Article

User satisfaction and product development in urban tourism

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

The paper examines how greater understanding of the satisfaction of users with the tourism products in cities and elsewhere may improve planning for the development of these products. First, there is discussion of how a place marketing framework assists in understanding this connection. Second, a review is provided of aspects of user satisfaction with tourism products in cities which may be measured in surveys in order to assist in the planned development of these products. Lastly, survey results are reported for selected aspects of satisfaction with tourism products in the city of Sheffield, UK, and the implications of these findings are evaluated for tourism planning in the city. The surveys examined views about a range of Sheffield's tourism products for visitors and residents and also for one market segment, sport event visitors. The findings are assessed for implications for the planned development of the city's tourism products.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... A routine of subjects has confirmed a significant positive relationship between client satisfaction and commitment/retention (Anderson & Sullivan, 1993;Cronin, Brady & Hunt, 2000). In line with other empirical studies, evidences of tourist satisfaction are a strong indicator of their intentions to revisit and recommend the destination to other people (Yao & Shun, 1990;Ross 1993;Juaneda 1996;Bramwell, 1998;Kozak & Rimmington, 2000;Kozak, 2001;Yoon & Uysal, 2005). ...
... To sum up, this explains that travel experience is an important factor that may influence tourist satisfaction and the desire to return. In contrast, if a destination has successfully attracted tourists, but they fail to have enjoyed trips or good travel experiences at the destination, it is unlikely that they will revisit the destination or recommend it to others (Bramwell, 1998). ...
... In the tourism industry, there are empirical evidences that tourist's satisfaction is a strong indicator of their intentions to revisit and recommend the destination to other people (Yao and Shun, 1990;Ross 1993;Juaneda 1996;Bramwell, 1998;Kozak & Rimmington, 2000;Kozak, 2001;Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Tourists are more likely to come back to the same terminus, and are more willing to share their positive traveling experience with their friends and relatives. ...
... Isso sugere que a experiência de viagem é um fator importante que pode influenciar a satisfação do turista e o desejo de retornar. Em contraste, se um destino atrai turistas com sucesso, mas eles não conseguem ter viagens agradáveis ou boas experiências de viagem no destino, é improvável que revisitem o destino ou o recomendem a outras pessoas (Bramwell, 1998 ;Postma & Jenkins, 1997). Isso, por sua vez, pode levar ao fracasso do desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços (Bramwell, 1998 ;Chiu et al. , 2016). ...
... Em contraste, se um destino atrai turistas com sucesso, mas eles não conseguem ter viagens agradáveis ou boas experiências de viagem no destino, é improvável que revisitem o destino ou o recomendem a outras pessoas (Bramwell, 1998 ;Postma & Jenkins, 1997). Isso, por sua vez, pode levar ao fracasso do desenvolvimento de produtos e serviços (Bramwell, 1998 ;Chiu et al. , 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Hospitality in tourist destinations plays a fundamental role in promoting tourism. Assuming that the tourist must leave the destination visited with a successful experience. In line with this assumption, we seek to understand how hospitality contributes to the quality of services to the detriment of a positive generation of the travel experience. This article aims to analyze the scientific production of thematic hospitality in tourist destinations. As a methodology, studies were selected from the scientific database SCOPUS, using keywords that covered this theme: “hospitality in the tourist destination and experience”. From the analysis of these articles, it is concluded that hospitality, in its most varied aspects, is intrinsic in the tourist activity, being in the reception and / or in the provision of services, playing an essential role in generating a positive experience for tourists on their trip. It was identified as a gap in this study, in this specific database, the lack of theoretical depth of these dimensions of hospitality, as well as the absence of models of hospitality with applicability in the tourist destination. However, if you have as a suggestion for future studies, investigations that measure hospitality in its most varied aspects and that present validated and applicable theoretical / practical models for the tourist activity as a whole.
... Le second concerne les impacts (socio-économiques et environnementaux) associés à la croissance du tourisme dans les villes (Law 1992 ;Macdonald 2000 ;Alexa et Cuza 2010 ;Rogerson 2013 ;García-Hernández, de la Calle-Vaquero, et Yubero 2017). Quant au troisième, il est axé sur l'exploration de la demande touristique, l'étude des motivations et la compréhension des perceptions : profils, attentes et comportements, etc. (Jansen-Verbeke 1986;Bramwell 1998 ;Boivin et Tanguay 2019 ;Chebli, Chabou Othmani, et Ben Said 2020). Les travaux précédents se sont concentrés sur une approche très divisée de l'attractivité touristique des villes, alors qu'une destination touristique est un système complexe (Lee, Ou, et Huang 2009 ;Lee, Chen, et Huang 2016). ...
... Le tourisme urbain est flexible, il évolue en fonction des propriétés de l'urbain (audace, civilité et compétence spatiale, sérendipité, etc.) (Coëffé 2010 , Koens, Postma, et Papp 2018. Par conséquent, la ville est consommée touristiquement par trois groupes de clients : les touristes, les excursionnistes et les clients locaux (Bramwell 1998). Il apparaît donc crucial d'intégrer la dimension touristique dans la stratégie de planification urbaine, pour une cohésion globale (Jan et al. 2010), car un développement incontrôlé du tourisme urbain peut entraîner un dysfonctionnement des villes concernées (Rogerson 2002 ;Rogerson 2013). ...
Thesis
The main objective of this thesis is to develop a decision support tool for public managers in the planning process of a tourism attractiveness program in cities. To carry out this conception, we developed a research protocol using two methodologies that have proven their worth in the management sciences. A grounded theory approach allowed us to establish an integrative conceptual framework to identify all the essential elements for the multi-criteria analysis of the tourism attractiveness system, which constitutes the second part of our research protocol. These elements contribute to the attractiveness of tourism to varying degrees and are not of equal importance within this system. The relative importance of these elements was assessed by a panel of experts using the Hierarchical Process Analysis (HPA) method, where each element was weighted by a coefficient (relative weight). The applicability of the tool was then verified in the city of Constantine, where an index of the city's tourist attractiveness was determined. Finally, strategic recommendations for the development of an operational action plan for the city were defined from the results obtained, giving the model real utility. The main theoretical contribution of this work lies in the proposal of an integrative conceptual framework of tourism attractiveness based on a systemic approach that takes into account its complexity. A generic conceptual model of tourism attractiveness is thus proposed, suggesting that the development of attractiveness depends on the interaction between five subsystems, namely: Demande Touristique (DR), Marketing de Communication Intégré (MCI), Gouvernance et Planification du Touristique (GPT), Gestion durable des risques (GDR) and Matières Premières Touristiques (MPT). From a managerial point of view, the results clarify the elements that stimulate the attractiveness of a tourist destination and make it possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of a destination by carefully evaluating its human, material and immaterial resources, in order to understand the elements that hamper its tourist expansion and thus rectify them. This assessment provides a decision-making tool to help managers of a tourist destination make strategic intervention choices.
... Sus orígenes se remontan a la época de las peregrinaciones religiosas, y es, desde la década de los 80 que esta tipología turística se encuentra en constante expansión (Ashworth & Page, 2011;Bramwell, 1998;De la Calle, 2001;Edwards, Griffin, & Hayllar, 2008;Law, 2002;Maitland & Newman, 2014). En la actualidad, este fenómeno ha derivado en visitas a lugares arqueológicos y monumentales, hitos históricos, espacios con una arquitectura única, actuaciones y festivales, costumbres gastronómicas y tradiciones locales, entre otras motivaciones. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jerusalem has been attracting believers of the three great monotheistic religions for centuries. It has beenbuilt over the centuries as the main sacred city for a large percentage of the world’s population. It currentlyattracts hundreds of thousands of international tourists whose main motivation is religious tourism and the visitof sacred places. However, it is a destination that is very exposed to the controversy as a result of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict for more than 70 years, and that continues to affect the image and competitiveness of the destinationwithin the international scene. In this article, we analyze the causes of why Jerusalem is considered the capital of religious tourism worldwide, as well as the possibilities that tourism offers as a strategic argument to imposea specific historical narrative and an adequate climate of coexistence between Palestinian communities and Israelis.
... As Swarbrooke [12] observes: "Tourism-based urban regeneration has become a major phenomenon in the past two decades". A lot of researchers highlight the close relationship between tourism and urban regeneration [12]- [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last half-century, the role of tourism all over the world has increased remarkably in cities creating serious competition between cities in attracting more regional, national, and international tourists. Tehran has been the capital of Iran for over 200 years, however, its relationship with urban tourism is new and young, with an attractive and audible narrative. For the very reason of this newly created dialogue, Tehran has been chosen to be studied through the lens of three eras: Qajar, Pahlavi, and Islamic Republic. Each era shows a monarchy, which shaped the capital based on a particular set of views, demands, and ideologies. Like most capital cities, Tehran had to change or even mutate at the demand of the different monarchies, and no wonder the city had lost many layers of its heritage and attractions through the urban changes. A major part of the urban changes has taken place in the last century. However, over the last 15 years, urban tourism has developed rapidly in Tehran. This means that tourism-led urban regeneration has successfully reshaped the cityscape, stimulated the renovation of many attractions and neighborhoods especially in the historic part of Tehran. The purpose of this article is to study and analyze urban tourism and its effects in Tehran over the last 15 years. Also, focusing on the historical part of Tehran, the role of urban tourism in regenerating the historical part of Tehran was investigated. The article is prepared for practical purposes. The research method is descriptive-analytical. Since the authors are the leading activists in the field of urban tourism in Tehran, the research is based on observations, conversations, and surveys done in four months (May-August 2020). Ultimately, the article presents the most important programs and projects necessary for the reform and development of urban tourism in the historical part of Tehran. Keywords: tourism-led, urban regeneration, historical part, Tehran.
... There is evidence to indicate that tourist satisfaction is a strong indicator of their intention to visit and recommend relevant destinations to others (Bramwell, 1998). Moreover, they are willing to share their positive travel experience with their friends and relatives (Yoon and Uysal, 2005). ...
Book
Full-text available
The travel and tourism industry today is the world's largest and most diverse business sector. The importance of this industry directly results from the fact that it serves as a primary source for generating revenues, employment, private sector growth, and infrastructure development for many countries. Tourism has become one of the important sectors of the global economy accounting for 11% of global gross domestic product (GDP) and employing 200 million people.
... The significance of this function is increasing, which results from the fact that cities are more and more often chosen as destinations for tourist trips for various motives. They also constitute tourist transit traffic [9]. Urban (city) tourism is one of the most dynamically developing forms of tourism [10,11] which is becoming one of the most important elements of shaping economic effects in many destinations [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. City tourism is one of the most frequently chosen forms of tourism consisting of many motives for doing it. On the modern tourist market, there are many negative phenomena that significantly affect the functioning of urban tourist destinations but primarily have an impact on the decisions of potential tourists about choosing cities as a tourist destination. These phenomena pose a threat to the development of both cities and tourism. They are conditioned by endogenous factors, which result from the functioning of the city, and exogenous ones, i.e. those related to socio-economic relations of the city with the environment, including tourist traffic. Cities, as a destination or transit tourist destination, are characterized by high concentration of tourist traffic; hence, the negative phenomena often affect urban tourist space with great intensity. The aim of the study is to present the author’s concept of sustainable urban tourism policy assumptions. After presenting the concept of sustainable urban tourism development policy, the following issues will be discussed: basics of tourism policy, urban tourism, sustainable tourism, classification of threats related to the sustainable development of urban tourism. Material and methods. The study is of theoretical and conceptual nature. The following research methods will be used: critical analysis of the literature and methods of logical operations. Results. The effect of the considerations is to propose the assumptions of the concept of sustainable urban tourism development policy. Conclusions. The most important problems related to the functioning of sustainable tourism were indicated, taking into account the impact of tourism on the natural environment and on overtourism.
... Travel satisfaction is closely related to destination loyalty, and this has made travel satisfaction one of the most popular constructs in tourism research (Chi & Qu, 2008;Kim, Lee, & Sirgy, 2008). Low travel satisfaction is an indication of a destination's failure of ensuring quality products, services, or environments (Bramwell, 1998), and as a result, dissatisfied tourists are less likely to revisit the destination or recommend it to others (Baker & Crompton, 2000;Chen & Chen, 2010;Gursoy, Chen, & Chi, 2014;Kim & Thapa, 2018;Ribeiro et al., 2017). In fact, the importance of travel satisfaction to a destination's success is widely supported, and the relationship between the two constructs may D. Joo, et al. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine how tourists' self-congruity and emotional solidarity are related and how this thereby influences travel satisfaction and destination loyalty. Notably, the roles that the different dimensions (i.e., communality and fairness) of intragroup emotional solidarity played between the constructs were scrutinized for an enhanced understanding of the relationships. Addressing these research questions, this study collected survey data from South Korean tourists to Korea's Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)-a destination of symbolic and emotional significance to Koreans-and analyzed them via structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated positive relationships between self-congruity and all emotional solidarity dimensions. However, only fairness was a meaningful predictor of travel satisfaction which then translated into destination loyalty. The findings indicate that in an emotional destination like the DMZ, self-congruity with the destination can give rise to emotional solidarity toward others, but emotional solidarity dimensions may function differently in triggering further changes in travel satisfaction or destination loyalty. Implications for theory and practice are discussed within the close of the article.
... According to tourism marketing literature, the tourist shoppers' satisfaction from a shopping centrethrough interpretation of high-quality servicescan be a basis to evaluate and promote the attractiveness of shopping centres (Parasakul, 2020). The literature is concentrated on enhancement of attractiveness for tourist shoppers by identifying and satisfying the needs of target audiences, such as potential tourists (Bramwell, 1998). This part of the article reviews the critical factors on shopping centre attractiveness, and the next section addresses the tourists' satisfaction from their shopping as a basis for attractiveness of shopping centres in such tourist destinations. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research paper presents a new framework by combined usage of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and Additive Ratio ASsessment (ARAS) for assessing shopping centre attractiveness. This study is organized in two phases. In the first phase, aiming to develop attractiveness of shopping centres in tourism destinations, and based on a sequential steps procedure, a comprehensive list of shopping centre attractiveness measures was compiled from literature review, and in a two-step survey, research model is developed by SEM, including five dimensions of (1) appearance, (2) internal atmosphere, (3) products, (4) human interactions and, (5) shopping convenience. At the end of this phase, the weight of each dimension was calculated based on high order factor loadings derived from SEM findings. In the second phase, by use of ARAS, the attractiveness of six shopping centres was assessed and ranked, based on the extracted dimensions. This article methodologically takes contribution from a combination of SEM-ARAS, while SEM was used for causal relationships and assigning weights for the ARAS input. The shopping centre attractiveness measurement provides a reliable model for local, regional and national authorities to boost shopping tourism in tourism destinations.
... The level of customer satisfaction is critical to business success in tourism management (Yoon and Uysal, 2005), because satisfaction evaluation can help managers to improve service (Fornell, 1992) and to compare organizational performance (Kotler, 1994). On the other hand, satisfaction can be used as a measure to evaluate the products and services offered in the tourist destinations (Ross and Iso-Ahola, 1991;Noe and Uysal, 1997;Bramwell, 1998;Schofield, 2000). Thus, the ability to manage information about satisfaction from Muslim travelers can be an important source of competitive advantage. ...
Article
Purpose: The main purposes of this study are to examine what the most important hotel facilities that sharia hotels must provide, and to study the relationship between importance of sharia compliance and Muslim tourists' judgment on the performance of sharia hotels. Research Design, Data, and Methodology: The data were collected in Lombok Island. Questionnaires were distributed to Muslim tourists who stayed at one of the sharia hotels, with a total sample of 205 respondents. Factor Analysis Method and Two Independent Sample Tests have been applied in this research to analyze and interpret the data. Result: The results show only one factor is formed from all statements of Sharia compliance variable, and there is a significant difference in the customer experience and customer satisfaction ratings based on the importance of hotel facilities. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Muslim tourists who place a high level of importance in sharia compliance present a more positive assessment for all services provided by sharia hotels. The assessment from Muslim tourists with higher level of importance in Sharia compliance is more positive about their experiences during their stay at the sharia hotels, which also affects their satisfaction. Keywords: Sharia Hotel, Sharia Compliance, Customer Experience, Satisfaction JEL Classification Code: L83, M31, O53
... Similarly, the extensive usage of social media and blogging further support tourists' perceptions and respective evaluations of various aspects of their visit (Tham, Mair, & Croy, 2019), allowing their contacts to benefit from sharing of travel experiences and the provision of any recommendations about a destination (Schuckert et al., 2015). Besides, when enjoyable experiences are absent from a visit, tourists will be unwilling not only to revisit the destination but also to recommend it to others (Bramwell, 1998). Taken together, it is expected that: ...
Article
The impact of destination atmospheric cues – as representations of destination characteristics – on tourists’ intention to engage in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication is examined, adopting a well-established retailing theoretical underpinning; the Stimuli-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model. In doing so, this research incorporates both affective and cognitive states and processes as Organism. Evidence from 1025 tourists who visited Lisbon, Portugal and 1002 who visited Athens, Greece offers support to the S-O-R model and at the same time (a) exemplifies the explanatory power of Organism in the relationship between destination atmospheric cues and WOM communication intention, (b) recognizes the key role of negative affect for both destinations, as well as of the positive affect for Athens only, and (c) highlights the procedural nature of the cognitive state of Organism. This research corroborates the value of examining tourists’ behaviour through the lens of S-O-R and how both affective and cognitive elements of Organism contribute to decision-making in a procedural manner. Managerial implications for tourism destination marketers are also discussed.
... Urban tourism is a form of tourism that uses urban elements or city spectacles as key components in attracting visitors (Ashworth et al., 1989;Pearce, 2001;Edwards et al., 2008;Bramwell, 1998). The 1970s in Britain and 1980s in America marked the emergence of the urban tourism discourse, but before then, studies were largely fragmented. ...
Conference Paper
This research contributes to advancing our knowledge on the topical issue of the proliferating use of digital platforms, specifically the home-sharing platform, Airbnb. The aim is to answer the research question of how to measure possible impacts stemming from the adaptation of Airbnb as a form of digital platform economy. A set of various spatial analysis methods and a predictive model were constructed utilising novel datasets such as Airbnb accommodation data and Zoopla rental price data, as well as open government datasets such as dwelling types, housing tenure, and points of interest. This gave rise to a set of methods and results that are four-fold. On the one hand, the spatial distribution and temporal trends, is analysed using the space time cube. These findings show that for London and San Francisco, Airbnb tend to be centrally located, favouring residential areas. In addition, this method also shows the seasonality of the use of the platform. Secondly, using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and the multi-scale form of GWR, it is possible to look at the local scale and the influencing factors for Airbnb locations, and the thesis shows that these are related to functional elements such as hotels, food and beverages availability, and access to public transport links. Thirdly, how Airbnb may be disrupting the housing system by exacerbating the already problematic condition posed by the housing crisis in London is explored. To do this, the focus is shifted onto Airbnb misuse, defined from entire property listings that do not conform with the local regulation, and we look at the relation between those listings and residential areas that are experiencing rapid rental price changes. These changes are measured by extracting the difference in rents for certain years based on the Zoopla longitudinal data. The results conclude that indeed, there is a linear relationship between them, indicating that Airbnb might be putting pressure on housing provision. Lastly, a gravity model is constructed to forecast possible future locations for Airbnb. These are determined in terms of proximity to touristic locations, the historical Airbnb supply, and rental prices. The estimated Airbnb rental distribution based on the model follows a similar distribution to the actual rent derived from Zoopla rental price data. This last outcome suggests that prime Airbnb locations are often located in highly-priced residential neighbourhoods. These often are prime areas for residential location, that now have competing interests with Airbnb conversion. Overall, this thesis provides an analytical perspective that can prompt a conversation on best practices which mitigate the adverse impact of over-saturated short-term rental adaptation in urban settings. Keywords: Platform economy, Airbnb, Zoopla, tourism, housing, gravity model.
... In tourism, tourists' satisfaction is a critical factor that impacts destination competitiveness. The causal-effect as explained by Alexandris, Kouthouris andMeligdis (2006), Oppermann, (2000), Bramwell (1998) and Pritchard and Howard (1997) as satisfaction eventually leads to destination loyalty; and destination loyalty reflected by the revisit intentions. Revisit intention will be the ultimate goal that destination competitiveness intends to achieve, with that RI it eases a lot of efforts on promotion, publicity and creating awareness, since recommendations through words of mouth is utmost effective (Oppermann, 2000). ...
... Satisfaction also defines as feeling from the Visitor (Chen & Chen, 2010). Visitors' satisfactions became huge goals for all the people that involved in this industry within suggesting many of the product elements regarding all the product developments that have been made (Bramwell, 1998). Visitor satisfaction among all the products development can be perceived in many ways and methods. ...
Article
Museums played vital role in the preservation and conservation of the artefacts, monuments and all the equipment of the histories. It is started from the earlier in 1907 which is National Museum was built in that era and it is administrated by Malaysia Federal D epartment. This museum has decided the pathway of the promotions to the culture and history of this country. This research outcome is to conduct and to gain knowledge about all the elements needed in the museum in order to improve a satisfactions of the Visitors no matter from neither local nor international. This research shows how the organizations of museums conserve all the artefacts as the main factor of the conservation of heritage and how they analyses all the information from all the heritages to do it in a creative way to deliver all the information to the Visitors. The National Museum and Music Museum are the main organization play as a rule to make all the heritages and histories, according to the standard of the syllabus from the history textbook. Change occurs for the exhibitions inside the museums gives a huge impact in the local and international Visitors especially for the teenagers. This exhibition, becoming the main factor developments of the heritages because histories and heritages are not becoming the main passions for Generation Z nowadays. There are 150 questionnaires distributed to all the Visitors before analysing all the data. The SPSS20.0 was used to analyse the data. The outcome is there is a positive relationship between the selected Museums and Visitors' satisfaction. It shows by the significant of the two correlations and the result is positive.
... Cities are some of the most popular tourist destinations. They are both a type of destination and a significant part of the tourist transit traffic [1]. The demand for city tourism is growing, which makes it one of the most dynamically developing forms of tourism [2][3][4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cities are multifunctional by definition, and an increasingly significant function is the tourist function. City tourism is one of the most dynamically developing forms of tourism. Tourists’ decisions regarding choosing a destination are influenced by a number of factors determining the subjective assessment of the tourist attractiveness of a given city, and one of them may be the state of air pollution, as it can have a negative impact on the health of both city dwellers and tourists. This article is an attempt to determine whether potential tourists consider information about the level of a city’s air quality in the assessment of its tourist attractiveness and the impact of this information on their travel decisions. The article presents the results of surveys conducted among a group of 509 respondents from Poland. On this basis, an assessment was made of the extent to which information on the condition of air quality in a given city is relevant for persons planning a tourist trip. In the conducted research, decisions regarding both business and private trips were evaluated. In addition, information on factors that could increase the respondents’ interest in the condition of air quality in the city of the intended trip (e.g., trip with children, trip length) was collected. Due to the fact that tourism is a significant source of income for many cities, the research results presented in the article may be of significant importance for entities creating the urban tourist product and responsible for its management. The article also draws attention to the fact that reducing pollution in cities can contribute to increases in their tourist attractiveness.
... Finalmente, el hecho de que un turista repita se asocia tradicionalmente a un elevado grado de satisfacción con el destino (Beeho y Prentice, 1997;Bramwell, 1998;Juaneda, 1996;Kozak, 2001;Kozak y Rimmington, 2000;Ross, 1993;Yau y Chan, 1990;Yoon y Uysal, 2005). Sin embargo, las razones que explican la tendencia de algunos turistas a visitar repetidamente un destino son complejas. ...
Article
Aínda que habitualmente se asume que atraer ao destino a clientes que repiten require menores esforzos de márketing, na literatura turística existen discrepancias sobre a rendibilidade ou o comportamento destes turistas con respecto á viaxe. Este traballo pretende incorporarse ao debate aberto sobre as diferenzas entre os visitantes que repiten visita e os que visitan por primeira vez co fin de coñecer mellor as características dos dous grupos e permitirlles aos xestores dos destinos un deseño máis eficaz das súas políticas. Por iso, a análise centrarase en aspectos relevantes para os xestores. O estudo está baseado nunha enquisa realizada aos turistas que visitaron durante o ano 2010 Santiago de Compostela.
... The second category of determinants of destination loyalty is that of on-site anime experiences. It has been found that tourists' positive experiences at tourism destinations positively affect their destination satisfaction and loyalty in the context of (ordinary) tourism (Bramwell, 1998;Oppermann, 2000). Although film tourism researchers have not yet studied on-site film experiences as determinants of film tourists' destination loyalty, Kim (2012) has focused on on-site film experiences and claimed that film tourists' experiences are related to three factors: "prestige and privilege", "intimacy and memory", and "beyond screen, sensory experience and re-enactment". ...
Article
Japanese animation, anime, has long been regarded as a niche culture reserved for anime otaku in Japan. The word anime otaku refers to individuals who spend most of their time alone at home, watching anime. However, in recent years, prototypical anime otaku have changed their behavioral patterns, resulting in a new movement called anime pilgrimage. Anime pilgrimage involves traveling to locations that resemble particular scenes in anime pieces, even though the locations themselves may be ordinary places. The authors constructed two models to describe the determinants of visit intention and destination loyalty based on research into ordinary and film tourism. The results suggested that, during the pre-tour period, otaku are motivated by the desire for interaction with other otaku and the wish to visit a new location. Moreover, they are also seeking to interact with the local people, and such experiences result in higher destination loyalty during the post-tour period.
... Sus orígenes se remontan a la época de las peregrinaciones religiosas, y es, desde la década de los 80 que esta tipología turística se encuentra en constante expansión (Ashworth & Page, 2011;Bramwell, 1998;De la Calle, 2001;Edwards, Griffin, & Hayllar, 2008;Law, 2002;Maitland & Newman, 2014). En la actualidad, este fenómeno ha derivado en visitas a lugares arqueológicos y monumentales, hitos históricos, espacios con una arquitectura única, actuaciones y festivales, costumbres gastronómicas y tradiciones locales, entre otras motivaciones. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jerusalén lleva siglos atrayendo a creyentes de las tres grandes religiones monoteístas. Se ha erigido a lo largo de los siglos como la principal ciudad sagrada para un gran porcentaje de la población mundial. Actualmente atrae a cientos de miles de turistas internacionales cuya motivación principal es el turismo religioso y la visita delos lugares sagrados. Sin embargo, se trata de un destino muy expuesto a la controversia a consecuencia del conflicto palestino-israelí desde hace más de 70 años, y que sigue afectando a la imagen y a la competitividad del destino dentro del panorama internacional. En el presente artículo, analizamos las causas del porqué Jerusalén es considerada la capital del turismo religioso a nivel mundial, así como las posibilidades que el turismo ofrece como argumento estratégico para imponer una determinada narrativa histórica y un clima adecuado de convivencia entre las comunidades palestinas e israelíes.
... Zira yaşadığı deneyimden memnun kalmayan turistin tekrar aynı şehre geleceğini ve şehir çevresine tavsiye edeceğini söylemek zordur. Dolayısıyla turist memnuniyetinin belirlenmesi, elde edilen bulgular doğrultusunda planlama yapılması ve turistik ürün geliştirilmesi gerekmektedir (Bramwell, 1998). Bu araştırmada, İstanbul'u ziyaret eden İranlı turistlerin şehri tekrar ziyaret etme niyetleri ile başkalarına tavsiye etme niyetlerinin; cinsiyet, yaş, medeni durum, eğitim durumu, meslek ve aylık ortalama gelir gibi sosyo-demogra ik değişkenlere göre anlamlı bir biçimde arklılaşıp arklılaşmadığının belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. ...
... Therefore, it is identified as a non-existent link. We believe that this type of tourism must give a range of diversified and innovative urban offer, mainly through what already exists, and which assists with the needs of the people who perform the touristic practice [7,8,21]. In this sense, we conclude that urban tourism must offer: i) products, such as tours within the destiny using virtual reality, augmented reality, video mappings, and holograms; ii) spaces: safe, accessible, passable, sustainable and maintainable, with a sustainable touristic plant which applies environmentally friendly measures such as solar cells, reuse of blankets in catering facilities, wastewater treatment plant, among others and; iii) services, such as the service providers professionalization, as well as cultural, social and environmental protection training for the citizens, free Wi-Fi access, online booking, mobile applications, touristic location apps, substantial content in landmarks using the heritage interpretation tool, which will generate knowledge and, at the same time, meaningful and transcendental experiences for the one who access it [22][23][24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to propose a systemic model for the urban tourism insertion in the Digital, Smart and Knowledge City (DSKC) of Mexico City (CDMX) due to the recent and considerable economic importance of this kind of tourism in innovative and competitive cities. Based on this understanding, a diagnosis of the urban tourism role in the DSKC of CDMX was developed by using the systems thinking. Therefore, the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was applied, because of its holistic vision, and the technological and social components it involves. The Strategic Direction Model (SDM) was also used in a complementary and parallel way to the SSM. The findings allowed us to detect, among other aspects, the problem situations such as the inexistence of a document which contains the development of the DSKC, and the lack of articulation between the components of the urban tourism and the DSKC. For that reason, some elements were established in order to design a conceptual model. This research finishes by using the Viable System Model (VSM), to validate this construct and, at the same time, provide it with substantial elements, such as innovation, ICT, sustainability, and accessibility, in which tourism and cities have been immersed recently.
... Various places are largely dependent on the tourism sector to support their economic growth. This includes urban tourism that uses city elements or spectacles as the fundamental components in attracting visitors (Ashworth 1989;Pearce 2001;Edwards, Griffin, and Hayllar 2008;Bramwell 1998). Law (1992) argues that systematically, to support urban tourism, primary elements must be available in cities. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article contributes to advancing the knowledge on the phenomenon of the most popular short‐term rental platforms, Airbnb. By implementing a geographically weighted regression (GWR) and its multiscale form, MGWR, we examine the relationship between Airbnb locations and the core elements of urban tourism including hotels, food and beverages (F&B) venues, as well as access to public transport. This article’s contributions are twofold: methodological and empirical. First, the results show that incorporating localities improve overall model performance. It allows us to account for the nuance of each area of interest as the MGWR performs slightly better than the GWR in the case of spatially sparse data. Second, both models show that Airbnbs collocate with hotels supported by various amenities, but Airbnbs also go beyond traditional hotel zones. This analysis highlights and extends the latter where Airbnb concentrations are those for which there are strong associations with F&B establishments and access to public transports. This suggests that Airbnbs might benefit local businesses outside the reach of major tourist zones. However, there is further work to be done to understand whether the economic benefit to the local economy is worth the associated social costs raised by previous studies.
... When the intensity of the experience is strong visitors will recall the experience, the intensity of the emotional component of the memory also will be high (Talarico, Labar, and Rubin 2004). When the tourists have a positive experience, they share the knowledge with others (Postma and Jenkins 1997;Bramwell 1998;Alegre and Cladera 2009;Triantafillidou and Siomkos 2013). According to the stimulus organism framework (Mehrabian and Russell 1974), the physical environment (stimulus) will influence the memory (organism) and nostalgia. ...
Article
This study extends the stimulus-organism-response framework of Mehrabian and Russel on the theme park environment. Visitor’s overall experience and experience intensification were assessed as stimuli that influenced their memory and nostalgia (organism) and behavioural intention (response). Samples have been collected from India's 360 theme park visitors and finding confirmed that the visitor’s overall experience has positively influenced experience intensification and experience intensification has a positive effect on memory and nostalgia, and both influences behavioural intention. The study also explored the mediating effect of experience intensification, nostalgia, and memory.
... For the behavioral intentions, in other words for the revisit and positive WOM actions, 'overall satisfaction' and 'responsiveness' are the predictors both for promotion and prevention focused medical tourists. Previous researches both in healthcare (Rust & Zahorik, 1993;Kesler & Mylod, 2011) and in tourism (Bramwell, 1998;Kozak & Rimmington, 2000;Yoon & Uysal, 2005) proved that customer satisfaction is one of the most important predictor of behavioral intentions like revisit of the hospital or country, and positive WOM about the good experience that they had. ...
Article
ÖZET Bu çalışmanın amacı, uluslararası medikal turistlerin bir hastaneyi veya ülkeyi tercih etmesinde karar alma sürecini etkileyen faktörler (algılanan destinasyon imajı, algılanan hizmet kalitesi, algılanan değer, genel memnuniyet düzeyi) ve sağlık hizmeti alım sonrası davranışları (tekrar ziyaret etme ve pozitif ağızdan ağıza pazarlama) arasındaki ilişkileri ve etkileri analiz etmektir. Bu amacı gerçekleştirirken gelen medikal turistlerin, düzenleyici odak teorisine göre teşvik odaklı ve önlem odaklı olarak gruplandırılması; karar alma sürecinde etkili olan faktörlerle ilişkisinin incelenmesi çalışmanın diğer önemli amacıdır. Yöntem olarak, kesitsel tipte tanımlayıcı ve kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Ankara, İstanbul ve İzmir’de izin alınan yedi farklı hastaneye Şubat 2016-Mayıs 2016 tarihleri arasında gelen toplam 124 medikal turistten anket yoluyla veriler toplanmış ve sırasıyla betimleyici analizler, güvenirlik analizi, keşfedici faktör analizi, korelasyon analizi ve hiyerarşik regresyon analizleri yapılmıştır. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre gelen medikal turistlerin çoğunluğu erkek (%65,3), evli (%78,2) ve 36-45 yaşlarındadır (%34,7). Büyük çoğunluğu (%72) Ortadoğu ülkelerinden (Irak, Libya, Tunus) gelirken; diğerleri sırasıyla Avrupa (%18,5) ve Asya (7,2%) ülkerinden gelmektedir. Gelenlerin çoğunluğu Türkiye’ye ilk defa (%46) ve doktorlarının önerisi ile (%44,4) gelmiştir. Algılanan hastane/ülke imajı, medikal turistlerin algıladıkları sağlık hizmet kalitesini olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Yine sağlık personelinin hastalara cevap verebilirliği teşvik odaklı medikal turistlerin genel memnuniyetini ve sağlık hizmet deneyimi sonrası davranışlarını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Hastane ortamındaki somut iyileştirmeler, önlem odaklı medikal turistlerin algıladıkları değeri olumsuz yönde etkilerken, teşvik odaklı medikal turistlerin ise genel memnuniyetini artırmaktadır. Önlem odaklı medikal turistlerin memnuniyetini artıran tek faktör ise, sağlık çalışanlarının gösterdikleri empati olmuştur. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is, to examine the factors affecting the decision-making process (perceived destination image, perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction level) and behavioral intentions (revisit and positive word of mouth) of international medical tourists to choose a hospital or country by analyzing their relationships and effects. Another important aim of the study is, to group the medical tourists focusing promotion and prevention domains, according to the regulatory focus theory and to examine the relationship of these orientations with the factors in the decision-making process. The cross-sectional descriptive study and convenience sampling method was used for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 124 medical tourists who visited seven different hospitals in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir between February 2016 and May 2016. Descriptive analyzes, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analyzes were performed for the analysis respectively. According to the results of the study, the majority of incoming medical tourists are male (65.3%), married (78.2%) and aged 36-45 (34.7%). The vast majority (72%) come from the Middle East countries (Iraq, Libya, Tunisia); others come from European (18.5%) and Asian (7.2%) countries, respectively. The majority of the visitors came to Turkey for the first time (46%) and upon the recommendation of their doctors (44.4%). Perceived hospital/country image positively affects the perceived health service quality of medical tourists. The responsiveness of the health personnel to the patients positively affects the general satisfaction of the promotion-oriented medical tourists and their behavioral intentions. While improvements in the hospital tangibles (environment, buildings) negatively affect the perceived value of prevention-oriented medical tourists, it increases the overall satisfaction of promotion-oriented medical tourists. The only factor that increase the satisfaction of the prevention-oriented medical tourists was the empathy shown by the healthcare professionals.
... According to Khan, Hassan, Fahad, and Naushad [2] economic development and tourism development have a direct relationship. In this regard, tourism product availability, product quality, and product management played a great role in developing the tourism industry [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism has been given much attention in developing countries like Ethiopia. In this regard, tourism product development played a great role in achieving sustainable developmental goals. The study aims to examine the determinants of tourism product development in southeast Ethiopia. The research employed a mixed research approach, and descriptive and explanatory research design was used. Both secondary and primary data sources were in place to obtain the relevant data. A total of 398 samples were employed to collect the data. A convenience sampling technique was employed to select domestic tourists and walk-in guests and purposive sampling was applied to select marketing managers of hotels, lodges, boat associations, park administration, resorts, restaurants, nightclubs, and guest houses. The qualitative data was analyzed through thematic analysis and the quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by computing SPSS. The study revealed that tourism product development is affected by marketing mixes of which promotion was the major factor of tourism product development and price was the only tool inversely related to tourism product development. The brand image also positively determined tourism product development. The results showed that the exercise of tourism product development strategies among tourism businesses was low. The main implication drawn from the study is that the tourism businesses have to develop new customer profiles or segmenting in customers in their specified characteristics like gender, level of income, and age. Furthermore, the need to invest in research and development of the current market to develop new tourism products is of great importance.
... A tourism product is priced and sold through distribution channels and it has a life-cycle". And the generic tourism product as consisting of five elements: the physical plant, service, hospitality, freedom of choice, and involvement The tourism production begins with raw inputs, progresses through intermediate inputs and outputs, to final outputs, or the tourist's experience (Smith, 1994); and the four -factor components of leisure motives: intellectual, social, competency/mastery, and stimulus avoidance (Cleaver, Muller, Ruys, & Wei, 1999), and have eight travel benefit factors such as excitement, self -development, family relations, physical activity, safety/security, social status, escape, and relaxation (MOs cardo eta!, 1996) are very important for destination and developing tourism product; which attract tourists to particular destinations, but each destination should need the diversification, intensification and linkage of these products can be crucial for the competitiveness and sustainable development of destinations (Benur & Bramwell, 2015); and the satisfaction of tourists users with the tourism products in cities and elsewhere may improve planning for the development of these products (Bramwell, 1998) in the urban; the commercial tourism products in different adventure activity sectors have different functional characteristics by expenditure for price per person per day, duration, prior skill requirements, remoteness for tour operator group size and client-to-guide ratios. There is an enormous range of variation (Buckley, 2007); according to strategy for new tourism product for destination (Goranczewski & Puciato, 2010); and have got planning to develop the ecotourism (Ghorbani, Raufirad, Rafiaani, & Azadi, 2015); to develops 2 conceptual frameworks which assist with analyzing and understanding the features, relationships and strategic options associated with tourism product development, concentration, diversification and intensifications in destination for tourism product development in Phu Quoc (Benur & Bramwell, 2015); and we should develop the new product in which has natural and human resources to developing tourism activity operators (Komppula, 2001); The new product development (NPD) process from corporate strategy formulation through idea generation techniques, screening and evaluation processes for new ideas, business concept testing. ...
Book
Full-text available
Phu Quoc is an island district of Kien Giang province, is far from Rach Gia city about 120 km and Ha Tien town about 45km. Phu Quoc district has got 22 large and small islands, with an area of 593.05 km2, and have 99 hills from the North to South of island, 13 beautiful beaches, the forest accounts for 63.74% of the area of Phu Quoc island. It is considered to have the potential to developing tourism products in both the human and natural resources. The aim of the paper will examine SWOT Analysis in the formulation of tourism development strategies for new tourism products. SWOT Analysis is an analysis method used to evaluate the “strengths”, “weaknesses”, “opportunities” and “threats” involved in an organization, a plan, a project, a person or a business activity. From SWOT, study is used the development strategy for new tourism products.
... Destinations can be defined as collections of tourism products and experiences that satisfy the needs and demands of tourists (Bramwell, 1998). As a result of globalization and economic expansion since the 1970s, the intense competition among destinations brought about research into destination marketing (Appiah-Adu et al., 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the global closure during the Covid-19 pandemic in March-May 2020, destinations continued to market themselves. Focusing on digital marketing used during the pandemic, the current study examines which digital marketing strategies were used by NTBs during this tourism crisis. The research method of qualitative content analyses was employed, analyzing digital ads and videos launched between March and July 2020 on official YouTube channels of the world’s top 40 most-visited countries. The research findings offer a new typology which includes six marketing strategies that can serve scholars and practitioners in the research and mitigation of future crises caused by pandemics.
... For the behavioral intentions, in other words for the revisit and positive WOM actions, 'overall satisfaction' and 'responsiveness' are the predictors both for promotion and prevention focused medical tourists. Previous researches both in healthcare (Rust & Zahorik, 1993;Kesler & Mylod, 2011) and in tourism (Bramwell, 1998;Kozak & Rimmington, 2000;Yoon & Uysal, 2005) proved that customer satisfaction is one of the most important predictor of behavioral intentions like revisit of the hospital or country, and positive WOM about the good experience that they had. ...
Article
Bu çalışmanın amacı, uluslararası medikal turistlerin bir hastaneyi veya ülkeyi tercih etmesinde karar alma sürecini etkileyen faktörler (algılanan destinasyon imajı, algılanan hizmet kalitesi, algılanan değer, genel memnuniyet düzeyi) ve sağlık hizmeti alım sonrası davranışları (tekrar ziyaret etme ve pozitif ağızdan ağıza pazarlama) arasındaki ilişkileri ve etkileri analiz etmektir. Bu amacı gerçekleştirirken gelen medikal turistlerin, düzenleyici odak teorisine göre teşvik odaklı ve önlem odaklı olarak gruplandırılması; karar alma sürecinde etkili olan faktörlerle ilişkisinin incelenmesi çalışmanın diğer önemli amacıdır. Yöntem olarak, kesitsel tipte tanımlayıcı ve kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Ankara, İstanbul ve İzmir’de izin alınan yedi farklı hastaneye Şubat 2016-Mayıs 2016 tarihleri arasında gelen toplam 124 medikal turistten anket yoluyla veriler toplanmış ve sırasıyla betimleyici analizler, güvenirlik analizi, keşfedici faktör analizi, korelasyon analizi ve hiyerarşik regresyon analizleri yapılmıştır. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre gelen medikal turistlerin çoğunluğu erkek (%65,3), evli (%78,2) ve 36-45 yaşlarındadır (%34,7). Büyük çoğunluğu (%72) Ortadoğu ülkelerinden (Irak, Libya, Tunus) gelirken; diğerleri sırasıyla Avrupa (%18,5) ve Asya (7,2%) ülkerinden gelmektedir. Gelenlerin çoğunluğu Türkiye’ye ilk defa (%46) ve doktorlarının önerisi ile (%44,4) gelmiştir. Algılanan hastane/ülke imajı, medikal turistlerin algıladıkları sağlık hizmet kalitesini olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Yine sağlık personelinin hastalara cevap verebilirliği teşvik odaklı medikal turistlerin genel memnuniyetini ve sağlık hizmet deneyimi sonrası davranışlarını olumlu yönde etkilemektedir. Hastane ortamındaki somut iyileştirmeler, önlem odaklı medikal turistlerin algıladıkları değeri olumsuz yönde etkilerken, teşvik odaklı medikal turistlerin ise genel memnuniyetini artırmaktadır. Önlem odaklı medikal turistlerin memnuniyetini artıran tek faktör ise, sağlık çalışanlarının gösterdikleri empati olmuştur. Abstract The aim of this study is, to examine the factors affecting the decision-making process (perceived destination image, perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction level) and behavioral intentions (revisit and positive word of mouth) of international medical tourists to choose a hospital or country by analyzing their relationships and effects. Another important aim of the study is, to group the medical tourists focusing promotion and prevention domains, according to the regulatory focus theory and to examine the relationship of these orientations with the factors in the decision-making process. The cross-sectional descriptive study and convenience sampling method was used for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 124 medical tourists who visited seven different hospitals in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir between February 2016 and May 2016. Descriptive analyzes, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analyzes were performed for the analysis respectively. According to the results of the study, the majority of incoming medical tourists are male (65.3%), married (78.2%) and aged 36-45 (34.7%). The vast majority (72%) come from the Middle East countries (Iraq, Libya, Tunisia); others come from European (18.5%) and Asian (7.2%) countries, respectively. The majority of the visitors came to Turkey for the first time (46%) and upon the recommendation of their doctors (44.4%). Perceived hospital/country image positively affects the perceived health service quality of medical tourists. The responsiveness of the health personnel to the patients positively affects the general satisfaction of the promotion-oriented medical tourists and their behavioral intentions. While improvements in the hospital tangibles (environment, buildings) negatively affect the perceived value of prevention-oriented medical tourists, it increases the overall satisfaction of promotion-oriented medical tourists. The only factor that increase the satisfaction of the prevention-oriented medical tourists was the empathy shown by the healthcare professionals.
... Managers must be careful in offering various uniqueness to tourists so that they will provide a memorable tourist experience. The experiences felt by tourists during their visit to tourist destinations play a role in increasing the interest in returning tourists [2]. The experience of tourists visiting a tourist destination is an important indicator of tourists for vacation turn back to the same destination hereafter [3]. ...
... The government has a role in satisfaction and good impression to the tourist who visiting to their country so that the tourist fell loyal toward the destination. The tourists who have satisfaction will give recommendations to their families and colleagues, which is high value of promotion (Bramwell 1998, Oppermann 2000Pritchard & Howard, 1997). In a tourism context, satisfaction with travel experiences contributes to destination loyalty. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Limited research focuses on Muslim tourists traveling in non-Muslim countries, especially in Taiwan. To fill out this gap, this article investigates the relationship between destination image, tourist satisfaction, and destination loyalty. This study contributes to the literature by examining the image of Muslim tourists through the impression of their trip to tourist destinations in Taiwan. The results of our analysis using SPSS 24.0 and a sample of 129 Muslim tourists who traveled in Taiwan emphasized the importance of destination image in contributing to tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. Regarding the tourist perceptions of destination loyalty, this study offers a better understanding of tourism management in Taiwan and recommends Muslim tourism in the different aspects. The findings propose important implications for Muslim tourism in the future work in terms of mediating tourist satisfaction and moderating Islamic attributes in Taiwan as well as contributions.
... For the behavioral intentions, in other words for the revisit and positive WOM actions, 'overall satisfaction' and 'responsiveness' are the predictors both for promotion and prevention focused medical tourists. Previous researches both in healthcare (Rust & Zahorik, 1993;Kesler & Mylod, 2011) and in tourism (Bramwell, 1998;Kozak & Rimmington, 2000;Yoon & Uysal, 2005) proved that customer satisfaction is one of the most important predictor of behavioral intentions like revisit of the hospital or country, and positive WOM about the good experience that they had. ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT The aim of this study is, to examine the factors affecting the decision-making process (perceived destination image, perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction level) and behavioral intentions (revisit and positive word of mouth) of international medical tourists to choose a hospital or country by analyzing their relationships and effects. Another important aim of the study is, to group the medical tourists focusing promotion and prevention domains, according to the regulatory focus theory and to examine the relationship of these orientations with the factors in the decision-making process. The cross-sectional descriptive study and convenience sampling method was used for the study. Data were collected through questionnaires from a total of 124 medical tourists who visited seven different hospitals in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir between February 2016 and May 2016. Descriptive analyzes, reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analyzes were performed for the analysis respectively. According to the results of the study, the majority of incoming medical tourists are male (65.3%), married (78.2%) and aged 36-45 (34.7%). The vast majority (72%) come from the Middle East countries (Iraq, Libya, Tunisia); others come from European (18.5%) and Asian (7.2%) countries, respectively. The majority of the visitors came to Turkey for the first time (46%) and upon the recommendation of their doctors (44.4%). Perceived hospital/country image positively affects the perceived health service quality of medical tourists. The responsiveness of the health personnel to the patients positively affects the general satisfaction of the promotion-oriented medical tourists and their behavioral intentions. While improvements in the hospital tangibles (environment, buildings) negatively affect the perceived value of prevention-oriented medical tourists, it increases the overall satisfaction of promotion-oriented medical tourists. The only factor that increase the satisfaction of the prevention-oriented medical tourists was the empathy shown by the healthcare professionals.
... As discussed earlier, evidence suggests that the link between place quality and place identity builds on the notion that exposure to physical attributes of a specific place often generates a sense of identity to the place (Ngesan et al., 2013). Tourist satisfaction can be particularly affected by the place quality (Bramwell, 1998;Maghsoodi-Tilaki et al., 2017;Ramkissoon et al., 2012). On the basis of the above discussion, we hypothesise that enhancing place quality may result in fostering place identity and maintaining visitors' satisfaction through place identity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose One major challenge for urban planners and policymakers is how to strengthen and establish connections between humans and the environment. Evidence suggests that the physical characteristics of the environment enhance both place identity and user satisfaction. This study aims to investigate the mediating role of place identity in the relationship between place quality and user satisfaction in two waterfronts in Penang, Malaysia. However, only few studies have examined the impact of place quality on user satisfaction in waterfronts as natural outdoor recreation spaces. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 300 users was analysed via structural equation modelling, and results show that place quality is a second-order construct with three main dimensions. Findings These results support the theoretical findings in the literature that associate high place quality and place identity with user satisfaction. These results also support the mediating role of place identity in the relationship between place quality and satisfaction and can help policymakers create inclusive and attractive waterfronts that catalyse place identity and user satisfaction. Originality/value Place quality is an essential need for urban life with significant and extensive effects on the lives of residents nowadays. Organising physical activities can help attract more users to waterfronts and consequently increase their level of satisfaction. Local authorities, non-governmental organisations and local communities should also help in monitoring and maintaining the waterfronts.
... The tourists who have satisfaction will give recommendations to their family members, friends, and colleagues, which offers a high value of promotion. According to Bramwell (1998);Oppermann (2000); and Pritchard & Howard (1997), in a tourism context, satisfaction in travel experiences contributes toward destination loyalty. This study helps the stakeholders make suitable policies and programs, which include the government, travel agent, hotel, restaurant, tourist sites, food companies, and home industry. ...
Thesis
Research that focuses on Muslim tourists who travel to non-Muslim countries, especially to Taiwan as part of the East Asia, is rare. To fill this gap, this study examines the relationships among destination image, tourist satisfaction, and destination loyalty, as well as the mediating effect of satisfaction and the moderating effect of Islamic attributes of destination. Specifically, this study analyzes the perspectives of Muslim tourists through the impression of their travel to tourist attractions in Taiwan. The results taken from 300 Muslim tourists who traveled to Taiwan were systematically analyzed with statistical methods using SPSS 24.0, which revealed that significant output of tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty in interacting with destination image in Taiwan. Tourist satisfaction as the mediating effect is crucial in connecting destination image and destination loyalty, in order to provide a good stimulus and positive effect towards the tourism industry. Islamic attributes of destination play a moderating role between destination image and tourist satisfaction, which also is an essential part of the consideration for tourists during their traveling. In addition, Islamic attributes of destination are found to be unsupportive in moderating the relationship between destination image and tourist satisfaction. However, Islamic attributes of destination as the moderating effect contribute to a better understanding of tourism management in Taiwan, and a comparison with other studies of tourist traveling in Muslim countries is analyzed and discussed in conclusions. Key Words: Muslim tourists, destination image, Islamic attributes of destination, tourist satisfaction, destination loyalty
... Existen infinidad de aportaciones relacionadas con este concepto, y muchas de ellas datan sus orígenes en la época de las peregrinaciones religiosas y, desde la década de los 80, esta tipología turística se encuentra en constante expansión (Bramwell, 1998;Law, 2002;Edwards, et al., 2008;Ashworth et al., 2011;Maitland, et al., 2014). En la actualidad este fenómeno ha derivado en visitas a lugares arqueológicos y monumentales, hitos históricos, espacios con una arquitectura única, actuaciones y festivales, costumbres gastronómicas y tradiciones locales, entre otras motivaciones. ...
Article
Full-text available
After the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism activity has found a turning point in its development. The following research, based on a study of demand carried out in 2018 with a representative sample of 2,203 cases, presents a state of cultural tourism in the city of Santander during that period, and proposes a possible future scenario in relation to tourism in this city as economic activity recovers. The results show that the city of Santander is, eminently, a national, faithful and safe destination, and that the positive evaluation given by tourists in their previous experiences favours a relatively favourable pos-COVID-19 stage with a great capacity of tourist resilience. Fostering digitalisation, sustainability and, above all, security will be three key elements for recovering the confidence of the main issuing markets and for strengthening links with tourists.
Article
Full-text available
Tourist guiding education has some typical problems as a part of tourism education. The primary subjects in the related literature are the qualifications expected from a tourist guide. The curriculum provided in education institutions at the university level appears to be inadequate in meeting the sectorial expectations and therefore there are attempts to eliminate such inadequacies through non-curricular activities. These activities; such as projects, practice tours, and workshops take place within or outside of the school days. This paper features a learning process that is aimed for creative drama-based education in the field of tourism, the learning outputs and opinions of the participants; and offers recommendations for drama-based studies in the field of tourist guiding. In the paper, the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of tourist guiding students were questioned regarding the campus where they study, as a part of a project titled "tourist guiding", and examined the relations between their lives and the campus history and especially the life of Yunus Emre, after whom the campus has been named, with a reflexive understanding. The creative drama sessions continued for 18 hours and the brochures, newspapers, student diaries, letters and participant opinions generated as a result of the drama process were subjected to descriptive analysis. The obtained findings are grouped under three headings titled positive attitude of students to the campus, the effectiveness of the drama experience in the affective field and applicability of drama, together with the creative drama experience.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism has a profound effect on the local community of its destination, as it brings economic and socio-cultural changes. This study investigates the stakeholders' perception of Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. The broad objectives of this study are to assess the condition of existing facilities vis-à-vis the problems confronting and potential of the Park, identify the host and the visitors to the park and assess how people perceive the park. The research methods include in-depth fieldwork, observation, questionnaire administration, interviews, collation, and processing of field data. The research instrument was the questionnaire administered with the aid of simple random sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data collected for the study. The result of the study revealed that Old Oyo National Park was an attractive tourist destination. However, it was observed that the level of awareness of the tourist centres to the general public is relatively poor and the Park is fairly developed. The result shows that the community members blamed the lack of development and public awareness of the Park on the government. The research also revealed that the Park has positively influenced the community for developments. Some of the major problems identified were poor management of the existing facilities. The research recommends maintenance of the facilities, improvement of the transportation facilities, and public and private partnership in the development of this National Park. If these recommendations are followed, the Old Oyo National Park will be an attractive tourist destination in years to come. This will boost the socio-economic development of the community.
Article
The purpose of This study is to analyse the influence of current ratio, inventory turnover and gross profit margin on the selection of inventory valuation method at trading companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2013 to 2015. This research used the descriptive quantitative method within panel data (time series and cross section) as the type of data and the data were gotten from secondary data, acquired from Bursa Efek Indonesia, as the source of data. The sample in this research are trading companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) from 2013 to 2015 were selected using purposive sampling method. The data were analysed by using regressive logistics technique. The results of the research show that current ration and gross profit margin affect the inventory accounting of method selection significantly. Meanwhile, inventory turnover does not affect the inventory accounting of method selection. Meanwhile, it is simultaneously indipendent variables are current ratio, inventory turnover and gross profit margin all having significant on dependent variable is inventory method selection
Article
Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepuasan wisatawan terhadap loyalitas wisatawan, untuk mengetahui pengaruh kepuasan tujuan umum (general destination satisfaction), tingkat kepuasan rata-rata dalam hal atribut tujuan (attribute satisfaction) dan sejauh mana harapan terpenuhi (met expectation) terhadap kepuasan wisatawan dan untuk mengetahui intention to return dan kemauan untuk merekomendasikan (willingness to recommended) terhadap loyalitas. Sampel terdiri dari 150 wisatawan Kepulauan Seribu. Pengolahan data menggunakan AMOS 23. Hasil penelitian didapat kepuasan wisatawan berpengaruh positif terhadap loyalitas wisatawan lokal pada objek wisata Kepulauan Seribu Jakarta, kepuasaan tujuan umum (general destination satisfaction), kepuasan atribut tujuan (attribute satisfaction) dan kepuasaan harapan (met expectation) berpengaruh positif terhadap kepuasan wisatawan lokal pada objek wisata Kepulauan Seribu Jakarta dan Niat untuk kembali (intention to return) dan kemauan untuk merekomendasikan (willingness to recommended) berpengaruh positif terhadap loyalitas.
Article
Full-text available
The development of the tourism industry that exceeds other sectors has encouraged the stakeholders to make various improvements consistently. The levels of tourist satisfaction and loyalty become the primary focus and the indicators of the success of tourism marketing. The findings about the tourist satisfaction and loyalty are highly valuable information for all stakeholders in tourism industry. This study investigated the effects of five-travelling-experiences which consists of experiences for accommodation, transportation, destination, tourism infrastructures, and travel agencies to travelling satisfaction and investigated the post-visit of the tourists in four actions, namely, the will-comeback in the future, recommendation to friends or relatives, suggestion to the relations, and positive conversation. There were 200 respondents in total selected purposively from the tourists who came from ten ASEAN member countries who have visited to at least two destinations in North Sumatra and stayed for at least two nights in North Sumatra. The data were processed and analyzed using the Wrap PLS software and it was found that accommodation, transportation, destination, travel agency, and infrastructure have significant positive effect on satisfaction with R 2 for 0,752. Tourist satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on tourist loyalty with R 2 for 0,432. Accommodation, transportation, destination, travel agency and infrastructure have indirect effect on tourist loyalty through tourist satisfaction as an intervening variable. For any further study, it is expected to have more respondents from more countries with more travelling experiences and have visited to more destinations in North Sumatra with a longer duration of the visit.
Article
Full-text available
A statistical analysis based on a tripartite theoretical model of tourist attraction was conducted in this work to examine the influence of personal factors on tourists’ perception of the attractions that determine a city's attractiveness. Using the responses of a sample of 510 international tourists, a random sample of 171 was selected, from which parametric and non-parametric tests were carried out: Levene’s test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. The results show that, from a statistical point of view, there are statistically significant relationships between tourist perception and personal factors. This reveals that the same tourist attractions can be perceived and evaluated differently according to gender, age, motivation, and region of origin. Thus, there is a significant influence of internal factors on the tourists’ perception. Tourism perception is therefore not static but fluctuating. Consequently, it is imperative for decision-makers to segment the tourism market to satisfy tourists, meet their expectations, and enhance the attractiveness of a destination. The main results of this research are related to the contrasting perceptions of the same tourist attraction by different groups of tourists. An exploration that has so far not been carried out in previous research, in the context of urban tourism. Thus, tourism managers should take this variation into account when planning a tourism marketing and communication strategy. Research proves that targeted and focused tourist development can increase the tourist attractiveness of a city, the level of which depends crucially on perception. Finally, a presentation of four models that categorize and prioritize tourist attractions according to preferences by age, gender, motivation, and original destination is presented. These models are put forward as a referential, decision-support framework that clarifies the nuanced preferences of different tourist groups. The theoretical and marketing implications are also discussed for further research and development of tourism destination management.
Chapter
One of the tourists’ inherent nature is that they like to explore new things and spend their leisure time engaging in various tourism-related activities such as enjoying the outdoors, sunbathing, singing, learning about a new culture, and watching sports. Based on the travel destinations and type of tourists, this chapter classifies Bangladesh tourism into different forms, including heritage tourism, religious tourism, seaside tourism, eco-tourism, rural tourism, tea tourism and highlights the potential of Bangladesh as an ideal touristic place for local and global tourists.
Article
Throughout the Middle Ages, Jewish quarters, known as juderías, were vibrant spaces in Navarrese cities and towns. However, although Jewish past significantly contributed to Navarre's historical identity and has occupied an important place in regional historiography, Jewish heritage has only recently awakened interest in historians, archaeologists and local councils. This article aims to carry out case studies of three different juderías, specifically in Tudela, Estella and Pamplona, as cultural and tourist assets and discuss the weaknesses and strengths of their touristic potential. Tudela has been making use of this potential for several years now, while Estella only rather recently began to explore the diverse ways of taking advantage of its latent qualities. On the contrary, to date, Pamplona seems to have totally ignored the Jewish component of its medieval past. This article argues that the (in)visibility of Jewish heritage is an apt indicator of the recognition that supply-side stakeholders give this cultural and touristic asset.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism has profound effect on the local community of its destination, as it brings economic and socio-cultural changes. This study investigates the stakeholders' perception of Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria. The broad objectives of this study are to assess the condition of existing facilities vis-à-vis the problems confronting and potential of the Park, identify the host and the visitors to the park and assess how people perceive the park. The research methods include in-depth fieldwork, observation, questionnaire administration, interviews, collation and processing of field data. The research instrument was the questionnaire administered with the aid of simple random sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse data collected for the study. The result of the study revealed that Old Oyo National Park was an attractive tourist destination. However, it was observed that the level of awareness of the tourist centres to the general public is relatively poor and the Park is fairly developed. The result shows that the community members blamed the lack of development and public awareness of the Park on the government. The research also revealed that the Park has positively influenced the community for developments. Some of the major problems identified were poor management of the existing facilities. The research recommends maintenance of the facilities, improvement of the transportation facilities and public and private partnership in development of this National Park. If these recommendations are followed, the Old Oyo National Park will be an attractive tourist destination in years to come. This will boost the socioeconomic development of the community.
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss critically, based on a review of recent literature on the topic, the challenges faced by urban tourism destinations with regards to eTourism and new technologies.
Thesis
It is obvious that customers are important stakeholders to any organization and their satisfaction is a priority to management. In order to improve the service quality level of the company, the company should be aware of the exact customer needs as well as their perception from the customer's point of view. In recent years the Sri Lankan travel industry (both local and foreign tours) has been facing ferocious competition. (ICRA Lanka, 2011) The aim of the research is to study service quality levels offered for customers in a travel agency for the purpose of improvement of the company. In order to fulfill this purpose Shanthi Travelers Company was chosen as the case company. The data of this study were collected from a detailed literature review, service quality dimensions selected to explore the relationship among service quality and customer satisfaction. As the theoretical study provided relevant theories determining and defining service quality and customer satisfaction. The other alternative approaches used are internet, observations, questionnaires, open interviews, where the aim of an open interview was to give the respondent freedom in answering questions which support quantitative research approach. The results are further analyzed throughout the thesis under findings and recommendations. Questionnaires been used as a method of collecting the primary data. The qualitative approach also been used via company data base, company reports, company published sources as a method of collecting the secondary data.
Article
This study develops a model for selecting videos for city marketing. First, Modified Delphi Method was used to find suitable criteria to evaluate videos of city marketing. Next, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to determine the relative weights of the criteria. A local government in Taiwan is used as an example of how videos for city marketing can be selected with this model. Furthermore, this study found that there is a gap in the weights of criteria identified between operators and governments. Finally, this study used sensitivity analysis to survey the criterion weight of the degree of influence with an alternative hierarchy, making it applicable for academia and commerce.
Article
Full-text available
Customer satisfaction is an important aspect to be managed in any organization. In order to improve the quality of service rendered to a particular customer, the company should be aware of exact customer needs and their perception from the customer’s point of view. In recent years the Sri Lankan travel industry (both local and foreign tours) has been facing ferocious competition (ICRA Lanka, 2011). The aim of this qualitative research is to study service quality levels offered to customers in travel agencies to gain an idea to set efficient measures. Hence, the service can be improved which will lead to improved profits. The sampling method chosen for this study is “Simple Random Sampling” where every passenger from the frame has an equal chance of being selected. The customer experience analysis is conducted by a total number of 178 respondents. The sample represents 51% of participated customers. The questionnaire contains statements on five SERVQUAL dimensions presented by Parasuraman et al. (1985) tailored to specific service quality requirements of the travel agency. Based on that model the service quality been measured by considering the five variables as reliability, responsiveness, empathy, assurance and tangibles.
Article
Along with the increase in modern industry, original facilities and cultures have disappeared progressively, leading to the disappearance of traditional values. However, from the perspective of the stewardship of industrial heritage, preservation is vital for Western Europe, where the Industrial Revolution emerged firstly, and it has leading technology in terms of the advanced stewardship of industrial heritage protection. Meanwhile, there is a large market for industrial heritage growth in China, but its stewardship began later. Horizontal and vertical research into the stewardship of the industrial heritage of these two regions offers a review of the developed industrial regions and experiences for developing industrial regions in their future expansion. By analysing the values and dilemmas and the features of the legal, administrative, and fund guarantee systems, this paper summarizes the advanced expertise of the stewardship of industrial heritage in Western Europe and China and proposes strategies based on them.
Article
Full-text available
z İletişim ve ulaşım teknolojilerindeki gelişmeler sonucu seyahatin ucuzlaması ve kolaylaşması, gelirlerin artması, çalışma saatlerinin kısalması, daha kısa ancak daha fazla tatile çıkma eğiliminin artması, insanların diğer kültürleri ve yaşantıları görüp deneyimlemek istemeleri gibi nedenlerle sosyal, kültürel, sanatsal, sportif, alışveriş, sağlık, eğlence gibi birçok amaçla şehirlere yapılan genellikle kısa süreli ziyaretleri içeren şehir (kent) turizmi ön plana çıkmıştır. Turizm endüstrisinden daha fazla pay almak isteyen, yeni iş ve istihdam olanaklarını arttırmak isteyen birçok şehir de kendisini turizm kenti olarak konumlandırmaya başlamıştır. Çalışmanın amacı; sürdürülebilir turizm kalkınmasında bir şehrin doğal, kültürel, sosyal ve tarihi çekiciliklerinin önemini vurgulayarak, aşırı turist kabulünün, taşıma kapasitesinin aşımının sürdürülebilir kentsel turizm kalkınmasına etkilerini ortaya koyabilmektir. Çalışmanın uygulama örneğini Barselona oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın araştırma yöntemi, nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman taraması ve gözleme dayanmaktadır. Turizmdeki hızlı büyüme, Barselona halkının ve diğer paydaşların tepkisini çekmeye başlamıştır. Çalışmanın son bölümünde, bu tepkilerin nedenleri ortaya konularak, sorunların çözümü için yapılan çalışmalar incelenmektedir. Abstract Communication and travel a result of advances in transportation technology becoming cheaper and easier to, rising incomes, the shortening of working hours, shorter but more increase in the tendency to go on vacation, people of other cultures and social reasons like they want to experience life on seeing, cultural, artistic, sporting, shopping, health, city tourism, which usually includes short-term visits to cities for many purposes such as entertainment, has come to the forefront. Many cities that want
Article
Full-text available
Considering the importance of ecotourism development as one of the effective strategies for economic, social, and environmental development, especially in developing countries, as well as Iran's capabilities in this field, the present study is combined research to provide a model of ecotourism development in this country. In the qualitative section, to identify the model, the experts were interviewed, and the data were analyzed by the content analysis method, which led to the identification of 4 and 19 strategies. In the quantitative part, a questionnaire was prepared based on dimensions and strategies, and the country's tourism experts prioritized them. The results of data analysis using the method of hesitant fuzzy sets show that the most critical
Article
Full-text available
This paper argues that recent developments in the theory of place image hold great potential for tourism marketers, but that their full value has yet to be realized. The article reviews some of the relevant theories of place image, and, in particular, it discusses the differences between what has been termed ‘naive’ and ‘re-evaluated’ images of places. It then demonstrates the value of using place image in market research to assist in the formulation of tourism policy. This is accomplished through a case study drawn from the seaside resort of Barry Island in South Wales, where destination managers included an evaluation of the resort's ‘organic’ images in their market research to assist in shaping a new tourism strategy. The article concludes by arguing that the adoption of a more integrated approach to place marketing is a valuable exercise for any destination.
Article
In recent years, city councils in the UK have increasingly focused their attention on using the arts and culture as new tools for urban revitalization. Taking Birmingham and Glasgow as main case studies this article critically examines the investments which have been made under this approach and evaluates the impact which they have had on the urban environment. The first part of the article provides a brief overview of the processes which have contributed to the current interest in culture-led approaches to urban revitalization and the definitions of culture used. The second part examines the various local strategies which have been implemented and questions whether these have resulted in a any substantive improvement to the urban environment. It is argued that this should be evaluated on qualitative as well as on physical terms. The final section of the article provides some thoughts on how these approaches can be incorporated into an overall city revitalization plan. -from Author
Article
This article focuses on the widespread trend among British industrial cities to develop tourism as part of their local economic policy. It details what is needed for success in such schemes and concentrates upon one example, that of Sheffield, England. In the case of Sheffield there is growing support from the city council for the development of tourism as part of their economic regeneration policy. The article details the problems likely to be encountered in the light of recession and also highlights the lack of strategic planning previously undertaken. Further problems include the lack of a single strong theme linking attractions and also their geographic dispersal. -S.Tanner
Article
The Sheffield supertram, a new light-rail-transit (LRT) system, was formally opened in March 1994, with the full network scheduled for completion in late 1995 or early 1996. This paper considers Supertram against the backcloth of increasing problems of urban transportation in general. The author focuses upon whether Supertram will fulfil its supposed expectations and a number of the problems that the development of the system has exposed, particularly relating to the ill-planned and extended construction periods that have already disrupted much local business activity, the deepening decline of the city centre and its continuing and mounting competition from Meadowhall. The likelihood of a truly planned and integrated transportation system developing out of the essentially partial and particular development of Supertram is also considered. -Author
Chapter
The chapter applies models developed for services quality management and services marketing - referring to individual services, to a tourism destination with a value chain of various services. This refers to the "total perceived quality model" by Grönroos (1990), the "service quality model" or "gap analysis model" by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985), and the "customer relationship lifecycle model" by Grönroos (1990), and the distinction bewteen internal (attribute based) quality and external (incident based) quality
Article
Inner-city tourism is considered as a complex system. In order to analyze it, an empirical approach is discussed. The proposed conceptual framework consists of the relationship between touristic resources, in this case “the inner-city environment,” and the (day) tourists, a specific group of visitors. This relationship is assumed to be influenced by promotion. This exploration was inspired by the results of several case studies in historical Dutch cities, none of which are considered as traditional tourist places, but all of which, nevertheless, open interesting perspectives as to their touristic development. This can be deduced from interviews with promoters operating on a national, regional, or local scale and from a survey among city visitors. This study advocates continuous interaction between conceptual and empirical approaches in examining inner-city tourism.RésuméLe phénomène du tourisme urbain est considéré comme un système complexe. Le cadre conceptuel que l'on présente consiste du rapport entre les ressources touristiques, dans le cas présent “l'environment urbain”, et un groupe spécifique de visiteurs, ici les touristes d'une journée. L'on suppose que ce rapport est influencé par la promotion. Cette exploration a été inspirée par les résultats de plusieurs cas d'étude dans des villes néerlandaises hi historiques, dont aucune ne se considère comme un endroit particulièrement touristique, mais dont chacune ouvre une perspective intéressante quant à son développement touristique. Cela peut être déduit des entrevues avec des promoteurs qui travaillent à une échelle nationale, régionale ou locale, ainsi que d'une enquête parmi les visiteurs mêmes. Cete étude recommande une interaction continuelle entre les approaches conceptuelle et empirique pour examiner le tourisme urbain.
Article
This paper argues that recent developments in the theory of place image hold great potential for tourism marketers, but that their full value has yet to be realized. The article reviews some of the relevant theories of place image, and, in particular, it discusses the differences between what has been termed ‘naive’ and ‘re-evaluated’ images of places. It then demonstrates the value of using place image in market research to assist in the formulation of tourism policy. This is accomplished through a case study drawn from the seaside resort of Barry Island in South Wales, where destination managers included an evaluation of the resort's ‘organic’ images in their market research to assist in shaping a new tourism strategy. The article concludes by arguing that the adoption of a more integrated approach to place marketing is a valuable exercise for any destination.
Article
Although product image has long been postulated in the marketing literature to have a powerful influence in the purchasing process, it is only relatively recently that those in the tourism field have attempted to understand the role of image in the travel decision process and to measure destination images. The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of destination image. Previous research in the field is summarised and reviewed and, in the process, the strengths and deficiencies of the methods used to define and measure destination image are assessed. As a result, suggestions for enhancing the manner in which destination image is conceptualised and measured are proposed. These suggestions have both managerial and theoretical implications.
Article
Efforts to make tourism a more sustainable option have been focusing increasingly on a community development approach, but an analysis of the differences between traditional community economic development and community tourism development clearly shows that tourism continues to be driven by levels of government rather than community interests. A closer look at the interests that influence decision making, or for that matter non-decision making, with respect to tourism development also points out the level of rhetoric that surrounds ‘community involvement’ in the process, while perpetuating many of the biases found in the system. There is a great need to evaluate the implementation of so-called community-driven tourism development plans to determine to what extent the local residents truly share in the benefits supposedly derived from increased visitation, since it is quite clear that they support the majority of the costs associated with tourism.
Article
The paper argues that the search for explanation should guide mega-event research. The influence of planning, political, and urban contextual processes and factors on mega-event production is illustrated through a discussion of comparative event research and a case study of Sheffield's Universiade 1991. This research indicates the important influence of contextual societal change, urban leadership, and nonrational planning in event production processes. These factors are important for understanding both event causation and also the potentially rational character of event policymaking. The strengths and limitations of ‘planning’ and ‘political’ approaches to understanding events are considered. A relevant research agenda is briefly outlined.RésuméLes méga-événements et la politique urbaine. La recherche sur les méga-événements doit surtout fournir des explications. L'influence de la planification et des facteurs et processus contextuels, politiques et urbains, est illustrée par une discussion de la recherche comparative sur les événements et par une étude de l'Universiade de 1991 à Sheffield. On souligne l'influence importante des changements sociaux et contextuels, les initiatives urbaines et la planification non rationnelle sur la genèse d'un événement. Ces facteurs permettent de comprendre la causalité des événements ainsi que le caractère rationnel de la formation des politiques pour les événements. Les points forts et les limitations de la planification et des approaches pour comprendre les événements sont considérés. On esquisse également un programme de recherches.
Article
Urban tourism is a relatively recent phenomenon but is now being embraced by most US cities, which are using substantial funds to compete for visitors, creating elaborate new infrastructures in the process. This article provides an analytical overview of the steps a variety of US cities are taking — such as developing a new brand image, refurbishing run-down areas, touting for conference business, building shopping malls and creating ‘carousal’ zones — to promote tourism. The author also examines how far these strategies translate into economic and social success.
Article
This article, using the traveller behaviour model presented by Gunn1 in conjunction with an empirical analysis of American tourists travelling overseas, examines how the tourist destination image and tourist perceptions are modified and enhanced through travel to that destination. A survey questionnaire of first-time travellers to South Korea revealed a positive change in attitude to factors such as safety and scenery, as a result of the touristic experience. Marketing implications for South Korea are drawn.
Article
The types and mix of organizations involved in city marketing for tourism are examined in five old industrial cities in Britain (Birmingham, Bradford, Manchester, Sheffield and Stoke-on-Trent). Two trends in the tourism marketing organizations in these cities are identified and evaluated, namely the increasing use of public-private sector partnerships in the form of visitor and conference bureaux and a recent trend towards corporate city marketing. The objectives behind the tourism marketing activities by the five cities were found to be very similar, although some differences were evident. The potential consequences of establishing a public-private sector visitor and conference bureau are considered for two key aspects of urban governance: for the coordination of urban policy and management, and for local democracy.
Article
An industry is characterized by a generic product and production process. For tourism to be considered an industry, it is necessary to show that such a generic product and process exist. This paper argues that they do exist, and presents a model that describes the product as consisting of five elements: the physical plant, service, hospitality, freedom of choice, and involvement. The generic production begins with raw inputs, progresses through intermediate inputs and outputs, to final outputs, or the tourist's experience. The model is a potentially important contribution in the debate about tourism as an industry; it also formalizes the intuitive notion of many authors that tourism products are fundamentally experiences.RésuméTourisme: le produit. Une industrie se caractérise par un produit et un processus de production génériques. Pour que le tourisme soit considéré une industrie, il faut démontrer qu'il existe un produit et un processus génériques. L'article soutient que ces deux éléments existent bien pour le tourisme. Le produit comprend cing éléments: bâtiments et matériel, service, hospitalité, liberté de choix et engagement. La production commence par des consommations brutes et progresse par des échanges économiques intermédiaires jusqu'au point final de production, c'est-à-dire l'expérience du touriste. Le modèle pourrait bien être une contribution importante au débat du tourisme somme industrie; il formalise aussi l'idée intuitive que les produits du tourisme sont en comme des expériences.
UK Special Olympics Games: Accom-modation Guide
  • Destination
  • Sheffield
Destination Sheffield, UK Special Olympics Games: Accom-modation Guide. Destination Sheffield, Sheffield, 1993.
Sheffield works: an evaluation of a factory tourism scheme. Centre for Tourism
  • L Speakman
  • B Bramwell
Speakman, L. and Bramwell, B., Sheffield works: an evaluation of a factory tourism scheme. Centre for Tourism, Sheffield Hallam University, Occasional Paper, 1992.
The Sheffield Central Area Study. 2001: A Vision of Quality. Sheffield Chamber of Commerce and Sheffield City Council
  • P Foley
  • P Lawless
Foley, P. and Lawless, P., The Sheffield Central Area Study. 2001: A Vision of Quality. Sheffield Chamber of Commerce and Sheffield City Council, Sheffield, 1992.
Report on a Survey of Visitors' Images of Sheffield
  • B Bramwell
Bramwell, B., Report on a Survey of Visitors' Images of Sheffield, 1996. Destination Sheffield, Sheffield, 1996.
The National Centre ]br Popular Music. Report to Planning and Economic Development Committee
  • Sheffield City
  • Council
Sheffield City Council, The National Centre ]br Popular Music. Report to Planning and Economic Development Committee. Sheffield City Council, Sheffield, 1995.
Selling the industrial town: identity, image and illusion. In Place Promotion: The Use oJ" Publicity and Marketing to Sell Towns and Regions
  • M Barke
  • K Harrop
Barke, M. and Harrop, K., Selling the industrial town: identity, image and illusion. In Place Promotion: The Use oJ" Publicity and Marketing to Sell Towns and Regions, ed. J. Gold and S. Ward. Wiley, Chichester, 1994, pp. 93-114.
Re-imaging the city: the transformation of Birmingham's urban landscape
  • Hubbard
Hubbard, P., Re-imaging the city: the transformation of Birmingham's urban landscape. Geography 1996, 81(1), 26-36.
Urban renaissance? The arts and the urban regeneration process
  • Bianchini
Bianchini, F., Urban renaissance? The arts and the urban regeneration process. In Tackfing the Inner Cities: The 1980s Reviewed, Pro,spects fi>r the 1990s, ed. S. MacGregor and B. Pimlott. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1990, pp. 215-250.
National Ck, ntre Jbr Popular Music Market Appraisal
  • B Bramwell
  • J Owen
  • N Dobson
Bramwell, B., Owen, J. and Dobson, N., National Ck, ntre Jbr Popular Music Market Appraisal." Final Report. Music Heritage, Sheffield, 1997.
Price competitiveness and inclusive tour holidays
  • A Clewer
  • A Pack
  • M T Sinclair
Clewer, A., Pack, A. and Sinclair, M. T., Price competitiveness and inclusive tour holidays. In Choice and Demand in Tourism, ed. P. Johnson and B. Thomas. Mansell, London, 1992, pp. 123-144.
Creating the urban product. The Urban Environ-ment: Tourism Conference Proceedings
  • C M Law
Law, C. M., Creating the urban product. The Urban Environ-ment: Tourism Conference Proceedings, South Bank University, London, 11-12 September 1995, pp. 86-90.
SheffieM Joint Tourism Development Initiative: A Programme fi>r Action
  • Sheffield
Sheffield Partnerships, SheffieM Joint Tourism Development Initiative: A Programme fi>r Action. Sheffield Partnerships, Sheffield, 1990.
Event tourism in Sheffield: a sustainable approach to urban development? In Sustainahh, Tourism Management: Principh's and Practice
  • B Bramwell
  • G Henry
  • G Jackson
  • J Richards
  • Van Der Straaten
Bramwell, B., Event tourism in Sheffield: a sustainable approach to urban development? In Sustainahh, Tourism Management: Principh's and Practice, ed. B. Bramwell, A. Goytia Prat, 1. Henry, G. Jackson, G. Richards and J. van der Straaten. Tilburg University Press, Tilburg, 1996, pp. 147-170.
  • S Page
  • Urban Tourism
Page, S., Urban Tourism. Routledge, London, 1995.
Creating the urban product. The Urban Environment
  • C M Law
Law, C. M., Creating the urban product. The Urban Environment: Tourism Conference Proceedings, South Bank University, London, 11-12 September 1995, pp. 86-90.
Report to Planning and Economic Development Committee
  • Sheffield City
  • Council
Sheffield City Council, The National Centre ]br Popular Music. Report to Planning and Economic Development Committee. Sheffield City Council, Sheffield, 1995.
Event tourism in Sheffield: a sustainable approach to urban development?
  • Bramwell
Bramwell, B., Event tourism in Sheffield: a sustainable approach to urban development? In Sustainahh, Tourism Management: Principh's and Practice, ed. B. Bramwell, A. Goytia Prat, 1. Henry, G. Jackson, G. Richards and J. van der Straaten. Tilburg University Press, Tilburg, 1996, pp. 147-170.
Remaking the Heart of the City: Sheffield's Bid to the Millennium Commission
  • Sheffield City
  • Council
Sheffield City Council, Remaking the Heart of the City: Sheffield's Bid to the Millennium Commission. Sheffield City Council, Sheffield, April 1995.
The National Centre for Popular Music
  • Sheffield City Council
Sheffield works: an evaluation of a factory tourism scheme
  • Speakman
The Sheffield Central Area Study
  • Foley
Price competitiveness and inclusive tour holidays
  • Clewer