Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The present study examines whether daily recovery inhibiting and enhancing conditions predict day-levels of work-family conflict (WFC), work-family facilitation (WFF), exhaustion and vigor. Forty-nine individuals from various professional backgrounds in Spain provided questionnaire and daily survey measures over a period of five working days. Multilevel analyses showed that day-levels of work pressure and recovery after breaks at work significantly predicted WFC and exhaustion, and WFF and vigor, respectively. Moreover, daily fluctuations in expression of emotions had different effects depending on the expressed content (negative or positive) and the setting where it took place (work or home). Furthermore, additional analyses provided some evidence for a moderating role of expression of emotions at work on the relationship between recovery inhibiting and enhancing conditions and exhaustion. These findings reveal practical implications for individuals and organizations and suggest possible avenues for future research.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In this sense and in accordance with our study design, we think that any psychological aspect related to curiosity and meaning in life (our predictor variables) is more likely to appear in the afternoon instead of in the morning (just after getting up) or in the evening (before going to bed). On the other hand, in diary studies, outcome variables are usually measured after predictor variables (generally at bedtime) in order to reduce common method variance (Garrosa et al. 2013;Podsakoff et al. 2003;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010). In this study, the time of answering daily surveys was also recorded. ...
... Control variables at the person-level (Level 2). We assessed gender and the trait criterion variable in the general questionnaire following the methodology recommended in prior studies Garrosa et al. 2013;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010). ...
... Control variables at the day-level (Level 1). We gathered day-level affect (i.e., PA and NA in the morning) and sleep quality data in the morning survey by asking participants how they had slept last night, rated from 1 (very bad) to 6 (very good) (Garrosa et al. 2013;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
College students face numerous academic demands on a daily basis. The resources of the University and of the students to cope with these demands are essential to explain students’ levels of well-being. The purpose of this investigation is to explore the role of day-level curiosity and meaning in life in the explanation of students’ levels of engagement and emotional exhaustion at night. Two-hundred and nine college students participated in a daily study of five consecutive academic days, completing measures of curiosity and meaning in life in the afternoon and measures of engagement and emotional exhaustion at night. Data were analyzed using MLwiN software from a hierarchical linear modeling and daily approach. Curiosity in the afternoon showed a positive relationship with levels of engagement at night, and a negative relationship with levels of emotional exhaustion at night. Moreover, the interaction of curiosity and search for meaning and emotional exhaustion was positive. Although curiosity drives to exploring opportunities and challenges, decreases exhaustion and promotes daily engagement, when curiosity interacts with other emotional loads (such as search for meaning), it can become an emotional overload favoring exhaustion. From this perspective, it is necessary to continue investigating the mechanisms that predict students’ well-being and to create academic environments that stimulate curiosity and support students in their search for meaning in life.
... In response to calls for research on the link between WFC and recovery (Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010), the present study integrates the WFC and recovery from work stress literatures to better understand which role recovery experiences may play in mitigating the positive relationship between job stressors (in this case, workload) and WFC. Specifically, the central goals of the study are to investigate whether workload interferes with family life, and whether recovery experiences (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2007) can moderate this relationship. ...
... Recently, some scholars highlighted the importance of investigating the relation between WFC and recovery, in order to better understand its dynamics and its implications Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010). "Recovery refers to a process during which individual functional systems that have been called upon during a stressful experience return to their prestressor levels" (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2007, p. 205). ...
... A few studies have investigated the relationship between recovery and WFC so far, but the interest for this topic is growing in the last years (Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010). Research, indeed, is focusing on the fact that demands coming from work and family domains are not necessarily negative if individuals have the opportunity to recover from the efforts spent to meet them (Meijman and Mulder, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of four recovery experiences (psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery, and control) in preventing work-family conflict (WFC). Specifically, on the basis of WFC and recovery theories the authors hypothesized that workload would be positively related to WFC, and that recovery experiences would moderate this relationship. Design/methodology/approach – The research involved 597 Italian employees (on pay-role or self-employed) from different occupational sectors. Participants filled-in an on-line questionnaire. Moderated structural equation modelling were used to test the hypotheses. Findings – Results showed a positive relationship of workload with WFC. Regarding the hypothesized interaction effects, the relationship between workload and WFC was particularly strong under condition of low (vs high) psychological detachment, low relaxation, and low control. Originality/value – This study highlights the beneficial role of recovery experiences in preventing the spillover of workload to the family domain, showing their moderating effects for the first time. These findings have several implications for both future research and practitioners.
... Existing studies have suggested that the two theoretical approaches represent different but equally important aspects of work-family balance (Wayne et al., 2017). In addition, work-family balance is a construct that could be considered as either a stable occurrence or something that fluctuates from day to day depending on the daily events at work or at home (Haar et al., 2018;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010;Wan et al., 2021). ...
... Although scholars have noted the momentary nature of work-family balance (Kossek et al., 2014;Haar et al., 2018), compared with the accumulated evidence regarding the episodical aspect of work-family conflict (Allen et al., 2018;Butler et al., 2005;Radcliffe and Cassell, 2015), the fluctuation of work-family balance has received much less attention. Given that interpersonal conflict and support are subject to change (Brissette and Cohen, 2002;Halbesleben and Wheeler, 2015;Ilies et al., 2011;Martinez-Corts et al., 2015) and work-family balance has been shown to fluctuate from day to day with situational changes at work (Butler et al., 2009;Haar et al., 2018;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010), we provide a more fine-grained examination at the within-person level regarding the relationship Daily investigation of work task conflict between interpersonal conflict and support. Applying a within-personal approach helps us capture the influence of momentary changes of interpersonal events at work on employees' work-family balance. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on job demands-resources theory (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), this study aims to investigate the roles of work task conflict and coworker support in the experience of daily work-family balance. In particular, this study theorizes work-family balance as a higher-order construct, including both psychological (work-family balance satisfaction) and social (work-family balance effectiveness) dimensions. Design/methodology/approach The authors tested the proposed model using daily diary survey data collected from 50 full-time corporate employees across five consecutive workdays in a week. The hypotheses were tested using multilevel modeling analyses. Findings Analyses show that work task conflict impedes employees’ work-family balance on a daily basis. Results also support the moderating role of coworker support, such that the negative relationship between work task conflict and work-family balance is weaker when coworker support is high. Originality/value This research contributes to the literature by considering work-family balance as a higher-order construct. Further, this research advances theoretical knowledge of the interpersonal predictors of work-family balance. This study also expands previous work by examining the dynamic relationships between interpersonal events and work-family balance.
... The construct of vigor was found in 28 studies, of which seven studies defined vigor using the dimensions of physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness (e.g., Adil and Awais [29]; van Hooff and Geurts [57]). The other 21 studies mentioned vigor as a dimension of work engagement (e.g., Bakker [58]; Ozyilmaz [59]; Sanz-Vergel et al. [60]). The construct of thriving was mentioned in 22 studies, which all contained the thriving construct based on the dimensions of vitality and learning (e.g., Carmeli and Russo [33]; Cullen et al. [61]; van der Walt [34]). ...
... Future research could address spillover effects from other life domains, as the experience of energy at work is also influenced by work-life balance [60]. Scholars could learn from a more comprehensive and deeper analysis of the influence of other life domains. ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a significant increase in studies on personal energy at work. Yet, research efforts are fragmented, given that scholars employ a diversity of related concepts. To bring clarity, we executed a two-fold systematic literature review. We crafted a definition of personal energy at work and a theoretical framework, outlining the dimensions, antecedents and boundary conditions. The theoretical implication of the framework is that it allows one to explain why—given similar work—some employees feel energized whereas others do not. The difference depends on the context that the employer offers, the personal characteristics of employees and the processes of strain and recovery. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research can build on the proposed framework to advance the theoretical depth and empirical investigation of personal energy at work.
... Maertz and colleagues (2011;, however, argue that WTFC theoretical models need to account for how individual episodes of WTFC are processed psychologicallywhich includes cognitions, affect, and behavioral responses -and how this process causes changes overtime in subjective well-being. This psychological processing includes what stress theorists refer to as affective reactivity to stressors, which is defined as the likelihood that an individual will react emotionally to WTFC stressors (Almeida, 2005;Bolger & Zuckerman, 1995;Butler et al., 2005;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010). Maertz and colleagues' (2019) theory of work-family conflict episode processing posits that if an event occurs when an individual's work and family responsibilities are incompatible, then the individual attempts to solve the problem using scripts (i.e., past methods that worked to alleviate the WTFC) and available resources. ...
... Although there is evidence that WTFC varies daily and there are benefits to using daily diaries to better understand both predictors and outcomes of WTFC (e.g., Butler et al., 2005;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010), there is a dearth of research examining the association between affective reactivity to WTFC and health outcomes. This research can be informed, however, by stressor research using daily diary/assessment methods, which demonstrates a relationship between affective reactivity to daily stressors and health outcomes. ...
Article
Individuals with higher work-to-family conflict (WTFC) in general are more likely to report poorer physical and mental health. Less research, however, has examined the daily implications of WTFC, such as whether individuals’ reactions to minor WTFC day-to-day (e.g. missing family dinner due to work obligation) are associated with health outcomes. We examined whether affective reactivity to daily WTFC was associated with poorer sleep, health behaviours, and mental health in a sample who may be particularly vulnerable to daily WTFC. Employed parents in the IT industry with adolescent-aged children (N = 118, Mage = 45.01, 44.07% female) reported daily WTFC and negative affect on 8 consecutive days, in addition to completing a survey that assessed sleep, health behaviours (smoking, drinking, exercise, fast food consumption), and psychological distress. Multilevel modelling outputted individual reactivity slopes by regressing daily negative affect on the day’s WTFC. Results of general linear models indicated that affective reactivity to WTFC was associated with poorer sleep quality and higher levels of psychological distress – even when controlling for average daily negative affect on non-WTFC days. Individual differences in reactivity to daily WTFC have implications for health. Interventions aimed to reduce daily WTFC and reactivity to it are needed.
... Related to balancing work and life domains, Moreno-Jimenez et al. (2009) found that psychological detachment from work and verbal expression of emotions, both recovery experiences, were negatively related to work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and psychological strain. Sanz-Vergel et al. (2010) also found that recovery after breaks was associated with a significant decrease in work-family conflict and exhaustion and an increase in work-family facilitation and vigor. Therefore, we believe that recovery is an overlooked, but powerful resource for reducing conflict and promoting enrichment among working individuals. ...
... In addition, the mediating role of conflict and enrichment between personal resources and stress was examined. Consistent with previous theory (Greenhaus and Powell 2006;Hobfoll 2002) and research (e.g., Flavin and Swody 2016;Krisor et al. 2015;Michel et al. 2014;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010) mindfulness, self-compassion, resilience, and recovery were positively related to enrichment and negatively related to conflict. It should be noted that the bi-variate correlations were weak (.13) to moderate (.40) indicating that the resources examined in this study are likely some of the many positive resources that help promote successful work-life balance for graduate students, and that these resources likely work in combination, not isolation (see Nicklin ). ...
Preprint
Graduate students are faced with an array of responsibilities in their personal and professional lives, yet little research has explored how working students maintain a sense of well-being while managing work, school, and personal-life. Drawing on conservation of resources theory and work-family enrichment theory, we explored personal, psychological resources that increase enrichment and decrease conflict, and in turn decrease perceptions of stress. In a study of 231 employed graduate students, we found that mindfulness was negatively related to stress via perceptions of conflict and enrichment, whereas self-compassion, resilience, and recovery experience were negatively related to stress, but only through conflict, not enrichment. These findings suggest that graduate students who are able to be “in the moment” may experience higher levels of well-being, in part due to greater enrichment and lower conflict.
... Existing studies have suggested that the two theoretical approaches represent different but equally important aspects of work-family balance (Wayne et al., 2017). In addition, work-family balance is a construct that could be considered as either a stable occurrence or something that fluctuates from day to day depending on the daily events at work or at home (Haar et al., 2018;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010;Wan et al., 2021). ...
... Although scholars have noted the momentary nature of work-family balance (Kossek et al., 2014;Haar et al., 2018), compared with the accumulated evidence regarding the episodical aspect of work-family conflict (Allen et al., 2018;Butler et al., 2005;Radcliffe and Cassell, 2015), the fluctuation of work-family balance has received much less attention. Given that interpersonal conflict and support are subject to change (Brissette and Cohen, 2002;Halbesleben and Wheeler, 2015;Ilies et al., 2011;Martinez-Corts et al., 2015) and work-family balance has been shown to fluctuate from day to day with situational changes at work (Butler et al., 2009;Haar et al., 2018;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010), we provide a more fine-grained examination at the within-person level regarding the relationship Daily investigation of work task conflict between interpersonal conflict and support. Applying a within-personal approach helps us capture the influence of momentary changes of interpersonal events at work on employees' work-family balance. ...
... Furthermore, it has been suggested that work-family research should focus on the qualitative aspects of work, that is, how employed parents experience their work (Baruch and Barnett 1986). Consequently, studies examining parents' positive work-related experiences as predictors for positive childhood outcomes have increased (Cooklin et al. 2014;Culbertson et al. 2012;Lawson et al. 2014;Perry-Jenkins et al. 2000;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010). Very often this research has been approached via the spillover and crossover models Bakker et al. 2009Culbertson et al. 2012;Kinnunen et al. 2013Kinnunen et al. , 2014Lambert 1990;Westman 2001). ...
... Studies conducted with an intra-individual design (one-informant approach; spillover approach) have also revealed that an employee's successful recovery from work is positively linked to his/her family experiences. For example, Sanz-Vergel et al. (2010) reported that good recovery after breaks at work was related to improved work-family facilitation as evaluated by an employee. It is moreover noteworthy that recovery from work and recovery activities, that is, free time, hobbies and spending time with children, take place outside work, and viewed from this angle, recovery from work and family sphere are closely linked . ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines whether mothers’ positive work-related experiences, work engagement and recovery from work, are indirectly linked to their children’s life satisfaction via mothers’ perceived life satisfaction and closeness with their children. Theoretically the study is based on the spillover and crossover models of work–family interface with a particular focus on positive interface, as this is a gap in the existing research. The sample consisted of 671 Finnish mother–child dyads. Survey-based data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that mothers’ work engagement and recovery from work were positively and indirectly associated with children’s life satisfaction via mothers’ life satisfaction and closeness with their children. The findings suggest that work-to-family crossover of positive work-related experiences does indeed occur from mothers to children. Employers should pay attention to mothers’ work engagement and recovery from work, because these positive work-related experiences are likely to promote mothers’ life satisfaction and a positive mother–child relationship which, in turn, may be reflected in children’s life satisfaction. Job resources and mental detachment from work while not working are vital for work engagement and recovery from work, and should be promoted.
... der Pausengestaltung ein geringerer Anteil entspannender Pausentätigkeiten mit einem stärkeren Ermüdungserleben assoziiert war. -Vergel et al. (2010) fanden in einer Tagebuchstudie bei einer gemischten Stichprobe, dass an Tagen mit hohen negativen emotionalen Anforderungen eine negative Beziehung zwischen dem Erholungswert von Pausen und der erlebten Erschöpfung besteht, während sich diese Beziehung an Tagen mit geringen negativen emotionalen Anforderungen umkehrt. ...
... Naps zwischen 20 und 40 Minuten sind empfohlen (Humm, 2008). Ausreichende Pausen sollten zur Vorbeugung von Ermüdungssymptomen und Unfälle eingeplant werden (Arlinghaus et al., 2012;Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010;Lombardi et al., 2014). Am Nachmittag sollen eher längere Pausen eingelegt werden, während am Vormittag stündliche Kurzpausen empfohlen werden (Boucsein & Thum, 1997). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Das Projekt "Psychische Gesundheit in der Arbeitswelt - Wissenschaftliche Standortbestimmung" zielt darauf ab, psychische Belastungsfaktoren bezogen auf den gesicherten Stand der Wissenschaft zu bewerten, Aufschluss über neue Arbeitsanforderungen durch den Wandel der Arbeit zu gewinnen sowie offene Forschungsfragen zu identifizieren. Für mehr als 20 Arbeitsbedingungsfaktoren wurden systematische Übersichtsarbeiten (Scoping Reviews) angefertigt. Die Arbeitsbedingungsfaktoren wurden vier Themenfeldern zugeordnet: "Arbeitsaufgabe", "Führung und Organisation", "Arbeitszeit" und "Technische Faktoren". Der Arbeitsbedingungsfaktor "Pausen" gehört zum Themenfeld "Arbeitszeit". Der Bericht legt dar, wie Arbeitspausen, Pausenregime und zeitliche Freiheitsgrade bei der Pausenorganisation auf die Gesundheit, das Befinden, die Motivation und die Leistung der Beschäftigten wirken. Zusätzlich werden Einflüsse von Merkmalen des Arbeitssystems sowie von individuellen Merkmalen der Beschäftigten auf die Gesundheit betrachtet. Basierend auf den Ergebnissen werden Gestaltungsaussagen gemacht und Anregungen für Pausenoptimierungen gegeben.
... Most of the past research focused on the inter-role conflict between work and home domains that accumulates employee experiences into a static construct (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985;Hunter et al., 2019). However, some studies suggest that employee experiences vary significantly from day to day, therefore studies now focus on how employee roles interchange daily to understand the work-home domain better (e.g., Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010;Song et al., 2011). The current research specifically focuses on the daily events of boundary violations at home and its effect on job satisfaction through sequential mediation of WIF and emotional exhaustion, one of the dimensions of burnout. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to understand negative outcomes of boundary violation events or interruptions at home in which the work life crosses the home boundaries. In the line of boundary theory and affective events theory, the aim of this study is to analyze the effect of daily events of boundary violations at home on work interference with family (WIF). Moreover, incorporating the ego depletion theory, we study the impact of WIF on an individual’s emotional state (i.e., emotional exhaustion), and the impact of emotional exhaustion on job satisfaction. The data were collected through questionnaires (daily diary method for boundary violations and at one point in time for other variables) from the manufacturing (textile) sector of Pakistan. The results indicate a direct negative effect of average boundary violations at home on job satisfaction and an indirect negative impact through the sequential mediation of WIF and emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
... We use a narrower definition and include vigor and exhaustion exclusively to align our analysis with the predominant patterns of categorizing energy in past research Bennett et al., 2018;Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010;Mäkikangas, Feldt, Kinnunen, & Tolvanen, 2012;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010). This is because utilizing the uni-dimensional measure potentially allows us to interpret our findings more directly (Kenny, 1975). ...
Article
Full-text available
We use a meta-analysis to introduce a framework that integrates research on the relationship between working hours and the work-family interface. Using the work-home resources model, we integrate work-family enrichment and conflict theory, focusing on the positive and negative mediational processes of human energy. We conceptualize working hours, within the framework of the work-home resources model, as having the potential to increase vigor and exhaustion in tandem, which in turn would lead to increased work-family enrichment and work-family conflict, respectively. Our model suggests, and a meta-analytic investigation (N = 459,846) confirms that the two dimensions of human energy, vigor and exhaustion, mediate the relationship between working hours and work-to-family enrichment and conflict, respectively. Taken together, our findings contribute to the literature by integrating the positive and negative energy mechanisms in the relationship between working hours and work-to-family enrichment and conflict. Specifically, by showing the parallel paths of vigor and exhaustion that occur when individuals increase working hours, we reconcile mixed findings regarding the effect of working hours on the work-family interface.
... Although time is not explicitly built into JD-R theory, Bakker & Demerouti (2017) do suggest that variations in job conditions are likely to explain variations from the norm in ill/well-being (i.e., 'off-days' or, in the present study, potentially 'off-months'). Empirically, evidence suggests there is daily variation in job demands and that they predict daily WFC (Butler, Grzywacz, Bass, & Linney, 2005; Martinez-Corts, Demerouti, Bakker, & Boz, 2015;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jim enez, & Mayo, 2010). Again, this aligns SCM's proposition that WFC is primarily stable but that changes in situation (and, potentially more so, person) may destabilize and relate to corresponding changes in WFC levels. ...
Article
There has been little theoretical and empirical attention to the role of time in studying levels of work–family conflict. Contrary to theoretical assumptions that work–family conflict is a highly dynamic construct, we borrow from established theories to describe a Stability and Change Model, which posits that work–family conflict levels are primarily stable with some meaningful change over time. The proposed model also outlines predictors of stability (and change) in work–family conflict levels: stability (or change) in‐person (i.e., neuroticism) and situational factors (i.e., role demands and, to a lesser extent, resources). Findings across two longitudinal studies with timeframes of 5 months (one‐month lags) and 3 years (one‐year lags) suggest that 75–80% of the observed variance in work–family conflict levels is stable over mid‐ to long‐term timeframes. In line with our Stability and Change Model, trait‐state‐occasion modelling results indicate that stability in work–family conflict is primarily due to stability in workload demands and to a lesser extent, personality factors (i.e., neuroticism), but, unexpectedly, not resources. There was some meaningful change in work–family conflict levels over time, primarily due to changes in demands and to a lesser extent, changes in person characteristics. Theoretical, methodological, and analytical considerations for future studies of work–family conflict levels are discussed. WFC levels may be very resistant to change. Our findings highlight the importance for organizations to make a sustained commitment to addressing factors that might create WFC rather than short‐term efforts. Organizations may design impactful interventions by aiming to significantly and durably reduce job demands, specifically: High involvement work practices that foster empowerment, information sharing, rewards, and training have been shown to reduce job demands including role overload (Kilroy et al., 2016, Human Resource Management Journal, 26, 408). Supervisors could reduce workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or prioritizing most important tasks and/or developing employees’ time management skills so they can accomplish important job tasks in the time available. Reducing hindrance stressors such as role ambiguity and hassles tend not to be as relevant. Organizations may also want to consider person variables (e.g., personality, affect) by training for individual characteristics that may help employees manage WFC such as mindfulness training.
... Although COR theory is a dynamic theory, most studies using it underestimate or completely neglect examining the role of time and do not build in temporal elements into their research questions. A few researchers have started testing the research loss spirals utilizing longer (Chen, Powell, & Cui, 2014;Hakanen, Schaufeli, & Ahola, 2008) or shorter time frames (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jim enez, & Mayo, 2010). This study adds to the emerging work in this area by highlighting the temporal elements that play out in the resource acquisition and resource loss process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies demonstrate that both work and family factors explain employees’ work‐family balance satisfaction (WFBS); however, relatively less is known about the within‐person dynamics of WFBS on a daily basis. In this study, we adopt a relational perspective and draw on Cognitive and Affective Processing System and Conservation of Resources theories to clarify work and family relational influences on WFBS. First, we examine the effects of both work and family interpersonal conflict on WFBS through the mechanisms of employees’ negative work reflection and negative affective state. Second, we test whether job and family crafting behaviours, especially increasing job and family social resources, serve as personal resources that buffer the negative influences of work and family interpersonal conflict. Findings from our daily study indicate that negative work reflection mediates work interpersonal conflict and WFBS, while negative affect mediates family interpersonal conflict and WFBS. Interestingly, we only found support for the beneficial moderating role of increasing family social resources but not increasing job social resources. We discuss theoretical and practical implications as well as future research directions. Organizations and practitioners should provide interventions (e.g., conflict resolution workshops, team‐building programs, or counselling services) that can resolve occurrences of work and family interpersonal conflict, thereby preventing its harmful role in daily work‐family balance satisfaction. Managers may offer formal and informal support enhancing employees' daily relational crafting behaviours, especially increasing family social resources, which can mitigate the detrimental effect of family interpersonal conflict on work‐family balance satisfaction.
... We based this criterion on methodology recommendations made by Ohly et al. (2010) for diary studies in organizational research. Following similar diary studies evaluating employees, we selected serial temporary data for 5 working days to capture an entire weekly work cycle (i.e., Sanz-Vergel et al., 2010a;Garrosa et al., 2015). After the participants expressed their willingness to voluntarily participate in the study, the researchers gave them and explained a paper-based package that included (a) a letter describing the objective of the study, instructions on the completion of the surveys, and simple questions used to create a personal code to preserve anonymity (i.e., the year of birth); (b) two informed consent forms, with one copy for researchers and another copy for the participants; and (c) the general and daily paper-based questionnaires. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study of 104 Chilean employees examines the process of WFF – recovery – general health on a daily basis. Drawing on the work–home resources (W-HR) model, we hypothesized that daily work-to-family facilitation and work engagement predict recovery experiences during off-job time in the evening (i.e., detachment from work and relaxation) and subsequent general health at night. Furthermore, we explored whether daily work engagement moderates the relationships between daily work-to-family facilitation and recovery experiences during off-job time in the evening and general health at night. In addition, we expected employees’ detachment from work to have a lagged effect on next-day general health at night. Participants completed a survey and a diary booklet over five consecutive working days (N = 520 occasions). Multilevel analyses show that, as expected, daily work-to-family facilitation predicted recovery experiences during off-job time in the evening (i.e., detachment from work and relaxation). However, contrary to our expectations, daily work engagement only predicted general health at night. Moreover, as expected, a moderation effect of daily work engagement shows that on days that employees experience low levels of daily work engagement, daily work-to-family facilitation is strongly related to detachment from work and relaxation during off-job time in the evening and to general health at night. Unexpectedly, on days on which employees experienced high levels of daily work engagement, daily work-to-family facilitation was weakly related to these outcomes. Finally, in accordance with our expectations, detachment from work had a lagged effect on next-day general health at night. These findings offer support for the W-HR model and have theoretical and practical implications for research and organizations.
... Relationships between engagement, WFC, and friend support, at the within-person, daily level may operate in different ways than what we found in our results. For example, previous research has found that daily work engagement may moderate the demands to WFC relationship (Derks, van Duin, Tims, & Bakker, 2015) and daily work pressure and recovery after breaks significantly predicts WFC (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jimenez, & Mayo, 2010). The relationship of these key variables may depend on whether the constructs are measured at the between-or within-person level, which may prove fertile ground for future investigation of the role of friend support with regard to daily fluctuations of work engagement (A.B. ...
Article
In this study, we examine an employee’s personal social support received from friends and how it may benefit not only that employee, but also her or his spouse. By examining this unique source of support, we contribute to our understanding of the work-family interface and how this might differ for husbands and wives. Using social support resource theory as a theoretical framework, we theorize that social support from friends insulates employees from the resource depletion related to high work engagement that contributes to emotional exhaustion and depression through its effects on work-to-family conflict. Integrating insights from crossover theory, we also predict that a spouse’s resource depletion will be reduced in strength when the focal employee enjoys stronger social support from friends. The results of a study of 176 dual-earner married couples across two time periods supported our predictions that personal social support from friends diminished experienced conflict; however, wives’ social support from friends played a moderating role for men while this effect did not hold for women, suggesting that these processes operate differently for men and women when we consider them as a married couple and examine the crossover of spouse’s social support from friends. We conclude by discussing implications of these results for theory and practice.
... While the choice of the wind down or detachment activity to leave work behind may vary, the result of detachment is reduced exhaustion and diminished perception of daily burnout (Sonnentag et al, 2010). Daily recovery is boosted by talking to friends and family about positive emotions, whereas discussion of negative work issues leads to higher levels of exhaustion and family conflict (Sanz-Vergel et al, 2010). It appears that being able to leave work at work is beneficial for not just the work self, but for family life as well. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic is taking a toll on the healthcare workforce across the world and, with many health professionals experiencing high levels of exposure to the coronavirus, the rate of infection among healthcare workers is high. Documented mental health effects on these workers are also concerning, with higher-than-usual levels of acute stress, post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders, particularly insomnia. Cardiac patients are particularly vulnerable, and health professionals caring for this group face additional stresses. This article provides an overview of the mental health impacts of the pandemic on healthcare workers, with an emphasis on those working in hospital settings and in cardiac care, as well as on the patients for whom they care. The specific impacts of COVID-19 are also discussed, as well as associated social restrictions on cardiac patients, both during hospitalisation and early recovery, and in terms of long-term risks. Strategies are proposed that healthcare workers can adopt to help preserve and improve their coping and enhance their resilience as they work through this unprecedented and unpredictable pandemic.
... Georganta et al. (2014) found that the communication content, namely gossip (probably negatively valent content), is a direct predictor of increased burnout. Consistent with that study, some previous research suggested that negative communication content is positively related to burnout (Beehr et al. 1990;Kim and Lee 2009), whereas positive communication content is negatively related to burnout (Zellars and Perrewé 2001;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social information processing theory argues that information available from coworkers and the general social environment in the workplace are related to employees’ attitudes and behaviors. Focusing on valence of coworker communication content (i.e., positive or negative conversation about work), we proposed and tested two models: first, communication content or valence of what employees talk about at work will be related to their burnout, and second, burnout will be related employees’ counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Based on social role theory, we proposed that gender would moderate the relationship between contents of communication and burnout, as well as between burnout and CWB. The study sampled 442 employees from a central governmental department in South Korea. Positively valent coworkers’ communications were negatively related to burnout, but negatively valent communication was positively related to burnout. Furthermore, burnout was related to CWB. Also, the relationship between negative communication content and burnout was stronger among female than male employees, but there was no gender difference in the positive communication-burnout association. Lastly, weaker positive relationships between burnout and CWB were found among female employees compared to male employees. Overall, the present study shows the differential relationships of positive and negative communication with employees’ outcomes and extends communication research in the workplace with its practical implications (i.e., communications promoting positive aspects of the organization).
... Effective regulation of emotions can also counter some of the adverse effects of family-work overload on employees' work effectiveness and psychological well-being (Diestel & Schmidt, 2010;Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). First, the ability to resist emotional distractions and impulses enables individuals to focus and persist in pursuing difficult goals and recover from emotionally-demanding tasks (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010). Therefore, employees who can successfully regulate their emotions may be more effective and efficient in completing their work goals despite having to suddenly transition their work to a home environment where many other distractions and demands may exist (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major global health crisis that continues to threaten public health and safety. Although the pandemic is still unfolding, measures to reduce the spread of the virus have spawned significant challenges to people's current work as well as their careers more generally. In this commentary, we discuss the implications of COVID-19 for maintaining one's psychological well-being and employment security, and also managing family and work responsibilities. We also bring forth evidence from the emotion regulation literature to help mitigate the downstream negative consequences of COVID-19 on people's work lives. Finally, we offer several suggestions for future scholarly investigation into how this pandemic impacts vocational behavior.
... Thus, workfamily conflict episodes are expected to deplete psychological resources, leaving individuals feeling fatigued. Extant research has found a positive association between chronic exhaustion and workfamily conflict (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010). Daily studies have supported a positive association between daily levels of work-family conflict and fatigue (Ilies, Huth, Ryan, & Dimotakis, 2015;Van Hooff, Geurts, Kompier, & Taris, 2006;Williams & Alliger, 1994). ...
Article
A sizable body of research has established work-family conflict and its nomological network. Despite decades of research, we have yet to form a precise understanding of what happens when a conflict arises. The current research addresses this question using a growth modeling, episodic approach. We use stressor-strain and allostatic load theories to examine changes in daily patterns of psychological (fatigue, negative affect) and physiological (heart rate, blood pressure) strains that occur during and after a work-family conflict episode. We found some evidence for acute changes in psychological strain during and after work-to-family conflict episodes. Daily family-to-work conflict was associated with mixed reactions. State fatigue and heart rate decreased at the time of a family-to-work conflict, although state negative affect increased at the time of family-to-work conflict, and state fatigue increased more rapidly throughout the day after the second time family-to-work conflict was experienced. Additionally, we found evidence that state negative affect increases throughout the day as work-to-family conflict episodes accumulate. Daily family-to-work conflict accumulation was also associated with decreased fatigue, increased state negative affect, and increased systolic blood pressure. Lagged analyses showed some evidence that negative mood predicts work-family conflict occurrence within the next few hours. Implications for the theoretical relationship between work-family conflict and strain are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... The resource-restoring value of sleep has also been of increased interest. A telling example is that of Spain, a country that sleeps 30 to 40 minutes less than the European average (Barberia 2015) and where a number of publications highlight the importance of sleep quality for recovery and improved quality of work-life (Moreno-Jimenez et al. 2009;Sanz-Vergel et al. 2010, 2011Vela-Bueno et al. 2008). ...
Article
Over the past 30 years, conservation of resources (COR) theory has become one of the most widely cited theories in organizational psychology and organizational behavior. COR theory has been adopted across the many areas of the stress spectrum, from burnout to traumatic stress. Further attesting to the theory’s centrality, COR theory is largely the basis for the more work-specific leading theory of organizational stress, namely the job demands-resources model. One of the major advantages of COR theory is its ability to make a wide range of specific hypotheses that are much broader than those offered by theories that focus on a single central resource, such as control, or that speak about resources in general. In this article, we will revisit the principles and corollaries of COR theory that inform those more specific hypotheses and will review research in organizational behavior that has relied on the theory. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Volume 5 is January 21, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Gender was coded as 1 = female and 2 = male. We controlled for age and gender based on findings that these demographic characteristics relate to levels of energy (Parker & Ragsdale, 2015;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
According to conservation of resources model and control theory, routinized task behavior that develops through repeated execution under stable circumstances helps employees to deal with demanding aspects of their jobs. In two studies, we investigated whether routinized task behavior predicts momentary levels of energy. In the first study, 328 employees rated their level of routinization of five work tasks and subsequently provided information on their daily working on these tasks and energy twice a day on five consecutive workdays. Multilevel analyses reveal that employees experience higher levels of energy after they were working on a highly routinized task. In the second study, 32 employees provided ratings of their current routinized task behavior and energy three times a day for three consecutive workdays (in total 285 data points). Routinized task behavior at one point in time predicted energy at the next point in time when controlling for initial levels of energy. These results indicate that routinized task behavior is an effective way of managing energy at work, and that a microanalysis of task behaviors offers valuable insights.
... Positive emotions are a resource which may help gain other resources (COR), broaden awareness, and help to build new resources (B&B). Sharing positive emotions with colleagues buffers the effects of work pressure on exhaustion, whereas expressing negative emotions reduces feeling recovered after a work break (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010). Furthermore, positive emotions -including self-efficacy, context-free vigor, and PA -are associated with engagement (Garrosa et al., 2011;ten Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012b). ...
Article
Full-text available
This diary study examined within-person effects of positive work and off-work experiences on daily work engagement. Assessing the gain cycle assumption of conservation of resources theory, we investigated the relationship of nighttime recovery experiences and subsequent resources including elevated sleep quality and morning positive affect; the relationship of morning positive affect with positive collegial interactions and subsequent work engagement; and the relationship of work engagement with nighttime recovery experiences. Sixty-nine employees completed 3 daily questionnaires over 5 consecutive working days. Multilevel analyses revealed that sleep quality positively predicted morning positive affect, which in turn predicted work engagement directly and also indirectly through having positive interactions with colleagues. Work engagement positively predicted nighttime recovery experiences, whereas nighttime recovery experiences were not related to sleep quality or morning positive affect the next day. Overall, on days after a good night's sleep, individuals feel more positive, bring this positivity to their workplace, reach out to their workplace colleagues, and are in turn more likely to be engaged in their work. Additionally, on days when individuals experience higher levels of positive collegial interactions at work and in turn higher work engagement, they are likely to enjoy better recovery experiences.
... Similarly, the last several decades of work-family research have focused on the construct of work-family conflict, or interrole conflict between work and family domains (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985), which lumps a range of employee experiences into one general construct. However, a number of studies have shown that work-family experiences fluctuate substantially from day to day (e.g., Butler, Grzywacz, Bass, & Linney, 2005;Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez, & Mayo, 2010;Song, Foo, Uy, & Sun, 2011). Accordingly, recent research has focused on how an individual's work and family roles intersect on a day-to-day basis. ...
Article
Our study builds on recent trends to understand the work-family interface through daily experiences of boundary management. In particular, we investigated boundary violations, or events in which family life breaches the boundary of work and vice versa. Our purpose was to enlighten the process between violations and relevant outcomes, building on the foundations of affective events theory and boundary theory. Specifically, we aim to (1) tease apart boundary violations at work and at home from the established construct of work-family conflict, (2) explore the affective events theory process through which cognitive and affective reactions to boundary violation events contribute to work-family conflict and satisfaction, and (3) examine positive and negative reactions to boundary violations. Findings from a 2-week daily diary study of 121 employed participants partially supported our predictions. Boundary violations contributed to general perceptions of work-family conflict both directly and indirectly through cognitive appraisals of thwarted goals and, in the work domain, negative affective reactions. Violations were also related to satisfaction through goal appraisal. Finally, benefits in the form of positive affect were found from boundary violations due to facilitated goals in the interrupting domain.
... Por ejemplo, con una muestra de 49 trabajadores, se realizó un seguimiento durante 5 días laborables, tomando mediciones en la mañana, la tarde, y la noche. Los resultados mostraron que las personas que durante la jornada laboral habían tenido una gran presión , reportaban mayores niveles de conflicto trabajo-familia durante la tarde, y que además se sentían agotados al final del día (Sanz-Vergel, Demerouti, Moreno-Jiménez y Mayo, 2010). La idea de este tipo de estudios es capturar la realidad del trabajador, sus experiencias laborales, su interacción con la pareja, en definitiva, su día a día. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Although breaks can help employees stay energized and maintain high levels of performance throughout the day, employees sometimes refrain from taking a break despite wanting to do so. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated individuals' reasons for taking and for not taking a break at work. To address this gap, we developed a model for predicting employees' break-taking behaviors. We developed hypotheses by integrating theories of work stress, self-regulation, and the results of a qualitative survey conducted as part of the current research (Study 1). Specifically, we predicted that high workloads would be positively related to the desire to detach from work, but that at the same time, high workloads would also deter employees from actually taking breaks. Furthermore, we predicted that employees would be less likely to act upon their desire to take a break within an environment where breaks are frowned upon by supervisors and coworkers, relative to an environment where breaks are allowed and encouraged. The results of a daily diary study of full-time employees (Study 2) provided general support for these predictions. Altogether, this research provides insights into the manner in which employees' psychological experiences and characteristics of the work environment combine to predict break-taking. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10869-022-09866-4.
Article
Este trabajo ha obtenido un accésit del Premio Estudios Financieros 2019 en la modalidad de Recursos Humanos. En los últimos años, el uso de las nuevas tecnologías ha crecido de forma exponencial. Actualmente, está presente en todos los ámbitos de nuestra vida, incluido el laboral. Desde esta perspectiva, se comenzó a analizar el efecto que tiene sobre los trabajadores el uso del teléfono móvil inteligente de la empresa fuera de horario laboral. Para ello, se empleó una muestra de 104 trabajadores de diversos sectores, a través de un estudio de diario con dos niveles de análisis (Nivel 1: Día; Nivel 2: Persona). Los resultados de los análisis multinivel mostraron que el uso diario del teléfono móvil fuera del horario laboral se relacionaba positivamente con el nivel de conflicto trabajo-familia diario en casa. Del mismo modo, se halló una relación significativa entre el uso del teléfono y mayores niveles de burnout, así como menores puntuaciones de engagement. Por último, se observó que el conflicto trabajo-familia medió la relación existente entre el teléfono móvil y los niveles de engagement y burnout al día siguiente. Las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas de los resultados van en la línea de delimitar barreras entre los espacios laborales y personales, para incrementar el bienestar de los trabajadores.
Article
Full-text available
Recent evidence has shown that a significant portion of the variance in work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE) can be attributed to the within-person level on a daily basis. However, we still need to know how leaders influence employees’ daily fluctuations in WFC and WFE. Drawing on the work-home resources model and behavioral plasticity theory, this study attempts to explore the cross-level effects of leader–member exchange (LMX) on employees’ daily WFC and WFE and the extent to which such cross-level effects are moderated by employees’ parental role commitment (PRC) and marital role commitment (MRC). Using ESM data from 80 full-time and married employees across 15 consecutive days, we found that LMX was positively related to daily WFE but was not significantly related to daily WFC. Furthermore, MRC moderated the relationship between LMX and daily WFC such that the relationship was negative and significant only for employees with low MRC. PRC moderated the relationship between LMX and daily WFE such that the relationship was positive and significant only for employees with low PRC. The contributions and implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
The present study proposed and tested the mediating effect of work-life balance (WLB) in the relationship between recovery experiences and subjective well-being (SWB) as well as the moderating role of trait mindfulness in the proposed relationships. A convenience sample of 348 full-time Chinese hotel employees from 3–5-star hotel was collected using a self-administered online survey. Results from Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) illustrated that two dimensions of recovery experiences, mastery experiences and control, were positively related to work-life balance. Control recovery dimension and work-life balance were positively associated with subjective well-being. The study results also confirmed the mediating role of work-life balance between recovery experience and subjective well-being. In addition, trait mindfulness showed a partial moderating role in the mediated relationships among recovery experiences, work-life balance, and subjective wellbeing. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Article
Full-text available
ZET Bu çalışma; etik liderlik, iş motivasyonu ve iş yükü arasındaki ilişkileri ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Araştırma, enerji sektöründe faaliyetine devam eden yarı özel bir şirkette yapılmış olup 433 çalışanı ile anket uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada yer alan değişkenler, korelasyon ve hiyerarşik regresyon analizi metoduyla sınanmıştır. Gerçekleştirilen analizler, iş yükü algısı ile iş motivasyonu arasındaki ilişkide etik liderliğin aracılık etkisi olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Çalışmadan daha sağlam sonuçlar alınabilmesi amacıyla değişkenlerin kapsadığı alt boyutlar (etik liderlik için; iletişimsel etiklik, davranışsal etiklik, karar vermede etiklik ve iklimsel etiklik, iş motivasyonu için; içsel motivasyon ve dışsal motivasyon iş yükü algısı için tek boyut) da analizlere ilave edilmiş ve yorumlar bu doğrultuda gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada iş yükü algısının etik liderlik algısı üzerinde negatif eğilimli ve anlamlı etkiye sahip olduğu, etik liderlik algısının iş motivasyonu üzerinde pozitif eğilimli ve anlamlı etkiye sahip olduğu, iş yükü algısının iş motivasyonu üzerinde negatif yönlü ve anlamlı etkisi olduğu ve iş yükü algısı ile iş motivasyonu ilişkisinde etik liderliğin aracılık etkisi olduğu sonucu ortaya çıkmıştır. Gerçekleştirilen bu çalışma, enerji sektöründe gerçekleştirilmiş olup farklı sektörlerde, farklı lokasyonlarda ve yaklaşım olarak yakın konularda araştırma yapacak uygulayıcıları yönlendirmesi açısından önemli görülmektedir. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is; to reveal the relationships between ethical leadership, job motivation and workload. The research was carried out in a semi-private company operating in the energy sector, and a survey was conducted with 433 employees. In the study, the relationships between variables were analyzed using correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The findings obtained as a result of the analysis reveal that ethical leadership has a mediating effect on the relationship between workload perception and work motivation. In order for the study to yield better results, the sub-dimensions that constitute the variables (for ethical leadership; communicative ethics, behavioral ethics, ethics in decision and climatic ethics, for job motivation; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation; one dimension for workload perception) were also added to the analysis. interpreted. In this study, it has emerged that workload perception has a negative and significant effect on ethical leadership perception, ethical leadership perception has a positive and significant effect on work motivation, workload perception has a negative and significant effect on work motivation, and the relationship between workload perception and work motivation ethical leadership has an intermediary effect. This study was carried out in the energy sector and is considered important in terms of guiding practitioners who will conduct research in different sectors, different locations and similar subjects.
Article
Introduction: Despite the rich tradition of research on predictors of workplace injury, most studies rely on cross-sectional, between-person designs. Furthermore, prior research has often overlooked the possibility that factors outside the work domain can influence the occurrence of actual injuries at work. To address these limitations, the current study examined the effects of work and family demands on the occurrence of workplace injury. Drawing on the intuition of the work-home resources model (W-HR), we investigated how within-person level changes in demands and resources from both domains influence work injuries over a 12-year period. Method: We used 12 years of longitudinal data (N = 7,820) to study the long-term within-person changes in work and family domains and to capture the event of low frequency incidence such as workplace injury. Specifically, we conducted multilevel analyses to study the links between within-person change in time and energy resources both in work and family domains and within-person change in the likelihood of experiencing a workplace injury. Results and conclusion: The findings showed that within-person changes in work hours, spousal work hours, income and number of children, were significantly associated with changes in the likelihood of experiencing a workplace injury. We conclude with a discussion of implications for theory and future research of workplace injuries. Practical application: The research provided useful insights on the intimate association between work and family domains in the context of safety management.
Article
Full-text available
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are commonly studied in the organizational and occupational health literature, yet, current OCB measures inherently assume individuals are performing these behaviors while physically at work. However, recent technological advances have afforded employees greater flexibility to engage in work-related behaviors at home, begging the question of whether OCBs are also being performed from home and their distinction from traditional OCBs. We provide evidence that OCBs performed while physically at work (OCB-W; i.e., traditional OCBs) are conceptually and empirically distinct from OCBs performed while physically at home (OCB-H). In Study 1 (N = 292), we examine construct validity evidence for OCB-H with regard to its distinction from OCB-W and its unique nomological network. In Study 2, we further examine the distinction between OCB-H and OCB-W at the between-and within-person level using an experience sampling approach in a sample of 162 workers. Utilizing results from multilevel confirmatory factor analysis, we show that between-person variance in OCB-H is considerably higher than for OCB-W, and that although OCB-H and OCBW-H are strongly correlated at the between-person level, they are independent of one another within-person. We also examine these two forms of OCB as parallel mediators of the relation between work engagement-work interfering with family (WIF). Results suggest OCB-H and OCB-W are indeed distinct in the strength of their relationships to work engagement and WIF between-and within-persons.
Article
The present study examined the disintegrating effects of critical incidents and workload on the mental health status and private-life tasks of 166 police officers. In addition, it investigated whether diminished mental health status mediated the impact of critical incidents and workload on private-life tasks. This mediation effect was based on the work-home resources model of Brummelhuis and Bakker (2012). The respondents were police officers functioning in? the front line, experiencing critical incidents and working in urban areas. We investigated the effects on the following five private-life tasks: Social life, Maintaining mental health, Household and finance, Giving meaning, and Maintaining positivity. The results showed that critical incidents only had a negative effect on Maintaining positivity. Respondents reporting more critical incidents had a lower mental health status, which in turn, had a direct effect on the functioning in all private-life tasks except Social life. When mediated by mental health status, critical incidents were associated with less effective functioning in all private-life tasks except for Social life. Thus, the effects of critical incidents on functioning in private-life tasks (except Social Life) were larger for respondents with a low mental health status. The largest effects were found for Maintaining mental health and Maintaining positivity. In the workload model, no significant indirect effects were found on life tasks.
Chapter
This study investigated predictors and outcomes of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family-supportive colleagues behaviors (FSCB), work events, and family events were tested as predictors of the daily variation of work-family conflict and enrichment (both directions). As outcomes, this study investigated organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and mindfulness at work. Fifty-two Brazilian workers responded to app-based daily survey measures during 2 workweeks (10 workdays). Ten participants were also interviewed after these 2 weeks. Multilevel analyses showed that family-supportive behaviors were not associated with the longitudinal variation of conflict nor enrichment. However, work events were related to WFC, and family events were related to FWC. As expected, work-family conflict and enrichment predicted mindfulness at work and OCB. Another significant predictor of OCB was awareness at work, a dimension of mindfulness at work. Interestingly, OCB was related to work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enrichment. Interview results suggested that the event system theory propositions are applicable to the work-family field. Furthermore, the participation on the research affected how participants view and deal with work-family issues. Finally, the results emphasized the importance of data collection strategies.
Article
The attention paid to intraindividual phenomena in applied psychology has rapidly increased during the last two decades. However, the design characteristics of studies using daily experience sampling methods and the proportion of within-person variance in the measures employed in these studies vary substantially. This raises a critical question yet to be addressed: are differences in the proportion of variance attributable to within- versus between-person factors dependent on construct-, measure-, design-, and/or sample-related characteristics? A multilevel analysis based on 1,051,808 within-person observations reported in 222 intraindividual empirical studies indicated that decisions about what to study (construct type), how to study it (measurement and design characteristics), and from whom to obtain the data (sample characteristics) predicted the proportion of variance attributable to within-person factors. We conclude with implications and recommendations for those conducting and reviewing applied intraindividual research.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of personality and individual differences as an antecedent to work-family enrichment (WFE) and consequently with job satisfaction. This study address gaps in WFE literature by looking at proactivity, work-family self-efficacy (WFSE) and family permeability as antecedent variables that have received scant attention from researchers. By addressing these gaps, the study seeks to advance theory on WFE and its relation to job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – The authors do this through the exploration of pathways through WFE and studying 508 married individuals, with at least one child, working in the IT/ITES sector in India. The authors use structural equation modeling to analyze different pathways from personality based antecedents and WFE as mediator. Findings – The results demonstrate the mediating role of WFE in the relationship between antecedents (WFSE, family permeability and proactive personality) and job satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes to existing research on WFE and personality by showing that WFE is a significant pathway toward job satisfaction and how personality variables influence satisfaction. Originality/value – It is also the first study to use proactivity and WFSE as antecedents to test out the influence of WFE on job satisfaction. This is also the first study to look at only married individuals with children in a WFE study forced on the services sector. Consequently, these findings have significant implications in the way organizations deal with work-life situations, especially in the 30+ age bracket in India. Keywords – Boundary preference, Family permeability, Job satisfaction, Proactive personality, Work family enrichment, Work-family self-efficacy
Article
TÍTULO: El conflicto entre el trabajo y la familia: estrategias para superar el estrés laboral. FUENTE: Gestión Práctica de Riesgos Laborales, nº 78, enero 2011. RESUMEN: Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en las últi-mas décadas, han hecho que resulte cada vez más complicado compaginar la vida laboral con la familiar. Desde este punto de vista, asumir ambas responsabilidades se ha convertido en un auténtico desafío. A la hora de enfrentarse a este reto, se debe contar con estrategias concretas que permitan satisfacer las demandas laborales y familiares, y al mismo tiem-po paliar los efectos negativos sobre la salud y la organización. El análisis de es-tos temas resulta importante al plantear posibles intervenciones, no sólo a nivel individual sino también organizacional. Para que esta realidad no se incline más de lo debido hacia un único lado de la balanza, hay que ofrecer facilidades a los trabajadores que les permita conciliar su vida laboral y familiar, así como fomentar la recuperación del estrés; estos son los ingredientes indispensables para crear empresas saludables. DESCRIPTORES: • Cultura preventiva • Bienestar • Conciliación El tiempo es un bien que escasea en nuestra sociedad y esta situación, en algunas ocasiones, origina en un conflicto que se extiende más allá de las fronteras personales. Tomar cierta distancia y cargar las pilas son las pautas que se deben seguir para afrontar las exigencias actuales, sin perder de vista la estabilidad que nos permite compaginar ambas facetas. El conflicto entre el trabajo y la familia: estrategias para superar el estrés laboral www.riesgos-laborales.com COMENTE ESTE ARTÍCULO EN 028_a_Conflicto trabajo-familia.indd 28 028_a_Conflicto trabajo-familia.indd 28
Article
In work-family interface research, the shift from a conflict perspective to an enrichment perspective has resulted in a growing interest in the consequences of the work-family enrichment. Based on the framework put forth by Greenhaus and Powell (2006), we examined the consequences of work-family enrichment by using meta-analysis. Based on an analysis of 67 studies with 69 independent samples (N = 96,417), results generally support the expected relationships across the four categories of consequences of work-family enrichment, including affective consequences, resource consequences, performance consequences, and general well-being. In addition, results showed work-family enrichment has stronger effects on within-domain consequences than cross-domain consequences. Three types of theoretically grounded moderators, including sample demographic characteristics, national culture, and the type of enrichment construct, partially explained between-study variance in these effects. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
We performed a daily diary study to examine the mediating role of autonomy need satisfaction and competence need satisfaction in the relationships between job characteristics (i.e., job resources, challenge and hindrance demands) and strain and performance. For 10 consecutive working days, 194 employees reported on their daily job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, task performance, strain level, and satisfaction of the needs for competence and autonomy. Multilevel path modeling demonstrated that the within-person relationships between job resources, challenge and hindrance demands, and strain are mediated by autonomy need satisfaction, but not by competence need satisfaction. However, the relationships between job resources and hindrance demands, and performance are mediated by both competence and autonomy need satisfaction. Our findings show that organizations may benefit from designing jobs that provide employees with the opportunity to satisfy their basic needs for competence and autonomy. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Full-text available
Implicit in many discussions of work-family issues is the idea that managing the work-family interface is more challenging for women than men. We address whether this intuition is supported by the empirical data via a meta-analysis of gender differences in work-family conflict (WFC) based on more than 350 independent samples (N > 250,000 workers). Challenging lay perceptions, our results demonstrate that men and women generally do not differ on their reports of WFC, though there were some modest moderating effects of dual-earner status, parental status, type of WFC (i.e., time-, strain-, vs. behavior-based), and when limiting samples to men and women who held the same job. To better understand the relationship between gender and WFC, we engaged in theory-testing of mediating mechanisms based on commonly invoked theoretical perspectives. We found evidence in support of the rational view, no support for the sensitization and male segmentation perspectives, and partial support for the asymmetrical domain permeability model. Finally, we build theory by seeking to identify omitted mediators that explain the relationship between gender and work-interference-with-family, given evidence that existing theoretically specified mechanisms are insufficient to explain this relationship. Overall, we find more evidence for similarity rather than difference in the degree of WFC experienced by men and women. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have become a popular leisure platform. Psychological recovery during leisure time is vital to replenish resources spent at work. The present diary study comprised a sample of employees with high exposure to emotional demands and integrates the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) and addiction literature to examine whether engaging intensively on the internet may be conductive or inhibitor to psychological recovery. A total of 84 employees completed four consecutive daily diary survey three times a day comprising 880 data points. Multilevel analysis was used and results confirmed that intensive internet use was higher on days of high demands and low resources for those with higher baseline levels of compulsive use, and intensive use was weaker on days of high resources. Additionally, intensive use increased recovery experience before bed and the morning after only low compulsive users. The opposite was true for more compulsive users. These findings contribute to both JD-R and addiction theory by showing how the unfavourable effects of daily intensive use on recovery can be ameliorated by daily work resources. It also contributes to the recovery literature demonstrating how intensive internet use can trigger recovery and the circumstances under which this happens.
Article
In recent years, a variety of disparate literatures have emerged to test interventions intended to increase individuals' psychological, cognitive, and physiological resources. Although many of these interventions were originally designed for individual or clinical use, a growing number of commentators have called for their adoption in organizations. But controversy remains about their efficacy in the workplace. We review the research literature on 6 interventions that have been used to build volatile personal resources: malleable, individual-level constructs that are vital for withstanding work stress and proximal to work outcomes. In so doing, we evaluate the generalizability of these interventions to organizational settings, along with their potential benefits and costs. Our findings highlight new opportunities for both research and practice.
Article
Background: Experiencing work-life balance is considered a health promoting resource. To counter-balance the negative development of teachers' work situation, salutogenic resources need to be examined among teachers. Objective: To examine resources related to teachers' experience of their work-life balance. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a questionnaire was distributed to 455 teachers in compulsory schools in a Swedish community. A total of 338 teachers participated (74%). A multiple linear regression method was used for the analysis. Results: Four variables in the regression model significantly explained work-life balance and were thereby possible resources: time experience at work; satisfaction with everyday life; self-rated health; and recovery. The strongest association with work-life balance was time experience at work. Except time experience at work, all were individual-related. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of school management's support in reducing teachers' time pressure. It also emphasizes the need to address teachers' individual resources in relation to work-life balance. In order to support teachers' work-life balance, promote their well-being, and preventing teachers' attrition, we suggest that the school management would benefit from creating a work environment with strengthened resources.
Chapter
Given the increasing demands of work in the twenty-first century, a question of importance to both scholars and managers is how individuals and organizations can foster the positive psychological resources that optimize employee functioning. We review evidence from the existing literature on several interventions – mindfulness practices, work breaks, and three types of positive reflection exercises – that are effective in building such resources. Specifically, we link these interventions and practices to three types of positive psychological resources that are most proximal to employee performance and flourishing: mood, which includes positive affect and emotions; energy, which includes vigor and vitality; and efficacy, which includes mastery, resilience, and optimism. We propose ways in which organizations can use these practices to build positive resources at work.
Article
The tourism industry thrives on the notion that holiday travel improves wellbeing. However, scientific evidence that holiday travel is more beneficial than spending free time at home is lacking. Using the Effort-Recovery and the Limited Resources model as theoretical basis, this study investigates whether workers behave, think, and feel differently during travel than during leisure time spent at home. In a five-week longitudinal field study, we followed 24 workers during free evenings after work, a free weekend at home, and on a free weekend of domestic travel. Within-person differences were investigated between these three occasions in behavior, cognition, and emotions. During travel, employees slept more, engaged more in physical and social activities and less in obligatory activities than during free evenings after work. Hedonic wellbeing was higher and ruminative thinking lower during travel than during free evenings after work. Physical distance from home and work was related to engagement in resource-providing rather than resource-consuming activities and seems to translate into mental distance from everyday worries. Differences between holiday travel and weekends at home were small. Still, the findings suggest that travel may provide feelings of remoteness in places with novel and fascinating qualities, free of chores. Article can be downloaded via: http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/CQj8AIx3ip3MC7ZcRPPK/full
Article
Full-text available
zet: Bu araştırmanın iki amacı bulunmaktadır; bir taraftan çalışmaya tutkunluk kavramı için geliştirilen ölçeği (UWES) Türkçe'ye uyarlamak ve faktör geçerliliğini test etmek; diğer taraftan iş gereklilikleri/kaynaklarının çalışmaya tutkunluk ile ilişkilerini incelemektir. Kolay ulaşılabilir örneklem yöntemiyle, hizmet sektöründe faaliyet gösteren kurumlarda çalışan toplam 279 kişiden elde edilen veriler, çalışmaya tutkunluk ölçeğinin Türkçe versiyonunun faktör geçerliliğini desteklemiş ve yüksek bir iç tutarlılığa sahip olduğunu göstermiştir. Değişkenler arası ilişkilere ait bulgular, iş yükü ile esnek çalışma saatlerinin çalışmaya tutkunlukla ilişkilerinde iş-aile çatışmasının ara değişken olduğuna dair kurulan hipotezleri kısmen desteklemiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Çalışmaya tutkunluk, iş-aile çatışması, iş yükü, esnek çalışma saatleri, yönetici desteği. Abstract: The present study aimed, on the one hand, to adjust Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES) into Turkish through analyzing its reliability and factorial validity; and on the other hand to examine the relation of job demands/resources to work engagement. The data were collected through convenience sampling method from 279 employees working in organizations functioning in the service sector. The results revealed that the Turkish version of UWES has sufficient reliability and factorial validity. The findings related to relations between variables partially supported two of the three hypotheses that work-to-family conflict mediates the impact of both work overload and time flexibility on work engagement.
Article
This paper addresses the developing research agenda in the context of the difficulties of the socio-economic environment and its impact on equality policies in the employment context. We present four studies developed in the framework of improving the social dialogue and the promotion of inclusive organizations, highlighting the status of the issue in Spain and its meaning for professional practice. The studies focus on a) the need to train and empower social actors - especially workers’ representatives - to lead social innovation and promote inclusive organizations, b) proceedings for the current manifestations of what is known as “modern discrimination” in the work context, c ) labor integration of persons with disabilities, and d) supporting policies to balance work and personal life.
Article
Why is recovery important both for occupational health psychologists and managers? Inadequate recovery is detrimental for employee well-being and job performance both in the short and in the long run. In contrast, successful recovery enhances both employee well-being and productive behaviors. This chapter reviews recent empirical evidence with the aim to enhance our understanding of the daily recovery process. It focuses on the mechanisms that may explain the relationship between daily job demands and recovery by discussing potential mediators (work-related well-being) and moderators (resources). Special emphasis is placed on need for recovery as the threshold that determines the degree and the way in which work-related experiences spill over to non-work experiences (off-job activities) and influence recovery. The chapter discusses the role of intra-individual (employee traits) and inter-individual (the role of significant others) factors in explaining the effect of non-work experiences on recovery.
Article
This study focuses on the occupational well-being process in the formation of hotel employees' subjective well-being based on the recovery experience scale (RES). More specifically, the study (1) evaluates the construct validity of the RES in the hotel sector and (2) examines structural relationships between the RES, organization-based self-esteem (OBSE), job dedication (JOD), career satisfaction (CAS), and life satisfaction (LIS) in a heuristic model. To test the hypotheses, a total of 376 hotel employees were considered in an empirical analysis using a two-step SEM approach. The results verify sufficient validity for the four RES factors and reveal that all recovery experiences, namely psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery experiences, and control, predicted OBSE. In addition, OBSE had positive effects on JOD, CAS, and LIS, and JOD and CAS had significant positive effects on LIS. These results have important implications, and the study's limitations provide some interesting avenues for future research.
Article
Full-text available
The aim was to study daily fluctuations from workplace incivility and verbal abuse in the emotional well-being of employees and examine the daily role of recovery. It was conducted a diary study over five consecutive working days (total of 525 days) with 105 employees. It was evaluated on two different times, general and diary moments. Diary measure was completed in a work week, three times per day, morning, afternoon and night. Multilevel modeling showed significant results for workplace incivility and verbal abuse as predictors of emotional exhaustion, as well as an impact of all these variables on negative affect at night. However, non-significant relationships were found for positive affect at night. Recovery from daily work was a key factor predicting affect at night. Relaxation showed main effects on negative affect at night and mastery on positive affect at night. Both psychological detachment and relaxation showed a moderating role. The present diary study of occupational health psychology helps us achieve greater knowledge in this area and contribute on the prevention of aggression in the organizational context.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relation between work-family conflict and several types of psychiatric disorders: mood, anxiety, substance dependence, and substance abuse. Survey data were obtained from a representative national sample of 2,700 employed adults who were either married or the parent of a child Ig years old or younger. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses revealed that both work to-family and family-to-work conflict were positively related to having a mood, anxiety, and substance dependence disorder. Depending on the type of wort-family conflict and type of disorder, employees who reported experiencing a work-family conflict often were 1.99-29.66 times more likely than were employees who reported no work-family conflict to experience a clinically significant mental health problem. No support was found for gender differences.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This third version of the MBI was developed across several occupations and countries, in order to assess burnout in all occupations. It was originally published in 1996 by CPP, but is now published and distributed online by Mind Garden (www.mindgarden.com/products/mbi.htm)
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the stepwise development of a new questionnaire for measuring work-home interaction, i.e. the Survey Work-home Interaction—NijmeGen, the SWING). Inspired by insights from work psychology, more specifically from Effort-Recovery Theory (Meijman & Mulder, 199839. Meijman , T. F. and Mulder , G. 1998. “Psychological aspects of workload”. In Handbook of work and organizational psychology, Edited by: Drenth , P. J. , Thierry , H. and de Wolff , C. J. 5–33. Hove: Psychology Press. View all references), we defined work-home interaction by differentiating between the direction and quality of influence. Four types of work-home interaction were distinguished and measured by using 22 (including 13 self-developed) items. By using data from five independent samples (total N=2472), validity evidence was provided based on the internal structure of the questionnaire. The results showed that the questionnaire reliably measured four empirically distinct types of work-home interaction, and that this four-dimensional structure was largely invariant across the five samples as well as across relevant subgroups. Validity evidence was also provided based on the relations with external (theoretically relevant) variables (i.e. job characteristics, home characteristics, and indicators of health and well-being). The results generally supported the hypothesized relationships of these external variables with negative work-home interaction. Less support was found, however, for the hypothesized relationships with positive work-home interaction. This contributes to current literature as it employs a relatively broad conceptualization of work-home interaction and offers a promising tool that measures its multiple components across a wide variety of workers.
Article
Full-text available
This review's primary objective is to identify research examining the impact of rest breaks uponaccident risk in industrial settings. In the absence of much directly relevant research, the focus isbroadened to consider the impact of rest breaks upon performance and fatige, as well asepidemioogical evidence, in both transport and non-transport settings. Relevant studies are identifiedfrom a range of electronic sources. In general, regular rest breaks can be an effective means ofmaintaining performance, managing fatigue and controlling the accumulation of risk over prolongedtask perfonmance. While two-hourly breaks are common in many industrial settings, the scheduling ofadditional micro-breaks can be beneficial under at least some circumstances. While some evidencesupports allowing workers to take rest breaks that coincide with periods of heightened fatigue,workers sometims fail to take adequate breaks when they are needed. There is little hard evidenceconcerning the optimun length of rest breaks (other than for heavy physical work), or to support thecontention that increased rest-breaks can off-set the negative inpact of extending shift durations, or tosuggest that rest breaks counteract the neptive impacts of circadian variations in alertness, unless theyinvolve taking a nap or caffeine. The scarcity of epidemiological evidence in this area highlights theneed for more research.
Article
Full-text available
As more employees are juggling work and family demands, it is important for researchers to study the consequences of role stress and work–family conflict. In this study, predictions for a sample of university professors were based on past research and Hobfoll's (1989) Conservation of Resources Theory. Using a time-lagged research design and path analysis, we assessed the relationships of work and family stressors with outcomes of work, family, and life distress, physical health, and turnover intentions. The proposed path model was generally supported. In addition, we extended the work of other researchers by testing the moderating effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem was not found to be a moderating variable, although its main effects explained variance in the outcomes. Last, we describe and analyze qualitative data about the changes this sample experienced between the first and second data collection.
Article
Full-text available
This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
Article
Full-text available
Drawing from research on personal resources (e.g., Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998; Fredrickson, 1998) and the episodic nature of work (Beal, Weiss, Barros, & MacDermid, 2005), we examine research and theory relevant to the study of momentary recovery in the workplace. Specifically, we propose that the nature of within workday breaks influences the levels of psychological resources, which in turn influence various workplace outcomes. First, we discuss the momentary approach to studying workplace breaks and consequent resource levels. In doing so, we distinguish between two types of breaks, respites and chores; and we detail two types of psychological resources, regulatory and affective resources. Consequences of psychological resource levels on emotional exhaustion and performance are considered. We also explore possible moderators of the proposed relationships; we discuss job and individual characteristics, and motivation to perform. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a brief discussion on future research and possible applications of the momentary approach to work recovery in organizations.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this chapter is to provide a literature review on daily recovery during non-work time. Specifically, next to discussing theories that help us understand the process of recovery, we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Consequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We will pay special attention to potential mechanisms that may underlie the facilitating or hindering processes. Owing to the limited research on daily recovery, we will review empirical findings on predictors and outcomes of a related construct, namely need for recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which daily recovery during non-work time can be understood. In this framework, we claim that daily recovery is an important moderator in the process through which job characteristics and their related strain may lead to unfavorable states on a daily basis.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a provisional classification of deliberate strategies for improving unpleasant affect based on conceptual judgements concerning their similarities and differences. A corpus of self-reported upward affectregulation strategies was collected using questionnaires, interviews, and group discussions, in conjunction with an examination of existing literature on related topics. A total of 162 distinct strategies were identified and a preliminary categorisation was developed by the investigators. We then conducted a card-sort task in which 24 participants produced separate classifications of the strategies. The similarity matrix arising from co-occurrence data was subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and the obtained typology provided independent support for our proposed distinctions between strategies implemented cognitively and behaviourally, between diversion and engagement strategies, and between active distraction and direct avoidance, and for specific lower-level groupings of strategies relating to venting, reappraisal, and seeking social support. Potential refinements and applications of the resulting classification system are considered.
Article
Full-text available
Theory and research on emotional labor at work is applied to the study of the work–family interface to explore how emotional experiences in both the work and the family domain relate to the experience of work–family conflict and work–family enrichment, and ultimately attitudinal and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence is also examined as a moderator of the relationship between emotional labor and affective responses to work and family life. A model focusing on emotional experiences in the both the work and family domains is proposed and tested using path analysis. Results indicate that emotional labor in both the work and family domains relate to affective responses to each respective domain, which in turn relates to work–family conflict and work–family enrichment. In turn, consistent with previous research work–family conflict relates to domain-specific satisfaction (job, life) and health outcomes (burnout, depression). Partial support was found for the proposed moderating effect of emotional intelligence.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS; Schaufeli et al ., Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual , pp. 19-26. Consulting Psychologists Press, CA) in eight different occupational groups of employees ( N = 2919), who were recruited through the Internet. Results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses favored the proposed Three-Factor Model over alternative Two- and One-Factor Models. Exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy were identified as separate burnout dimensions for the sample as a whole, as well as for each occupational group separately. This means that the factor structure of the MBI-GS is similar across a wide variety of occupations (including human services and technical professions), although there are differences between occupations regarding factor loadings, path coefficients, and error variances. In addition, MANOVAs produced significant gender ‐ age, and gender ‐ working experience interaction effects on burnout. Across occupations, females reported higher levels of burnout than males, particularly when they were relatively young or had relatively little working experience.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to test the Demand-Control Model (DCM), accompanied by three goals. Firstly, we used alternative, more focused, and multifaceted measures of both job demands and job control that are relevant and applicable to today's working contexts. Secondly, this study intended to focus on particular demands in human services work and to incorporate these demands in the DCM. Finally, this occupation-based study investigated relatively large well-defined subgroups compared to a total sample. Workers from five human service sectors (n = 2,485) were included in a cross-sectional survey (i.e., health care, transport, bank/insurance, retail trade, and warehouse). Results showed that job demands and job control are able to show several interaction effects on employee well-being and health, but only in specific occupational groups. In conclusion, the current findings provide renewed empirical support for the view that high-strain jobs (high demand, low control) are conducive to ill health (i.e., emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic health complaints). Further, it appears that active jobs (high demands, high control) give rise to positive outcomes (i.e., job challenge, job satisfaction).
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the "Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen" (SWING) developed by S. Geurts and colleagues to evaluate the relationships between work and family. Its psychometric properties were analyzed with data from a sample of 283 emergency professionals. Results of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the four-factor model, in which both kinds of positive and negative interactions were not correlated, provided the best fit to the data (GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.98, NFI=0.97, RMR=0.03). Thus, this version maintains the original structure of 22 items distributed in four factors: negative work-home interaction, negative home-work interaction, positive work-home interaction and positive home-work interaction. Reliability analysis showed good internal consistency for this Spanish version with Cronbach alpha coefficients for the factors ranging from .77 to .89. Significant correlations were found between the SWING and various scales related to work, family, and well-being, which provided evidence of convergent validity. Thus, this version shows adequate psychometric properties. Guidelines are also provided for the use of the Spanish version of the SWING in future investigations.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to gain insight in the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model by examining whether daily fluctuations in colleague support (i.e., a typical job resource) predict day-levels of job performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. Forty-four flight attendants filled in a questionnaire and a diary booklet before and after consecutive flights to three intercontinental destinations. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that colleague support had unique positive effects on self-efficacy and work engagement. Self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between support and engagement, but work engagement mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and (in-role and extra-role) performance. In addition, colleague support had an indirect effect on in-role performance through work engagement. These findings shed light on the motivational process as outlined in the JD-R model, and suggest that colleague support is an important job resource for flight attendants helping them reach their work-related goals.
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive model of the work-family interface was developed and tested. The proposed model extended prior research by explicitly distinguishing between work interfering with family and family interfering with work. This distinction allowed testing of hypotheses concerning the unique antecedents and outcomes of both forms of work-family conflict and a reciprocal relationship between them. The influence of gender, race, and job type on the generalizability of the model was also examined. Data were obtained through household interviews with a random sample of 631 individuals. The model was tested with structural equation modeling techniques. Results were strongly supportive. In addition, although the model was invariant across gender and race, there were differences across blue- and white-collar workers. Implications for future research on the work-family interface are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Major perspectives concerning stress are presented with the goal of clarifying the nature of what has proved to be a heuristic but vague construct. Current conceptualizations of stress are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. Indeed, it is argued that researchers have tended to avoid the problem of defining stress, choosing to study stress without reference to a clear framework. A new stress model called the model of conservation of resources is presented as an alternative. This resource-oriented model is based on the supposition that people strive to retain, project, and build resources and that what is threatening to them is the potential or actual loss of these valued resources. Implications of the model of conservation of resources for new research directions are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
To reveal the ameliorative impact of being away from job stressors on burnout, we compared 81 men who were called for active reserve service with 81 matched controls in the same company who were not called during the same period. Each reservist and his control completed questionnaires shortly before the reservist left work for a stint of service and immediately on his return. Analysis of variance detected a significant decline in job stress and burnout among those who served and no change among the control participants. Among those who served, quality of reserve service and degree of psychological detachment from work interacted in moderating the respite effects; the greater the detachment, the stronger the effect positive reserve service experience had in relieving reservists from stress and burnout. Reserve service is discussed as a special case of stress-relieving get-away from work that may be experienced as an ameliorative respite akin to vacation.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relation between work-family conflict and several types of psychiatric disorders: mood, anxiety, substance dependence, and substance abuse. Survey data were obtained from a representative national sample of 2,700 employed adults who were either married or the parent of a child 18 years old or younger. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses revealed that both work-to-family and family-to-work conflict were positively related to having a mood, anxiety, and substance dependence disorder. Depending on the type of work-family conflict and type of disorder, employees who reported experiencing work-family conflict often were 1.99-29.66 times more likely than were employees who reported no work-family conflict to experience a clinically significant mental health problem. No support was found for gender differences.
Article
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
This article conceptualizes the emotional labor construct in terms of four dimensions: frequency of appropriate emotional display, attentiveness to required display rules, variety of emotions to be displayed, and emotional dissonance generated by having to express organizationally desired emotions not genuinely felt. Through this framework, the article then presents a series of propositions about the organizational-, job-, and individual-level characteristics that are antecedents of each of these four dimensions. Frequency of emotional display, attentiveness to display rules, variety of emotions to be displayed, and emotional dissonance are hypothesized to lead to greater emotional exhaustion, but only emotional dissonance is hypothesized to lead to lower job satisfaction. Implications for future theory development and empirical research on emotional labor are discussed as well.
Article
Research on emotional (non-)expression is characterized by two facets; it has mainly focused on healthy individuals and it has failed to explore the relationships between the different concepts describing expression and non-expression. A meta-analysis was conducted in order to identify the differential effects of emotional expression and non-expression in patient samples. Results showed that neither expression, nor non-expression of emotions was related to perception of disease severity. Psychological distress increased in relation to emotional non-expression, but no effect was shown for emotional expression. Emotional non-expression was also related to adopting a helpless attitude towards the disease. The conceptual and methodological disparities identified in the retrieved studies undermined the validity of the emerged relationships. Reported changes in physical and psychological outcomes were related to the kind of research design, operationalization of (non-)expression and the clinical and psychological condition of the recruited samples. Implications for improving future research are discussed.
Article
Abstract Affective displays of front-line employees predict beneficial customer reactions, but employees,cannot feel positively at all times. Surface acting (modifying facial expressions) and deep acting (modifying inner feelings) are tested as predictors of emotional exhaustion, and coworker-rated affective service delivery. As predicted by the dramaturgical perspective, surface acting was more detrimental for both stress and service delivery than deep acting, beyond job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Implications for future research and service work are discussed. Submitted as a Research Note 3 “Employers are wise to want workers to be sincere, to go well beyond the smile that’s ‘just painted on’” (Hochschild, 1983: 33). Research has shown that positive affective displays in service interactions, such as smiling and conveying friendliness, predicts important customer outcomes such as the intentions to return, to recommend the store to others, and overall service quality (e.g., Parasuraman, et al., 1985; Pugh, 2001; Tsai, 2001). Service providers do not always feel positively, however, and qualitative research
Article
This study examines burnout and engagement—the hypothesized opposite of burnout—in university students from Spain (n = 623), Portugal (n = 727), and the Netherlands (n = 311). Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the expected three-factor structures of the adapted versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) for students (including Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Reduced Efficacy) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for students (including Vigor, Dedication, and Absorption) fitted to the data of each sample. However, a rigorous test revealed that most factor loadings of the MBI were not invariant across all samples. Results with the UWES were slightly better, indicating invariance of factor loadings of Absorption in all samples and of Vigor in two of the three samples. Furthermore, as hypothesized, the burnout and engagement subscales were negatively correlated. Finally, irrespective of country, Efficacy and Vigor were positively related to academic performance, that is, the number of passed exams relative to the total number of exams in the previous term.
Article
The present study addressed the associations among various indicators of effort expenditure at work and recovery opportunities (perceived job demands and job control, hours worked overtime, hours worked according to one's contract), work – home interference, and well-being (exhaustion and enjoyment) in a cross-sectional study among 117 male and 82 female managers. Drawing on effort-recovery theory, we expected that high job demands, low job control, a high number of hours worked overtime, and a full-time appointment would be associated with high levels of work – home interference, low levels of enjoyment, and high levels of exhaustion. Stepwise regression analysis largely supported the hypothesis that high job demands and low job control are associated with adverse work outcomes. However, the effects of the number of hours worked overtime and according to one's contract were usually weak and insignificant, suggesting that high effort expenditure does not necessarily have adverse health consequences.
Article
The available evidence on the relationship between expression and non-expression of emotions (E/NE) and health is selectively and critically reviewed. It is concluded that research in this field still lacks conceptual lucidity with regard to the many existing E/NE concepts. Despite the fact that few studies adopted appropriate designs for examining causal relationships, some intriguing results have been reported showing promise for the future. These results involve prospective associations between E/NE and chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease and HIV infection related outcomes. Future studies have to better discriminate between (i) various forms of E/NE, (ii) different (social) contexts of E/NE as well as different cognitive decision processes underlying E/NE, and (iii) individuals for whom different forms of E/NE may be adaptive. We recommend that besides (quasi)experimental studies on the potential mechanisms involved, more prospective studies are conducted in this field in order to allow for causal inferences.
Article
This paper investigates - in a sample of 202 Spanish employees - the hypothesis that the impact of the exposure to technology on burnout is mediated by the appraisal of technology. In addition, the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MGI-GS) is studied. The hypothesized three-factor-model of the MBI-GS (i.e. exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy) was not replicated; instead a four-factor model (i.e. exhaustion, cynicism, selfconfidence and goal-attainment) fitted better to the data. Results from Structural Equation Modelling confirmed the hypothesis that the impact on burnout of the exposure to technology (in terms of time and frequency of use of computer aided technology) is mediated by the appraisal of technology. The higher the exposure, the more positive the appraisal and the lower the burnout levels (i.e. less cynicism, more selfconfidence and a greater sense of goal attainment). No such effect was demonstrated for exhaustion. Limitations of the study and future research directions are discussed.
Article
This study examined the relations among emotional expression, ambivalence over expression and marital satisfaction. Fifty married couples completed two mail-in surveys containing the Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire and the Ambivalence Over Emotional Expression Questionnaire as well as measures of marital satisfaction. Subjects also rated their spouses' emotional expressiveness. Emotional expressiveness was positively correlated with marital satisfaction. Spouses' ratings of each other's expressiveness correlated with marital satisfaction, independent of spouses' self-reported expressiveness. Only husbands' ambivalence over expression was negatively correlated with wives' satisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of emotional expressiveness to close interpersonal relationships, particularly for men, and the relation between intrapsychic inhibitory processes and social relationships.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Noting an inattention to the specific ways in which class, race, and gender combine to affect work–family management, we conducted a qualitative exploration of the processes of intersectionality. Our analysis relies on two points on a continuum of class experiences provided by two groups of predominately white female workers: low-wage service workers and assistant professors. Drawing on in-depth interviews with each group, we examine the similarities and differences in their experiences of negotiating their work worlds as they tried to meet family demands. We focus on the ways in which class and gender interacted to shape these women's everyday lives in different ways. While we found that women privileged by class were privileged in their abilities to manage work and family demands, we also found that class shaped the gendered experiences of these women differently. Our data suggest that, in the realm of work–family management, class mutes gendered experiences for assistant professors while it exacerbates gendered experiences for women working in the low-wage service sector. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of considering intersecting hierarchies when examining women's lived experiences in families and workplaces, but provides an empirical example of the workings of intersectionality.
Article
Using personal digital assistants, 91 parents employed in non-professional occupations were surveyed for 14 consecutive days about their job characteristics and work-family experiences. We found significant daily variation in work-to-family conflict (WFC) and work-to-family facilitation (WFF) that was predictable from daily job characteristics. Higher levels of WFC were associated with greater job demands and control at work. Contrary to the demands-control model (Karasek, 1979), these two job characteristics interacted such that the relationship between demands and WFC was stronger when control was high. We also found that demands were negatively related and control and skill level positively related to WFF. The results suggest ways in which jobs may be redesigned to enhance individuals' work-family experiences.