Coronary collateral quantitation in patients with coronary artery disease using intravascular flow velocity or pressure measurements <

Inselspital, Universitätsspital Bern, Berna, Bern, Switzerland
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 11/1998; 32(5):1272-1279. DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00384-2


Objectives. This study evaluated two methods for the quantitative measurement of collaterals using intracoronary (IC) blood flow velocity or pressure measurements.Background. The extent of myocardial necrosis after coronary artery occlusion is substantially influenced by the collateral circulation. So far, qualitative methods have been available to assess the human coronary collateral circulation, thus restraining the conclusive investigation of, for example, therapies to promote collateral development.Methods. Fifty-one patients with a coronary artery stenosis to be treated by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were investigated using IC PTCA guidewire-based Doppler and pressure sensors positioned distal to the stenosis. Simultaneous measurements of aortic pressure, IC velocity and pressure distal to the stenosis during and after PTCA provided the variables for calculating collateral flow indices (CFIv and CFIp) that express collateral flow as a fraction of flow via the patent vessel. Both CFIv and CFIp were compared with conventional methods for collateral assessment, among them ST-segment changes >1 mm on IC and surface electrocardiogram (ECG) at PTCA. Also, CFIv and CFIp were compared with each other.Results. In 11 patients without ECG signs of ischemia during PTCA (sufficient collaterals), relative collateral flow amounted to 46% as determined by Doppler and pressure wire. Patients with insufficient collaterals (n = 40) had relative collateral flow values of 18%. Using a threshold of CFI = 30%, sufficient and insufficient collaterals could be diagnosed with 100% sensitivity and 93% specificity by IC Doppler, and 75% sensitivity and 92% specificity by IC pressure measurements. The agreement between Doppler and pressure measurements was good: CFIv = 0.08 + 0.8 CFIp, r = 0.80, p = 0.0001.Conclusions. Intracoronary flow velocity or pressure measurements during routine PTCA represent an accurate and, at last, quantitative method for assessing the coronary collateral circulation in humans.

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    • "Then, the vessel is angioplastied so that there is no remaining lesion and the flow velocity measured again, which represents the flow through the normal vessel. The collateral flow velocity is then compared to the flow velocity through the open coronary artery and indicates the percentage of normal blood flow that can be preserved via the collateral circulation in case of an abrupt vessel occlusion [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The coronary arteries have been regarded as end arteries for decades. However, there are functionally relevant anastomotic vessels, known as collateral arteries, which interconnect epicardial coronary arteries. These vessels provide an alternative source of blood supply to the myocardium in cases of occlusive coronary artery disease. The relevance of these collateral arteries is a matter of ongoing debate, but increasing evidence indicates a relevant protective role in patients with coronary artery disease. The collateral circulation can be assessed by different methods; the gold standard involves intracoronary pressure measurements. While the first clinical trials to therapeutically induce growth of collateral arteries have been unavailing, recent pilot studies using external counterpulsation or growth factors such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) have shown promising results.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · BMC Medicine
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    • "Patients suffering from coronary artery disease have been described to develop less severe symptoms when they exhibit a well developed collateral network [1] [2]. The collateralization, however, is rarely adequate to fully compensate for the lost conductance of the occluded vessel . "
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic augmentation of collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) is of tremendous clinical interest. Since monocytes home to areas of arteriogenesis and create a local arteriogeneic milieu by secreting a wide range of growth factors, we followed the idea of utilizing these cells for augmentation of collateral growth. For that purpose, we adoptively transferred both syngeneic (same strain) and allogeneic (different strain) bone marrow derived monocytes (BMDMs) into balb/c mice 24 h after femoral artery ligation. Restoration of hind-limb perfusion was determined by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and histological workup. While syngeneic cell transplantation did not augment arteriogenesis in comparison to non-transplanted animals (PI = 0.56 ± 0.06 vs. 0.48 ± 0.09, respectively, ns), allogeneic monocytes massively promoted the collateralization (PI = 0.85 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Homed monocytes were visualized near growing collateral vessels by staining the cells with the lipophil fluorochrome DiI prior to transplantation. To analyze whether the effect of allogeneic BMDM transplantations is due to local inflammation triggered by a host-versus-graft reaction, transplant recipients were pre-treated with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A, which completely prevented the effect of allogeineic monocyte transplantation (PI = 0.45 ± 0.06, p < 0.001). Here, we have demonstrated murine allogeneic monocytes to be an attractive way to trigger local inflammatory responses near growing collateral vessels and stimulate their adaption, overcoming the endogenous restriction of collateral vessel growth.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · American Journal of Translational Research
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    • "In brief, the Rentrop score assigns four degrees of collateralization depending on the presence and extension of the collateral filling of coronary epicardial vessels during a coronary angiogram (grade 0 = no collaterals; grade 1 = side branch filling of the recipient artery without filling of the main epicardial artery; grade 2 = partial filling of the main epicardial recipient artery; grade 3 = complete filling of the main epicardial recipient artery). Four studies based their collateral quantification on intracoronary pressure measurements (collateral flow index (CFI)) [12] (Table 2) and defined poor collateralization as a CFI < 0.25. The CFI defines the proportion of blood flow that derives from the collateral circulation in comparison to the antegrade blood flow through the main coronary artery. "
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    ABSTRACT: The benefit of the coronary collateral circulation (natural bypass network) on survival is well established. However, data derived from smaller studies indicates that coronary collaterals may increase the risk for restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to explore the impact of the collateral circulation on the risk for restenosis. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science databases (2001 to 15 July 2011). Random effects models were used to calculate summary risk ratios (RR) for restenosis. The primary endpoint was angiographic restenosis > 50%. A total of 7 studies enrolling 1,425 subjects were integrated in this analysis. On average across studies, the presence of a good collateralization was predictive for restenosis (risk ratio (RR) 1.40 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.80); P = 0.009). This risk ratio was consistent in the subgroup analyses where collateralization was assessed with intracoronary pressure measurements (RR 1.37 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.83); P = 0.038) versus visual assessment (RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.99); P = 0.049). For the subgroup of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), the RR for restenosis with 'good collaterals' was 1.64 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.35) compared to 'poor collaterals' (P = 0.008). For patients with acute myocardial infarction, however, the RR for restenosis with 'good collateralization' was only 1.23 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.69); P = 0.212. The risk of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increased in patients with good coronary collateralization. Assessment of the coronary collateral circulation before PCI may be useful for risk stratification and for the choice of antiproliferative measures (drug-eluting stent instead bare-metal stent, cilostazol).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · BMC Medicine
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