexts.
  • ... While cross-sectional research consistently links AS to alcohol use (e.g., Stewart, Peterson, & Pihl, 1995;Stewart, Zvolensky, & Eifert, 2001), prospective research examining whether AS is a risk factor for alcohol misuse has not consistently supported this relationship. In young adolescents, baseline levels of AS are unrelated to the number of drinks consumed per occasion and to binge drinking at follow up (Jurk et al., 2015;Malmberg et al., 2013), suggesting AS is not a risk factor for alcohol misuse. ...
    Article
    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to a dispositional tendency to respond to one’s anxiety sensations with fear. Longstanding theoretical accounts implicate AS in alcohol misuse; however, the relationship between AS and alcohol misuse remains unclear. We addressed this by testing whether AS is a risk factor for, and/or complication of, alcohol misuse by conducting a rigorous meta-analysis using random effect models. Our literature search yielded 15 studies (N = 9,459). Studies were included if they used a longitudinal design, assessed AS and alcohol misuse at baseline, and assessed alcohol misuse and/or AS at follow-up. Results failed to support AS as a risk factor for, or complication of, alcohol misuse. Researchers are encouraged to test if the link between AS and alcohol misuse emerges under specific conditions (e.g., elevated state anxiety).
  • ... Stewart and colleagues (2001) found that AS was linked to increased drinking behavior among both genders, but via dif- ferent mediators (through coping motives for women and conformity motives for men). Our results continue to high- light important gender-specific mediation pathways that pro- vide insights into why increased levels of AS may be linked to alcohol-related outcomes ( Schmidt et al., 2007;Stewart et al., 2001). Specifically, we found that high levels of AS were related to problematic alcohol use through their associ- ation with IC among males. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) reflects an individual's belief that experiencing anxiety will cause illness or embarrassment, and may be a reason individuals self-medicate with alcohol. Harsh or indulgent parenting could contribute to the development of AS. We examined the direct and indirect associations between parenting styles and alcohol-related variables through AS and impaired control over drinking (IC; i.e., perceived failure to adhere to limits on alcohol consumption in the future). Methods: A multiple-group structural equation model with 614 university students (344 men; 270 women) was examined. Structural invariance tests were conducted to evaluate moderation by gender. We used a bias corrected bootstrap technique to obtain the mediated effects. Results: Father authoritarianism and mother permissiveness were directly linked to AS among women, whereas father permissiveness was directly linked to AS among men. This suggests unique parental influences based on gender regarding AS. While AS was directly linked to alcohol-related problems for both men and women, several gender-specific associations were found. AS was directly linked to IC for men but not for women. For men, father permissiveness was directly related to AS, and AS mediated the indirect link between father permissiveness and IC along both the heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems pathways. Similar to other internalizing constructs (e.g., neuroticism and depression), higher AS was directly associated with less heavy episodic drinking but more alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the dangers of AS for men as an important correlate of under-controlled drinking behaviors. Additionally, permissive parenting of the same-gender parent was associated with AS, which is consistent with the gender-matching hypothesis. Together, these results underscore the importance of measuring the independent influence of both parents.
  • ... On a behavioral level, however, we found that state anxiety was significantly correlated with craving related to negative reinforce- ment, an effect that has been demonstrated previously in smok- ers, drinkers, and drug users (19)(20)(21)(22)(23). These finding suggest that state anxiety is very relevant in the development, continuation, and treatment of SUDs, as state anxiety may reduce the ability to regulate emotional responses to cocaine-related cues increasing the risk of relapse. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background and aimsChildhood trauma is associated with increased levels of anxiety later in life, an increased risk for the development of substance use disorders, and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the amygdala and frontostriatal circuitry. The aim of this study was to investigate the (neurobiological) link among childhood trauma, state anxiety, and amygdala-frontostriatal activity in response to cocaine cues in regular cocaine users.Methods In this study, we included 59 non-treatment seeking regular cocaine users and 58 non-drug using controls. Blood oxygenation level-dependent responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a cue reactivity paradigm with cocaine and neutral cues. Psychophysiological interaction analyses were applied to assess functional connectivity between the amygdala and other regions in the brain. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure childhood trauma, state anxiety, drug use, drug use severity, and craving.ResultsNeural activation was increased during the presentation of cocaine cues, in a widespread network including the frontostriatal circuit and amygdala in cocaine users but not in controls. Functional coupling between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex was reduced in response to cocaine cues, in both cocaine users and controls, which was further diminished with increasing state anxiety. Importantly, amygdala-striatal connectivity was positively associated with childhood trauma in regular cocaine users, while there was a negative association in controls. At the behavioral level, state anxiety was positively associated with cocaine use severity and craving related to negative reinforcement.Conclusion Childhood trauma is associated with enhanced amygdala-striatal connectivity during cocaine cue reactivity in regular cocaine users, which may contribute to increased habit behavior and poorer cognitive control. While we cannot draw conclusions on causality, this study provides novel information on how childhood trauma may contribute to the development and persistence of cocaine use disorder.
  • ... Many students felt that substance use was not associ- ated with mental health issues for everyone but rather depended on the individual, the type and quantity/frequency of use, and reasons for use. Students' awareness of these moderating factors represents a high level of understanding, given that indi- vidual differences and the motives underlying one's substance use have been described as determinants of substance use outcomes in the empirical literature (Stewart et al., 2001;von Sydow, Lieb, Pfister, H?fler, & Wittchen, 2002;Woicik, Stewart, Pihl, & Conrod, 2009). Students' knowledge of the depen- dent nature of links between substance use and mental health suggests that some of them are aware of the complexities of this relationship. ...
    Article
    There is a consensus among addictions researchers and clinicians that mental health concerns and substance use problems are often interrelated. It is less clear to what extent the general public, and university students in particular, understand connections between substance use and mental health. The current study aimed to understand university students’ perceived links between substance use and mental health by conducting three semistructured focus groups (N = 24 participants, 67% female). Thematic analysis of the data yielded five themes: (1) Students use substances to cope with mental health issues, (2) substance use can lead to mental health problems, (3) links between mental health and substance use are cyclical, (4) substance use is an aspect/indicator of mental health, and (5) substance use and mental health are not always linked. Findings provide insight into the understudied area of perceived links between substance use and mental health and have implications for campus programming.
  • ... Drinking to cope may therefore mediate the relationship between neurotic personality and alcohol use/abuse. Stewart, Zvolensky, and Eifert (2001) previously demonstrated that coping motives mediated the relationship between AS and both (1) weekly drinking frequency, and (2) yearly excessive drinking frequency, in undergraduate students. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Rates of alcohol abuse are high on Canadian postsecondary campuses. Individual trait differences have been linked to indices of alcohol use/misuse, including neurotic traits like anxiety sensitivity (AS) and hopelessness (HOP). We know little, though, about how these traits confer vulnerability. AS and HOP are related to anxiety and depression, respectively, and to drinking to cope with symptoms of those disorders. Neurotic personality may therefore increase risk of alcohol use/abuse via (1) emotional disorder symptoms and/or (2) coping drinking motives. Objectives: Allan and colleagues (2014) found chained mediation through AS-generalized anxiety-coping motives-alcohol problems and AS-depression-coping motives-alcohol problems. We sought to expand their research by investigating how emotional disorder symptoms (anxiety, depression) and specific coping motives (drinking to cope with anxiety, depression) may sequentially mediate the AS/HOP-to-hazardous alcohol use/drinking harms relationships among university students. Methods: This study used cross-sectional data collected in Fall 2014 as part of the Movember-funded Caring Campus Project (N = 1,883). The survey included the SURPS, adapted DMQ-R SF, and AUDIT-3. Results: AS and HOP were both related to hazardous alcohol and drinking harms via emotional disorder symptoms and, in turn, coping drinking motives. All indirect pathways incorporating both mediators were statistically significant, and additional evidence of partial specificity was found. Conclusions/Importance: The study's results have important implications for personality-matched interventions for addictive disorders.
  • Article
    The current study examined perceived control over anxiety as a moderator in the relationship between AS and (1) alcohol use frequency and (2) binge drinking frequency among 80 community-recruited adolescents (Mage = 15.40; 40% female). Eighty-five percent of adolescents reported consuming an alcohol beverage, while 39.5% reported binge drinking. Results indicated significant interactions between AS and perceived control. More specifically, when perceived control was low, higher anxiety sensitivity was related to increased frequency of alcohol use days, but not with binge drinking days. Alternatively, when perceived control over anxiety was high, elevated anxiety sensitivity was associated with a decreased in binge drinking days, but not with alcohol use days. Findings suggest that influence of perceived control over anxiety may be another important, malleable factor that should be considered in future etiological and intervention-oriented work targeting anxiety sensitivity and alcohol misuse among adolescence.
  • Article
    The Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) is one of the most widely used measures of the construct of anxiety sensitivity. Until the recent introduction of a hierarchical model of the ASI by S. O. Lilienfeld, S. M. Turner, and R. G. Jacob (1993), the factor structure of the ASI was the subject of debate, with some researchers advocating a unidimensional structure and others proposing multidimensional structures. In the present study, involving 432 outpatients seeking treatment at an anxiety disorders clinic and 32 participants with no mental disorder, the authors tested a hierarchical factor model. The results supported a hierarchical factor structure consisting of 3 lower order factors and 1 higher order factor. It is estimated that the higher order, general factor accounts for 60% of the variance in ASI total scores. The implications of these findings for the conceptualization and assessment of anxiety sensitivity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Aims. To examine the consistency and/or variability of gender differences in drinking behavior cross-culturally. Design, setting, participants. Women's and men's responses in 16 general population surveys from 10 countries, analyzed by members of the International Research Group on Gender and Alcohol. Measurements. Comparable measures of drinking, versus abstention, typical drinking frequencies and quantities, heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, morning drinking, and alcohol-related family and occupational problems. Findings. Women and men differed little in the probability of currently drinking versus abstaining, but men consistently exceeded women in typical drinking frequencies and quantities and in rates of heavy drinking episodes and adverse drinking consequences, while women were consistently more likely than;men to be life-time abstainers. In older age groups, both men and women drank smaller quantities of alcohol,and were more likely to stop drinking altogether, but drinking frequencies did nor change consistently with age. Conclusions. A theoretical synthesis proposes that gender roles may amplify biological differences in;reactions to alcohol, and that gender differences in drinking behavior may be modified by macrosocial factors that modify gender role contrasts.
  • Article
    Objective. —To examine the extent of binge drinking by college students and the ensuing health and behavioral problems that binge drinkers create for themselves and others on their campus.Design. —Self-administered survey mailed to a national representative sample of US 4-year college students.Setting. —One hundred forty US 4-year colleges in 1993.Participants. —A total of 17592 college students.Main Outcome Measures. —Self-reports of drinking behavior, alcohol-related health problems, and other problems.Results. —Almost half (44%) of college students responding to the survey were binge drinkers, including almost one fifth (19%) of the students who were frequent binge drinkers. Frequent binge drinkers are more likely to experience serious health and other consequences of their drinking behavior than other students. Almost half (47%) of the frequent binge drinkers experienced five or more different drinking-related problems, including injuries and engaging in unplanned sex, since the beginning of the school year. Most binge drinkers do not consider themselves to be problem drinkers and have not sought treatment for an alcohol problem. Binge drinkers create problems for classmates who are not binge drinkers. Students who are not binge drinkers at schools with higher binge rates were more likely than students at schools with lower binge rates to experience problems such as being pushed, hit, or assaulted or experiencing an unwanted sexual advance.Conclusions. —Binge drinking is widespread on college campuses. Programs aimed at reducing this problem should focus on frequent binge drinkers, refer them to treatment or educational programs, and emphasize the harm they cause for students who are not binge drinkers.(JAMA. 1994;272:1672-1677)
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Two studies were designed to establish whether high anxiety sensitive (AS) university students selectively process threat cues pertaining to their feared catastrophic consequences of anxiety, and to examine potential gender differences in the selective processing of such threat cues among high versus low AS subjects. Forty students (20 M; 20 F) participated in Study 1. Half were high AS and half low AS, according to scores on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). Subjects completed a computerised Stroop colournaming task involving social/psychological threat (e.g. EMBARRASS; CRAZY), physical threat (e.g. CORONARY; SUFFOCATED), and neutral (e.g. MOTEL; TOWEL) target words. High AS subjects demonstrated more threat-related interference in colour-naming than did low AS subjects, overall. High AS menevidencedgreater interference relative to low AS men only for the social/psychological threat stimuli; highAS women evidencedgreater interference relative to low AS women only for the physical threat stimuli. Study 2 was designed to replicate and extend the novel Study 1 finding of a cognitive bias favouring the processing of social/psychological threat cues among high AS men. Participants were 20 male university students (10 high AS; 10 low AS). In addition to social/psychological threat, physical threat, and neutral words, a category of positive emotional words (e.g. HAPPINESS; CELEBRATION) was included as a supplementary control on the Stroop. Consistent with Study 1, high AS males evidenced greater Stroop interference than did low AS males, but only for social/psychological threat words. No AS group differences in Stroop interference were revealed for the physical threat or positive words. Clinical implications, and potential theoretical explanations for the gender differences, are discussed.
  • Article
    The purpose of the present study was to place drinking motives within the context of the Five-Factor Model of personality. Specifically, we sought to determine whether certain personality domains and facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) predict Enhancement, Coping, Social, and/or Conformity drinking motives from the Revised Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R). A sample of 256 university student drinkers (M age =21.3 years) completed the NEO-PI-R and DMQ-R. In bivariate correlations, the two negative reinforcement motives (Coping and Conformity) were positively correlated with Neuroticism and negatively correlated with Extraversion. The two positive reinforcement motives (Enhancement and Social) were positively correlated with Extraversion and negatively correlated with Conscientiousness. Multiple regression analyses revealed that personality domain scores predicted two of the four drinking motives (i.e. the internal drinking motives of Coping and Enhancement), after controlling for the influences of alternative drinking motives. Enhancement Motives were predicted by high Extraversion and low Conscientiousness, and Coping Motives by high Neuroticism. Supplementary correlational analyses involving certain personality facet scores revealed that the depression and self-consciousness facets of the Neuroticism domain were positively correlated with residual Coping and Conformity Motives, respectively, and that the excitement-seeking and gregariousness facets of the Extraversion domain were positively correlated with residual Enhancement and Social Motives, respectively. These results provide further validation of Cox and Klinger’s 2×2 (valence [positive vs negative reinforcement]×source [internal vs external]) model of drinking motivations, and confirm previous speculations that drinking motives are distinguishable on the basis of personality domains and facets. Understanding the relations between personality and drinking motives may prove useful in identifying young drinkers whose drinking motivations may portend the development of heavy and/or problem drinking.