Dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect of emodin against acetaminophen-induced acute damage in rats

ArticleinExperimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 62(6):627-635 · November 2010with5 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2009.08.006
Abstract
Protective effect of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone), an active compound of Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., was evaluated against acetaminophen-induced biochemical and histological alterations in rats. Acetaminophen (2 g/kg, po) administration caused significant elevation in the release of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum bilirubin and serum protein with concomitant decrease in hemoglobin and blood sugar after 24 h of its administration. Toxicant exposure intensified the lipid peroxidation and altered glutathione status, activities of adenosine triphosphatase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase as well as major cellular constituents i.e., protein, glycogen and total cholesterol in liver and kidney. Treatment of emodin (20, 30 and 40 mg/kg, po) significantly lessened the toxicity by protecting acetaminophen-induced alterations in various blood and tissue biochemical variables after 24 h of its administration. Acetaminophen administration initiated histological damage in liver. Some degree of protection was seen after emodin therapy in a dose-dependent manner. Emodin at doses of 30 and 40 mg/kg effectively reversed toxic events induced by acetaminophen as same as silymarin (50 mg/kg, po). Thus, the study concluded that emodin at a dose of 30 mg/kg (po) possesses optimum hepatoprotective ability against acetaminophen-induced toxicity.
    • "Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl anthraquinone) is an anthraquinone derivative from Chinese herbs Rheum palmatum (rhubarb), Polygonum multiflorum, Cassia obtusifolia, etc. The hepatoprotective effects of emodin have been reported in a series of studies using animal models (Zhang, 2006; Dong et al., 2009; Bhadauria, 2010), and some Chinese medicine compound prescriptions mainly containing rhubarb are often used for the treatment of hepatitis in clinic (Liang et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2010). However, recently, some studies have reported a contradictory event that emodin has hepatotoxicity to normal rats (National Toxicology Program, 2001; Wang et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herbal medicines containing emodin, widely used for the treatment of hepatitis in clinic, have been reported with hepatotoxicity in individuals. A modest inflammatory stress potentiating liver injury has been linked to the idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interacts with emodin could synergize to cause liver injury in rats. Emodin (ranging from 20, 40, to 80 mg/kg), which is in the range of liver protection, was administered to rats, before LPS (2.8 mg/kg) or saline vehicle treatment. The biochemical tests showed that non-toxic dosage of LPS coupled with emodin caused significant increases of plasma ALT and AST activities as compared to emodin alone treated groups (P < 0.05). In addition, with LPS or emodin alone could not induce any changes in ALT and AST activity, as compared with the control group (0.5% CMC-Na treatment). Meanwhile, the plasma proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 increased significantly in the emodin/LPS groups compared to either emodin groups or the LPS (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that liver damage was only found in emodin/LPS cotreatmented rat livers samples. These results indicate that non-toxic dosage of LPS potentiates the hepatotoxicity of emodin. This discovery raises the possibility that emodin and herbal medicines containing it may induce liver injury in the inflammatory stress even in their therapeutic dosages.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    Can TuCan TuDan GaoDan GaoXiao-Fei LiXiao-Fei Li+1more author...[...]
    • "Liver injuries induced by APAP is commonly used as a model for the screening of hepatoprotective activities of drugs, where free radicals and oxidative processes play an important role in hepatotoxicity [8]. A decrease in total serum protein after APAP treatment could be associated with the decrease in the number of hepatocytes, which in turn may result in the decreased hepatic capacity to synthesize protein and, consequently, decrease liver weight [25, 26]. Our results showed that livers weight of hypertensive and normotensive rats did not differ. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
    • "In recent years, plants essential oil (EO) and their constituents have received considerable attention due to their diverse pharmacological properties. A growing interest has been observed in the evaluation of EO for their health benefits, one of the main properties being its antioxidant activity, which enables them to attenuate the development of tumor, inflammation and liver disease (Bhadauria, 2010). EO can act as antioxidant agents by scavenging free radicals and increasing antioxidants defenses (Bakkali et al., 2008; Victoria et al., 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotector activity of Eugenia uniflora leaves essential oil in mice by the determination of the biochemical parameters: thiobarbituric acid reactive species, δ-aminulevunilate dehydratase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase activities, non-protein thiol, and plasmatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. The E. uniflora leaves essential oil (200 mg/kg) restored all of the biochemical parameters modified by the injury caused by the acetaminophen (300 mg/kg), like non-protein thiol content, δ-aminulevunilate dehydratase and glutathione-S-transferase activities on mice's liver and also decreased the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species on kidneys. Moreover, the increase on plasma activities aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was also restored by the essential oil. The exposure to acetaminophen also increased lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney. This work shows for the first time the effect of E. uniflora leaves essential oil on attenuating the injury caused by acetaminophen on mice.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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