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Flavonols are one of the most studied classes of polyphenolic phytochemicals, because of the importance pertaining to their antioxidant potency and other biological activities. Grapes and grape products such as wine constitute an integral part of the human diet, and during the past few years several studies have generated analytical data on the flavonol profile, as well as on the factors that may affect it. To further aid epidemiological research, which is based on composition tables, this review aims at providing an up-to-date compilation of data on the flavonol composition of grapes and some of the principal commodities deriving from them, including grape juices and wines. Information regarding environmental and technological parameters that may influence flavonols in these products is also reported.
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Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396–404
Critical Review
Flavonols in grapes, grape products and wines:
Burden, profile and influential parameters
Dimitris P. Makris
, Stamatina Kallithraka
, Panagiotis Kefalas
Department of Food Quality Management and Chemistry of Natural Products, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania (M. A. I. Ch.),
P.O. Box 85, 73100, Chania, Greece
Vine and Wine Institute, National Agricultural Research Foundation (N.AG.RE.F.), 1, S. Venizelou Str., 14123, Lycovrysi, Athens, Greece
Received 29 July 2004; received in revised form 11 September 2005; accepted 19 October 2005
Flavonols are one of the most studied classes of polyphenolic phytochemicals, because of the importance pertaining to their
antioxidant potency and other biological activities. Grapes and grape products such as wine constitute an integral part of the human diet,
and during the past few years several studies have generated analytical data on the flavonol profile, as well as on the factors that may
affect it. To further aid epidemiological research, which is based on composition tables, this review aims at providing an up-to-date
compilation of data on the flavonol composition of grapes and some of the principal commodities deriving from them, including grape
juices and wines. Information regarding environmental and technological parameters that may influence flavonols in these products is
also reported.
r2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Flavonoids; Flavonols; Grapes; Grape products; Polyphenols; Wines
1. Introduction
Flavonols constitute a group of flavonoids that vary in
colour from white to yellow and are closely related in
structure to the flavones. They are represented mainly by
kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin, while simple O-
methylated derivatives such as isorhamnetin (quercetin 30-
methylether) are also common (Fig. 1). The major flavonol
compounds that accumulate in plant tissues are glycosides,
found in an almost bewildering diversity of forms (Fig. 2).
The antioxidative effects of flavonols have been of
interest for a considerable time. The specific mode of
inhibition of oxidation is not clear, but they may act by (i)
scavenging lipid alkoxyl and peroxyl radicals by acting as
chain-breaking antioxidants, e.g., as hydrogen donors; (ii)
chelating metal ions, the appropriate structural features
provided; (iii) regenerating a-tocopherol through reduction
of the a-tocopheroxyl radical. The efficiency of flavonols as
antioxidant compounds greatly depends on their chemical
structure, three structural features being the most impor-
tant determinants (Bors, Heller, Michel and Saran, 1990;
Rice-Evans, Miller, Bolwell, Bramley and Pridham, 1995;
Cook and Samman, 1996;Rice-Evans and Miller, 1996;
van Acker, van den Berg, Tromp, Griffoen, van Bennekon,
van der Vijgh and Bast, 1996,Fig. 3):
(a) the o-dihydroxy (catechol) structure in the B ring,
which is a radical target site;
(b) the 2,3-double bond in conjugation with a 4-keto
function, which are responsible for electron delocaliza-
tion from the B ring; and
(c) the additional presence of both 3- and 5-hydroxyl
groups for maximal radical-scavenging potential and
strongest radical absorption.
Further, the o-dihydroxy structure as well as a 4-keto
and 3- or 5-hydroxyl groups are considered essential
functions with respect to chelating metal ions. The ability
of flavonoids to sequester metal ions contributes to their
antioxidative properties, by preventing the formation of
free radicals in the Fenton system.
0889-1575/$ - see front matter r2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +328210 35056; fax: +328210 35001.
E-mail address: (D.P. Makris).
The polyphenolic composition of grapes has been
extensively studied in relation to technologically important
constituents, such as flavanols and anthocyanins, but data
on flavonol content are rather scarce. In grapes (V. vinifera
sp.), derivatives of the most commonly encountered
aglycones, including quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol,
and isorhamnetin, have been found. The conjugates are
exclusively 3-O-glycosides, whereas sugar attachment on
other positions of the flavonol skeleton has never been
reported. For isorhamnetin, only glucose derivatives have
been identified, but myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol
may also occur as glucuronides. Furthermore, quercetin
has been found to form conjugates with glucosylgalactose
and glucosylxylose, and kaempferol with glucosylarabinose
and galactose (Spranger, 1992).
2. Flavonol composition in grapes, grape products and by-
Oszmianski and Lee (1990) reported that the content of
quercetin 3-O-galactoside in two samples from Concord
and de Chaunac grapes averaged 34.95 mg kg
(Table 1).
In a sample from the Napoleon cultivar, quercetin 3-O-
glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucuronide amounted to
21.6 mg kg
(Cantos, Garcı
´a-Viguera, de Pascual Teresa
and Toma
´n, 2000). More recently, the analysis of
free and conjugated flavonols, including quercetin, myr-
icetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, in two Cabernet
Sauvignon and two Merlot samples from Chile, showed
that their content ranged between 84.6 and 327.9 nmol g
(Burns, Gardner, Matthews, Duthie, Lean and Crozier,
2001). In three white grape extracts from Sauvignon Blanc,
Thompson Seedless and Chardonnay, total flavonols were
shown to occur at levels varying from 4.8 to 10.4 mgL
the average being 8.2 mg L
, determined as rutin equiva-
lents (Meyer, Yi, Pearson, Waterhouse and Frankel, 1997).
However, no data on the analytical composition were
reported. The determination of flavonols in five white
Muscadine varieties (V. rotundifolia sp.), after hydrolysis of
the glycosides, showed that total quercetin, myricetin and
kaempferol were between 3.3 and 7.4 mg per 100 g fresh
weight (mean 6.56 mg/100 g), but paradoxically in five
samples from red Muscadine varieties total flavonol level
was lower, ranging from 1.6 to 3.5 mg/100g (mean 2.4 mg/
100 g) (Pastrana-Bonilla, Akoh, Sellapan and Krewer,
An extensive investigation of Chardonnay pomace
revealed some interesting aspects of the qualitative
composition of flavonols (Lu and Foo, 1999). In particular,
the isolation and structural elucidation of a plethora of
polyphenolic substances demonstrated the presence of
several flavonol glycosides, including quercetin 3-O-gluco-
side, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside,
and kaempferol 3-O-galactoside. A quite wide diversity of
flavonol glycosides was also found in stems from Merlot
grapes (Souquet, Labarbe, Guerneve
´, Cheynier and Mou-
tounet, 2000), where quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, quercetin
3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, myricetin 3-O-
glucoside, and myricetin 3-O-glucuronide were shown to
occur at levels varying from traces to 218 mg kg
. Three
raisin samples from Sultinina grapes were reported to
contain quercetin glycosides in the range of
Kaempferol Quercetin
Myricetin Isorhamnetin
Fig. 1. Structures of four common flavonol aglycones encountered in plant tissues.
D.P. Makris et al. / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396 –404 397
82.1–121.8 mg kg
(mean 105.4 mg kg
Durst and Wrolstad, 2000), and grape molasses in average
1.69 mg L
quercetin, but no kaempferol (Karakaya and
Nehir, 1999).
Unlike for grapes, there has been some limited informa-
tion for grape juices regarding their flavonol composition.
Spanos and Wrolstad (1992) reported very low amounts of
quercetin glycosides, in the range of 7.2–9 mgL
, but in
another study the analysis of two juice samples showed
flavonol glycoside concentration ranging from 5.7 to
8.6 mg L
rutin equivalents (mean 7.15 mg L
), although
data on individual flavonols were not provided (Frankel,
Bosanek, Meyer, Silliman and Kirk, 1998). The concentra-
tion of quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol in one sample
of Muscadine grape juice were of the same magnitude,
9.9 mg L
(Talcott and Lee, 2002). In red grape juice from
Concord grapes, total flavonols amounted to 22.85 mg L
their range being from 21.1 to 24.6 mg L
Quercetin 4'-O-glucoside
Quercetin 3,4'-O-diglucoside
Quercetin 3-O-rhamnos
lucoside (rutin)
Fig. 2. Three characteristic flavonol glycosides illustrating various combinations of sugar attachment on the flavonol skeleton.
Fig. 3. Basic ring structure of flavonols with labelling convention.
D.P. Makris et al. / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396 –404398
equivalents (Frankel et al., 1998). However, juices made
from Muscadine grapes had an even higher content in
quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol, which varied from
13.4 to 100.9 mg L
(mean 57.15 mg L
)(Talcott and
Lee, 2002). Finally, an analytical survey on 92 vinegar
samples revealed that quercetin and isorhamnetin occur at
very low levels (0.0–3.1 mg L
), their average value being
1.53 mg L
´a-Parilla, Heredia and Troncoso, 1997).
3. Flavonols in wines
3.1. White wines
Some early reports on flavonol glycoside in white wines
demonstrated the presence of quercetin 3-O-glucuronide in
three Spanish wines made from Valdepen
˜as, La Mancha
and Rioja (Alonso, Estrella and Revilla, 1986). No
quantitative data were reported, but claims were made
that concentration was lower than 1 mg L
(Table 2).
Similarly, a more recent investigation on a Riesling wine
demonstrated the occurrence of quercetin 3-O-glucuronide
and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside (Baderschnider and Winter-
halter, 2001). Some quantitative results were provided by
Hertog et al. (1993), who showed that the total content of
flavonols in white wines varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mg L
These values included both glycosides and aglycones of
quercetin and myricetin, determined after hydrolysis. The
presence of quercetin 3-O-glucuronide was confirmed by
´s-Saura, Andre
´s-Lacueva and Lamuela-Ravento
(1996), who detected this flavonol glycoside by analysing
31 wine samples from the cultivars Macabeo, Xarel.lo and
Parellada. Its average content was found to be 0.25 mg L
It was also reported that no rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempfer-
ol 3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside or quercetin
was detected in any of the wines analysed. In another study
on 47 Spanish sparkling wines made from a blend of
Macabeo, Xarel.lo and Parellada, it was shown that the
concentration of this compound averages 0.35 mg L
Table 1
Flavonol composition of grapes, grape juices and grape products and by-products
Product Number of
samples (n)
Compound(s) Range
Red grapes 2 Quercetin 3-O-galactoside,
Quercetin 3-O-glucoside
22.1–47.8 34.95 Oszmianski and Lee (1990)
Red grapes 11 1.4–33.5
Meyer et al. (1997)
Red grapes 1 Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, 21.6 Cantos et al. (2000)
Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide
Red grapes 4 Quercetin, Myricetin, 84.6–327.9c
Burns et al. (2001)
Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin,
Glycosides thereof
Red grapes
5 Quercetin, Myricetin, Kaempferol 1.6–3.5
Pastrana-Bonilla et al. (2003)
White grapes 3 4.8–10.4
Meyer et al. (1997)
White grape pomace 1 Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, Lu and Foo (1999)
Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide,
Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside,
Kaempferol 3-O-galactoside
White grapes
5 Quercetin, Myricetin, Kaempferol 3.3–7.4
Pastrana-Bonilla et al. (2003)
White grape juice Quercetin glycosides 7.2–9
Spanos and Wrolstad (1992)
White grape juice 2 5.7–8.6 7.15 Frankel et al. (1998)
White grape juice 18 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide 0.5 Bete
´s-Saura et al. (1996)
White grape juice
1 Quercetin, Myricetin, Kaempferol 9.9 Talcott and Lee (2002)
Red grape juice 2 21.1–24.6 22.85 Frankel et al. (1998)
Red grape juice
2 Quercetin, Myricetin, Kaempferol 13.4–100.9 57.15 Talcott and Lee (2002)
Red grape stems 1 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, — 218 Souquet et al. (2000)
Quercetin 3-O-glucoside,
Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside,
Myricetin 3-O-glucoside,
Myricetin 3-O-glucuronide
Vinegar 92 Quercetin, Isoquercitrin 0–3.1 1.53 Garcı
´a-Parrilla et al. (1997)
Raisins 3 Quercetin glycosides, 82.1–121.8 105.4 Karadeniz et al. (2000)
Kaempferol glycosides
Grape molasses 2 Quercetin 1.69 Karakaya and Nehir (1999)
For grapes, pomace and stems concentration is expressed as mg kg
. For juices concentration is expressed as mg L
Concentration is referred to whole grape extract and is expressed as mg L
Content expressed as nmol g
Varieties belonging to V. rotundifolia.
Concentration is expressed as mg per 100 g fresh weight.
Concentration is expressed as mgL
D.P. Makris et al. / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396 –404 399
ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mg L
´-Gracia, Andre
Lacueva, Lamuela-Ravento
´s and Frankel, 1999). Further,
in seven Spanish wines made from Malvar, Verdejo,
Albillo, and Chardonnay, total flavonol concentration
varied from 2 to 7 mg L
, the average being 4.29 mg L
In both cases, however, data on the individual metabolites
were not reported. From the analysis of another three
samples from the cultivars Gewurtztraminer, Colomba
Platino and Torre di Giano, no isorhamnetin was detected,
but the sum of quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and rutin
was from 0.4 to 2.5 mg L
, with a mean value of
1.43 mg L
(Simonetti, Pietta and Testolin, 1997). On
the other hand, the examination of 30 Ontario wines made
from Chardonnay, Riesling, Seyval Blanc and Vidal
demonstrated the presence of quercetin at trace levels,
only in wines from Chardonnay (Soleas, Dam, Carey and
Goldberg, 1997). Finally, Talcott and Lee (2002) reported
a mean value of 2.9 mg L
for quercetin, myricetin and
kaempferol in a sample of Carlos Muscadine wine.
3.2. Red wines
¨ty-Auguste and Bertrand (1984) examined the
polyphenolic composition of wines made from Cabernet
Sauvignon, Merlot, and Malbec. It was found that in these
three samples quercetin and myricetin had concentrations
that varied from 11 to 20.9 mg L
(Table 3). The
examination of certain red wine samples after hydrolysis
showed that quercetin and myricetin contents were within
very similar limits, from 11.6 to 24 mg L
(Hertog et al.,
1993). Alonso et al. (1986) demonstrated the presence of
quercetin 3-O-glucuronide in three Spanish wines made
from Valdepen
˜as, La Mancha and Rioja, estimating its
concentration to be around 1 mg L
. Quercetin 3-O-
glucuronide, along with several other flavonols including
quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin, myricetin 3-O-gluco-
side, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol, was also
detected in a sample from Sangiovese, with a total
concentration of 65.3 mg L
(Ghiselli, Nardini, Baldi
and Scaccini, 1998). In a more detailed investigation on
14 samples made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot,
Zinfandel, and Petit Syrah, quercetin, myricetin and rutin
varied from 9.7 to 54.5 mg L
, with a mean of 25.3 mg L
(Frankel, Waterhouse and Teissedre, 1995). Total mean
concentrations for these three flavonols in a Petit Syrah
wine were in absolute accordance (Teissedre, Frankel,
Waterhouse, Peleg and German, 1996). The aglycone
quercetin alone was found to occur at relatively low levels
(0.5–5.3 mg L
), as shown by the analysis of five samples
made from Gamay Noir, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon,
Cabernet Franc, and Pinot Noir (Soleas et al., 1997). In
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir champagnes, quercetin mean
value was even lower, averaging 0.11 mg L
Cathala, Cheynier and Douillard, 2003). However, in nine
samples from various red cultivars, including Cabernet
Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot and Tempranillo, quercetin
content was from 0 to 43.1 mg L
, whereas no rutin was
detected (Vin
˜as, Lo
´pez-Erroz, Marı
´ndez and
´rdoba, 2000). Another study on New York
wines also showed that aglycones such as quercetin and
myricetin occur at rather low levels, as they averaged
5.23 mg L
(Goldberg, Dam, Carey and Soleas, 2000).
However, an average as low as 5.12 mg L
was also
reported for quercetin and one of its principal glycosides,
rutin, in 18 samples from wines from different countries
(Goldberg, Tsang, Karumanchiri, Diamandis, Soleas and
Ng, 1996). Similarly, the mean content of quercetin,
myricetin and quercetin 3-O-glucuronide was 4.17 mg L
in two Italian experimental wines (Pellegrini, Simonetti,
Gardana, Brenna, Brighenti and Pietta, 2000). A higher
value of 13.4 mg L
for quercetin and rutin was found for
13 wines from Greece (Sakkiadi, Stavrakakis and Har-
outounian, 2001).
The content of flavonols in red wines has always been
much higher when both aglycones and glycoconjugates
were taken into consideration in the determinations. The
analytical survey on 65 wines from different geographic
origins showed that quercetin, myricetin and their glyco-
sides varied from 4.6 to 41.6 mg L
. In many samples no
aglycones were detected, a fact attributed to their relative
Table 2
Occurrence and content of flavonols and flavonol glycosides in white wines
Number of
samples (n)
Compound Range
3 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide — — Alonso et al. (1986)
Quercetin, myricetin 0.5–1.5 Hertog et al. (1993)
31 Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide 0.25 Bete
´s-Saura et al. (1996)
3 Kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, rutin 0.4–2.5 1.43 Simonetti et al. (1997)
30 Quercetin Traces — Soleas et al. (1997)
47 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide 0.1–1.2 0.35 Satue
´-Gracia et al. (1999)
7 2–7 4.29 Sa
´nchez-Moreno et al. (2000)
1 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside — Baderschneider and Winterhalter (2001)
Quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol 2.9 Talcott and Lee (2002)
Values are expressed as mg L
Wine made from grapes belonging to V. rotundifolia sp.
D.P. Makris et al. / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396 –404400
instabilities (McDonald, Hughes, Burns, Lean, Matthews
and Crozier, 1998). Comparative values for quercetin,
myricetin and the conjugates thereof, ranging from 5.3 to
54.2 mg L
, were reported by Gardner, McPhail, Crozier
and Duthie (1999), from a more limited amount of
samples, while the determination of conjugated and
unconjugated quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and iso-
rhamnetin on 16 wines gave a significantly higher mean
value of 93.08 mg L
. Important amounts of rutin and
quercitrin (quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside) that ranged from
25.3 to 153.6 mg L
(mean 62 mg L
) were found in ten
aged red wines from Greece (Arnous, Makris and Kefalas,
2001), and in seven Spanish wines; the total mean flavonol
concentration was 37 mg L
´nchez-Moreno, Satue
Gracia and Frankel, 2000).
4. Factors affecting flavonol composition
It has long been known that the biosynthetic pathways
involved in flavonoid production in plant tissues are greatly
influenced by sunlight. In this regard, it would be normally
expected that grapes highly exposed to daylight are capable
of increased flavonol biosynthesis. Indeed, a detailed
examination of sunlight exposure and temperature on the
contents of quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol glycosides
revealed that berries (V. vinifera cv. Merlot) from sun-
exposed clusters might contain as much as ten times the
content found in samples obtained from shaded clusters
(Spayd, Tarara, Mee and Ferguson, 2002). It has also been
pointed out that UV-light barriers contribute prominently
in decreasing flavonol glycoside content in berry tissues,
whereas temperature had little or no effect. The signifi-
cance of ultraviolet radiation on flavonol content in grapes
was also illustrated by examinations on post-harvest
treatments. Flavonol content in Napoleon table grapes
was virtually unaffected when samples were stored at 0 1C
over a period of 10 days, but a notable decrease was
observed upon storage under UV-B treatment. By contrast,
increases were seen when berries underwent UV-C treat-
ment (Cantos et al., 2000). The implementation of various
post-harvest gaseous treatments, including modified atmo-
sphere packaging, controlled atmospheres, and intermit-
tent and continuous ozone exposure, showed that flavonol
levels in Napoleon table grapes may be either preserved or
lowered (Arte
´ndez, Arte
´s and Toma
Flavonols, particularly when they occur in their degly-
cosylated form, are labile molecules and may be degraded
upon exposure to heat (Makris and Rossiter, 2000),
enzymes (Makris and Rossiter, 2002a), and oxidative
Table 3
Occurrence and content of flavonols and flavonol glycosides in red wines
Number of samples
Compound(s) Range
3 Quercetin, myricetin 11–20.9 14.97 Salagoı
¨ty-Auguste and Bertrand (1984)
3 Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide — — Alonso et al. (1986)
Quercetin, myricetin 11.6–24 Hertog et al. (1993)
14 Quercetin, myricetin, rutin 9.7–54.5 25.3 Frankel et al. (1995)
18 Quercetin, rutin 0.29–17.75 5.12 Goldberg et al. (1996)
1 Quercetin, myricetin, Rutin 25.3 Teissedre et al. (1996)
5 Quercetin 0.5–5.3 2.51 Soleas et al. (1997)
Kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, rutin 3.6–51.4 Simonetti et al. (1997)
65 Quercetin, Myricetin, 4.6–41.6 17.27 McDonald et al. (1998)
Conjugates thereof
1 Quercetin 3-O-glucoside 65.3 65.3 Ghiselli et al. (1998)
Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide
Myricetin 3-O-glucoside
Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside
7 Quercetin, Myricetin, 5.3–54.2 21.96 Gardner et al. (1999)
Conjugates thereof
2 Quercetin, Myricetin, 2.9–5.4 4.17 Pellegrini et al. (2000)
Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide
7 17–68 37 Sa
´nchez-Moreno et al. (2000)
4 Quercetin, Myricetin 2.1–7.7 5.23 Goldberg et al. (2000)
9 Quercetin 0–43.1 17.59 Vin
˜as et al. (2000)
16 Quercetin, Myricetin, 17.6–195.4 93.08 Burns et al. (2000)
Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin,
Conjugates thereof
10 Rutin, Quercitrin 25.3–153.6 62 Arnous et al. (2001)
13 Quercetin, Rutin 2.37–32.41 13.4 Sakkiadi et al. (2001)
4 Quercetin 0.06–0.17 0.11 Chamkha et al. (2003)
Values are expressed as mg L
D.P. Makris et al. / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396 –404 401
chemical species, such as free radicals (Makris and
Rossiter, 2002b). Therefore, it would appear reasonable
that processing and other treatments of grapes and grape
products might afford prominent alteration in the flavonol
profile. Spanos and Wrolstad (1992) reported extensive
hydrolysis of quercetin derivatives when Thompson Seed-
less juice underwent enzymic clarification, while the
amounts of total flavonols in Muscadine juice exhibited
very large variations depending on the method of juicing
(cold-press, hot-press), but also during storage at different
temperatures (Talcott and Lee, 2002). Rutin appeared to be
relatively unaffected during the acetification process of
Sherry wine (Morales, Tesfaye, Garcı
´a-Parilla, Casas and
Troncoso, 2001), but the content declined to undetectable
levels during Sherry vinegar ageing (Tesfaye, Morales,
´a-Parilla and Troncoso, 2002). A similar trend was
also seen for isoquercitrin (Garcı
´a-Parrilla, Heredia and
Troncoso, 1999).
In the case of wines, common vinification practices,
including skin contact, stabilization processes and ageing,
are responsible for significant changes in flavonols, from
both a qualitative and a quantitative point of view. Because
flavonols become important constituents of wine only
when production involves extended extraction from skins,
data on flavonol changes during white wine vinification are
rather scarce. Traditional white wine vinification usually
precludes contact of must with grape pomace, and, as a
consequence, extraction of flavonols that are mainly
located in the skins is very limited. In cases where the
must is left in contact with skins, temperature appears to
play an important role in relation to the amounts of
flavonols that can be extracted (Ramey, Bertrand, Ough,
Singleton and Sanders, 1986).
The polyphenolic profile of red wines is fundamentally
different from that of white wines, due to differences in
composition between red and white grapes, as well as the
implementation of different vinification technologies. A
factor of undisputed importance in relation with wine
quality, namely skin contact, appears to be a crucial
determinant for the flavonol profile. During contact of the
pomace with the fermenting must, it was found that there is
a gradual extraction of both flavonol glycosides and
aglycones, which peaks after a period of 8 to 14 days
´n, Me
´rida and Medina, 1995;Gil-Mun
˜oz, Go
Plaza, Martı
´nez and Lo
´pez-Roca, 1999); this is, however,
accompanied by a decline during the 88 following days.
This course was more characteristic for glycosides, whereas
aglycones exhibited fluctuations, presumably because of
glycoside hydrolysis, although grape variety and quality
were shown to play a moderate role during the first 9 days
of vinification (Burns, Gardner, O’Neil, Crawford, Mor-
ecroft, McPhail, Lister et al., 2000). The technique used for
submerging the pomace into the fermenting must has also
been found to provoke notable changes in myricetin and
rutin concentration (Garcı
´a-Viguera, Bakker, Bellworthy,
Reader, Watkins and Bridle, 1997;Fischer, Strasser and
Gutzler, 2000). Post-fermentation treatments such as fining
with agents, including casein, bentonite, PVPP and
activated charcoal, were found to cause significant reduc-
tion in both flavonol glycosides and aglycones in Sherry
wines (Baro
´n, Mayen, Merida and Medina, 1997).
Factors that may profoundly differentiate flavonol
composition are also those associated with ageing and
storage conditions. Oxygen seems to play a central role, as
supplementation with oxygen during storage decreased
quercetin levels by more than 50% over a period of 6
months (Castellari, Matricardi, Arfelli, Galasi, Amati,
2000). Another study concerned with the evolution of
flavonols upon storage in barrels made from different types
of wood indicated that losses of both glycosides and
aglycones were significantly more pronounced in barrels
made of American oak, in comparison with barrels made
of French and Spanish oaks (Ferna
´ndez de Simo
´a, Duen
˜as and Estrella, 2003). This finding high-
lighted the impact of the wooden container on the relevant
oxidative reactions, since the levels of oxygen that may
come into contact with the wine through the staves largely
depend on the size of wood pores. Temperature is another
determinant of flavonol evolution, and it was shown that
quercetin levels were always lower in samples stored at
22 1C than those at 12 1C(Castellari, Piermattei, Arfelli and
Amati, 2001).
The investigation of the evolution of both glycosides and
aglycones illustrated to some extent the observed losses,
indicating that the decline in flavonol glycosides is ascribed
rather to hydrolysis, since a commensurate accumulation
of flavonol aglycones was recorded throughout a period of
7 months (Zafrilla, Morillas, Mulero, Cayuela, Martı
´, Pardo and Lo
´s, 2003). It is also
noteworthy that rutin, which is a glycoside bearing a
disaccharide, exhibited the highest decomposition. How-
ever, flavonols are also able to react with anthocyanins,
yielding a type of polyphenolic compound known as
copigments, and therefore the decrease in flavonols that
is usually seen during wine ageing and storage could also be
attributed to copigmentation phenomena (Boulton, 2001).
5. Conclusions—future prospects
It is a well-established fact and a widely accepted concept
that grapes and wines constitute one of the most important
sources of dietary polyphenolic antioxidants, including a
large variety of both flavonoid and non-flavonoid con-
stituents. Due to clear evidence which has been provided by
epidemiological studies, that moderate wine consumption
may be associated with depressed rates of cardiovascular
disorders and possibly cancer, a significant number of
publications over the past few years have dealt with the
analytical polyphenolic composition of both commodities.
V. vinifera species, however, embrace a large number of
cultivars with a peculiar polyphenolic composition, and
thus comparative assessment is critical for estimating the
actual ingestion of specific classes of polyphenols through
the regular diet. For this reason, it was deemed necessary to
D.P. Makris et al. / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19 (2006) 396 –404402
gather the bibliographic data that have been published so
far, in order to provide a complete insight into the flavonol
composition of grapes and grape products and by-
products, with a view to this being a first step towards
the creation of a database that might be of assistance in
epidemiological research. Emphasis has also been given to
some data that revealed valuable information on the
environmental and technological factors that may signifi-
cantly affect flavonol composition attributes. After critical
evaluation of the data, it could be claimed that further and
more profound research is required for a more complete
elucidation of the flavonol composition and processes that
might affect it. In support of this, the following target
research areas are proposed:
further research on the effects of pedoclimatic condi-
tions on flavonol content and profile in grapes;
advanced investigations on wine and grape by-product
processing conditions, and the mechanisms responsible
for flavonol losses;
studies on the interactions of flavonols with other
constituents, and the nature of products that might
arise under regular conditions of vinification and wine
ageing and storage.
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... Flavonols were the most abundant of all flavonoids in the examined grape extracts, likely originating mainly from grape berry skins [83]. This group of polyphenolic phytochemicals have been studied extensively because of their antioxidant potency and other biological activities [84]. Literature data indicate that the contents of flavonols varied among grape varieties and that they are found present mostly in the form of 3-O-glycosides [82], and the present study confirmed these statements. ...
... As the production and biosynthesis of polyphenols significantly depends on climate [23], the obtained differences in phenolic contents might be attributed to environmental conditions. Mostar belongs to a modified humid subtropical climate (cold, humid winters and hot, drier summer), while the climate in Trebinje is Mediterranean, with short mild winters and long hot summers (subtropical climate), typical for the southern Adriatic coastal areas [84]. On the other hand, no trends were observed in the contents of polyphenols depending on the grape harvest year. ...
... Flavonols were the most abundant of all flavonoids in the examined grape extracts, likely originating mainly from grape berry skins [83]. This group of polyphenolic phytochemicals have been studied extensively because of their antioxidant potency and other biological activities [84]. Literature data indicate that the contents of flavonols varied among grape varieties and that they are found present mostly in the form of 3-O-glycosides [82], and the present study confirmed these statements. ...
... As the production and biosynthesis of polyphenols significantly depends on climate [23], the obtained differences in phenolic contents might be attributed to environmental conditions. Mostar belongs to a modified humid subtropical climate (cold, humid winters and hot, drier summer), while the climate in Trebinje is Mediterranean, with short mild winters and long hot summers (subtropical climate), typical for the southern Adriatic coastal areas [84]. On the other hand, no trends were observed in the contents of polyphenols depending on the grape harvest year. ...
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Viticulture is of great economic importance in the southern part of Bosnia and Herze-govina, thanks to favorable climatic conditions and a long-standing tradition of growing vines. The assortment is dominated by international varieties, as well as some autochthonous and domesticated varieties. The subject of the research is the analysis of the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Vranac, and Blatina varieties at two localities in Herzegovina during the period 2020-2021. The paper examined the most important economic and technological characteristics, grape quality, and berry phenolic profile. A particularly pronounced variation of the tested characteristics during the research period was observed in the Merlot and Blatina varieties, while the Cabernet Sauvignon and Vranac varieties showed a slightly higher stability of the tested characteristics. Poorer grape quality during the research period was registered with the Blatina variety, which can be considered a varietal characteristic to some extent. The analyzed grape varieties were rich in polyphenols, and the impact of grape variety on the berry phenolic profiles was confirmed. The most abundant pol-yphenols in the analyzed grape samples were quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin gallate, followed by kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The highest values of polyphenols were found mainly in the samples originating from Trebinje. Indigenous Balkan grape varieties (Vranac and Blatina) stood out with particularly high contents of some phenolics. Research has shown that climatic conditions have a significant influence on the most important characteristics of grapes, which are conditioned by genotypic specificities. The conditions for growing vines in the conditions of Herzegovina enable high quality in the production of grapes, especially the Cabernet Sauvignon and Vranac varieties. The autochthonous variety Blatina shows significant variations in grape quality during the test period , which was confirmed by the results of a larger number of studies in the previous period. Citation: Jovanović-Cvetković, T.; Sredojević, M.; Natić, M.; Grbić, R.; Akšić, M.F.; Ercisli, S.; Cvetković, M. Exploration and Comparison of the Behavior of Some Indigenous and International Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) Grown in Climatic Conditions of Herzegovina: The Influence of Variety and Vintage on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Grapes. Plants 2023, 12, 695. plants120406 95
... Grape (Vitis Vinifera L.) is one of the most important plant species. This fruit is rich in phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, resveratrol, and flavonoids (flavanols, anthocyanins and procyanidins) (1).The antioxidant activity of grape is associated with these compounds (2).There are a large number of anthocyanins in skin of grapes. The amount of anthocyanins is different in various varieties and cultivar, season and environmental factors can affect it. ...
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Anthocyanins are a group of compounds that belong to flavonoid family and these are of great interest in the food industry, mainly due to their coloring properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high concentration of sucrose and high temperature on the stability of Rish¬ baba and Ghare ghezel uzom varieties of Urmia grape anthocyanins at low pH (2 and 3) and different time periods and to measure furfural content after 20 h heating at 90 ℃ by HPLC. After extraction of anthocyanins, the pH value was adjusted on 2 and 3 by citrate buffer (0.1 M). The extraction was exposed to different concentration of sucrose (40 and 60%) at 90℃ for 52 h. Degradation of anthocyanin was evaluated according to absorbance at 520 nm. The extraction of furfural was accomplished by 1, 2 dicholoromethane. The results showed that the absorbance on 520 nm from 0 to 4 hours decreased and then increased because of brown pigment replaced instead of anthocyanin from 4 h. Furfural content was higher in samples with anthocyanin+sucrose than samples without sucrose. The results indicated that browning depends on the pH and sucrose concentration. Citation: Kouzeh Koulani M, Jamei R, Poursattar Marjani A. Influence of sucrose and high temperature on grape anthocyanin stability and furfural formation. J Food Safe & Hyg 2016; 2(3-4): 54-62.
... Flavonols are varietal markers of winegrape varieties, although they are strongly increased by UV-light exposure, thus being defined as indicators of winegrape sun exposure (Ferrandino et al., 2012;Martínez-Lüscher et al., 2019;Mattivi et al., 2006). Mainly found in grape skin as glycosides, their hydrolysis occurs in wines during aging, resulting in an increase of the free flavonols that may result in precipitation (Gambuti et al., 2020b;Makris et al., 2006). Clearly, a prolonged skin contact can increase their extraction, and the initial content may be relevant in determining in-mouth characteristics in the wine. ...
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Astringency and more generally mouthfeel perception are relevant to the overall quality of the wine. However, their origin and description are still uncertain and are constantly updating. Additionally, the terminology related to mouthfeel properties is expansive and extremely diversified, characterized by common traditional terms as well as novel recently adopted descriptors. In this context, this review evaluated the mention frequency of astringent subqualities and other mouthfeel attributes in the scientific literature of the last decades (2000-August 17, 2022). One hundred and twenty-five scientific publications have been selected and classified based on wine typology, aim, and instrumental-sensorial methods adopted. Dry resulted as the most frequent astringent subquality (10% for red wines, 8.6% for white wines), while body-and related terms-is a common mouthfeel sensation for different wine types, although its concept is still vague. Alongside, promising analytical and instrumental techniques investigating and simulating the in-mouth properties are discussed in detail, such as rheology for the viscosity and tribology for the lubrication loss, as well as the different approaches for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the interaction between salivary proteins and astringency markers. A focus on the phenolic compounds involved in the tactile perception was conducted, with tannins being the compounds conventionally found responsible for astringency. Nevertheless, other non-tannic polyphenolic classes (i.e., flavonols, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, anthocyanin-derivative pigments) as well as chemical-physical factors and the wine matrix (i.e., polysaccharides, mannoproteins, ethanol, glycerol, and pH) can also contribute to the wine in-mouth sensory profile. An overview of mouthfeel perception, factors involved, and its vocabulary is useful for enologists and consumers.
... They are derived from the same biosynthetic pathway that produce anthocyanins in grapes, are associated with co-pigmentation, imparting stability to the color of anthocyanins, by changing or increasing colour intensity (Beres et al., 2017). Kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and isorhamnetin are reported as the major flavonols in grape, wine and grape pomace extracts, both as aglycones and glycosylated forms (Makris, Kallithraka, & Kefalas, 2006). ...
... The increase in the concentrations of detected flavan-3-ols and the decrease in the detected amounts of procyanidins could be due to the hydrolysis of procyanidins by yeasts during alcoholic pear beverage fermentation (Vidal, Cartalade, Souquet, Fulcrand, & Cheynier, 2002). Similarly, the hydrolysis of glycosylated flavonol compounds decreases the concentrations of detected flavonol glycosides and increases the contents of quercetin aglycone in grape wine (Makris, Kallithraka, & Kefalas, 2006). ...
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The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii on phenolic composition and sensory quality were characterized in the production of alcoholic beverages from selected pear cultivars with diverse biochemical characteristics. The fermentation process generally affected the phenolic composition by increasing the contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavan-3-ols and reducing the levels of hydroxybenzoic acids, procyanidins, and flavonols. Although the phenolic compositions and sensory properties of pear beverages depended primarily on pear cultivar selection, the applied yeast strains also played important roles in beverage quality. Fermentation with T. delbrueckii resulted in higher caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside contents, higher rated intensities of ‘cooked pear’ and ‘floral’ odors and a sweeter taste than fermentation with S. cerevisiae. Moreover, higher concentrations of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonols correlated closely with astringency perception. Applying T. delbrueckii strains and breeding novel pear cultivars are important approaches to produce fermented beverages of high quality.
... The results of this study showed that the T trellis significantly increased the total anthocyanin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin concentrations of RDHY for two consecutive years. These polyphenolic compounds can effectively scavenge reactive oxygen ions [49] and strengthen blood vessels. They also reduce blood pressure and blood lipids [50]. ...
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The selection of appropriate grapevine trellis systems is of great importance for regulating vine vigor, forming grape yield, improving fruit quality, and labor-saving field management in the North China Plain. The effects of two trellis systems on the viticultural characteristics and fruit quality of three table grape cultivars: RuiduHongyu (RDHY), RuiduXiangyu (RDXY), and Red Globe (RG) were investigated. The two trellis systems were: (i) T trellis, with shoots positioned horizontally and downwards; and (ii) V trellis, with shoots positioned upright with an inclined angle. Headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to determine the compositions and contents of the monoterpenes in the fruit. The results showed that for RDHY and RG, the T trellis showed better shoot growth consistency. The sugar–acid ratios of RDHY in 2019 and RDXY in 2021 under the T trellis were significantly higher than those under the V trellis. In 2020 and 2021, RDHY showed significantly higher total anthocyanin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin concentrations under the T trellis. The total monoterpene content in RDHY berries was significantly higher under the T trellis. The aromatic profiles of RDHY and RDXY grapes were similar and were mainly composed of citrus, other floral, other fruit, and rose aromatic characteristics. Among them, the main aromatic characteristics varied greatly among the different treatments. In conclusion, the Eurasian table grape cultivars with muscat flavor showed a more moderate and controllable vine vigor, consistent shoot growth, better fruit quality and taste, and greater accumulation of polyphenolic compounds and monoterpenes under the T trellis system.
... Both genotype (variety) and environment are critical factors in controlling the production of flavonols [40]. Furthermore, in the case of wines, even common wine-making processes, including grape skin contact, stabilization processes and ageing, have been shown to cause significant changes in flavonols [41]. However, the reason for the high concentration of flavonols in Helan wines is still unclear and further studies are required. ...
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As one of the most promising wine regions in China, the eastern foothills of the Helan Mountain (EFHM) in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region has attracted great attention recently. Geographically, EFHM is divided into six sub-regions, namely Shizuishan, Xixia, Helan, Qingtongxia, Yongning and Hongsipu. However, there have been few reports on the character and differences between wines in the six sub-regions. In this experiment, a total of 71 commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines from six sub-regions were collected, and their phenolic compounds, visual properties and mouthfeel were investigated. The results showed that wines from the six sub-regions of EFHM showed distinctive phenolic profiles and could be distinguished through the OPLS-DA mode using 32 potential markers. In terms of color, Shizuishan wines showed higher a* values and lower b* values. The sensory evaluation showed that Hongsipu wines had higher astringency strength and lower tannin texture. The overall results implied that the phenolic compounds of wines in different sub-regions were affected by terroir conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a wide coverage of phenolic compounds has been analysed for wines from the sub-regions of EFHM, which could provide valuable information in deciphering the terroir of EFHM.
Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of multiple diseases, such as metabolic disorders. Flavonols are the most ubiquitous flavonoids in fruits and vegetables. However, dietary flavonols exhibit a general low oral bioavailability for their extensive biotransformation mediated by phase II enzymes in enterocytes and liver as well as by microbiota in the gut lumen. In this context, flavonols have brought attention to a paradox between low bioavailability and health-promoting effects. Flavonols are often transformed prior to absorption, which could change their biological activity. Compared to their parent compounds, the corresponding metabolites of flavonols in vivo might exhibit similar or higher intrinsic bioactivities, or perhaps a decreased efficacious effectiveness. Indeed, a growing body of evidence from biological function studies of metabolites supports the positive and significant contribution of in vivo metabolic processes, particularly conversion mediated by gut microbiota, to the health-promoting benefits of flavonols. As such, further understanding of the metabolic fate of flavonols and biological activities of their metabolites as well as the possible impact of microbiota-mediated conversion on the bioactivity is of great significance to guide a rational diet with flavonol-rich fruits and vegetables and/or flavonol-containing functional foods.
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Increasing attention is currently being paid to the protective role of polyphenols in health and oxidative status in fish. For this reason, the potential use of different natural sources of such compounds, like wine by products, is under study. One key step required to gain a better understanding on the biological roles of polyphenols for a given species is to assess the different factors affecting their digestive bioaccessibility, and a great number of such studies is based in the use of in vitro digestion models. In the present study the potential digestive bioavailability of the phenolic compounds present in wine bagasse and lees was evaluated for two fish species showing great differences in their digestive phisyiology: the omnivorous gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) and the herbivorous flathead grey mullet ( Mugil cephalus ). The study was developed using in vitro models adapted to simulate their digestion and a factorial experimental design that simultaneously evaluated the effects of the ingredient used as source of polyphenols, presence or absence of feed matrix, fish species and digestion time. The release of the phenolic compounds was evaluated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) detection. Both the presence of feed matrix and the type of wine by-product showed a significant effect on the digestive release of both total and specific types of polyphenols while fish species showed to be significant only for some specific compounds, like eriodyctiol or syringic acid. The time of digestion was not identified as a statistically significant factor in the release of phenolic compounds due to the great variability in the patterns observed that were classified as early, sustained and late. The observed great variations in the patterns of release of different types of phenolic compounds with time suggest an important effect of gut transit rates on the net bioavailability of a given phenolic compound in the live fish. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first one on which an in vitro approach was applied to assess to what extent the possible complexation of wine polyphenols present in wine by-products with either digestive enzymes or components of the feed matrix could limit their bioaccessibility if included in diets of two different fish species.
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The phenolic antioxidant phytochemicals in wines have been implicated for the lower rates of cardiac disease mortality among people drinking wine regularly in certain European populations. The activities of 20 selected California wines in inhibiting the copper-catalyzed oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were determined. This antioxidant activity was related to the major phenolic compounds and not to resveratrol analyzed in wines by HPLC and GC-MS. The relative inhibition of LDL oxidation varied from 46 to 100% with the red wines and from 3 to 6% with the white wines. When compared at the same total phenol concentration, the inhibition of LDL oxidation varied from 37 to 65% with the red wines and from 27 to 46% with the white wines. The relative antioxidant activity correlated with total phenol contents of wines (r = 0.94) and with the concentrations of gallic acid (r = 0.92), catechin (r = 0.76), myricetin (r = 0.70), quercetin (r = 0.68), caffeic acid (r = 0.63), rutin (r = 0.50), epicatechin (r = 0.45), cyanidin (r = 0.43), and malvidin 3-glucoside (r = 0.38). Therefore, the activity of wines to protect LDL from oxidation appeared to be distributed widely among the principal phenolic compounds.
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The oxidative degradation of quercetin and rutin in phosphate buffer solutions, pH 8.0, at 97 degrees C, was studied by means of UV-vis spectroscopy and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effect of the transition metal ions Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) On degradation rate and browning development was also assessed. It was shown that both flavonols are very labile to thermally induced degradation under oxidative conditions. Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) caused an increase in the degradation rate, as well as an increase in browning (A(420)) Significant differences were observed in the degradation mechanisms, as implied by HPLC analyses. It is postulated that metal ions promote flavonol oxidation through reactive oxygen species formation, whereas increases in browning could be ascribed to oxidation and metal-polyphenol interactions.
A simple fractionation method was developed to analyze phenolic compounds other than anthocyanins in red grapes using HPLC. The methanol extract of Concord and de Chaunac grapes was passed through a preconditioned C18 SEP-PAK and phenolic compounds other than anthocyanins were selectively fractionated with ethyl acetate. Anthocyanins were eluted with MeOH-HCl and analyzed by a spectrophotometric method. Phenolics other than anthocyanins were analyzed by HPLC. This technique is easy to use and convenient for phenolic analysis in both white and red grapes.
Production of Sherry wine vinegar encompasses a variable period of aging in wood. Changes in phenolic compounds during Sherry vinegar aging were studied. Samples were divided according to their aging period in wood (less than 2 years, more than 2 years) and phenolic compounds determined in a total of 38 samples by means of HPLC and Photodiode Array Detection. Results of Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) confirms that there were significant differences among both groups. Good recalling rates were achieved in both Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA (mean=92.9%) and Artificial Neural Networks trained by Back Propagation (BPANN) (mean=90.4%) whilst prediction abilities are more discrete. Applying the forward selection of variables, six variables were selected according to the Wilks' lambda criterion: gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfuraldehyde, coumaroyltartaric acid glycoside, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and isoquercetrin. Three of these compounds (gallic acid, hydroxymethylfuraldehyde and coumaroyltartaric acid glycoside) were shown to have an increasing trend through most aging systems.
Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds, diverse in chemical structure and characteristics, found ubiquitously in plants. Therefore, flavonoids are part of the human diet. Over 4,000 different flavonoids have been identified within the major flavonoid classes which include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols, and chalcones. Flavonoids are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals and are excreted either unchanged or as flavonoid metabolites in the urine and feces. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants, free radical scavengers, and metal chelators and inhibit lipid peroxidation. The structural requirements for the antioxidant and free radical scavenging functions of flavonoids include a hydroxyl group in carbon position three, a double bond between carbon positions two and three, a carbonyl group in carbon position four, and polyhydroxylation of the A and B aromatic rings. Epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between dietary flavonoid intake and mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) which is explained in part by the inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation and reduced platelet aggregability. Dietary intake of flavonoids range between 23 mg/day estimated in The Netherlands and 170 mg/day estimated in the USA. Major dietary sources of flavonoids determined from studies and analyses conducted in The Netherlands include tea, onions, apples, and red wine. More research is needed for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid absorption, metabolism, biochemical action, and association with CHD.
The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of 13 typical Italian wines was determined (average 12.3 and 1.6 mM Trolox equivalents for red and white wines, respectively), and the resulting values were correlated with total phenols (1365-3326 and 96-146 mg/L for red and white wines, respectively), flavanols (203-805 and 11-49 mg/L, for red and white wines, respectively), and flavonols. Only the red wines contained appreciable amounts of flavonols (average 15.3 mg/L), with quercetin and rutin being the most abundant, followed by myricetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin accounting for only 0.7-3% of TAA. The TAA of investigated wines are well correlated with phenol (r = 0.9902) and flavanol (r = 0.9270) content. These results confirm that red wine polyphenols are in vitro significant antioxidants and may explain the beneficial effects of a moderate daily intake of red wines, probably through a sparing action of highly bioavailable vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene.
Quercetin-3-O-glucuronoside has been identified in several Spanish table wines by thin-layer (t.l.c.) and high-performance liquid (h.p.l.c.) chromatographic methods. This is thought to be the first report of its occurrence in wine.